Article

Antioxidant properties of moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.)

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  • AgroParisTech, centre de Massy, France
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Abstract

The antioxidant power of acetone oleoresin (AO), deodorized acetone extract (DAE) and methanol extract (ME) isolated from Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves and flowering parts was tested in stripped corn oil and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging system. The activity of ME or rosmarinic acid mixtures with -tocopherol was also determined in corn oil. The results showed that methanol was a considerably more effective solvent to extract antioxidative substances from dragonhead than acetone. Dragonhead ME was efficient both in retarding corn oil peroxidation and in scavenging DPPH free radicals. The effectiveness of dragonhead AO isolated from the whole herb and DAE isolated from deodorized herb was significantly lower. Their activities were similar in DPPH radical scavenging, whereas DAE was more efficient in stripped corn oil than AO. Dragonhead ME was fractionated by thin

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... TPC in DL was 82.6 (±1.36) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ mg dry mass (DM). A similar result was reported by Povilaityté et al. (Povilaityté, Cuvelier, & Berset, 2001) in DL. The antioxidant activities, expressed as EC 50 value in the extracts obtained from DL were as follows: 1.6 (±0.18), 6.3 (±0.12), and 8.1 (±0.21) mg DM/mL for ABTS, CHEL, and OH, respectively. ...
... It means that the addition of DL at 5 g/100 g provided similar results with respect to TPC as in the production of wholemeal bread. However, ferulic acid was found to be the primary phenolic acid in wheat flour, whereas rosmarinic acid was the primary phenolic acid in DL responsible for TPC and AA (Povilaityté et al., 2001). Rosmarinic acid is considered one of the most important polyphenols. ...
Article
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The dried and powdered leaves of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) (0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/100 g of wheat flour) were added to the wheat flour to make bread. Farinograph properties of dough were studied, and the properties of enriched bread were evaluated. According to the results, Moldavian dragonhead leaves increased water absorption by the flour but decreased the volume of bread and crumb lightness. The enriched breads were characterized by a higher value of crumb hardness than that of control bread. The total phenolics content linearly increased with the percentage increase in the addition of dragonhead leaves from 4.8 to 10.1 mg GAE/g dry mass. As a result, the antioxidant activity of bread increased. Sensory evaluation revealed that the wheat bread can be supplemented with Moldavian dragonhead leaves up to 3 g/100 g wheat flour addition of dragonhead leaves with good consumer acceptability.
... The level of essential oils in Dragonhead herbs reaches a value from 0.008 to 0.8% dry wt. The antioxidant activity of this species has been studied by some researchers (Povilaityté et al. 2001). Dastmalchi et al. (2007) suggested that the components responsible for the dragonhead activity were hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin. ...
... Rosmarinic acids have been found in many medicinal plants including basil, sage, rosemary, mint and others (Lamaison et al. 1990;Osakabe et al. 2004). Povilaityté et al. (2001) have found rosmarinic acid in the dragonhead for the first time and characterized it as the major antioxidant constituent. Dastmalchi et al. (2007) reported the total phenolic content of the Moldavian balm was 47.659 g/ 100 g (the sum of individual extracts) evaluated with HPLC with rosmarinic acid as the most abundant component identified (24.795 g/100 g). ...
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Application of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves in extruded snacks was evaluated. Directly expanded corn snacks (crisps) were supplemented with 5–20% of dragonhead leaves. The supplemented snacks were characterized to have improved nutritional value and were a good source of dietary fibre. The presence of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid, showed a high antioxidant potential and a radical scavenging activity of tested snacks, especially if a high content of additive was used. The increasing amount of additive also had an impact on the physical properties of extrudates lowering the expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility, yet increasing bulk density, cutting force and the breaking index of the enriched snacks. The highest viscosity was observed at 5 and 10% addition level. The increasing amount of dragonhead leaves lowered the brightness of snacks and increased the greenness tint significantly. A sensory evaluation showed good acceptability of snacks enriched with up to 15% of dragonhead dried leaves. Dried leaves of the Moldavian dragonhead seem to be a prospective functional additive for extruded crisps with a high nutritional value, especially because of dietary fibre and rosmarinic acid content, a strong antioxidant potential and acceptable sensory properties.
... Bluish color is obtained by addition of 4 ml 7.5% of Na2SO4 (Reachim, Russia) solution in distilled water. Spectrophotometry is performed after period of 30 min. in the fixed wavelength of 765 nm (Povilaitytė et al., 2001). ...
... Methanol extractions have been purified by the method of solid-phase extraction with vacuum collector for solid-phase extraction "Supeco Visiprep" USA and Core "LiChlorout RP -18" (Merck, Germany) of 1 ml, filled with adequate sorbent. Solid-phase extraction is used for purification of analyzed compounds, concentration and formation of suitable volume of extract for HPLC analysis (Povilaitytė et al., 2001;Zgorka et al., 2003). Caffeine, gallic acid, rutin and epigallocatechin have been used for identification of active compounds. ...
Article
Green tea preparations are currently widely used in Lithuania, and therefore capsules with dry green tea extract were chosen with the aim of determination of their polyphenol and caffeine contents antioxidant activity, as well as for the evaluation of the correlation between possible indicators. The amount of polyphenolic compounds was determined using the Foulin - Ciocalteau reagent, standard galic acid, and following spectrophotometry. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the caffeine was performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determined by applying the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical binding method and inhibition of tyrosine nitration technique. The study showed that the amount of polyphenols and caffeine in the extract depends not only on the quality of the vegetal stock, but also on the technological parameters of processes applied in the production of dry extract. Antioxidant activity directly correlated with the amount of polyphenols in the extract. The quality of the green tea extract capsules was evaluated and, the allowable amounts of polyphenols (not less than 150 mg) and caffeine (not less than 16 mg) per capsule were established.
... Bluish color is obtained by addition of 4 ml 7.5% of Na2SO4 (Reachim, Russia) solution in distilled water. Spectrophotometry is performed after period of 30 min. in the fixed wavelength of 765 nm (Povilaitytė et al., 2001). Antioxidant activity is evaluated using the reaction of DPPH* binding. ...
... Methanol extractions have been purified by the method of solid-phase extraction with vacuum collector for solid-phase extraction " Supeco Visiprep " USA and Core " LiChlorout RP – 18 " (Merck, Germany) of 1 ml, filled with adequate sorbent. Solid-phase extraction is used for purification of analyzed compounds, concentration and formation of suitable volume of extract for HPLC analysis (Povilaitytė et al., 2001; Zgorka et al., 2003). Caffeine, gallic acid, rutin and epigallocatechin have been used for identification of active compounds. ...
Article
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The aim of the research was to analyze the composition of biologically active compounds, to determine the correlation between the concentration of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity, the dependence of extractive compounds on the extraction time, the quality of different tea preparation forms (daily tea, infusions, decoctions) of those teas found in Lithuanian market. Four specimens of green tea from different regions of the world have been chosen as the object of analysis. Quality criteria's have been analyzed by using gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Detailed analysis has been performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. With reference to analysis results it can be stated that in the aspect of relation to antioxidant activity/phenolic compounds, the teas with highest numbers in these dimensions were those from China region. The least numbers in antioxidant activity, dry residue and phenolic compounds were of teas from Sri Lanka. We tested the hypothesis that all green teas have phenolic compounds as their biological active compounds and because of this group of active compounds they distinguish antioxidant activity. The study gave strong evidence that green tea as a daily preparation and as well as pharmaceutical form (infusions, decoctions, capsules of green tea extract) may be used as preventive measures for cancerogenous processes, prostate cancer, renal or liver diseases because of it's antioxidant and free radical binding properties.
... D. moldavica essential oil (DMEO) has a citrus-like flavor due to the contents of geranial, neral, and geranyl acetate, and reassembles other lemon-scented plants such as lemon balm and lemon catnip [3,4]. Previous research showed that this plant had antioxidant [5][6][7][8][9] and antimicrobial properties [10][11][12][13]. In addition, the plant also displayed sedative [14,15], antidepressant [16], antinociceptive [17], anti-inflammatory [18,19], as well as neuroprotective [20,21] and cardioprotective effects [22][23][24][25]. ...
Article
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Steam distillation was used for the isolation of Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Moldavian dragonhead) essential oil (DMEO). This aromatic herbaceous plant is widespread across the Northern Hemisphere regions and has been utilized in health-improving studies and applications. In addition to the DMEO, the hydrolate (DMH), a byproduct of the distillation process, was also collected. The DMEO and DMH were analyzed and compared in terms of their chemical composition, as well as their in vitro biological activities. The main component in DMEO was geranyl acetate, while geranial was dominant in DMH. The DMEO demonstrated better antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with the DMH against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, which represent sources of food-borne illness at the global level. The DMEO and DMH show promise as antioxidant and antimicrobial additives to various products.
... Different flavonoids (31) compounds were isolated from D. moldavica L., including flavonoids, flavonols, and flavonoids glycosides [11][12][13]. Among phenylpropanoids compounds in D. moldavica L. were found phenyl propionic acid, lignans, and coumarins [12] rosmarinic acid, and apigenin [14]. Another study [15] identified such phenolic compounds as hydroxybenzoate, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonoids. ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of bagasse from Moldavian dragonhead (D. moldavica L.) seeds as a source of valuable nutrients on the physicochemical properties of rice milk ice cream. The basic composition of the ice cream was modified with a varied proportion of Moldavian dragonhead bagasse (MDB) (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 3.0%). The analysis of fatty acids showed a high proportion of linolenic acid (n-3) in the tested ice cream, especially with 3.0% share of bagasse. The addition of MDB increased dry matter, fat, and protein contents in the ice cream. The increasing share of this additive affected the physical properties of ice cream, increasing hardness, adhesiveness and viscosity, and reducing their melting rate. The study showed a negligible effect of the increasing share of MDB on the thermophysical properties of ice cream. Due to the high nutritional value of the bagasse (with the appropriate refinement of the recipe), it is possible to obtain rice milk ice cream with potential health-promoting properties.
... Very little research has been done regarding the antioxidant activity and nonvolatile chemistry of Moldavian balm; therefore less information has been published regarding antioxidative properties of Moldavian balm (Kakasy et al., 2002;Povilaityte et al., 2001;Povilaityte and Venskutonis, 2000). Solvents show various extraction capabilities depending not only on structure of their own but also on the structure of the solute; So that the extractive effect of phenolic compounds highly depends on the organic solvent used for extraction. ...
Article
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Dracocephalum moldavica L. has been used as both treatment of coronary heart disorders and food supplements. In the present study, determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content in methanol, ethanol and methanol/ethanol extracts of leaf was studied in Iranian Moldavian balm for the first time. Antioxidant activity of the studied plant was also measured. The methanol extract had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content, anthocyanin, DPPH and H 2 O 2 radical scavenging activity. The ethanol extract showed the least amount of all. The methanol/ethanol extract showed the highest amount in two oxides including nitric and superoxide radical scavenging activities; it also showed the highest Ferric Reducing Ability Power. The obtained chromatograms of the plant using High Performance Liquid Chromatography showed that the highest and the lowest found phenolic compounds were caffeic acid and vanilic acid, respectively. The results show that this plant is a suitable natural antioxidant to reduce the oxidative stress in human being.
... The Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L., Family Lamiaceae), is an annual plant native to Central Asia and naturalized in Eastern and Central Europe where it is widely used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and stimulant as well as for gastro-intestinal problems, cardiac inadequacy and as a sedative (Budantsev and Shavarda 1987;Kakasy et al. 2002). Moldavian dragonhead has two major antioxidant constituents, rosmaric acid and apigenin, discovered by Povilaityte et al. (2001). ...
Article
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Two field experiments were carried out during two successive seasons to study the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. to different levels of two organic fertilizers (compost and farmyard manure FYM) at 240, 480 and 720 kg N/ha. Compost levels had more pronounced effect on growth characters than those obtained as a result of using farmyard fertilizer. The maximum mean values of growth characters were obtained from fertilization with compost at 240 kg N/ha. Moreover, essential oil percentage and yield were greatly influenced by the application of organic fertilizers. The highest values of essential oil (%) were recorded from applying FYM at 240 kg N/ha in the 1 st season and compost at 480 or 720 kg N/ha in the second one. Compost at 240 kg N/ha gave the highest mean values of essential oil yield (ml/plant or L/ha). The concentration of N, P and K (%) in different plant tissues showed a remarkable increase with different levels of organic fertilizers. Compost levels were effective on total carbohydrate content (%) compared with FYM levels. The lowest levels of both fertilizers produced the maximum accumulation of total soluble sugars in different organs of plants. Generally photosynthetic pigments were not significantly affected by application of different levels of compost or FYM.
... Although RA has been extracted from D. moldavica plants (Povilaitytè et al. 2001) there is no information on this species with respect to in vitro production of the phenolic compound. This present research was devoted to investigate hairy root culture of D. moldavica for the production of RA. ...
... Although some studies have reported a high antioxidant activity of the polar extracts or flavonoid fraction obtained from D. moldavica (Krishnaiah et al., 2011), its protective capacity on oxidative DNA-damage has not been investigated, to the best of our knowledge. Also, the antioxidant studies on D. moldavica of European origin are limited (Povilaityté et al., 2001;Weremczuk-Ježyna et al., 2013). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the crude hydromethanolic extract from the aerial parts of European Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Moldavian dragonhead). The total phenolic content estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay was 289.55±2.63mg of GAE/g of dry extract, and rosmarinic acid was the major polyphenol of Dracocephalum moldavica extract (107.11±0.83mg/g of dry extract). In vitro antioxidant assays revelead remarkable scavenging effects against DPPH (EC50 =23.10±0.10μg/mL), ABTS (EC50 =8.0±0.10μg/mL) and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 =445.5±2.3μg/mL). The extract showed a high ferrous ion chelating activity (EC50 =35.70±0.40μg/mL), a considerable reducing capacity, and good hydroxyl radical scavenging properties. Dracocephalum moldavica extract reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, DNA damage induced by bleomycin in normal human dermal fibroblasts as measured by comet assay and micronucleus test. Exposure of dermal fibroblasts to Dracocephalum moldavica extract (100μg/mL) after preincubation with bleomycin (10μg/mL) resulted in the most significant antigenotoxic activity. The protective effects may be due to the free radical scavenging activity, iron-chelating properties and the possible intervention on DNA repair processes.
... Previous studies demonstrated that the total flavonoids extracted from D. moldavica possess obvious protective effects on myocardial I/R injury141516 . RA possesses a number of interesting biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant , antibacterial, immunoregulatory, and mesangial cell proliferation-inhibitory effects17181920. Herbal drugs contain a myriad of compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. ...
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In this study, a sensitive, precise, and accurate HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the six analytes (luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, tilianin, and rosmarinic acid) in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, in which five analytes (i.e., luteolin-7-O- β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O- β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O- β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O- β-D-glucuronide, and rosmarinic acid) were determined for the first time in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, the content of tilianin in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules was reported in other literatures, and the content of tilianin in our work was higher than that of the literature reports. The quality of 11 batch samples from four different manufacturers was evaluated using the proposed determination method. The contents of the six analytes were largely different among samples from various manufacturers. Therefore, this determination method can provide a scientific basis for quality evaluation and control of Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules.
... Two flavons apigenin and luteolin were isolated from this plant (mehrabani et al., 2014). the antioxidant power of acetone oleoresin (AO), deodorized acetone extract (DAE) and methanol extract (ME) isolated from Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves and flowering parts was tested by Povilaityté et al.(, 2001). Very few articles deal with antioxidant properties of Dracocephalum polychaetum , Therefore, as a part of our ongoing antioxidant research an aqueous , ethanol and methanol extract of the plant was investigated for its antioxidant properties in a battery of in vitro assays. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect, total phenolic content of the ethanol, methanol and aqueous extract Dracocephalum polychaetum in flowering stage. The total phenolic content of the plant was measured colorimetrically. Antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by DPPH method. In the present study, the highest antioxidant effect was to the extract of methanol, ethanol and aqueous, respectively. IC50 values in extracts of ethanol, methanol and water were respectively 11.89, 8.07 and 24.04. This value was obtained 0.86 μg /ml for BHT. The maximum level of phenol was to methanol, ethanol and aqueous extract respectively. Positive correlation was seen between the value of phenol and antioxidant capacity. The results show the various extracts of D. polychaetum have an antioxidant effect and could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants for the treatment of some diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijls.v9i5.12688
... Several oxidation products of lipids such as hexanal and 2,4-decadienal have been reported to exhibit pro-oxidative effects (El-Magoli, Karel, & Yong, 1980). Furthermore, stripping of oils may be necessary in such evaluations because the endogenous antioxidants in non-stripped oils are found to enhance the oxidative stability of test samples, thus giving rise to erroneous results about the efficacy of antioxidants under investigation (Khan & Shahidi, 2000;Povilaityte, Cuvelier, & Berset, 2001). In addition to oils and fats, lipid substrates used for testing antioxidant activity may include fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters or triacylglycerols, and β-carotene (Amarowicz, Naczk, & Shahidi, 2000;Shahidi, Desilva, & Amarowicz, 2003). ...
Article
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Antioxidants play an important role in food preservation by inhibiting oxidation processes and contributing to health promotion rendered by many dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients. Antioxidant activity can be monitored by a variety of assays with different mechanisms, including hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer (ET), reducing power, and metal chelation, among others. Understanding the principle mechanisms, advantages and limitations of the measurement assays is important for proper selection of method(s) for valid evaluation of antioxidant potential in desired applications. This contribution provides a general and up-to-date overview of methods available for measuring antioxidant activity and the chemistry behind them.
... The water extract of D. moldavica has found to possess an anti-ischemic effect in animal experiments, which significantly prolongs the survival time under hypoxia, acts against isoproterenol-induced increase in myocardial oxygen consumption, improves the hypoxia tolerance, acts against vasopressin-induced myocardial ischemia with acute ST-T changes, reduces heart rate, and prolongs PR interval. [1][2][3][4][5] D. moldavica is mainly produced in several provinces of Northeast China, Northwest China, and North China; and Southeastern Xinjiang has abundant resources. D. moldavica has a long history as many classical books on Uygur medicines have reported its use. ...
Article
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Dracocephalum moldavica L, a traditional Uygur medicine, possesses some key cardiac activities. However, till date, no reports are available on the use of D. moldavica against chronic mountain sickness (CMS), which is a medical condition that affects the residents of high altitude. The present study was designed to explore the treatment efficacy of D. moldavica on CMS. 80 of the 100 Sprague Dawley rats enrolled were bred in simulated high altitude environment and the remaining 20 rats were kept in the plains. Water and alcohol extracts of D. moldavica were prepared. CMS rat model was prepared, and the rat hearts were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Rat pulmonary artery pressure was determined to study the treatment efficacy. In the CMS model group, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were found to be significantly higher than the control group; while the concentrations of SOD and GSH-Px decreased. D. moldavica could improve these levels, decrease pulmonary artery pressure, and improve the cardiac pathological state. The study results show that IL-6, CRP, MDA, SOD and GSH-Px participate and mediate the formation of CMS and D. moldavica is found to possess noticeable effects on CMS. The present study explored the basics of high altitude sickness and laid the foundation for further progress of Uygur medicines on the treatment of altitude sickness. Further preclinical and clinical studies with more sample size are recommended.
... Results of our study on the effect of the solvent and its concentration on the content of secondary methat the solvent had a critical role in the extraction of components from different natural sources (Ariño et al., 1997; Liu and Ng, 2000; Povilaityté et al., 2001; Cacace and Mazza, 2003). The purpose of our investigation was to compare the composition of Gentiana lutea extracts obtained after extraction of roots or leaves with different solvents, in order to clarify the possibility of exchanging methanol with ethanol or water as a solvent in the extraction process. ...
Article
In view of the increasing interest in herbal remedies and their important role in health maintenance and well-being, a study was carried out to clarify the role and importance of the solvent in the extraction process. Hydro-alcoholic (methanol or ethanol) or water extraction procedures for secondary metabolites from Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra leaves and roots were optimized for the yield of compounds that have proved to act antioxidatively. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the contents of seco-iridoid glucosides (gentiopicroside, amarogentin) and 4-pyrones (mangiferin (xanthone), homoorientin (flavone C-glycoside), isovitexin (flavone C-glycoside)) in Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra extracts were determined. The analysis revealed that the contents of observed secondary metabolites in Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra extracts varied significantly based on the solvent (methanol, ethanol, and water) used in the extraction procedure. Seco-iridoids and 4-pyrone contents in extracts were significantly affected also by the concentration of the alcohol. The highest contents of seco-iridoids were obtained when preparing extracts with 60% methanol and the highest contents of 4-pyrones when using 20% ethanol or water. Root extracts did not contain 4-pyrones. Due to the high content of seco-iridoid glucosides in leaf extracts, and because 4-pyrones of the gentian leaves present an additional therapeutic benefit (such as antioxidative), the use of both roots and leaves of yellow gentian as the raw material for herbal preparations in phytotherapy has been recommended.
... In another study, the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of dragonhead herb has been investigated [9]. The presence of limonene and αterpineol has been reported to be responsible for the Communications 2008 Vol. 3 No. 0 1 -4 antinociceptive property of the essential oil of D. kotschyi, which was comparable to that of hyoscine and indomethacin, the controls used [10]. ...
Article
The biological activity and composition of the essential oil of the aerial flowering parts of D. moldavica have been investigated. The oil analysis was performed by GC and GC-MS. Thirteen compounds were identified, representing 99.8% of the oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes (96.3%) were found to be the principal group of compounds, of which neral, geranial, geranyl acetate and geraniol with 32.1, 21.6, 19.9 and 17.6% of the total oil were the main Constituents, respectively. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and its main components, citral, geraniol and geranyl acetate, showed that ail of the tested microorganisms were highly inhibited by the essential oil with inhibition zones ranged from 15 - 41 min for bacteria and 29 - 30 min for fungi. The most sensitive microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis with the lowest MIC values of 0.9 mg/mL. Considering sensitivity screening, it is conceivable that the activity of the oil from D. moldavica could be attributed mainly to the presence of citral.
... The antioxidant activity of this species has been studied by several researchers (Povilaityte and Venskutonis, 2000;Povilaityte et al., 2001;Dastmalchi et al., 2007). Dastmalchi et al. (2007) suggested that the components responsible for its activity were hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin. ...
Article
Some researchers suggest that two-thirds of the world's plant species have medicinal value; in particular, many medicinal plants have great antioxidant potential. Antioxidants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and are therefore useful in the treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. This paper reviews the antioxidant potential of extracts from the stems, roots, bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of several important medicinal species. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) are currently used as food additives, and many plant species have similar antioxidant potentials as these synthetics. These species include Diospyros abyssinica, Pistacia lentiscus, Geranium sanguineum L., Sargentodoxa cuneata Rehd. Et Wils, Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Bedd, Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham., Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn, Teucrium polium L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Urtica dioica L., Ficus microcarpa L. fil., Bidens pilosa Linn. Radiata, Leea indica, the Lamiaceae species, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, Salvia officinalis L., Momordica Charantia L., Rheum ribes L., and Pelargonium endlicherianum. The literature reveals that these natural antioxidants represent a potentially side effect-free alternative to synthetic antioxidants in the food processing industry and for use in preventive medicine.
... Very few articles deal with the nonvolatile chemistry (Aynehchi, Sormaghi, Amin, Soltani, & Qumehr, 1982;Kakasy, Lemberkovics, Kursinszki, Janicsak, & Szoke, 2002) or antioxidant properties of Moldavian balm (Povilaityte & Venskutonis, 2000;Povilaityte, Cuvelier, & Berset, 2001). Thus, as part of our ongoing investigation into the phytochemistry and antioxidant properties of aromatic and medicinal flowering taxa, we have investigated the phytochemistry [total phenol content and qualitative-quantitative composition] and antioxidant [iron reductive and chelating and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2 0 -azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging] properties of a hydrodistilled water-soluble Moldavian balm extract. ...
Article
The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of a water-soluble extract of Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L., syn. Moldavian dragonhead) prepared by hydrodistillation are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method, while the qualitative–quantitative composition of the extract was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The antioxidant properties assessed included iron(III) reduction and iron(II) chelation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and superoxide anion free radical scavenging. In addition, the ability of the extract to protect 2-deoxy-d-ribose and bovine brain-derived phospholipids against hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation was assessed. The extract principally contained polar compounds including hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, with caffeic and ferulic acids, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and apigenin being identified from their chromatographic behavior and spectral characteristics. The Moldavian balm extract demonstrated activity in all the antioxidant assays; however, it was not as potent as the positive control except in the phospholipid-based assay where its hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was statistically indistinguishable from that demonstrated by Pycnogenol.
... ABTS ·+ radikalas buvo gautas reaguojant ABTS su kalio persulfatu (12). Radikalas pasigamina laikant ABTS ir kalio persulfato mišinį santykiu 2:1 tamsoje 16 valandų. ...
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The objective of this study was to produce grape (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts using efficient solvents and to compare antioxidant activity, polyphenol and anthocyanin content and composition in the produced extracts to the same characteristics of grape juices and wines. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of red and blue grapes were produced. Total amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins in grape extracts, juices and wines were determined. Total polyphenols were spectrophotometrically determined measuring absorption after using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Total anthocyanins were determined by pH-differential method. Antioxidant activity of all those grape products was analyzed in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2'-azine-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical binding model systems. The results obtained by both antioxidant activity determination methods were comparable and permitted to evaluate the ability to inactivate free radicals. Individual polyphenols and anthocyanins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography. Compounds of malvidine, delphinidine and petunidine were identified as main anthocyanins present in grape products demonstrating antioxidant activity. The determined amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins in red wines were relatively higher than in other investigated objects. The wines possessed the highest antioxidant activity, which correlated with the determined amounts of total polyphenols. Correlation between total anthocyanins contents and antioxidant activity of appropriate objects was not established.
Chapter
Numerous analytical methods are routinely used for measuring lipid oxidation in foods. However, there is no uniform and standard method for detecting all oxidative changes in all food systems. Therefore, it is necessary to select a proper and adequate method for a particular application. The available methods to monitor lipid oxidation in foods can be classified into five groups based on what they measure: the absorption of oxygen, the loss of initial substrates, the formation of free radicals, and the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. A number of physical and chemical tests, including instrumental analyses, have been employed in laboratories and the industry for measurement of various lipid oxidation parameters. These include the weight‐gain and headspace oxygen uptake method for oxygen absorption; chromatographic analysis for changes in reactants; iodometric titration, ferric ion complexes, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method for peroxide value; spectrometry for conjugated dienes and trienes, 2‐thio‐barbituric acid (TBA) value, p‐anisidine value (p‐AnV), and carbonyl value; Rancimat and Oxidative Stability Instrument method for oil stability index; and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometric assay for free‐radical type and concentration. Other techniques based on different principles, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), have also been used for measuring lipid oxidation. In addition, sensory tests provide subjective or objective evaluation of oxidative deterioration, depending on certain details.
Article
The rates of oxidation of α-tocopherol and β-carotene by tert-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO•) were studied spectrophotometrically. Radicals (t-BuO•) were generated by the photolysis of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in presence of tert-butyl alcohol to scavenge •OH radicals. The rates and the quantum yields (Φ) of oxidation of α- tocopherol by t-BuO Φ radicals were determined in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of β- carotene. An increase in the concentration of β-carotene was found to decrease the rate of oxidation of α- tocopherol, suggesting that β-carotene and α-tocopherol competed for t-BuO• radicals. From competition kinetics, the rate constant of β-carotene reaction with t-BuO• was calculated to be 5.54 × 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The quantum yields f expt and f cal values suggested that α-tocopherol not only protected β-carotene from t-BuO Φ radicals, but also repaired β-carotene radicals, formed by the reaction of β-carotene with t-BuO Φ radicals.
Chapter
Antioxidants play a pivotal role in food preservation and health promotion. Antioxidant activity can be measured by a variety of methods that include hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and single electron transfer (ET), reducing power, and metal chelation, among others. While chemical assays may be employed in the initial screening of antioxidants based on their intrinsic activity, model systems are widely used for further determination of antioxidant potential in specific applications related to food protection or in reducing oxidative damage in biological systems or in the body. Understanding the principle mechanisms, advantages, and limitations of the measurement assays is important for proper selection of methods or combination of methods for assessing antioxidant activity, which is, in turn, important for proper evaluation of antioxidant potential in desired applications. This chapter provides an overview of methods available for assessing antioxidant activity in food and biological systems.
Chapter
The importance of lipid oxidation and antioxidants in biological systems and foodstuff has been widely recognized. Oxidative changes involving free radicals in membrane lipids are thought to have destructive cellular effects in vivo; whereas oxidative processes in foods result in flavor and nutritional quality deterioration that may also affect their safety and wholesomeness. Antioxidants protect cells and foods against oxidative stress. Many methods have been developed for evaluating the activity of antioxidants; these may be classified into two categories. The first category measures the ability of antioxidants in inhibiting oxidation reaction in a model system by monitoring the associated changes using physical, chemical or instrumental means. Radical scavenging assays include methods based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) or electron transfer (ET) mechanisms. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and crocin bleaching assays are the major methods that measure HAT while Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH assays represent ET-based methods. An overview of relevant methods for evaluating antioxidant activity with emphasis on the chemistry, basic principles involved as well as advantages and disadvantages of each assay is provided.
Article
Dracocephalum polychaetum Bornm. (Lamiaceae) is used in folk medicine and contains antioxidant agents. The objective of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antilipid peroxidative properties of methanol extract of D. polychaetum aerial parts. The effect of extract (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.) on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was investigated. Also, extract (300 mg/kg) administered orally in diabetic rats for 14 d then, serum levels of some biochemical factors were evaluated. Pancreas samples were used for the determination of malondealdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzyme activities. Red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma were used for MDA estimation. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibition, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were done. The total flavonoid content of the extract was determined by spectrophotometry. Extract (300 mg/kg) decreased serum glucose level (27.1%) significantly at 120 min in OGTT. Serum levels of creatinine, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine amino transferase and MDA levels in plasma, RBCs, and pancreas significantly decreased in treated (300 mg/kg) diabetic rats, while pancreatic GSH content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzymatic activities increased (p < 0.05). The IC50 values for the extract and butyl hydroxyanisole were 5.6 and 1.15 mg/mL in DPPH and 0.155 and 0.062 mg/mL in the FRAP methods, respectively. The extract had no inhibitory effect on α-amylase activity. The total amount of flavonoids of the extract was estimated to be 1.8% (g/g) on the basis of quercetin content. Dracocephalum polychaetum shoot extract has antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and antilipid peroxidative properties.
Thesis
Full-text available
A vast variety of exotic plants used in traditional medicine and cuisine await introduction into the European market. Systematic information and genetic approaches are evaluated to establish reliable authentication of species contained in respective products. Limitations of methods (e.g. sequence vs. PCR diagnostic) and the most commonly used species concept are discussed. Using the genus Dracocephalum an in depth study of genetic authentication from the genus to the species level is presented.
Article
In this study, we report the antioxidative and protective effect of essential oil of Dracocephalum multicaule on K562 cells. Our results demonstrated that monoterpenoids, including oxygenated and hydrocarbons, 71.5% and 28.3%, respectively, were the principal essential oils of D. multicaule. Perilla aldehyde (71.5%) and limonene (28.1%) were identified as the main components. Antioxidant studies based on the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay indicated that the D. multicaule essential oil possesses a marked antioxidant and radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 438.2 μg/mL. Pretreatment with essential oil and main constituents protected K562 cells 49.5% against H2O2-induced oxidative damage throughout increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content in K562 cells. Collectively, D. multicaule essential oil and its main compounds especially in combinatory condition at a ratio of 7:3 with high antioxidant properties may be able to protect cells against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 through antioxidative mechanisms.
Article
Full-text available
Hairy roots of Dracocephalum moldavica L. were induced using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Transformed roots were obtained from shoot explants with low transformation frequency of up to 3 %. The effects of different liquid media: Murashige and Skoog (MS), Gamborg et al. (B5) and Woody Plant (WP) with full- and half-strength (½MS, ½B5, ½WP), on biomass accumulation and rosmarinic acid (RA) content were investigated. The hairy roots were cultured in photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark) and darkness. Biomass of D. moldavica hairy roots was the highest (7.23 g flask−1 of fresh weight and 0.89 g flask−1 of dry weight) in the cultures grown in WP medium under periodic light. Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the highest RA content (78 mg g−1 dry wt) in roots cultured in ½B5 medium under photoperiod conditions. It was about tenfold higher compared to roots of field-grown mother plants. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of D. moldavica hairy roots cultured in ½B5 and WP media under photoperiod and darkness and roots of field grown plants were compared. All extracts were investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and phosphomolybdenum reduction assays. Total phenolic contents were estimated by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The methanolic extract of D. moldavica hairy roots grown in ½B5 medium under photoperiod possessed the strongest effects on reducing Mo and DPPH radical scavenging. The activities were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of methanolic extract of roots of intact plants grown in the field. The most active methanolic extract of hairy roots was characterized by the highest level of rosmarinic acid and total content of phenolic compounds.
Article
Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb native to central Asia and naturalized in eastern and central Europe. It is commonly consumed as a food-related product and as a herbal preparation because of its reputed medicinal properties. In this study, antioxidative and cardioprotective activities of total flavonoids extracts from Moldavian balm collected from Xinjiang was studied. The antioxidative effects of total flavonoids were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion scavenging, and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity. Our results showed that total flavonoids from Moldavian balm possessed antioxidant activities and cardioprotective effects on acute ischemia/reperfusion performed in rat heart in vivo. These results show that total flavonoids from Moldavian balm could be useful as antioxidant, cardioprotective and nutraceutical sources.
Article
The effectiveness and selectivity of different extraction procedures (hydrodistillation, Soxhlet extraction with organic solvents and supercritical fluid extraction) was compared. The main volatile constituents (geraniol, nerol, geranial, neral, geranyl acetate and neryl acetate) of the traditional essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extracts of Dracocephalum moldavica L. were analysed by the gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method. The supercritical fluid extraction was carried out using fluid carbon dioxide. Extracts were collected by stepwise precipitation in two separators. Fractioned extraction was also performed by interrupting the extraction process at determined time intervals and collecting four succesive fractions from the second separator. The main volatile constituents of the essential oil were geraniol and geranyl acetate. The supercritical extract collected at the beginning of the extraction process was richer in geranyl acetate and neryl acetate and poorer in geraniol than the conventional essential oil. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chapter
Numerous analytical methods are routinely used for measuring lipid oxidation in foods. However, there is no uniform and standard method for detecting all oxidative changes in all food systems. Therefore, it is necessary to select a proper and adequate method for a particular application. The available methods to monitor lipid oxidation in foods can be classified into five groups based on what they measure: the absorption of oxygen, the loss of initial substrates, the formation of free radicals, and the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. A number of physical and chemical tests, including instrumental analyses, have been employed in laboratories and the industry for measurement of various lipid oxidation parameters. These include the weight-gain and headspace oxygen uptake method for oxygen absorption: chromatographic analysis for changes in reactants; iodometric titration, ferric ion complexes, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method for peroxide value; spectrometry for conjugated dienes and trienes, 2-thio-barbituric acid (TBA) value, p-anisidine value (p-AnV), and carbonyl value; Rancimat and Oxidative Stability Instrument method for oil stability index; and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometric assay for free-radical type and concentration. Other techniques based on different principles, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), have also been used for measuring lipid oxidation. In addition, sensory tests provide subjective or objective evaluation of oxidative deterioration, depending on certain details. Keywords: lipid oxidation; dietary lipids; food quality; differential scanning calorimetry; nuclear magnetic resonance; electron spin resonance; sensory analysis; Fourier transform infrared method
Article
Interactions between phenolic antioxidants in binary systems were determined by adding two antioxidants simultaneously in equimolar proportions to an aqueous dispersion of linoleic acid that was then subjected to 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation and by evaluating the protective effect of the antioxidant mixture. The antioxidant power of the mixture was then compared with the expected antioxidant activity calculated by the sum of efficiencies of each compound separately, relative to their proportions in the mixture. If it was higher, a synergy was pointed out whereas a lower value was representative of an antagonism. Thus, synergistic effects were observed between rosmarinic acid and quercetin, or rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, whereas antagonistic effects were obtained with the following mixtures: α-tocopherol/caffeic acid; α-tocopherol/rosmarinic acid; (+)-catechin/caffeic acid; and caffeic acid/quercetin. These mixture effects are partly explained by regeneration mechanisms between antioxidants, depending on the chemical structure of molecules and on the possible formation of stable intermolecular complexes.
Article
In this paper we identify/determine the composition of the extracts of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and D. ruyschiana L. with special emphasis on their flavonoids, aliphatic, aromatic carboxylic acids and sugars. The plant materials were extracted using methanol-acetone 1:1 (v/v) acidified with HCl (0.05%). Composition of extract's most red fractions was identified by HPLC, while the constituents of the entire extract were identified and quantified as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives by GC-MS. On the basis of HPLC analyses - (performed on Phenomenex Luna 5 µm C18 column, 250× 4.6 mm I.D.; eluent: acetonitrile - trifluoroacetic acid (0.1 %); isocratic/gradient conditions) - delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin (in traces) were identified by spectral analysis and on the basis of authentic standard's addition. GC-MS analyses were carried out immediately with extracts, as well as subsequently to extract's hydrolysis (trifluoroacetic acid: 2M, 2h, 4h). Constituents were identified and quantified as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from a single run, on the basis of their total (TIC) and selective fragment ion (SIM) responses. Calculations were related to the dry matter content of extracts. As main constituents monosaccharides, sugar alcohols di- and trisaccharides, aliphatic (phosphoric, succinic, levulinic, malic, tartaric, fatty acids) and aromatic (quinic, chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic, rosmarinic) carboxylic acids and their corresponding esters; apigenin, luteolin flavon aglycons and tocopherol, in total 33 constituents were quantitated partly by their TIC, partly by their SIM responses. Identification/quantification proved to be in total of 35–69% (expressed in the dry matter content of extracts).
Article
Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb native to central Asia and naturalized in eastern and central Europe. It is commonly consumed as a food-related product and as a herbal preparation because of its reputed medicinal properties. Despite its importance, few reports exist in the literature regarding the chemistry or antioxidant activity of this species. In this study, the aerial material of Moldavian balm collected from Iran was extracted by Soxhlet using seven solvents of different polarity, viz., petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol, n-butanol and water. The qualitative–quantitative chemical composition of each extract was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection. For each extract, the total phenolic content was estimated as was the in vitro antioxidant activity using the iron(III) reduction assay, the β-carotene–linoleic acid bleaching assay and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) free radical scavenging assays. Hydroxylated cinnamic acids, their derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified within the extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the most abundant component identified. The extracts demonstrated different degrees of potency within each assay, however, the observed pattern was not necessarily replicated between assays indicating the importance of the use of more than one screening technique to estimate the antioxidant activity of plant extracts.
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to investigate the oxidative behavior of various mixtures of rosemary, sage, and citric acid in a linoleic acid model system by oxygen consumption measurement and in a palm olein system by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the use of the mixtures. Results showed that rosemary and sage were two important factors for the protective index (PI). The two antioxidants were highly significantly (P<0.001) in influencing PI values. There was a significant (P<0.01) synergistic effect between rosemary and sage on PI values. Citric acid was also found to be significant (P<0.05) for PI. With respect to onset time (T o ), all three antioxidants were significant (P<0.05). However, no significant interaction among antioxidants was found for T o . Mathematical models for both PI and T o could be developed with confidence. The R 2 values for PI and T o were 0.992 and 0.926, respectively. A combination of 0.078% rosemary, 0.067% sage and 0.037% citric acid was the optimal combination for PI, whereas a combination of 0.068% rosemary, 0.075% sage, and 0.039% citric acid was required to reach the optimal T o value.
Article
Full-text available
The antioxidant activities of combinations of plant extracts and primary antioxidants or citric acid were studied in lard stored at 75°C. Methanol extracts of oregano, thyme, marjoram, dittany, rosemary and sage were used. When combined with butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene or ascorbyl palmitate the extracts showed an additive antioxidant effect, while combinations with propyl gallate did not increase the induction period obtained by the phenolic antioxidant. Negative synergism was observed when the plant extracts were mixed with DL-α-tocopherol. Citric acid showed a high synergistic efficiency with marjoram extract and a minor one with thyme extract, but it had a negative effect with all the others. Ternary mixtures of the plant extracts with citric acid and ascorbyl palmitate had lower activity than the corresponding dual combinations with ascorbyl palmitate, except for the mixture of marjoram extract.
Article
Two new antioxidative compounds, named epirosmanol (4a) and isorosmanol (6a), were isolated from the leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The structures have been determined to be 7β, 11, 12-trihydroxy-6, 10-(epoxymethano)abieta-8, 11, 13-trien-20-one and 6α, 11, 12-trihydroxy-7, 10-(epoxymethano)abieta-8, 11, 13-trien-20-one, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Both are isomers of rosmanol (1a), whose structure was revised to be 7α, 11, 12-trihydroxy-6, 10-(epoxymethano)abieta-8, 11, 13-trien-20-one by the NOE experiment and X-ray analysis. These two antioxidants showed high activity in both lard and linoleic acid and, particularly in lard, were about four times more active than such synthetic antioxidants, as BHA and BHT.
Article
An increasing demand for natural additives has shifted the attention from synthetic to natural antioxidants. The present work examines the potential of some aromatic herbs grown in Lithuania as a source of natural antioxidants: marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), catnip (Nepeta cataria L), oregano (Origanum vulgare L), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L), anise hyssop (Lophantus anisatus Benth), and sage (Salvia officinalis L). Dried herb samples were submitted to extraction with supercritical CO2, acetone or methanol/water and hydrodistillation. Deodorised herb samples (after removal of essential oil) were also extracted with acetone. The antioxidant activity of these extracts, essential oils and dried deodorised aqueous extracts was assessed by the β-carotene bleaching test (diffusion and spectrophotometric methods). The highest yields of extracts were obtained using polar solvents. Thyme and sage acetone oleoresins showed high antioxidant activity in the tests performed and were regarded as the most promising sources. © 1998 SCI.
Article
Two major antioxidants present in sage - i.e. osmarinic and carnosic acids - are identified and quantitatively determined in a single HPLC chromatogram, by using an adapted gradient elution pattern
Article
Fourteen amides condensing with aminophenols, anisidines, or aniline were synthesized from karahanaenone 1 as the starting material. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity and superoxide scavenging activity of these derivatives were examined in order to develop whitening agents for cosmetics. Of the compounds, N-p-hydroxyphenyl-1,3,3,6-trimethyl-5- cyclohepten-2-on-1-carboxamide 9, 2-hydroxy-N-o-hydroxyphenyl-3,3,6- trimethyl-5-cyclohepten-1-carboxamide 13, and 2-hydroxy-N-p-hydroxyphenyl- 3,3,6-trimethyl-5-cyclohepten-1-carboxamide 15 showed strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity, 13 and 5 possessed a hydroxy group in the karahana skeleton and on the aromatic ring, respectively. These inhibitory rates were higher than that of arbutin that is used for commercial cosmetics (77.4%, 73.6%, and 72.3% against 63.0% for arbutin). Furthermore, 13 indicated 51.0% for superoxide scavenging activity.
Article
Two novel antioxidants (vinyl caffeate and trans-p-menth-8-en-7-yl caffeate) and seven known antioxidants (3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate, methyl caffeate, 3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxy-flavone, caffeic acid, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, and rosmarinic acid) were isolated from Perilla frutescens Britton var. crispa (Thunb.). The redox potentials of the novel isolated antioxidative compounds were comparable to those of known antioxidants. trans-p-Menth-8-en-7-yl caffeate was effective to prevent the oxidative degradation of perillaldehyde in the essential oil of P. frutescens.
Article
Antioxidative compounds contained in the leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) were investigated. Six major compounds, protocatechuic acid (or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 1), 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole-5-aldehyde (2), caffeic acid (3), rosmarinic acid (4), caffeic acid methyl ester (5), and rosmarinic acid methyl ester (6) were isolated from the extract of the plant and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was measured. Among them, compound a showed the most potent activity, about ten-fold that of ascorbic acid and of a-tocopherol. The compound had a characteristic 1,3-benzodioxole structure and was easily degraded into two molecules of protocatechualdehyde.
Article
As a follow-up to Dr Markham's highly successful publication, The Systematic Identification of Flavonoids (1970) co-authored with T.J. Mabry and M.B. Thomas, this book presents a more extensive, up-to-date and thorough guide to techniques used in flavonoid research. The techniques are discussed in the approximate order in which they are normally needed by the researcher and extensive cross-referencing is used throughout to guide the reader to the next recommended technique. Tech- niques covered include: chromatography, recrystallization, UV-visible spectroscopy, hydrolysis and product analysis, derivation degradation, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The book, as a self-contained laboratory manual, contains extensive tabulations of reference data, discusses examples of a wide range of spectra, and features diagrams of flavonoid structures, reaction schemes and appara- tus. Of special interest and importance to the beginner are the tables of trivial names, the list of sources of flavonoid standards and a discussion of the means for proving a new flavonoid identical to a known standard.
Article
Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from a butanol fraction of sage extracts. Their structures were determined by spectral methods (NMR, MS, IR). Among them, a novel compound, 4-hydroxyacetophenone-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, was identified. Two test systems, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and radical cation ABTS•+ scavenging activity, were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The most active compounds were found to be rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. Keywords: Sage; Salvia officinalis; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity
Article
Thiobarbituric acid (TEA) assay and capillary gas chromatography (GC) were used to assess the effects of storage and the potential antioxidants, vitamin E and rosemary and sage extracts, on lipid peroxidation of a cooked beef homogenate. Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) or TBA-reactive substances (TEARS) were observed in samples during a 5-day period. TEARS levels ranged from 2.0 to 3.9 times higher than GC-analyzed MDA levels, indicating the presence of other reactants in the TEA assay. Despite elevated levels, TEARS formation is similar to the actual MDA formation. Addition of vitamin E at 25-100 mu g/g in the homogenate showed a concentration dependence in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Samples containing either herbal extract (30 mu g/g) showed effective inhibition since MDA levels of treated samples were 62 and 53% of the control. Improved antioxidative activity was not observed when the antioxidants were mixed together in equal amounts.
Article
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a caffeic acid derivative, rosmarinic acid, and the main flavone and flavanone glycosides in leaves of Mentha x piperita, namely eriocitrin, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, hesperidin, isorhoifolin, diosmin, eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside, and narirutin. The last two were identified for the first time in M. x piperita and Mentha genus, respectively. Forty clones, belonging to the three varieties of M. X piperita, were investigated. The eight phenolic constituents are present in all clones. The flavonoid content of the leaves ranged from 8.6 to 17.8% on dry weight basis. In all instances, eriocitrin, with a concentration range of 6.6-15.0%, is the dominant flavonoid glycoside accompanied by an appreciable amount of luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, hesperidin, and rosmarinic acid. The chemotaxonomic and therapeutic relevances of these results are discussed.
Article
The antioxidant compounds of oleoresin of sage (Salvia officinalis) were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Six major compounds were purified and identified by IR, MS, and H-1 NMR spectrometry as carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmadial, rosmanol, epirosmanol, and methyl carnosate. Their antioxidative activity was measured with an accelerated test, and their content was quantified in sage and in four commercial rosemary extracts.
Article
The non-polar fraction of thyme was examined for the occurrence of phenolic components and their antioxidative activity. In addition to carvacrol (II) and thymol (III), p-cymene-2,3-diol (I; 2,3-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-1-methylbenzene) was isolated for the first time from thyme. The structure of Iwas elucidated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. Antioxidative activity was investigated with the Rancimat method (100°C) and the Schaal test (60°C). Compound Iexhibited the strongest antioxidative activity which was greater than that of α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole. Five thyme species were analysed by means of HPLC with electrochemical detection for the concentration of compounds I–III. The highest amounts of I–IIIwere found in Thymus vulgarisL.
Article
The flavour composition of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) was analysed by capillary gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Altogether 57 compounds were identified and 11 unknown components detected. The volatile oil of dragonhead consists mainly of oxygenated, acyclic monoterpenes; geranyl acetate, geranial, neral, geraniol and neryl acetate together account for about 90% of the oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are present only in trace amounts. The compounds which could not be identified are oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, one sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and a mixture of an oxygenated monoterpene and a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon.
Chapter
Lithuanian climatic conditions are suitable for the cultivation of a great variety of aromatic and spicy plants commonly grown in middle and northern European countries. Some of these plants possess lemon-like aromas and have been used in different flavouring and herbal tea preparations. This study investigated the composition of aroma compounds in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora Beck), and dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). In lemon balm, catnip and dragonhead, 66, 74 and 62 compounds, respectively, were identified by capillary GC and GC/MS. In these herbs, 17 51 and 36 compounds, respectively, were not reported previously. Caryophyllene oxide (23.5%), geranial (14.8%), neral (10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.1%) were the main constituents in lemon balm; while in catnip nerol (22.7%), citronellol (17.4%), geraniol (16.7%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.3%) were the main constituents; and geranyl acetate (36.2%), geranial (21.4%), neral (14.9%) and geraniol (12%) were found in dragonhead. Aroma significance values for the main oxygenated compounds were calculated and compared with lemon oil.
Article
The antioxidant acticities (AA) of acetone oleoresins (AO) and deodorized acetone extracts (DAE) of Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), purple peril (Perilla frutescens L.), and Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) were tested in refined, bleached, and deodorized rapeseed oil by the Schaal oven test at 50°C. The addition of 1,000 ppm of AO and DAE of moldavian dragonhead and Roman chamomile significantly stabilized rapeseed oil. Their AA at the used concentration were higher than AA of a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (200 ppm), in reducing the rate of peroxide value increase to 20 meq/kg. AA of AO of purple peril was not significant, while DAE of this plant increased autoxidation induction period by 22%. It is also worthy of notice that AA of DAE from all investigated plants was slightly higher than AA of AO obtained from the same plants.
Article
The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of oregano, dittany, thyme, marjoram, spearmint, lavender and basil were tested in lard stored at 75°C. The concentration of extracts in lard varied from 0.01 to 0.20%. Oregano extract was found to be the most effective in stabilizing lard, followed by thyme, dittany, marjoram and lavender extracts, in a decreasing order. The induction period of lard increased with antioxidant concentration. After the induction period, peroxide formation proceeded rapidly, following pseudo-zero order reaction kinetics. The rate of the reaction decreased slightly with increasing plant extract concentration. Combined addition of plant extracts in lard showed a low synergistic action between thyme extract and spearmint extract.
Article
Eight sage (Salvia officinalis) and twenty-four rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts, originating from pilot-plant or commercial sources, had different antioxidative activities as measured by accelerated autoxidation of methyl linoleate. Twenty-seven compounds were characterized in the Labiatae family extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry, equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface, and by HPLC coupled with a photodiode array spectrophotometer. Twenty-two compounds were identified, including phenolic acids, carnosol derivatives, and flavonoids. The extracts showed great variation in their HPLC profiles, and no correlation was apparent between their antioxidative efficiency and their composition, in twenty specific phenols. Data indicated that the most effective compounds were carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid, followed by caffeic acid, rosmanol, rosmadial, genkwanin, and cirsimaritin.
Article
Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) leaves were successively extracted with hexane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The ethanol extract was reextracted in a separatory funnel with petroleum ether, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and butanol. The ethyl ether layer was the most effective in stabilizing lard against oxidation, with activity equal to butylated hydroxytoluene. It also showed antioxidant activity when tested on vegetable oils under storage or frying conditions. The main antioxidant factors isolated from the ethyl ether layer consisted of flavonoids. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated the presence of the flavone apigenin, the flavanone, eriodictyol and the dihydroflavonols, dihydrokaempferol and dihydroquercetin.
Article
The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
Article
An increasing demand for natural additives has shifted the attention from synthetic to natural antioxidants. The present work examines the potential of some aromatic herbs grown in Lithuania as a source of natural antioxidants: marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), catnip (Nepeta cataria L), oregano (Origanum vulgare L), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L), anise hyssop (Lophantus anisatus Benth), and sage (Salvia officinalis L). Dried herb samples were submitted to extraction with supercritical CO2, acetone or methanol/water and hydrodistillation. Deodorised herb samples (after removal of essential oil) were also extracted with acetone. The antioxidant activity of these extracts, essential oils and dried deodorised aqueous extracts was assessed by the beta-carotene bleaching test (diffusion and spectrophotometric methods). The highest yields of extracts were obtained using polar solvents. Thyme and sage acetone oleoresins showed high antioxidant activity in the tests performed and were regarded as the most promising sources. (C) 1998 SCI.
Article
VITAMIN E (α-tocopherol) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) react rapidly with organic free radicals, and it is widely accepted that the antioxidant properties of these compounds are responsible in part for their biological activity1-5. Tissue vitamin C levels are often considerably greater than those of vitamin E, for example in liver the values are approximately 2 mM and 0.02 mM, respectively. Nevertheless, vitamin E is considerably more lipophilic than vitamin C, and in biomembranes has been found to be the more potent antioxidant, particularly with respect to lipid peroxidation; penetration to a precise site in the membrane may be an important feature of the protection against highly reactive radicals6. Tappel has suggested that the two vitamins act synergistically, vitamin E acting as the primary antioxidant and the resulting vitamin E radical then reacting with vitamin C to regenerate vitamin E7. We now report direct observation of this interaction, which we feel may be an important feature in the maintenance of vitamin E levels in tissues.
Article
To improve the malt rootlet value, the antioxidant potentialities of this byproduct of the malting industry have been analyzed. Three extracts have been considered from the points of view of dry matter yield, level of antioxidant compounds, and efficiency and cost of the extraction protocols. They respectively contain rootlet oil, free phenolic compounds, and bound phenolic compounds. The rootlet oil contains only a low quantity of tocopherols (respectively, 20.6 and 4.2 microgram of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol per gram of dry rootlets), and a weak antioxidant activity, evaluated in a stripped corn oil by following spectrophotometrically the conjugated dienes, has been pointed out. The bound compound extract presents a good antioxidant power mainly due to the presence of trans-ferulic and trans-p-coumaric acids, but the dry matter yield is low (2%). The free compound extract has a good antioxidant power, and the valuable dry matter, mainly composed of proteins (52%), sugars (33%), and reducing compounds (5.5%), has a yield of 12%. The mixing of bound and free compound extracts presents an antagonistic effect on the antioxidant power, but a synergistic effect has been pointed out for the mixing of alpha-tocopherol and free compound extract.
Capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of the flavour composition of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L..). Flavour Frag Synergies between plant antioxidant blends in preventing peroxidation reactions in model and food oil systems
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Antioxidant activity of malt rootlet extracts Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity
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Spices composition for preserving vegetables and fruits Oregano flavonoids as lipid antioxidants
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Role of Free Radicals in Biological Systems
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Flora von Deutschland XVIII
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Spices composition for preserving vegetables and fruits
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UTEUSH, W.A., BOBROVA, A.D., ROMANENKO, L.R., ANIKINA, S.A. and STADNICHUK, N.A. 1978. Spices composition for preserving vegetables and fruits. USSR patent No. 614785.
Antioxidant activity of some plant extracts of the family Labiatae
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Novel antioxidants isolated from Perilla
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TADA, M., MATSUMOTO, R., YAMAGUCHI, H. and CHIBA, K. 1996. Novel antioxidants isolated from Perilla fhtescens Britton var. crispa (Thunb.).
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 4 mentha x piperita clones
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GUkDON, D.J. and PASQUIER, B.P. 1994. Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 4 mentha x piperita clones. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42,679-684.