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Argan oil and other argan products: Use in dermocosmetology

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Abstract

Argan oil is of food or cosmetic (INCI name: Argania spinosa kernel oil) grade. During the past 15 years cosmetic argan oil, as beauty oil or cosmetic ingredient, has become one of the major actors in the dermocosmetic field. Beauty argan oil is produced by cold-pressing argan-fruit kernels. As a cosmetic ingredient, argan oil is produced by solvent-assisted extraction of the finely crushed kernels. Enriched-argan oil which is produced by distillation of cosmetic argan oil can be supplemented with antioxidants. Hence, it presents an even better cosmetic potential. Argan fruit pulp and argan leaves also contain proteins, peptides, saponins and other chemicals presenting highly interesting dermocosmetics. Therefore, the argan tree (A. spinosa) is sometimes nicknamed A. cosmetosa. We comprehensively review the current knowledge (literature and patent) related to argan oil and argan tree products in the dermocosmetic domain.

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... Formülasyonlarda argan yağının saf veya zenginleştirilmiş halde kullanımının yanı sıra yağ eldesi sırasında meydana gelen yan ürünler de kozmetik sektöründe hammadde olarak kullanılmaktadır. 4 Bu çalışmada, bilimsel veritabanlarında literatür araştırması yapılarak, argan yağının kimyasal içerik profili, biyolojik aktivite çalışmalarının yanı sıra yapılan dermatolojik aktivite çalışmaları ve rapor edilen yan/advers etki vakaları derlenmiş ve argan yağının kozmetik kullanımı değerlendirilmiştir. ...
... Zenginleştirilmiş yağ 150-200 °C ve 1,5-1,8 Pa basınç altında buhar distilasyonu ile elde edilir; yağ asitleri ile zenginleştirilmiştir. Bu yağ kozmetik formülasyonlarda kullanılır ve tek başına kullanımı iritasyonlara sebep olabilir. 4,14 ...
... 18 Kozmetik ve zenginleştirilmiş argan yağları son zamanlarda ciltteki yaşlanmaya bağlı kırışıklıkları önlemek amacıyla serum ve kremlerin formülasyonlarında da kullanılmaktadır. 4 UV-B ışınlarının kollajen hücrelerini yıkıma uğratarak ciltte inflamasyon yanıtı oluşturduğu ve kırışıklık ve foto yaşlanmaya sebep olduğu bilinmektedir. Polifenollerin de UV-B ışınlarının bu etkilerine karşı koruyucu etkisi raporlanmıştır. ...
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Argania spinosa is a member of the Sapotaceae family and is an endemic tree that grows in approximately 800,000 hectares in Southwest Morocco. It is registered that the argan oil obtained from the seeds of the plant is used by the people of the region in dermatological disorders and to lighten skin color. Because of its high content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and polyphenols has become noticeable among other fixed oil sources. Recently, it has become exceptionally preferred in the cosmetic industry and has found its place in various formulations in pure or enriched forms. Apart from dermo-cosmetic use, there are many studies on the plant's chemical contents and biological activities, primarily argan oil. In this study, biological activity and dermatological effect studies of argan oil obtained from SciFinder, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect databases were listed and evaluated in terms of cosmetic use. As a result of the evaluations, it was determined that the ethnobotanical uses of argan oil, the preparations and formulations prepared for dermocosmetic use and the compiled biological activity studies showed parallelism. In the study, case reports that argan oils used for cosmetic purposes can cause allergic reactions are also included and the need for more side/toxic effect profile studies on argan oil has been revealed.
... Several scientific studies devoted to the development of argan oil for over 30 years have shown various promising nutritional characteristics of this product in human health (21). ...
... There are two kinds of argan oils in the market, namely, food argan oil and beauty (cosmetic) use (name INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil) (21). This is a cold pressed oil, however, it is obtained from unroasted argan kernels (15,22). ...
... This is a cold pressed oil, however, it is obtained from unroasted argan kernels (15,22). Cosmetic argan oil is intended to be applied directly to the skin or hair, or to be an ingredient in other cosmetic preparations (21,23,24). Traditionally, cosmetic argan oil has been claimed to cure all kinds of skin anomalies with particular effectiveness for juvenile acne and chickenpox. ...
Article
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Argan oil is considered a relatively international product exported from Morocco, although different companies in Europe and North America distribute argan oil around the globe. Argan oil is non-refined vegetable oil, of the more well-known “virgin oil” type, is produced from the argan tree [ Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels]. The argan tree is deemed to be an important forest species from both social and economic standpoints. Argan oil has rapidly emerged as an important product able to bring more income to the local population. In addition, it also has important environmental implications, owing to its ability to stand against desert progression. Currently, argan oil is mainly produced by women's cooperatives in Morocco using a semi-industrial mechanical extraction process. This allows the production of high-quality argan oil. Depending on the method used to prepare argan kernels, two types of argan oil can be obtained: food or cosmetic grade. Cosmetic argan oil is prepared from unroasted kernels, whereas food argan oil is achieved by cold pressing kernels roasted for a few minutes. Previously, the same food argan oil was prepared exclusively by women according to a laborious ancestral process. Extraction technology has been evolved to obtain high-quality argan oil at a large scale. The extraction process and several accompanying parameters can influence the quality, stability, and purity of argan oil. In view of this, the present review discusses different aspects related to argan oil chemical composition along with its nutritional and cosmetic values. Similarly, it details different processes used to prepare argan oil, as well as its quality control, oxidative stability, and authenticity assessment.
... 13 The light emitted by smartphones and laptops is predominantly distributed between 440 nm and 460 nm 14 and has not only has been reported to affect sleeping quality, 15 but also the skin; although some debate surrounds this. 16 Still, some studies have shown artificial light increases the production of reactive oxygen Vol. 136, No. 7 | July/August 2021 ...
... Similar observations for imparting natural softness have been noted in the literature, albeit without any detailed scientific studies. 16,17 The penetration of materials into hair resulting from the breakage of internal bonds would ultimately lead to weaker hair that is more prone to breakage. However, if the penetrating material does not break existing bonds, then the cortexrelated properties of bending and flexibility of hair could be facilitated without compromising tensile strength. ...
... Analysis of the powder by HPLC showed the presence of high amounts of chlorogenic acid as the main active ingredient (data not shown); its presence as one of the main phenolic acids in artichoke has been previously documented. 9,16 Cellular assay: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were seeded in 6-well plates at 150,000 cell/cm 2 (supplemented with DMEM, SVF 2% and maintained at 37°C, 5% CO 2 ). Cells were then pre-incubated for 24 hr with 0.02% or 0.05% artichoke stem extract in 1× PBS buffer (pH 7.4) before exposure to UV-A irradiation (2.6 J/cm 2 ; λ = 365 nm). ...
Article
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Both human skin and plants have evolved mechanisms to respond to the consequences of light exposure. For example, studies have shown that keratinocytes can sense light and that they have their own tight circadian rhythm.10 These mechanisms act by absorbing damaging radiation, scattering it and/or reflecting it, while also fighting the formation of free radicals that can interfere with cellular machineries.
... Sci. 2022, 12, 12641 6 of 22 on the extraction yield: the use of hydraulic presses decreased the amount of time needed to extract 1 L of AO by five times and increased the extraction yield from 29 to 50% [31]; while organic solvent extraction gives a yield ranging from 50 to 57% [32]. ...
... On the other hand, the traditional AO extraction is based on the strength of women's arms. In their published works, Charrouf et al. mentioned the impact of the extraction process on the extraction yield: the use of hydraulic presses decreased the amount of time needed to extract 1 L of AO by five times and increased the extraction yield from 29 to 50% [31]; while organic solvent extraction gives a yield ranging from 50 to 57% [32]. ...
Article
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The aim of the present research is the evaluation of the extraction process effect on the chemical composition, the antioxidant activities, and the mild steel corrosion inhibition ability of Argania spinosa’s extracts (alimentary oil (AO) and hexanic extract of roasted almonds (HERA)). The chemical composition revealed that both extracts have the same major compounds: Palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids, with their order slightly different. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), weight loss measurements, and polarization curves were used to estimate AO and HERA’s mild steel corrosion’s inhibition capacity. Based on these three methods, AO registered, respectively, 81%, 87%, and 87% inhibition efficiency while HERA registered 78%, 84%, and 82% inhibition efficiency. The antioxidant activity of AO and HERA was examined in parallel with standard antioxidants (gallic acid and quercetin) using two assays: DPPH* scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). AO had less EC50 in both techniques (DPPH*: 3559.08 � 161.75 �g/mL; FRAP 1288.58 � 169.21 �g/mL) than HERA (DPPH*: 3621.43 � 316.05 �g/mL; FRAP 1655.86 � 240.18 �g/mL). Quantum chemical and molecular dynamic studies were employed to suggest the adsorption mechanism. Keywords: Argania spinosa; chemical composition; corrosion; mild steel; antioxidant activity; molecular dynamic simulation
... Sci. 2022, 12, 12641 6 of 22 on the extraction yield: the use of hydraulic presses decreased the amount of time needed to extract 1 L of AO by five times and increased the extraction yield from 29 to 50% [31]; while organic solvent extraction gives a yield ranging from 50 to 57% [32]. ...
... On the other hand, the traditional AO extraction is based on the strength of women's arms. In their published works, Charrouf et al. mentioned the impact of the extraction process on the extraction yield: the use of hydraulic presses decreased the amount of time needed to extract 1 L of AO by five times and increased the extraction yield from 29 to 50% [31]; while organic solvent extraction gives a yield ranging from 50 to 57% [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present research is the evaluation of the extraction process effect on the chemical composition, the antioxidant activities, and the mild steel corrosion inhibition ability of Argania spinosa’s extracts (alimentary oil (AO) and hexanic extract of roasted almonds (HERA)). The chemical composition revealed that both extracts have the same major compounds: Palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids, with their order slightly different. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), weight loss measurements, and polarization curves were used to estimate AO and HERA’s mild steel corrosion’s inhibition capacity. Based on these three methods, AO registered, respectively, 81%, 87%, and 87% inhibition efficiency while HERA registered 78%, 84%, and 82% inhibition efficiency. The antioxidant activity of AO and HERA was examined in parallel with standard antioxidants (gallic acid and quercetin) using two assays: DPPH* scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). AO had less EC50 in both techniques (DPPH*: 3559.08 ± 161.75 μg/mL; FRAP 1288.58 ± 169.21 μg/mL) than HERA (DPPH*: 3621.43 ± 316.05 μg/mL; FRAP 1655.86 ± 240.18 μg/mL). Quantum chemical and molecular dynamic studies were employed to suggest the adsorption mechanism.
... Edible argan oil, registered as a product with the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) since 2011, is obtained from lightly roasted kernels conferring a hazelnut flavor to the oil, while argan oil used for cosmetics is obtained from raw kernels. In recent decades, numerous studies have shown the nutritional and dermo-cosmetic benefits of this oil [2,6,7], which have been known for centuries and transmitted among generations of Berbere women. Due to its properties and successes as an ingredient in cosmetic products, currently, argan oil is considered one of the most prized oils in the world, with a growing worldwide demand [6]. ...
... In recent decades, numerous studies have shown the nutritional and dermo-cosmetic benefits of this oil [2,6,7], which have been known for centuries and transmitted among generations of Berbere women. Due to its properties and successes as an ingredient in cosmetic products, currently, argan oil is considered one of the most prized oils in the world, with a growing worldwide demand [6]. As a premium product, argan oil is highly prone to adulteration by partial or even total substitution with other vegetable oils. ...
Article
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Argan oil is a traditional product obtained from the fruits of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.), which is endemic only to Morocco. It is commercialized worldwide as cosmetic and food-grade argan oil, attaining very high prices in the international market. Therefore, argan oil is very prone to adulteration with cheaper vegetable oils. The present work aims at developing novel real-time PCR approaches to detect olive and soybean oils as potential adulterants, as well as ascertain the presence of argan oil. The ITS region, matK and lectin genes were the targeted markers, allowing to detect argan, olive and soybean DNA down to 0.01 pg, 0.1 pg and 3.2 pg, respectively, with real-time PCR. Moreover, to propose practical quantitative methods, two calibrant models were developed using the normalized ΔCq method to estimate potential adulterations of argan oil with olive or soybean oils. The results allowed for the detection and quantification of olive and soybean oils within 50–1% and 25–1%, respectively, both in argan oil. Both approaches provided acceptable performance parameters and accurate determinations, as proven by their applicability to blind mixtures. Herein, new qualitative and quantitative PCR assays are proposed for the first time as reliable and high-throughput tools to authenticate and valorize argan oil.
... [2][3][4] These phytochemical compounds serves as potential antimicrobial substances in combating infectious diseases. [5] The Argan essential oil is predominantly used especially for the treatment of superficial bacterial and fungal skin infections since ancient times with effectiveness and also used in the cosmetic industries due to its rich content of Vitamin E. [6][7][8] The superficial skin infections are termed as dermatophyte infections. The superficial dermatophyte bacterial infections are often caused predominantly by both the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, whereas the fungal infections are caused predominantly by the yeast Candida albicans or by the mold Trichophyton rubrum. ...
... The superficial fungal dermatophytic skin infections are referred to as tinea infections. [6][7][8] The tinea infections are classified based on the site of the infections such as the most common fungal infection of the feet where the initial infection can be dry and scaly followed by the secondary bacterial infection with an accumulation of soggy debris which is clinically termed as the tinea pedis commonly called as the athlete's foot. [9,10] The most common fungal infection among children is found on the scalp resulting in the baldness due to infected hair, and this condition is clinically termed as tinea capitis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study to focus on these tinea infections caused by the mold Trichophyton rubrum by collecting the clinical specimens by means of skin scraping samples from the affected sites of the patients and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates of the obtained clinical specimens toward the Argan essential oil. A rapid phytochemical analysis study was also performed. Materials and Methods: Argan essential oil procured from Jeddah local market, clinical skin scrape samples from the patient. The phytochemical study was done to find out the chemical compounds present in the Argan essential oil, which plays a key role in determining the antimicrobial efficacy of the Argan essential oil. Results and Discussion: The interpretation of the observation and results for the Argan essential oil showed the promising study results. Regarding its efficacy as potential antifungal agents when compared to that of the standard synthetic chemical agents used against the clinical skin scrape isolates of T. rubrum. Conclusion: The phytochemical compounds present in the Argan essential oil acts as an effective remedy toward the clinical skin scrape isolates of T. rubrum compared to the standard antifungal agents.
... [2][3][4] These phytochemical compounds serves as potential antimicrobial substances in combating infectious diseases. [5] The Argan essential oil is predominantly used especially for the treatment of superficial bacterial and fungal skin infections since ancient times with effectiveness and also used in the cosmetic industries due to its rich content of Vitamin E. [6][7][8] The superficial skin infections are termed as dermatophyte infections. The superficial dermatophyte bacterial infections are often caused predominantly by both the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, whereas the fungal infections are caused predominantly by the yeast Candida albicans or by the mold Trichophyton rubrum. ...
... The superficial fungal dermatophytic skin infections are referred to as tinea infections. [6][7][8] The tinea infections are classified based on the site of the infections such as the most common fungal infection of the feet where the initial infection can be dry and scaly followed by the secondary bacterial infection with an accumulation of soggy debris which is clinically termed as the tinea pedis commonly called as the athlete's foot. [9,10] The most common fungal infection among children is found on the scalp resulting in the baldness due to infected hair, and this condition is clinically termed as tinea capitis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study to focus on these tinea infections caused by the mold Trichophyton rubrum by collecting the clinical specimens by means of skin scraping samples from the affected sites of the patients and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates of the obtained clinical specimens toward the Argan essential oil. A rapid phytochemical analysis study was also performed. Materials and Methods: Argan essential oil procured from Jeddah local market, clinical skin scrape samples from the patient. The phytochemical study was done to find out the chemical compounds present in the Argan essential oil, which plays a key role in determining the antimicrobial efficacy of the Argan essential oil. Results and Discussion: The interpretation of the observation and results for the Argan essential oil showed the promising study results. Regarding its efficacy as potential antifungal agents when compared to that of the standard synthetic chemical agents used against the clinical skin scrape isolates of T. rubrum. Conclusion: The phytochemical compounds present in the Argan essential oil acts as an effective remedy toward the clinical skin scrape isolates of T. rubrum compared to the standard antifungal agents.
... Zawiera 43-49% kwasu oleinowego, 29-36% kwasu linolowego, 11-15% kwasu palmitynowego i 4-7% stearynowego, a także tokoferole, karoteny, ksantofile i sterole. Pochodzący z Maroka olej, o charakterystycznym złotym zabarwieniu, wykorzystywany był w przeszłości w celu utrzymania skóry w dobrej kondycji, a także w przypadku trądziku, stanów zapalnych, łuszczycy, suchości skóry czy zmarszczek [37]. Korzystny wpływ oleju arganowego na elastyczność skóry został potwierdzony w badaniach na grupie 60 kobiet w wieku postmenopauzalnym. ...
... Wyniki badań wykazały, iż zewnętrzne stosowanie oleju arganowego przez okres dwóch miesięcy wpływa znacząco na zmniejszenie TEWL oraz zwiększenie zawartości wody w naskórku [38]. Olej arganowy wykorzystywany jest ponadto w kosmetologii ze względu na działanie antyoksydacyjne, regenerujące, przeciwłojotokowe, przeciwzmarszczkowe oraz ochronne [37]. ...
Article
Plant oils, as a source of fatty acids, including essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid), and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E), are one of the basic cosmetic ingredients. It is an important group of easily assimilable components with a wide range of applications. The present paper discusses the importance of plant oils in skin and hair care. Attention was paid to the plant oils known and used since ancient times as well as to these newly discovered, especially as components of cosmetic preparations.
... stearic (3.3-5.4%) acid [181] Argan oil Argania spinosa oleic (43-49%), linoleic (29-36%), palmitic (11-15%), stearic (4-7%) acid [182][183][184] Omega-3 acids obtained from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-also play an important role in skin function. Although these acids are not present in the normal epidermis, their metabolites (epidermal 15-lipoxygenase transforms EPA into ...
... Argan oil (Argania spinosa kernel oil) is obtained by the cold-pressing technique from the kernel of the A. spinosa fruit. Argan oil contains mainly triacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, and free oily acids, the minor components being polyphenols, sterols, tocopherols, triterpene alcohols, and squalene [43]. Argan oil has been shown to have an antiaging effect due to its properties that improve skin elasticity [44]. ...
Article
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Three individual hydroalcoholic extracts derived from Hamamelis virginiana leaves, Krameria lappacea root, Salix alba bark, and the resulting herbal mixture (HM) were assessed for the phytochemical profile as well as for antibacterial and cytotoxic potential. The chemical composition of the individual extracts and of their mixture was analyzed by chromatographical (LC-MS) and spectrophotometrical methods. The antimicrobial properties were evaluated by using the agar-well diffusion and the broth microdilution assays, whereas the potential cytotoxicity was investigated on human keratinocyte cell line by MTT method and apoptosis test. The HM composition revealed important amounts of valuable polyphenolic compounds provided from the individual extracts, having synergistic biological effects. All tested extracts displayed in vitro antimicrobial properties, with a significantly higher efficacy noticed for the HM when tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, none of the tested extracts was responsible for in vitro cytotoxicity against the human keratinocytes in the selected concentration range. Furthermore, the HM was included in an oil-in-water cream for the nonpharmacological treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, developed and optimized by using a QbD approach. A D-optimal experimental plan with four factors that varied on two levels was used to investigate the effect of the quantitative variation of the formulation factors (emulsifier, co-emulsifier, thickening agent, oily phase ratio) on the characteristics of the cream in terms of firmness, consistency, adhesiveness, stringiness, spreadability, and viscosity. Based on the experimental results, an optimal formulation containing 2.5% emulsifier and 20% oily phase was prepared and analyzed. The obtained results showed appropriate quality characteristics of this novel cream, which may be used in the future to manage the associated symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis.
... The argan tree is appreciated for its edible oil, extracted from the kernels of the fruit. This oil is recognized worldwide for its nutritional values, and is sought by the cosmetic industry for its skin and hair hydration and anti-aging properties [2]. Argan oil was prepared by women on the cooperatives following a multistep process from the fruits of the argan tree. ...
Presentation
L’extraction enzymatique est une méthode largement utilisée dans l’industrie pour l’extraction de jus de fruits et d’huiles. Cette technique consiste en l’hydrolyse en milieu aqueux d’une matrice végétale. L’extraction enzymatique présente l’avantage de fournir des extraits propres à la consommation sans risques sur la santé des consommateurs. Le but de notre étude est l’optimisation du rendement d’extraction de l’huile d’argane en utilisant l’extraction enzymatique sans altérer ces paramètres qualitatifs. Pour cela l’huile d'argane a été extraite en utilisant différentes méthodes d'extraction à savoir la presse à froid, le Soxhlet, l’extraction au CO2 supercritique, et l’extraction assistée par enzyme en utilisant 3 préparations enzymatiques (cellulast, pectinex et viscozyme). L'évaluation des paramètres de qualité a été réalisée en déterminant les valeurs d'acide, de peroxyde et d'iode ainsi que les coefficients d'extinction K232 et K270. Les résultats obtenus ont montré un rendement d’extraction élevé obtenu par extraction enzymatique avec le viscozyme (66,37 ± 3,3%), suivi de l’huile extraite par Soxhlet (59,5 ± 3,1%). Nos résultats ont également démontré de bons paramètres qualitatifs dont une bonne stabilité oxydative (en accords avec la norme officielle de l'huile d'argane), avec des valeurs d'acide, de peroxyde et d'iode inférieures à 0,8 mg/g, 15 meq d'O2/kg d'huile et 110 g I2/ 100 g d'huile, respectivement. Ces résultats prouvent que la méthode d'extraction enzymatique peut éventuellement être appliquée pour l’amélioration du rendement d’extraction de l’huile d’argane sans altérer sa qualité. Cette étude est la première à reporter l’utilisation de la technologie d’hydrolyse enzymatique pour l'extraction de l'huile d'argane.
... Etymologically, the word Argan (the tree) comes from the Berber word arjâ n, which derives from rajnah which means in Berber dialect (to remain closed) in a limited space. In fact, the argan tree is endemic to Morocco, mainly located in the arid and semi-arid areas of southwest Morocco along the oceanic coast, from the mouth of the Wadi Tensift in the north to the mouth of the Wadi Drâ a in the south, where it covers an area of 828 000 ha [8]. The argan tree also grows in the plain of Souss, on the southern slopes of the Western High Atlas and on the northern and southern slopes of the Western Anti-Atlas up to altitudes of 1300-1500 m [9], and it fruits abundantly when it is not grazed by goats, or attacked by Ceratitis (fruit fly). ...
Article
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The argan tree "Argania spinosa" is a typically multi-use tree. It represents the agroforestry systems pivot which has so far succeeded in meeting the needs of the inhabitants of arid and semi-arid areas strongly marked by climatic hazards. Argan press-cake, residue from the argan oil extraction, is used in several fields, namely: cosmetics, agriculture, and pharmacology. In order to keep this argan paste with a pennyworth, solar drying is an economically appropriate solution, energy and environmentally friendly. In this work, an experimental study is performed to improve the sun-drying process of Argan press-cake using an indirect forced convection solar dryer. As a result, the evolution of the temperature and the drying kinetics inside the product have been assessed. The influence of air recycling drying on the drying time has been highlighted and the characteristic drying law was established too. Thus, the optimal storing conditions of argan press-cake were identified.
... The oil extracted from Argan kernels is a product of high added value used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Cosmetic, beauty and edible oils are the three different types of oil produced from Argan kernels [1], the processes for producing these oils are shown in Fig. 1. From unroasted kernels, cosmetic and beauty oils are produced while edible oil is produced from roasted kernels. ...
Article
The effects of process parameters: pressure (200 – 400 bar), temperature (313 – 333 K), and flow rate (0.11 – 0.27 kg/h) on the efficiency of extraction process of Argan oil by supercritical CO2 were investigated using response surface methodology and mathematical modelling (Sovová’s mathematical model). The fastest extraction kinetics corresponding to the optimal operating conditions were obtained at 400 bar, 333 K at a CO2 flow rate of 0.11 kg corresponding to a residence time of about 8.8 min. A tocopherol rich oil can be obtained at the beginning of the extraction experiment.
... The argan tree is appreciated for its edible oil, extracted from the kernels of the fruit. This oil is recognized worldwide for its nutritional values, and is sought by the cosmetic industry for its skin and hair hydration and anti-aging properties [2]. Argan oil was prepared by women on the cooperatives following a multistep process from the fruits of the argan tree. ...
... In this sense, virgin argan oil may be a feasible substrate due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardiovascular-protective properties. Argan oil (AO) contains natural antioxidants, namely tocopherols and other sterols and phenolic compounds [29][30][31][32]. These compounds provide higher oxidative stability to the argan oil when compared to other oils [33]. ...
Article
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Argan oil is rich in long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (FA), mostly oleic and linoleic, and natural antioxidants. This study addresses the production of low-calorie structured lipids by acidolysis reaction, in a solvent-free system, between caprylic (C8:0; system I) or capric (C10:0; system II) acids and argan oil, used as triacylglycerol (TAG) source. Three commercial immobilized lipases were tested: Novozym® 435, Lipozyme® TL IM, and Lipozyme® RM IM. Higher incorporation degree (ID) was achieved when C10:0 was used as acyl donor, for all the lipases tested. Lipozyme® RM IM yielded the highest ID for both systems (28.9 ± 0.05 mol.% C10:0, and 11.4 ± 2.2 mol.% C8:0), being the only catalyst able to incorporate C8:0 under the reaction conditions for biocatalyst screening (molar ratio 2:1 FA/TAG and 55 °C). The optimal conditions for Lipozyme® RM IM in system II were found by response surface methodology (66 °C; molar ratio FA/TAG of 4:1), enabling to reach an ID of 40.9 mol.% of C10:0. Operational stability of Lipozyme® RM IM in system II was also evaluated under optimal conditions, after eight consecutive 24 h-batches, with biocatalyst rehydration between cycles. The biocatalyst presented a half-life time of 103 h.
... The argan tree is appreciated for its edible oil, extracted from the kernels of the fruit. This oil is recognized worldwide for its nutritional values, and is sought by the cosmetic industry for its skin and hair hydration and anti-aging properties [2]. Argan oil was prepared by women on the cooperatives following a multistep process from the fruits of the argan tree. ...
Article
Full-text available
Argan oil is most frequently sold as pure oil, which can be directly applied topically due to its cosmetological proprieties or ingested in order to provide several health benefits. It's also commonly mixed into a number of cosmetic products like shampoos, soaps, and conditioners. In this study we aimed to improve the argan oil extraction yield and quality parameters by comparing the effects of different extraction technologies. Argan kernel oils were extracted using four methods: mechanical cold press, Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and enzyme assisted extraction with three different enzyme solutions cellulase (cellulast), pectinase (Pectinex) and a mixture of carbohydrase enzymes (Viscozyme®). The quality parameters was evaluated by determining the acid, peroxide and iodine values as well as the extinction coefficients K232 and K270 as measures of conjugated dienes and trienes, respectively. The results showed that the highest yield (66.37% ± 3.3%) was obtained by enzyme assisted extraction using the carbohydrases enzymes mixture (Viscozyme®), followed by Soxhlet extraction (59.5% ± 3.1%) and pectinase extraction (52.03% ± 3.55%). All argan oils samples obtained by the different methods showed a good oxidation stability, with acid, peroxide and iodine values lower than 0.8 mg/g, 15 meq/kg and 110 g/100 g according to the official argan oil norm, respectively. The results of argan oils quality parameters demonstrated that the enzyme extracted argan oils showed low oxidation, with the following quality parameters: acid values (0.4–0.6 mg/g), iodine values (95–100 g/100 g), dienes (K232 < 2), trienes (K270 < 0.35), and peroxide values (<1.5 meq/kg). The results proved that the enzyme assisted extraction method can be applied to improve the argan oil yield without affecting the oil quality. The enzyme extraction method may be a great alternative to solvent and cold press extractions for this eco-friendly processing approach.
... Natural vegetable oil has been widely used in cosmetics due to their antioxidant, hydration, anti-aging, and protection properties on the skin. 65,66 Bernardi et al 58 created rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods. This formulation has no skin irritation and can significantly improve skin moisture. ...
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Nanocarrier technology has been effectively applied to the development of drug delivery systems to overcome the limitations of traditional preparation. Its application has been extended to various pharmaceutical fields from injection preparation to oral preparation and external preparation, and now it has appeared in the field of cosmetics for beauty applications. The widespread influence of nanocarrier in the cosmetics industry is due to the fact that nanocarrier can effectively promote the percutaneous penetration and significantly increase skin retention of active components in functional cosmetics. Meanwhile, nanocarrier can effectively improve the water dispersion of insoluble active cosmetic ingredients, enhance the stability of efficacy components and achieve the codelivery of diverse cosmetics active ingredients. In this review, we summarized the current progress of nanocarrier technology in the functional cosmetics, including the types and the routes of dermal/transdermal drug delivery nanocarriers used in the functional cosmetics, the mechanism of nanocarriers promoting the percutaneous penetration of active cosmetic ingredients, the application and efficacy evaluation of different active cosmetic ingredients in nanocarriers and discussing the potential risks to human. This will provide a useful reference for the further development of nanocarriers in the field of functional cosmetics.
... Even though this protected process is semiautomated, and hence more efficient than the ancestral extraction method, it leads to the preparation of only 4 L of oil from 100 kg of dried argan fruit after 20 person hours [4]. Argan oil's dietary and dermocosmetic properties are numerous and well-established [5][6]. Therefore the main market for argan oil is in industrialized countries where, due to its relative scarcity, it is frequently negotiated at more than $300/ L. Such a high price inevitably fuels the risk of fraud through intentional mislabeling or falsification of argan oil by illicit addition of various amounts of cheap or easily accessible vegetable oils [7]. ...
Article
Argan oil is widely known as an edible, cosmetic, and pharmacologically active oil. It is also particularly expensive. Therefore argan oil adulteration with low price vegetable oils is frequent, making accurate, easy to use, and fast techniques to detect argan oil adulteration necessary. In this review, we present the advantages and disadvantages of a range of methods developed to detect argan oil adulteration. Though chromatography or infrared spectroscopy present the advantage of being efficient, easy to use and accurate, these techniques are time-consuming, expensive, and require somehow complexe sample preparation. At the present time, fluorescence spectroscopy appears to be the most efficient technique.
... For this purpose, soy lecithin (60 mg/mL) and neem oil (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/mL) were placed in glass vials and hydrated overnight with water, to obtain liposomes. Argan oil (5 mg/mL), neem oil (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/mL) and phospholipid were mixed together and hydrated with water to obtain argan-liposomes or were hydrated with a dispersion of sodium hyaluronate (10 mg/mL) in water to obtain argan-hyalurosomes [27,29,37]. The resulting dispersions were sonicated (25 cycles, 5 s ON and 2 s OFF), using a Soniprep150 sonicator (MSE Crowley, London, UK) to obtain small and homogeneously dispersed vesicles [39]. ...
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Neem oil, a plant-derived product rich in bioactives, has been incorporated in liposomes and hyalurosomes modified by adding argan oil and so called argan-liposomes and argan-hyalurosomes. Argan oil has also been added to the vesicles because of its regenerative and protective effects on skin. In the light of this, vesicles were specifically tailored to protect the skin from oxidative stress and treat lesions. Argan-liposomes were the smallest vesicles (~113 nm); the addition of sodium hyaluronate led to an increase in vesicle size (~143 nm) but it significantly improved vesicle stability during storage. In vitro studies confirmed the free radical scavenging activity of formulations, irrespective of their composition. Moreover, rheological investigation confirmed the higher viscosity of argan-hyalurosomes, which avoid formulation leakage after application. In vitro studies performed by using the most representative cells of the skin (i.e., keratinocytes and fibroblasts) underlined the ability of vesicles, especially argan-liposomes and argan-hyalurosomes, to counteract oxidative stress induced in these cells by using hydrogen peroxide and to improve the proliferation and migration of cells ensuring the more rapid and even complete closure of the wound (scratch assay).
... The main sources of steroidal saponins are distributed among the families Agavaceae, Alliaceae, Asparagaceae, Costaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Liliaceae, Ruscaceae, and Solanaceae as well as the species Aspilia montevidensis (Asteraceae), Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Leguminosae), and Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae). Triterpene saponins are found in a number of dicotyledons [98,99]. ...
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Science has greatly contributed to the advancement of technology and to the innovation of production processes and their applications. Cleaning products have become indispensable in today’s world, as personal and environmental hygiene is important to all societies worldwide. Such products are used in the home, in most work environments and in the industrial sectors. Most of the detergents on the market are synthesised from petrochemical products. However, the interest in reducing the use of products harmful to human health and the environment has led to the search for detergents formulated with natural, biodegradable surfactant components of biological (plant or microbiological) origin or chemically synthesised from natural raw materials usually referred to as green surfactants. This review addresses the different types, properties, and uses of surfactants, with a focus on green surfactants, and describes the current scenario as well as the projections for the future market economy related to the production of the different types of green surfactants marketed in the world.
... After evaporation, the solid extract can be used as a functional food (supplement) with coating or encapsulation. In contrast, due to the macromolecular compounds, such as dietary fibres (cellulose) and proteins, of APC [4,25], the cells of L. plantarum Argan-L1 remain in APC-P and/or F-APC-P, and these precipitated products from APC, without the bitter and acrid tastes, can be used to produce various processed foods. ...
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Purpose Argan press cake (APC) is a by-product of argan oil extraction and is rich in cellulose, proteins, sucrose, phenolic compounds, and excessively bitter and acrid triterpenoids. Improvement in the antioxidant property of APC by fermentation (F-APC) with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Argan-L2 has been reported. However, the bitter and acrid tastes remain in F-APC. Here, in order to determine the applicability of APC and F-APC as functional food materials by reducing its bitter taste, the effects of ethanol-precipitated APC and F-APC on mice fed a high-sucrose and low-fibre diet were determined. Methods Compounds precipitated from 10% (w/v) APC and F-APC water suspensions with two volumes of ethanol were collected (APC-P, F-APC-P). The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed 50% (w/w) sucrose with no fibre (NF), 5% APC-P, or 5% F-APC-P for 14 days. The caecal microbiome was analysed via 16S rDNA (V4 region) sequencing. Results No bitter and acrid tastes were detected in the precipitates. Compared with those in the NF group, defaecation and the faecal weight were increased in the APC-P and F-APC-P groups. Additionally, blood lipid and glucose levels tended to be lower in the F-APC-P group. The abundance of caecal lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibaculum rodentium and Lactobacillus johnsonii-like bacteria, was high in the APC-P group. In contrast, the abundance of indigenous L. plantarum-like bacteria was high in the F-APC-P group. Conclusion APC-P and F-APC-P showed dietary fibre properties. Furthermore, APC-P and F-APC-P increased indigenous lactic acid bacteria OTUs, although the increased species were different in the two groups. These results suggest that both APC-P and F-APC-P have beneficial effects on the gut microbiome, environment, and host. Graphic abstract
... While the presentation of commercial-only arguments has long been considered satisfactory by the customers, a trend has recently emerged that customers are more inclined to ask for scientific evidences to back up the new cosmetics. A few years ago, argan oil was lauched on the cosmetic market with extensive advertising but also with scientific studies validating its claimed or empirically observed properties (Charrouf and Guillaume, 2008;Guillaume and Charrouf, 2011;Charrouf and Guillaume, 2014). With such an approach, the commercial success of argan oil has been global and its acceptance by the public almost immediate. ...
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Cactus seed oil is gaining considerable popularity in the cosmetic industry. To estimate cactus seed oil’ industrial as well as domestic ease of use, we investigated the oxidative stability of Moroccan cactus seed oil under accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we compared cactus seed oil stability to that of argan oil, a popular and well-established cosmetic oil, under the same conditions. Cactus seed oil is much more sensitive to oxidation than argan oil. Its shelf-life can be estimated to be no longer than 6 months at room temperature. Such instability means that the preparation process for cactus oil must be carried out with great care and cactus seed oil needs to be protected once extracted.
... The oil extracted from ground unroasted argan kernels using classical solvent extraction process is used as ingredient in cosmetic applications. For industrial cosmetic applications argan oil is extracted from ground kernels using a lipophilic or halogenated solvent such as cyclohexane, petroleum ether, chloroform or dichloromethane [13]. After solvent extraction process, the extraction yield is about 45-50 %. ...
Article
Experimental and modelling investigations of supercritical CO2 extraction of oil from Argania spinosa L. kernels were conducted at pressure range from 200 to 400 bar, temperature range of 313–333 K at a CO2 flow rate of 0.14 kg/h. Regardless of the pressure and the temperature, the highest achievable yield was estimated at 0.63 kgoil / kgbiomass. The extraction kinetics were modeled with Sovová’s broken and intact cells model. The extraction of type B was found to be the most suited extraction type. Argan oil solubility in supercritical CO2 was determined and modelled with the Chrastil equation. A retrograde solubility behaviour was observed at 200 bar and the faster extraction kinetics were found at 400 bar and 333 K. The total tocopherols concentration was found between 389.7 and 1688.6 mg/kgextract. Experiments were performed on unroasted and roasted kernels.
... Due to its botanical, social and economic interest in addition to its environmental impact (Charrouf, 1998), argan tree remains an open research area. In Morocco this species covers an area of more than 800 000 ha (Guillaume and Charrouf, 2011) and produce about 350 000 tons of fruits (Charrouf and Guillaume, 2009) used mostly for the extraction of its oil. Beside the famous nutritional and cosmetic argan oil, the production process also yields a huge and a large quantity of by-products consisted mostly of pulp/pericarp (43 %), shells (52.6 %) and meal (2 %). ...
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The current study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of using argane by-products (oil cake and pulp) as fattening diet of lambs. This was achieved through an experimental lamb fattening investigation using argan by-product as feeding source and the exploration of the fattened lamb performance, carcass characteristics and the chemical fatty acid composition of the quality produced meat. Twenty fattening Sardi lambs (26 ± 0.5 kg body weight and six months old) were divided into two (n = 10) homogenous experimental and control groups. Argane by-products (ABP) and traditional (CF) diets have been used for feeding the experimental and control groups respectively during a period of 75 days. The results obtained for both groups were used to determine the effect of feeding argane by-products on animal weight, average daily gain (ADG), carcass weight, muscle pH values, dressing %, dry matter, ash, ether extract, crude fiber, crude protein, and fatty acid composition. The obtained results showed that the experimental ABP group lambs had higher average daily gain and meat chemical, crude protein and ash and proportion of C18:0 than the control CF group lambs, while the control CF group had a higher feed conversion ratio, ether extract, mesenteric and perirenal fat. The results obtained for pH0 and pH24 were similar for both explored groups. The obtained results showed thus that the use of ABP as a diet to fattening lambs increased their performance and lean meat yield.
... stearic (3.3-5.4%) acid [181] Argan oil Argania spinosa oleic (43-49%), linoleic (29-36%), palmitic (11-15%), stearic (4-7%) acid [182][183][184] Omega-3 acids obtained from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-also play an important role in skin function. Although these acids are not present in the normal epidermis, their metabolites (epidermal 15-lipoxygenase transforms EPA into 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-HEPE) and DHA into 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDoHE)) accumulate in it after the consumption of fish oil [185]. ...
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Human skin is continually changing. The condition of the skin largely depends on the individual’s overall state of health. A balanced diet plays an important role in the proper functioning of the human body, including the skin. The present study draws attention to bioactive substances, i.e., vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, polyphenols, and carotenoids, with a particular focus on their effects on the condition of the skin. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the effects of bioactive substances on skin parameters such as elasticity, firmness, wrinkles, senile dryness, hydration and color, and to define their role in the process of skin ageing.
... AO is recommended for nutritional and pharmacological purposes, mainly due to its various chemical constituents, including saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, saponins, sterols, squalene, tocopherols, minerals, phenolic compounds, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin [16,17]. Moreover, AO is widely used as an ingredient in different cosmetic products such as shampoos and moisturizers [18]. Traditionally, AO is effective as a topical application for the healing of burns and for the treatment of several skin diseases [16]. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of argan oil (AO) against nephrotoxic effects following overdose and long-term administration of betamethasone (BM). The phytochemical compositions of AO were assessed using GC/MS. Forty eight male Wister albino rats were divided into six groups and treated for 3 successive weeks. The control group was orally administrated distilled water daily, the BM group received BM (1 mg/kg, IM, day after day), AO/0.5 and AO/1 groups received AO (0.5 mL/kg, 1 mL/kg, orally, daily, respectively), BM + AO/0.5 group and BM + AO/1 group. The results revealed that BM induced hematological changes, including reduction of red blood cells with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, BM caused a significant increase of serum urea and creatinine levels, and renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide contents with significant decrease of reduced glutathione content. BM also caused vascular, degenerative, and inflammatory histopathological alterations in kidney, along with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspase-3, and decrease of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. Conversely, the concomitant administration of AO (0.5, 1 mL/kg) with BM ameliorated the aforementioned hematological, biochemical, pathological, and histochemical BM adverse effects. In conclusion, AO has protective effects against BM-induced renal damage, possibly via its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and proliferative properties.
... It is also used in cosmetics industry (Zahidi et al., 2014). Argan oil is rich in tocopherols of 620 mg/kg, compared to olive oil that contains only 320 mg tocopherols/kg (Guillaume and Charrouf, 2011). ...
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Argan (Argania spinosa) is an endangered plant and one of the endemic agroforestry species of Morocco, which belongs to family of Sapotaceae. The plant contains α-tocopherol; the major vitamin E compound that is essential for medical purposes and human nutrition. Plant tissue culture has great advantages for potential production of bioactive plant metabolites. The objective of this study was the enhancement of α-tocopherol in vitro production in argan callus and suspension cultures using tyrosine as a precursor and titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles as elicitors. White friable callus was induced by culturing seedling leaves on full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 5 µM β-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). In suspension cultures, tyrosine (275.953 µM) led to the increase of α-tocopherol percentage to 0.0602% with about 2.17-fold increase after 10 days of culture, compared to the control treatment. The combination of tyrosine (275.953 µM) with either TiO2 or SiO2 nanoparticles (5 ppm) after 10 days of culture gave higher production of α-tocopherol, which reached 0.276 and 0.283% with 4.59-and 4.7-fold increase for TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. This study proves the function of nanoparticles as elicitors for enhancing in vitro production of secondary metabolites in plants.
... Tocopherols are minor and vital components of the unsaponifiable fraction in vegetable oils (Gharby et al., 2018). This family of compounds is considered highly bioactive natural antioxidants with various degrees of effectiveness (Guillaume and Charrouf, 2011;Gharby et al., 2020). There are four different types of tocopherols that can be identified in the lipid fraction of oilseeds. ...
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The potential of 2-methyloxolane (2-MeO) as an alternative solvent to extract cactus seed oil was compared, in qualitative and quantitative terms, with that of n-hexane, a solvent commonly used for the extraction of edible or cosmetic oils. With 2-MeO, the oil yield was higher (9.55 ± 0.12 g/100 g) than the oil extracted with n-hexane (8.86 ± 0.25 g/100 g). The chemical and physical parameters quality indices (acidity, peroxide value and extinction coefficients (K 232 and K 270 ) of 2-methyloxolane extracted oil were found to be much higher than that of oil extracted with n-hexane. A suitable refining scheme will have to be applied, probably leading to slight additional cost and losses. Also, the results showed that the sterol content was higher in the oil obtained with 2-MeO (111.5 ± 2.5 mg/100 g) as a solvent when compared to the oil extracted with n-hexane (102.1 ± 7.54 mg/100 g). However, fatty acid and tocopherol content were not influenced by the extraction solvent. Therefore, the bio-based solvent 2-methyloxolane can be considered as an excellent alternative to the petroleum-based solvent n-hexane for edible/cosmetic oil extraction. The utilization of 2-MeO for oil extraction can drastically reduce the health and environmental impacts associated with n-hexane.
... Over 30 years were needed to achieve this result [1,2] that resulted in the design of a sustainable way to prepare argan oil frequently presented as a success exemple [3][4][5][6]. In parallel, and just as successfully, cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil; CAS: 23747-87-3) has also become a major cosmetic ingredient that can be either directly applied on the skin/hair or incorporated into cosmetic preparations [7,8]. Edible and cosmetic argan oils differ in the nature of argan kernels: roasted for the former, raw for the latter [9]. ...
Article
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Argan oil is prepared by cold pressing argan kernels collected from fully ripe fruit. Argan oil market price is particularly elevated. Consequently, efficient methods to ascertain its authenticity and quality are looked for by industrials as well as individual consumers. Argan oil element profile has already been shown to be sufficiently singular to be used to certify its authenticity. Quantification of eleven elements (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, K, Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Sn) indicated a 55 to 60% increase in global metal content in argan oil prepared from fully ripe fruit, compared to argan oil prepared from unripe fruit. Individual variations are herein reported and our study demonstrates that argan oil element profile allows to certify the degree of maturity of the argan fruit at its harvest time and hence to guarantee the respect of one essential parameter necessary to get an argan oil of high nutritional quality.
... ± 0.59 mg I 2 /g) was similar to the general seed oils used in cosmetics such as sunflower (<6 mg KOH/g) and wheat germ (128 mg I 2 /g) 5,20 . Peroxide and saponification value of rubber seed oil were in an acceptable range for natural oil in cosmetic products 21 . All parameters of chemical properties of rubber seed oil were in the normal range for a natural oil, and comparable to macadamia (<10 mg eq of peroxide/kg, 150-200 mg KOH/g), rice bran (<15 mg eq of peroxide/kg, 190-200 mg KOH/g) and avocado oil (<10 mg eq of peroxide/kg, 177-198 mg KOH/g) 22,23 . ...
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The objective of this study was to determine the safety of rubber seed oil in terms of toxicity, residual solvent and to develop rubber seed cleansing oil as a makeup remover. The cytotoxicity of rubber seed was determined on human fibroblast cell. It was not cytotoxic to human fibroblast cell at >1000 µg/ml. Rubber seed oil was further examined for the presence of linamarin toxin and determining the solvent residual. FTIR spectrum revealed that there was no presence of cyanide peak and, n-hexane residual was 60.35 ± 1.12 ppm. Based on these results, it was suggested that rubber seed oil was safe to be developed as a product for cosmetic applications. The rubber seed cleansing oil was formulated in various compositions of rubber seed oil (5, 10 and 15%) combined with sorbeth-30 tetraoleate (HLB 11.5) and sorbitan sesquioleate (HLB 3.7) and the ratio of surfactant was 10, 15 and 20% respectively. The most suitable formulation with good physical properties was obtained from 5% of rubber seed oil, and 15% of surfactant. The makeup removal efficacy of rubber seed cleansing oil was 89.89 ± 2.75% against the liquid foundation.
... Argan oil is obtained from the seeds of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L., Sapotaceae). It has been traditionally used in Morocco for centuries in diets and cosmetics and against skin infections (Guillaume & Charrouf, 2011). The oil content in dried seeds ranges from 50% to 55% (Fontanel, 2013;Janeš & Kočevar Glavač, 2018 Argan oil has also been recognized to be effective in enhancing the healing of burns in an in vivo experiment using rats after dermal application for 14 days. ...
Article
The use of vegetable butters and oils shows promising results in the treatment of skin wounds, as they have an effective impact on the phases of the wound‐healing process through their antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory, and antioxidative activities and by promoting cell proliferation, increasing collagen synthesis, stimulating dermal reconstruction, and repairing the skin's lipid barrier function. In this article, in vitro and in vivo studies of argan (Argania spinosa), avocado (Persea americana), black cumin (Nigella sativa), calophyllum (Calophyllum inophyllum), coconut (Cocos nucifera), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), grape (Vitis vinifera), green coffee (Coffea arabica), lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), mango (Mangifera indica), olive (Olea europaea), pomegranate (Punica granatum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), rapeseed (Brassica napus), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oils were reviewed. In many cases, vegetable oils proved to be more effective than synthetic wound‐healing compounds used as controls. The fatty‐acid components of vegetable oils are assumed to play a major role in the wound‐healing process, in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Evidence shows that oils with a higher linoleic to oleic acid ratio are more effective for lipid barrier repair. However, in depth studies are needed to gain knowledge about vegetable oils' effects on the skin and vice versa.
... The continued evolution of infectious diseases and the resistance development by pathogens of existing pharmaceuticals have led to the intensified search for new the novel leads against fungal, parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections (Gibbons, 2004). The use of derivative plant in phytotherapy has a long history of providing the much needed novel therapeutics .The biochemical studies of Argan leaf extracts revealed the presence of numerous purified compounds of the great interest in the practice of modern medicine (Guillaume et Charrouf, 2011).In this regards, the level of antibacterial activity of protein and phenol compounds of argan leaves, as well as the comparison between the efficiency of leaf extracts, collected from different origins have been investigated. In the present study, the biochemical parameters of the leaf extracts were determined, since the quantitative protein determination and the enzyme screenings were of prior importance to yield the protein content and to detect their enzyme potentials. ...
Article
Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. (Argan) is tropical species, this plant is known by these therapeutic and medecinal uses. For this purpose, we test antibacteri-al potential of leaf extracts of three Algerian population of Argan trees and we evaluate the geographical distribution and solvent extraction effect on the antibacterial activities. In first, Levels of total phenol content, total protein content of leaf extracts were determined by UV-spectrophotometer, secondary, The agar well diffusion method were used to determine enzyme activities of proteins, antibacterial effect and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts. The amounts of the phenol and protein concentrations in tested extracts were in ranged respectively between (118.83-147.17mg/mL) of Gallic acid equivalents (mg/mL)) and (31.33-40.55mg/mL) of BSA (mg/mL), the crude fresh extract and crude protein extract show peroxidase activities, while protease activities were not found in ours extracts. Microbiological tests showed a high antibacterial potential of metha-nol extracts against tested bacteria ,Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was most sensitive to methanol extracts (IZD: 17mm to 23.5),in opposite, aque-ous extracts show weak antibacterial activities. Crude protein extracts had not antibacterial effects while crude fresh extracts were efficiency against bacterial growth, biochemical enzyme tests revealed that crude extracts of the leaves show peroxidase activity wish may to increase antibacterial activities of crude extracts. The high activities of leaf Argan extracts were detected in Oran samples (littoral area) followed by Tindouf samples (arid area), this result confirmed positive relationships between geographical distribution of samples and their antibacterial activities.
... The argane tree covers a large area in Morocco, estimated at 828000 ha (Guillaume and Charrouf 2011) generating a global production of about 350,000 tons per year of fruit (Charrouf and Guillaume 2009), used for production of argane oil. This also gave a large amount of by-products about 43% of the pulp (pericarp), 52.6% of the shells, and 2% of the meal (Zouhair et al. 2018). ...
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The objective of this work was to study the effect of the incorporation of argane by-products (meal and pulp) in ewe’s diet on the production and quality of milk and the performance of lambs in the lactation phase. Twenty ewes were divided into two equal groups. The first one has been fed with argane by-product diet (AD), and the second with a control diet (CD). The results showed an improvement in milk production with an average of 26.3% for AD compared with the CD group. AD group lambs showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) compared with the CD group during lactation phase. The ash and protein levels were not affected by treatments; however, fat, lactose, density, and fusion point content show more fluctuations for both treatments (p < 0.05). The physicochemical parameters of sheep milk showed high (p < 0.01) to very high (p < 0.001) significant change, along the lactation weeks. Except the Zn which showed no significant difference (p > 0.05), the mineral composition of both milks (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, and Fe) was significant (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, in terms of performances, argane by-products could replace the conventional diet for ewes without substantial detrimental effects. Therefore, argane by-product could be used as a cost-effective feed for sheep in dry areas.
... Body Wash contains Arganiaspinosa (argan) kernal oil well known for its conditioning and shine enhancing effects and its use in dermocosmetology [10]. The ...
... Kora debla je grube i nepravilne površine zanimljivog uzorka koji podsjeća na krokodilsku kožu. Osim sjemenki bogatih uljem i plodovi i listovi argana sadrže brojne aktivne spojeve poput proteina, peptida i saponina (2,3). Zbog navedene otpornosti na sušu, šume argana su najvažnije prirodno blago Maroka. ...
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Although known for centuries as an excellent oil for skin and hair care, argan oil has become increasingly popular as indispensable ingredient in cosmetology or pharmacy. Argan oil is the most expensive edible oil in the world, obtained by cold press from argan (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) plant seeds, which only grows in the area of southwestern Morocco. Major constituents of argan oil are triglycerides containing up to 80 % of monounsaturated including oleic and linolenic acids alongside with polyphenols, squalens and tocopherols. These constituents are responsible for biological properties of argan oil that include antiinflammatory, cardioprotective and antioxidant among others.
... [23][24] Furthermore, it was discovered that a crude argan saponin extract have anti-5α-reductase activity, which could also be potentially beneficial for anti-acne activity. [25][26][27] It has also been reported that argan oil together with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the studies indicated that treatment with argan oil alone did not yield any or had very low antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. ...
Article
Introduction: Argan oil is a well-known cosmeceutical that is commercially available. It is traditionally used for the treatment of acne and skin inflammation among others. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-proliferative and antibacterial activities of argan oil and a crude saponin extract from the argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) that is endemic to Morocco. Materials and Methods: The anti-proliferative activity of argan oil and the crude saponin extract was assessed by the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetra-zolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay on A431; HaCat; HeLa; MCF-7 and UCT-Mel 1 cells. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method against two species of bacteria: Cutibacterium acnes and Prevotella intermedia. Results: The results of this study indicated that the argan oil sample did not inhibit the cell growth of the specified cell lines up to 1000µg/ml, while the crude saponin extract had low anti-proliferative activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for both the argan oil and the crude saponin extract were found to be 500µg/ml against Cutibacterium acnes. No antibacterial activity from the argan oil or the crude saponin extract was evident against Prevotella intermedia up to a concentration of 12.5mg/ml. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that argan oil and the crude saponin extract might have direct inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of Cutibacterium acnes. This finding supports the use argan oil as a treatment for acne vulgaris.
... Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae) is a tree species endemic to Morocco and has a great ecological and socioeconomic value in this area. The fruit of A. spinosa has an oleaginous kernel from which a well-known oil, "argan oil, " is used in folk medicine and in cosmetics [1], especially in the southwestern region [2]. Traditionally, cosmetic argan oil was used to cure all kinds of skin pimples as well as juvenile acne and chicken pox pustules scars. ...
Article
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı altın otu esansiyel yağı ve argan yağı karışımının yanıt yüzey metodolojisi (YYM) koşullarında mikrokapsüle edilmesi ve uygun krem formülasyonundaki antioksidan aktivitesinin belirlenmesidir. Materyal ve Yöntem: YYM deney tasarımı kullanılarak, kompleks koaservasyon yöntemi ile mikrokapsül üretilmiştir. Araştırma Bulguları: Altın otu esansiyel yağı ve argan yağı karışımlı, jelatin/arap zamkı duvarlı mikrokapsüller üretilmiş ve karakterize edilmiştir. Oluşturulan deney tasarımına verilerimiz işlenerek ANOVA sonuçları elde edilmiştir. Mikrokapsül içeren kremin antioksidan kapasitesi yüksek bulunmuştur. Sonuç: YYM ile üç farklı parametrede, kompleks koaservasyon yöntemiyle mikrokapsül üretilip, karakterize edilmiştir. Mikrokapsüllerin morfolojik görüntüleri için SEM (taramalı elektron mikroskobu) ve optik mikroskoptan yararlanılmış olup, yapıyı aydınlatmak için GC-MS (gaz kromatografisi-kütle spektroskopisi) ve FT-IR (Fourier dönüşümlü kızılötesi spektroskopisi) kullanılmıştır. Mikrokapsüller kreme eklenip, kremin antioksidan kapasitesi CUPRAC metoduyla yorumlanmıştır. Tüm veriler değerlendirildiğinde altın otu ve argan yağı karışımı kompleks koaservasyon yöntemi kullanılarak başarılı bir şekilde mikrokapsüle edilmiştir. Mikrokapsül içeren kozmetik kremin etkin bir şekilde antioksidan kapasiteye sahip olduğu görülmüştür.
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Various different agri-food biomasses might be turned into renewable sources for producing biodegradable and edible plastics, potentially attractive for food, agricultural and cosmeceutical sectors. In this regard, different seeds utilized for edible and non-edible oil extraction give rise to high amounts of organic by-products, known as seed oil cakes (SOCs), potentially able to become protein-rich resources useful for the manufacturing of biodegradable films. This study reports the potential of SOC derived from Argania spinosa (argan), a well-known plant containing valuable non-refined oil suitable for food or cosmetic use, to be a promising valuable source for production of a protein-based matrix of biomaterials to be used in the pharmaco-cosmetic sector. Thus, glycerol-plasticized films were prepared by casting and drying using different amounts of argan seed protein concentrate, in the presence of increasing glycerol concentrations, and characterized for their morphological, mechanical, barrier, and hydrophilicity properties. In addition, their antioxidant activity and effects on cell viability and wound healing were investigated. The hydrophobic nature of the argan protein-based films, and their satisfying physicochemical and biological properties, suggest a biorefinery approach for the recycling of argan SOC as valuable raw material for manufacturing new products to be used in the cosmeceutical and food industries.
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UVB exposure causes DNA mutation and ROS generation, which lead to skin photoaging, skin wrinkling, skin sagging, and uneven skin pigmentation. ROS activate the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways leading to production of inflammatory molecules such as COX-2, collagen-degrading proteins such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and moisture-deficiency-related proteins such as hyaluronidases (HYALs). UVB exposure also induces irregular skin pigmentation though melanin overproduction, related to CREB transcription factor activity and transcription of melanogenesis genes. Here, we demonstrate that Chrysophyllum lucentifolium methanol extract (Cl-ME) has antioxidant activity; it dose-dependently decreased the expression of COX-2, MMP-1, MMP-9, HYAL-1, and HYAL-4 by downregulating the NF-κB (IKKα/β, IκBα) and MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) pathways and increased the expression of Col1a1, which encodes a protein important for maintaining skin elasticity. Cl-ME also showed promising antimelanogenic activity by decreasing the expression of CREB, a transcription factor, which in turn inhibited the expression of genes encoding tyrosinase, MITF, TYRP1, and TYRP2. In summary, a methanol extract of C. lucentifolium exhibited antiphotoaging and antimelanogenic activity and could be useful in the cosmeceutical industry.
Article
Argan oil (AO) is an appreciated vegetable oil thanks to its high nutritional and cosmetic values. AO extraction technology has evolved to meet the market demand. However artisanal production is still widely practiced. The present study aimed at highlighting the influence of water quality on the physicochemical and sensory properties of artisanally extracted AO. To meet this objective, AO was prepared using various water types namely: well water (AOWW), tap water (AOTW), mineral water (AOMW), distilled water (AODW), and ultra-pure water (AOUW). The obtained AOs were evaluated in terms of routinely measured quality indices: iodine, peroxide, acid, and anisidine values, UV specific coefficients extinction, refraction index, and moisture content. Chemical composition (fatty acids, sterols content, and tocopherols content) was investigated together with oxidative stability (OS) and sensory properties. As revealed by the statistical test used, water quality impacted significantly mainly on AO chemical composition, OS, and sensory properties. Obtained results of almost studied quality attributes were consistent with the Official Moroccan Norm. The greatest values of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were recorded in AOMW and OAWW, respectively, while AOUW together with AOTW displayed the best record of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the highest values of tocopherols were found in AOTW and AOUW. AODW and AOUW presented greatest values of sterols content, OS, and shelf life. Likewise, sensory analysis was satisfactory in almost obtained AOs. Principal component analysis confirmed these results and allowed allowed a good separation among AOs especially with sterols and tocopherols. Based on these outcomes, it could be concluded that water quality is an important parameter to consider by AO producers, ultra-pure and distilled water seemed to exert an ameliorative effect on quality, stability, and shelf life of AOs.
Article
Nano-cosmeceuticals are cosmetic formulations containing nano-drug delivery systems to carry cosmetic active molecules to the relevant skin tissues. The purpose of this research is to develop and optimize the semi-solid nanostructured lipid carriers for caffeine delivery to the deeper skin layers. It is also aimed to achieve a novel nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical formulation with predetermined quality. Hence both caffeine and argan oil encapsulated semi-solid NLCs were developed by following QbD steps. An artificial neural network (ANN) program was employed to reach optimized formulation with desired critical quality attributes (CQAs). The optimized formulation suggested by the ANN exhibited a particle size of 186.5 nm with a PDI value of 0.208 and the occlusion factor of the optimized formulation reached 50.25% after 12h. A high level of similarity was obtained between the CQAs predicted by ANN and experimental results for the optimum formulation. The present study concluded that the novel caffeine-loaded semi-solid NLC formulation which also contains argan oil is a promising candidate for local treatment of cellulite and it may possess the measurable skin effect. Moreover; a high-quality nano-cosmeceutical product was obtained with the help of artificial intelligence by following QbD steps for the first time to the best of our knowledge.
Article
The authentication of neem oil and its blending with inexpensive vegetable oil, such as, palm oil is a common practice in the neem oil industry. This study was conducted to investigate the neem kernel ( Azadirachta indica ) oil (NKO) by blending with palm oil and characterize it by studying its effect on the physicochemical properties, dielectric properties and fatty acid profiles of the blend. Blending significantly influenced the color, dielectric, structural and antimicrobial properties of the virgin oil. The NKO was rich in oleic (44.97%), stearic (21.27%), palmitic (16.88%) and linoleic acids (14.08%). The addition of palm oil into NKO significantly influenced the fatty acids profile , which was further confirmed by the FTIR spectra and the dielectric data. Overall, determination of moisture content, palmitic and stearic acid content, color parameter "a" and dielectric measurements were found to be fastest and precise way to detect the NKO and PO blends.
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The aim of this article is to define the role of environmental management in the processes of research and development conducted by the partners in the supply chain. The publication describes the emerging trends related to the requirements of international companies (especially Original Equipment Manufacturers - OEMs) on reducing suppliers’ negative impact of new products on the environment. Increasingly, these requirements are taken into account during the initial assessment and periodic suppliers. The expectations that international companies have of suppliers include an ever wider range of implementations of the concept of environmental management contained in the ISO 14000 series of International Standards. These expectations include: the implementation of an environmental management system (in accordance with the guidelines of ISO 14001), the implementation of LCA (ISO series 14040), and the use of environmental labels and environmental statements (as required by series 14040). OEM companies are not limited to placing stringent requirements on suppliers. Many multinationals offer their suppliers special programs to support the implementation of environmental management.
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Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, a tree that almost exclusively grows endemically in southern Morocco. If argan oil was initially only known around its traditional production area, major efforts combining chemical, agronomic and human sciences have led to its international recognition and marketing. In addition, to ensure the sustainable production of a sufficient quantity of argan kernels, a vast and unprecedented program that led to the reforestation of large areas of drylands has been developed in Morocco. Therefore, argan oil production is considered as an economic and ecologic success.
Article
For the last few years we have been observing an interest and growing awareness of consumers regarding healthy diet, way of life and body care. This leads to the design and creation of new products and cosmetic formulations with appropriate sensory characteristics and rheological properties, attractive in terms of nutritional values, and body care. Argan oil contains a high level of both oleic acid and linoleic acid, making it an excellent source of basic polyunsaturated fatty acids, also it is particularly rich in polyphenols and tocopherols that exhibit significant antioxidant activity. The paper presents a literature review of the properties of argan oil and their application. Argan oil is used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries and supports the treatment of many diseases. Practical Applications The work presents a wide review and discussion of the literature on the issues related to the use of argan oil in cosmetology and cosmetics industry based on its properties. This review work can be helpful for the cosmetics and food industry in creating new cosmetic recipes and food products (eg special‐purpose products) using argan oil as a base raw material.
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In Morocco, the region covered with argan trees is named the argan grove. Its long-term preservation depends on the discovery of new and economically rewarding markets to sell argan tree produces. At the present time, the argan oil appears to be the best candidate to fulfill this task. The scientific results that have allowed the emergence of argan oil on the international edible and cosmetic oil markets are reported together with recent analytic results. Alternative approaches, not based on argan oil marketing but also aimed at safeguarding the argan grove, are also reported.
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The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.
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The therapeutic benefits of argan oil consumption have been claimed by natives of Morocco and explorers for more than eight centuries. However, argan oil has remained unresearched for a long time. Traditionally, argan oil has been well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. Argan oil is principally composed of mono-unsaturated (up to 80%) and saturated (up to 20%) fatty acids. As minor components, it contains polyphenols, tocopherols, sterols, squalene, and triterpene alcohols. Together with the mono-unsaturated fatty acids, these minor components are likely to be responsible for its beneficial effects. This review aims to present an overview of the known pharmacological properties of argan oil. Antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and cardiovascular-protective effects of argan oil have been particularly actively evaluated over the last 5 years in order to build on phytochemical studies that indicate the presence of large amounts of possibly pharmacologically active compounds. This review shows that a lack of clinical data constitutes a serious weakness in our knowledge about argan oil, therefore it is difficult to correlate the reported pharmacological activities to any potential clinical relevance.
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The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic antioxidants in three types of argan oil (Moroccan food, Moroccan aesthetic and a French commercial variety) along with a basic comparison with extra virgin olive and sunflower oil. The fatty acid profiles in the argan oils were very similar, with oleic acid (43%) and linoleic acid (36%) and their respective monoacylglycerols predominating. The major vitamer identified was -tocopherol with a mean of 483+/-11 mg/kg, in contrast to -tocopherol, which is the major vitamer in olive (190+/-1 mg/kg) and sunflower oil (532+/-6 mg/kg). The squalene content of the argan oils was very similar with a mean of 313+/-4 mg/100 g, which is lower than that of the olive oil (499 mg/100 g) but significantly higher than in the sunflower oil (6 mg/100 g). In contrast to olive and sunflower oils in which -sitosterol is predominant, the major sterols detected in the argan oils were schottenol (mean 147+/-10 mg/kg) and spinasterol (mean 122+/-10 mg/kg). The only phenolic compounds other than the tocopherol vitamers which could be readily detected and quantitated were vanillic, syringic and ferulic (probably conjugated to glucose) acids along with tyrosol. In contrast to the extra virgin olive oil (793 mg/kg), the concentration of total phenolic compounds is extremely low (<5.0 mg/kg). Nevertheless, argan oil with its high content of the vitamer -tocopherol, squalene and oleic acid is likely to enhance the cancer prevention effects of the Moroccan diet.
Article
Southwestern Moroccan women crack the hardest nuts (Argan) in the world between two stones by hand for nine hours a day, six days a week. Most women complain of pain in the fingers due to the repetitive nature of the cracking activity and some suffer from broken fingers. They receive little compensation for this hard work and, as a result, have formed cooperatives for both companionship and improvement in productivity. Nut cracking is the bottleneck in the overall process of oil production from the nut kernel. In an effort to strengthen the women's cooperatives, a simple device was designed, fabricated and tested with the goal of increasing productivity while alleviating the dangers of hand cracking. Testing of 30 Argan nuts from the Touradant region of Southwestern Morocco was performed on a material testing machine to establish the force to crack the shell in relation to nut orientation. The results revealed no significant relationship between dimensional properties of the Argan nut and the cracking force. This information was used in the development of a hand operated nut cracking device. The device included a lever arm, an autoloader (rotator hexagonal wheel) and the associated harmonizing mechanism, a nut feed hopper, a cracking ram and plate, and a wooden housing that held all the elements together. The cost was estimated to be below US$100.00, essentially a fifth of what the women currently earn in a year. The device performed satisfactorily with respect to yielding intact kernels. However, further modifications were needed before realizing the target increase in cracking speed. Funding is being sought to fabricate and test the second generation device in the hands of the Moroccan women.
Article
For years, in southwestern Morocco, the decline of the argan forest has been accompanied by the concomitant desert encroachment. Preservation of this forest by increasing the economic value of argan tree was proposed twenty years ago, but successful large scale production of certified, high quality argan oil, an edible oil introduced as a functional food, has only been recently achieved. Argan oil is now marketed in most developed countries, despite its elevated price, and protection of the argan forest is now seriously being considered. The aim of this work is to present the recent progress made in argan oil production, the ways explored to commercialize the oil extraction by-products, and recent attempts to use other argan tree parts as part of a long term aim to preserve the argan forest.
Article
Sensory quality of edible oil is essential to get the consumer acceptance. Modifications during processing can alter edible oil sensory quality. The storage stability and sensory quality of argan oil prepared from (1) mechanically pressed unroasted kernels, (2) mechanically pressed roasted kernels, (3) hand-pressed roasted kernels, and (4) hand-pressed roasted kernels coming from goat-digested fruits was studied at room temperature and under accelerated conditions (60°C). The roasting process had a positive effect on storage stability of the resulting oils, while argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels provides the optimum storage stability. Oil from hand-pressed roasted kernels originating from goat-digested fruits was not suitable for human consumption because of the unpleasant taste and odoûr. Only oil from mechanically pressed roasted kernels did not produce negative sensory attributes like fusty or Roquefort cheese.
Article
On international scale the Codex Alimentarius Standard for Named Vegetable Oils differentiates between virgin oils and cold-pressed oils, while in Germany virgin, non-refined and refined oils are available. Here cold-pressed is an additional quality feature. The paper explains and comments the various definitions for vegetable oils other than olive oil obtained by mechanical extraction only, because they are partly contradictory. Resulting from gentle processing virgin oils are often appreciated by the consumers as the better oils. The answer of the present paper to the question which type of oil is better is that there is no better or worse oil, but only a better or worse suitability of an oil for application in food processing or the kitchen. Finally, the paper picks up the upcoming debate on the potential ’new' contaminant, 3-MCPD-fatty acid esters, which were found in refined oils.
Article
Edible argan oil is traditionally prepared by Berber women who manually crunch the roasted kernels of Argania spinosa fruits. Unroasted kernels furnish a cosmetic-grade oil. Argan groves are currently shrinking due to unfavorable conditions. To stop this trend, a program aimed at increasing the argan tree economical value is in progress in Morocco. Its concept is that the natives will preserve argan trees only if the major part of the wealth resulting from the argan grove production directly benefits them. Because of its high dietary value, argan oil has appeared as the best derivative to rapidly satisfy such assumption. Consequently, year after year, cooperatives have been implanted to produce argan oil of high quality on a large scale. The delicate hazelnut taste of argan oil, combined with its high level in unsaturated fatty acids, has allowed its swift commercial success and, nowadays, argan oil of standardized quality is marketed worldwide. Moroccan farmers are now beginning to plant argan trees, confirming the full success of this ambitious program. This review summarizes the methods used to prepare argan oil, its composition, the strategies available to certify argan oil quality, and finally the impact of argan oil on human health.
Article
Five new triterpene saponins, arganine L (1), O (2), P (3), Q (4) and R (5), were isolated from the barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. Arganines L-P and R are bidesmosidic saponins. The structures of 1–5 were elucidated as 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1–3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1–2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl] bayogenin, 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl] bayogenin, 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[α-l-arabinopyranosyl] bayogenin, 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl] bayogenin, and 3-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1–4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1–2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl] bayogenin, respectively, mainly on the basis of their spectroscopic data.
Article
The argan tree, Argania sideroxylon Roem. & Schult. (A. spinosa (L.) Maire), of the family Sapotaceae, essential to the dwellers of southwestern Morocco and long admired by explorers and travelers, has remained little known to botanists and horticulturists outside its natural area. It is slow growing and long lived on calcareous soil. The young seedlings furnish almost the only forage for goats and other herbivores during several months of the year and the animals relish the flesh of the abundant fruits. The ejected seeds yield a yellow oil commonly consumed as human food. Among its constituents are four sterols, two methylsterols, and five triterpenic alcohols. The wood is hard, prized locally, and much used for fuel. Excessive exploitation of the tree has stimulated local moves toward conservation and cultivation. Argan seedlings are being grown experimentally at the U.S.D.A. Subtropical Horticulture Research Unit, Miami, and by Victor Wynne in Haiti, with a view to trial in semi- arid regions of near- Mediterranean climate. In English greenhouse culture, vegetative propagation has been achieved by cuttings and layers.
Article
The present study investigated the oxidative stability of the threemarketed types of edible argan oil. Edible argan oil is prepared by pressing the slightly roasted kernels of peeled argan fruit. High quality edible argan oil is exclusively prepared using mechanical presses. However, hand-extracted argan oil is still artisanally produced and can be found in local markets. In this latter case, goat-peeled fruit is still sometimes introduced in the oil production chain even though the resulting oil is notoriously of unsatisfactory quality. The oxidative stability of press-extracted, hand-extracted, and goat-peeled fruit derived argan oil was analyzed using as physicochemical metrics: fatty acid composition, β-carotene level, phosphorus level, tocopherol level, iodine index, saponification, peroxide and acid values, specific extinction, and Rancimat induction time. The variations of these parameters were evaluated over a period of 2 years at 5 °C, 25 °C (protected or exposed to sunlight), or 40 °C. After this period of time, mechanically extracted argan oil still presents an excellent physicochemical profile. Domestic and traditionally prepared argan oil presents much less satisfactory properties after the same period.
Article
Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review.
Article
Metal content was determined in 26 samples of virgin argan oil from Morocco. An ETA-AAS with previous sample dilution with MIBK technique was used. In oil obtained by traditional method, Fe ranged from 0.8 to 4.0 mg/kg, Cu from 160.4 to 695.7 microg/kg, Cr from 10.3 to 55.3 microg/kg, Mn from 18.1 to 70.8 microg/kg, and Pb from 28.5 to 450.0 microg/kg. In oil obtained by a half-industrialized method, Fe ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 mg/kg, Cu from 158.4 to 385.0 microg/kg, Cr from 10.0 to 48.1 microg/kg, Mn from 15.0 to 68.5 microg/kg, and Pb from 32.0 to 100.0 microg/kg. Acidity value, peroxide index, K270 and K232, humidity and sludge volatile, and insoluble sludges in petroleum ether were also determined. A high variability in these quality parameters and a decrease of the quality in the oils obtained by the traditional method were observed.
Article
Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner.
Article
Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence.
Article
The structures of three novel saponins from Argania spinosa, named arganines G, H, and J, have been elucidated by MS and NMR techniques as 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylbayogenin (1), 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-alpha- L- arabinopyranosylbayogenin (2), and 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O- [beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L - rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]bayogenin (3), respectively.
Article
Some botanical compounds are considered useful to reduce sebum production. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of a sebum control cream containing polyphenol-rich extract from saw palmetto, sesame seeds, and argan oil in subjects with oily facial skin. The study was carried out during the winter months (January and February). A total of 20 healthy volunteers (9 male and 11 female, aged 17-50 years, 16 with oily skin and 4 with combined skin) were studied. The test product was applied twice daily to the face for a period of 4 weeks. A clinical assessment and instrumental measurements were done before and after the treatment period. Casual sebum level on the forehead and both cheeks was determined with a photometric device (Sebumeter). The quantity of sebum on the midforehead was determined using sebum collector foils (Sebufix), which were then evaluated with skin camera Visioscope and software SELS (Surface Evaluation of the Living Skin). A subjective evaluation questionnaire regarding the cosmetic characteristics, tolerance, and efficacy of the product was filled out by the volunteers at the end of study. The product was very well accepted by all the volunteers. A visible sebum-regulating efficacy was reported in 95% of them. After 4 weeks of treatment, the clinical assessment scores decreased by 33%. There was a significant reduction in the casual sebum level by 20% and area covered with oily spots by 42%. The number of active sebaceous glands remained unaltered. These results objectively and quantitatively show the efficacy of the sebum control cream tested to reduce the greasiness and improve the appearance of oily facial skin.
Use of an unsaponifiable extract of plant pulp in the treatment of skin ageing
  • B Fabre
  • M Belle R. Charveron
  • C Baudouin
Fabre, B., Belle, R., Charveron, M., Baudouin, C., Use of an unsaponifiable extract of plant pulp in the treatment of skin ageing. US 2009/0012049 P. Fabre Dermocosmé SA, 2009.
Formulation of argan oil-based lipid emulsion for parenteral nutrition
  • Y Bensouada
Bensouada, Y., Formulation of argan oil-based lipid emul-sion for parenteral nutrition. WO 2008/002116, 2006.
Composition containing a C-glycoside compound. US patent
  • C Willemein
  • L Bissey-Beugras
  • J Senee
  • D Compain
Willemein, C., Bissey-Beugras, L., Senee, J., Compain, D., Composition containing a C-glycoside compound. US patent 2008/0226756 L'Oré, France, 2008.
Cosmetic and/or dermatological composition for pre-vention and/or treatment of sensitive or dry skin. US patent
  • L Breton
  • R Jourdain
  • A Gueniche
  • I Bureau-Frantz
Breton, L., Jourdain, R., Gueniche, A., Bureau-Frantz, I. et al., Cosmetic and/or dermatological composition for pre-vention and/or treatment of sensitive or dry skin. US patent 2009/0232785 L'Oré, France, 2009.
Huile d'argan enrichie, procédé de pré et composition cosmé la comprenant. French patent 94 11174
  • B Fabre
  • M T Trebosc
Fabre, B., Trebosc, M. T., Huile d'argan enrichie, procédé de pré et composition cosmé la comprenant. French patent 94 11174; FR 2724 663, P. Fabre Dermocosmé, 1994.
Verwendung eines Extraktes aus der Pflanze Argania spinosa
  • F Henry
  • L Danoux
  • G Pauly
  • Z Charrouf
Henry, F., Danoux, L., Pauly, G., Charrouf, Z., Verwendung eines Extraktes aus der Pflanze Argania spinosa. European patent EP 1 430 900 Cognis France SA, Saint Martory, 2004.
Cosmetic and/or dermopharmaceutical preparation containing leaf extracts of the plantArgania spinosa
  • Pauly G Henry
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