Endoscopic Injection of Absolute Ethanol Achieves Ultimate Hemostasis in Bleeding Caused by Peptic Ulcers
Digestive Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 2.06). 08/2007; 6(1):34 - 38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1443-1661.1994.tb00659.x
This study was performed to assess the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy with absolute ethanol to prevent emergency surgery and recurrent bleeding in patients with peptic ulcers. We compared two different treatment protocols of peptic ulcers with active bleeding or with visible vessels on the ulcer bed. In group I (1981–1984, control group), 45 patients underwent emergency endoscopy with spraying 0.1% epinephrine and thrombin, but no other endoscopic hemostatic procedure. In group II (1989–1992, experimental group), we performed endoscopic injection therapy with absolute ethanol for peptic ulcers in 46 patients. The background characteristics of the patients were not different in the two groups. The rate of successful initial hemostasis tended to be greater in the ethanol injection group compared with the control group without significance. The ultimate hemostatic rate in the ethanol injection group was markedly and significantly greater compared to the control group (P<0.05). Ultimate hemostasis by ethanol injection was performed effectively in peptic ulcers with spurting and oozing hemorrhage and in the non-bleeding peptic ulcers with visible vessels at the initial endoscopy (P<0.05 for each). These results indicate that ethanol injection therapy by endoscopy achieves ultimate hemostasis and prevents emergency surgery due to hemorrhage from peptic ulcers. (Dig Endoc 1994; 6 : 34–38)
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ABSTRACT: We performed a prospective, randomized trial to assess the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy with absolute ethanol in preventing recurrent bleeding in patients with nonbleeding visible vessels in gastric ulcers. During the period of 1990 to 1993, 62 patients who bled were found to have gastric ulcers with nonbleeding visible vessels; all of them were enrolled for this trial. The 62 patients were randomly divided into two groups, which were comparable at entry. In group I (33 patients), we performed endoscopic injection therapy with absolute ethanol. In group II (29 patients), we sprayed the ulcers with 0.1% epinephrine and thrombin. Endoscopic injection therapy with ethanol was performed at the second endoscopy in the patients in both groups who had recurrent bleeding. Among the 33 patients in group I, 4 patients (12.1%) rebled after the initial ethanol injection therapy, whereas 10 of 29 patients (34.5%) rebled in the control group (p < .05). No patients in group I required surgical intervention, and ultimate hemostasis was achieved in all 33 group I patients (100%), indicating that endoscopic ethanol injection therapy achieves ultimate hemostasis and prevents recurrent bleeding in patients with gastric ulcers and nonbleeding visible vessels.
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ABSTRACT: Because non-bleeding visible vessels (NBVV) of gastric peptic ulcers have the potential to re-bleed, endoscopic hemostatic treatment may be necessary during the first emergency endoscopy. However, not all NBVV re-bleed, and endoscopic hemostasis sometimes causes fatal side-effects. Therefore, we have evaluated the risk of re-bleeding from various NBVV in gastric peptic ulcers to determine which types should be treated by endoscopy to prevent re-bleeding. A total of 227 NBVV in 202 patients with gastric peptic ulcers that were endoscopically followed without endoscopic hemostatic procedures were classified by the following factors: vessel color, form, location of the NBVV in the ulcer crater, and location of the ulcer in the stomach. The re-bleeding rate was then analyzed for each type of NBVV. Significantly high rates of re-bleeding were observed in cases with white, protruded and peripheral NBVV. In particular, white NBVV located in the peripheral zone of the ulcer crater were frequent re-bleeding sources. The location of the ulcer in the stomach was not a statistically significant factor in determining re-bleeding rates. We found that white, protruded and peripherally located NBVV in gastric ulcers have a higher chance of re-bleeding if preventive endoscopic hemostatic procedures are not performed.
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