Article

Use of a nematode, Heterorhabditis heliothidis, to control black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, in potted plants

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Abstract

Application of aqueous suspensions of infective juvenile Heterorhabditis heliothidis, isolate T327, to the soil resulted in up to 100% parasitisation of larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, in potted yew, raspberries and grapes in nurseries, and over 87% parasitisation on potted cyclamens and strawberries. Pupae and newly emerged adults on grapevines were also parasitised. Another isolate, T310, produced 92.5 to 98.5% parasitism of O. sulcatus larvae on potted cyclamens in glasshouse, but was less effective on strawberries. Neoaplectana bibionis was found to be less effective than H. heliothidis T327 strain. The use of these nematodes provides an economical and effective method for controlling O. sulcatus on potted plants in glasshouses and nurseries.

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... Experiments were carried out in which the nematodes were applied against black vine weevil larvae in grow bags outdoors (Lola-Luz et al., 2005). The adult vine weevils feed on the plant foliage, but larvae cause the most damage (Schread, 1972; Bedding & Miller, 1981; Georgis & Poinar, Jr., 1984). The main objective of this study was to determine the potential of a commercial isolate of Heterorhabditis megidis Poinar Jackson & Klein, 1987, and an Irish isolate of H. downesi Stock et al., 2002. ...
... Larvae in the soil feed on the crown, roots and root hairs of asparagus. Chemicals can be used successfully, but as this crop is harvested daily there is a need for low chemical residues (Prestidge & Willoughby, 1989), and thus the use of nematodes holds great potential (Clearwater & Wouts, 1980; Bedding & Miller, 1981; Barratt et al., 1989). Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was evaluated against P. callosus larvae and pupae. ...
... Heterorhabditis both indoors, in a greenhouse (Bedding & Miller, 1981; Georgis & Poinar, Jr., 1984; Stimmann et al., 1985), and outdoors, in a field (Shanks & Agudelo-Silva, 1990). Wilson et al. (2003) have applied H. bacteriophora for the control of scarab beetle larvae (Scarabideae). ...
Article
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Schönherr), is a key pest of apples, nectarines and grapevines in the southern areas of the Western Cape. The control of P. callosus is not satisfactory and the insecticides used to control this insect have not proved to be effective since the development of tolerance to pyrethroids and acephate. A control method that can be used, despite it being very labour-intensive, is that of tree trunk barriers. The use of such a method will prevent the weevils from reaching the fruit, as they are unable to fly. Alternative control options, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes, are urgently needed for the control of P. callosus. Entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to the Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are ideal biocontrol agents for incorporation into an integrated pest management programme. In order to develop control strategies for P. callosus, large numbers and a predictable quantity of different weevil stages are needed. Especially large numbers of larvae are needed, as this is the stage that will be targeted with nematodes. One of the aims of the current study was to assess various artificial diets for rearing larvae of P. callosus. Though adult weevils were easily collected from orchards, it was very difficult to obtain large numbers of larvae. Modified versions of an agar diet, as well as different carrot based diets, were tested at 21°C. The highest percentage survival obtained for the agar diet was 50% and 60% for one type of carrot diet. A better rearing method proved to be that of planting full-grown carrots in pots, kept at 25°C, resulting in the attainment of the highest percentage survival rate of 90%. A study was undertaken to assess how long, and at what temperature, P. callosus eggs could be stored. A mean percentage hatch of 45.7% was obtained when eggs were stored at 4°C for 70 days. Eggs started hatching after 47 days and 10 days, when stored at temperatures of 11°C and 14°C, respectively. If the aim of the employment of such a method is only to delay egg hatching, the two temperatures (11°C and 14°C) will be suitable. For the following part of the study, several entomopathogenic nematode isolates were evaluated for their potential use as biological control agents against P. callosus. The susceptibility of P. callosus larvae and adults to nematode infection was assessed in the laboratory by screening for their mortality, using different nematode isolates. Larvae were found to be more susceptible to nematode infection than adults. Heterorhabditis isolates were found to cause higher levels of mortality than the Steinernema isolates during screening, when a concentration of 400 infective juveniles (IJ) per insect V was used. Biological characteristics, such as the effect of different temperatures on nematode activity and the minimum concentration of nematodes needed to obtain acceptable levels of control for P. callosus, were also investigated. The percentage mortality ranged from no infection to 75% after four days for the larvae, and the SF41 isolate of Heterohabditis zealandica was selected as the most promising isolate for further laboratory experiments. The vertical movement of nematodes in sand, compared with such movement in sandy loam soil, and the biology of H. zealandica in P. callosus larvae was also investigated in laboratory bioassays. After four days, the LD50 and LD90 values were 96 IJ/50 μl and 278 IJ/50 μl, respectively. Nematodes were found to be inactive at 11°C, with the highest mortality rate of P. callosus resulting from nematode infection being recorded at 25°C. A higher percentage mortality rate was obtained with the sandy loam soil (95.2%) than with the sand (77.5%). Heterorhabditis zealandica could successfully complete its life cycle in 6th instar P. callosus larvae. The study showed that P. callosus larvae are suitable hosts for H. zealandica, and that the control of P. callosus in the field by the selected isolate holds promise. The persistence of the SF41 isolate of H. zealandica at different concentrations was investigated in the last part of the study. The experiment took place in a blueberry orchard, subject to a high rate of infestation by P. callosus. Concentrations of 0, 20, 30 and 45 IJ/cm2 were topically applied, with persistence being evaluated for days 1, 35 and 84. Percentage persistence for 30 IJ/cm2 was calculated as 87.5% for days 35 and 84. The persistence of soil samples taken on day one, and kept in plastic containers at room temperature, was again evaluated on day 128, with the finding that both 30 IJ/cm2 and 45 IJ/cm2 caused 100% mortality of Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results indicated good persistence of H. zealandica after 84 days in field conditions, with a high maintenance of P. callosus populations. The study indicated the potential use of H. zealandica for the control of P. callosus, with the possibility of persistence for at least three months. Future research into the control of P. callosus with nematodes should aim to investigate the technical aspects of field application. The current study shows that entomopathogenic nematodes have potential for controlling the soil stages of P. callosus. The capacity to rear large numbers of P. callosus larvae in the laboratory, for later use in laboratory and field trials, is of key importance. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebande vrugtekalander, Phlyctinus callosus (Schönherr), is ʼn groot plaag in appel- en nektarienboorde sowel as wingerde in die suidelike gebiede van die Wes-Kaap. Phlyctinus callosus word nie voldoende beheer nie, en plaagdoders wat voorheen gebruik is om dié insek in toom te hou, het doeltreffendheid ingeboet weens weerstandontwikkeling teen piretroϊede en asefaat. ʼn Alternatiewe beheermetode is stamsperbande. Omdat die kalanders nie kan vlieg nie, moet hulle teen stamme uitklim om die vrugte te bereik. Stamsperbande versper dus die insekte se toegang tot die vrugte, maar is baie arbeidsintensief. Meer haalbare metodes vir die beheer van P. callosus is daarom dringend nodig, en die gebruik van entomopatogeniese nematodes blyk ʼn besliste moontlikheid te wees. Entomopatogeniese nematodes, wat tot die Steinernematidae en Heterorhabditidae behoort, is uitstekende biobeheermiddels vir insluiting by geϊntegreerde plaagbeheerprogramme. Om doeltreffende beheerstrategieë vir P. callosus te bedink, is groot en voorspelbare hoeveelhede kalanders nodig veral groot hoeveelhede larwes, aangesien nematodes op hierdie ontwikkelingstadium gemik sal wees. Die eerste doel met die studie was dus om ʼn kunsmatige dieet vir die teling van P. callosus larwes te ontwikkel. Volwasse kalanders kon maklik in vrugteboorde ingesamel word, maar groot hoeveelhede larwes was moeiliker bekombaar. Aangepaste weergawes van ʼn agardieet sowel as verskillende worteldiëte is by 21°C beproef. Die hoogste persentasie larwale groei en -oorlewing op die agardieet was 50%, en 60% op een bepaalde soort worteldieet. Die beste teelmetode blyk egter volgroeide wortels te wees wat in potte geplant is en by 25°C gehou word. Dié metode het ʼn oorlewingspersentasie van 90% opgelewer. ʼn Studie is onderneem om te bepaal hoe lank en by watter temperature P. callosus eiers vir toekomstige gebruik geberg kan word. ʼn Gemiddelde uitbroeipersentasie van 45.7% is verkry toe eiers vir 70 dae by 4°C geberg is. Eiers wat onderskeidelik by 11°C en 14°C geberg is, het ná 47 en 10 dae onderskeidelik begin uitbroei. Indien die doel is om die eiers slegs stadiger te laat uitbroei, sal hierdie twee temperature dus geskik wees. VII Hierna is verskeie entomopatogeniese nematode-isolate vir moontlike gebruik as biologiese beheermiddels vir P. callosus beoordeel. Phlyctinus callosus larwes en volwassenes se vatbaarheid vir nematode infeksie is in die laboratorium bepaal deur dit met behulp van verskillende nematodeisolate vir mortaliteit te toets. Dié toetse het getoon dat larwes meer vatbaar is vir nematode infeksie as volwassenes. In die proefnemings het die Heterorhabditis-isolate hoër mortaliteit as die Steinernema-isolate veroorsaak teen ʼn konsentrasie van 400 infektiewe larwes (IJ) per insek. Biologiese eienskappe, soos die uitwerking van verskillende temperature op nematode aktiwiteit, sowel as die minimum konsentrasie nematodes om aanvaarbare vlakke van beheer uit te oefen, is ondersoek. Die persentasie mortaliteit vir die larwes het ná vier dae tussen 0% en 75% gewissel, en die SF41-isolaat van Heterohabditis zealandica is as die belowendste isolaat vir die res van die proefnemings gekies. Die vertikale beweging van nematodes in sand teenoor leemgrond, sowel as die biologie van H. zealandica in P. callosus larwes, is ook bestudeer. Ná vier dae was die LD50- en LD90-waardes onderskeidelik 96 en 278 IJ/50 μl. Wat temperatuur betref, is daar bevind dat nematodes onaktief is by 15°C, terwyl die hoogste mortaliteit van P. callosus larwes as gevolg van nematode infeksie by 25°C aangeteken is. Die mortaliteit was hoër in die leemgrond (95.2%) as in die sandgrond (77.5%). Heterorhabditis zealandica kon sy lewensiklus suksesvol in 6de instar P. callosus larwes voltooi. Die studie het derhalwe getoon dat P. callosus larwes geskikte gashere is vir H. zealandica, en dat hierdie isolaat dus in die praktyk ʼn doeltreffende beheermiddel vir P. callosus kan wees. Die oorlewing van verskillende konsentrasies H. zealandica is ten slotte bestudeer. Die proefneming is in ʼn bloubessieboord met ʼn groot populasie P. callosus uitgevoer. Konsentrasies van 0, 20, 30 en 45 IJ/cm2 is op die grond (uitwendig) toegedien, en oorlewing is op dag 1, 35 en 84 gemeet. Die persentasie oorlewing vir die 30 IJ/ cm2 konsentrasie was 87.5% op sowel dag 35 as 84. Oorlewing in grondmonsters wat op dag een ingesamel en by kamertemperatuur in plastiekhouers geberg is, is weer op dag 128 beoordeel. Daar is bevind dat sowel die 30 IJ/cm2 as die 45 IJ/cm2 konsentrasie 100% mortaliteit by T. molitor veroorsaak het. Heterorhabditis zealandica blyk ʼn goeie oorlewing te hê ná 84 dae in veld kondisies wat erg met P. callosus besmet is, en is dus ʼn moontlike beheermiddel vir P. callosus, met potensiële oorlewing vir minstens drie maande. Thesis (MScAgric (Conservation Ecology and Entomology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
... In Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) was the first to control an insect pest using the EPN species S. carpocapsae (Divya and Sankar 2009). It was earlier commercially used to control few other species as the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius), the currant borer moth, Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerk), in ornamentals and in black currants (Bedding and Miller 1981). Bedding and Miller (1981) revealed that in the last 20 years, EPN production has seen a progressive upliftment. ...
... It was earlier commercially used to control few other species as the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius), the currant borer moth, Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerk), in ornamentals and in black currants (Bedding and Miller 1981). Bedding and Miller (1981) revealed that in the last 20 years, EPN production has seen a progressive upliftment. From commercial point of view, in vitro technology was utilized but in case of small-scale cottage setups, in vivo production has played an eminent role. ...
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The insect pest nuisances in the agricultural industry are most likely as old as the agriculture itself. Insects are the most ubiquitous and versatile among all living organisms and are responsible to develop successful survival mechanisms as compared with other living fauna that also share the same planet. The main reason for insect’s dominance in the world is their huge adaptability. A large number of agrochemical insecticides, pesticides and herbicides are used against these insect pests, which are neurotoxicants and affect all living organisms with soil fertility. Food security, energy renewability, rural livelihood and agricultural sustainability depend mainly on soil richness or fertility. Global increase in the population and degradation of environment possess a challenge in crop production and it is a need to find solutions for abiotic stress, pests and pathogens. These demands for food cannot prevail until the fertility of the soil is restored. In addition, today’s prime public worry is about environmental pollution, mostly caused by the use of chemical synthetic pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers. Hence, a cleaner and greener approach against crop production and protection is essential by the use of microbial biopesticides. Microbes are a vital part of soil not only involve in transforming nutrients within the soil but also influence the multiple functions and are among the commonly used eco-friendly means of pest management. There are some specific microbes that help the plants in rhizospheric soil to grow healthy in that environment by performing various mechanisms. The direct mechanism consists of fixation of nitrogen, production of different enzymes and phytohormones and solubilization of some minerals in the rhizospheric soil, whereas indirect mechanism comprises inhibiting phytopathogens. Originated from a variety of naturally occurring microbes such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, rickettsia and protozoan etc. microbial biopesticides protect our crops from diseases and pests thus enhance crop productivity and soil fertility. They make it possible to increase yield as well as the productivity in a sustainable way. Ultimately, results in more production give food to our ever-growing world population with a novel opportunity to protect this planet. The significance of rhizospheric microorganisms may be huge as they are capable of managing the pest population, nutrient acquisition and nutrient transformation, thus results in crop sustainability.
... Three EPN species are widely used for larval control: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis megidis and Steinernema kraussei (8,46,54,61,69,70,130) (Figure 1). Several other species belonging to the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema have also been reported to be effective in controlling vine weevil larvae (7,21,45,108,116). These studies have shown that EPNs provide effective control of vine weevil in a wide range of crops and potting media, as well as, depending on the species used, at temperatures of between 5°C and 30°C. ...
Article
Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, has been one of the most economically important pest species of global horticultural crops for the past five decades. This period has seen many changes in crop protection practices, including wide-scale adoption of biological controls such as entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi in place of conventional synthetic insecticides. Despite the experimental efficacy of these controls, growers continue to report significant crop losses associated with vine weevil infestation. We argue that simply switching from synthetic insecticides to biological controls, rather than using these controls as part of an integrated management program, is a key factor in the continued importance of this pest. An improved understanding of vine weevil biology and ecology is at the center of the development of truly integrated pest management programs. To this end, we identify opportunities created through recent vine weevil research and highlight key knowledge gaps in which further research may contribute to improved future management approaches.
... EPNs in the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are currently used as biological control agents against many pests, including O. sulcatus (Gaugler, 2002;Cowles et al., 2005;Georgis et al., 2006). EPNs have been successfully used to control O. sulcatus larvae in potted plants and glasshouse crops (Bedding & Miller 1981;Simons, 1981;Dolmans, 1983;Georgis & Poinar, 1984;van Tol, 1993;Cowles et al., 2005;Lola-Luz & Downes, 2007;Susurluk & Ehlers, 2008). In Europe, Heterorhabditis megidis, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema kraussei are sold for control of O. sulcatus in ornamentals and strawberry. ...
Article
1 Entomopathogenic nematodes are commercially available for inundative biological control of many insects, including the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Currently, there is a lack of commercial application tests in field-grown crops comparing the efficacy of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes. 2 Field trials were carried out under different growing conditions in Ireland and Norway to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available nematode species on the market for control of the black vine weevil Heterorhabditis megidis and Steinernema kraussei. 3 Heterorhabditis megidis was evaluated not only at temperatures ideal for this species (soil temperatures above 10 ◦C), but also in the low temperature trials with S. kraussei as a ‘positive control’. Steinernema kraussei is sold as a cold active product and was therefore evaluated at low soil temperatures (below 10 ◦C). 4 The overall results indicated that H. megidis was effective as long as temperatures were optimum (not dropping below 10 ◦C). For S. kraussei, the results obtained were rather disappointing, where control barely reached 50% in the trial with the coldest temperature. Temperature and soil type appeared to be a major limiting factor for the efficacy of both nematode species. 5 On the basis of the results and experience obtained in these trials, the future implications for biological control of O. sulcatus with entomopathogenic nematodes in commercial field-grown strawberry production are discussed.
... Nematodes are commonly used for control of vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius) [163], and slugs [164]. Cross et al. [12] highlighted the potential of soil-applied nematodes for the control of pests which spend some of their lifecycle below ground, (e.g., weevils, tortrix moths, and codling moths). ...
Article
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Growers of organic tree fruit face challenges in controlling some pests more easily suppressed by broad-spectrum insecticides in conventionally managed orchards. In recent decades, there has been a move towards organically growing varieties normally reliant on synthetic chemical pesticides (e.g., Gala), often to meet retailer/consumer demands. This inevitably makes crop protection in organic orchards more challenging, as modern varieties can be less tolerant to pests. In addition, there have been substantial reductions in plant protection product (PPP) approvals, resulting in fewer chemical options available for integrated pest management (IPM)-maintained orchards. Conversely, the organic management of fruit tree pests involves many practices that could be successfully implemented in conventionally grown crops, but which are currently not. These practices could also be more widely used in IPM-maintained orchards, alleviating the reliance on broad-spectrum PPP. In this review, we evaluate organic practices, with a focus on those that could be incorporated into conventional apple and pear production. The topics cover cultural control, biological control, physical and pest modifications. While the pests discussed mainly affect European species, many of the methods could be used to target other global pests for more environmentally sustainable practices.
... 9b-11b). Two good examples of the evolutionary pathway of biopesticide development since the 1980s are the development of complete technical packages in use around the globe to control Otiorhynchus sulcatus Fabricius, a pest in cranberries and strawberries (e.g., Bedding and Miller, 1981;Georgis and Poinar, 1984;Klingler, 1988;Kakouli-Duarte et al., 1993Lola-Luz and Downes, 2007;Ansari et al., 2010;Ansari and Butt, 2011) and Diaprepes abreviatus Linnaeus in citrus orchards (e.g., Román and Beavers, 1983;Figueroa and Román, 1990;Schroeder, 1990a,b;Duncan et al., 1996;Shapiro-Ilan and McCoy, 2000a,b,c;Stuart et al., 2008;Ali et al., 2010). ...
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Entomopathogenic nematodes have achieved a place in biological control programmes because of their effectiveness, speed of action, innocuousness to non-insect targets and simplicity of mass production. However many challenges derived to the lack of knowledge in some critical steps from laboratories to their use in the fields, have to be resolved in order to improve their performance and to reduce the mass production costs. For those reasons, studies on entomopathogenic nematology have increased considerably in the last few decades. Also, there have been important changes in the ways that results are published; many of them relate to major transformations in scientific trends. Using bibliometric tools we characterize variations in number, types of journal, countries of origin, research topics and the number of participating countries, of 1923 papers (from 1980 to 2010) reported in several on-line editorial databases.
... This research should help determine what situations entomopathogenic nematodes can be used in and provide some insight into their effectiveness in various circumstances. (Backhaus, 1994;Bedding et al., 1981;Milstead, 1981). Heterorhabditis megidis has been proven to control root weevils. ...
... The first species to be used for the successful control of an insect pest 33 years ago was S. carpocapsae, by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Australia (Divya & Sankar 2009). It was commercially used to control the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius), in ornamentals and the currant borer moth, Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerk), in blackcurrants (Bedding & Miller 1981). Today, several EPN species, such as S. carpocapsae Weiser, 1955;S. ...
Article
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Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been identified as being promising biological control agents of key insect pests. The two EPN genera that have shown potential for use as biological control agents within an integrated pest management programme are Steinernema and Heterorhabditis. Large numbers of EPNs can be produced through either in vivo or in vitro culturing practices. Commercialization and the successful use of EPNs to control pests in North America, Australia, Europe and Asia have confirmed the effectiveness of these organisms as biological control agents. Two endemic EPN isolates to South Africa, Heterorhabditis zealandica (SF41) and H. bacteriophora (SF351) have been shown to be effective control agents of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, and the banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus. Unfortunately, EPNs in large enough numbers for commercial field applications are not yet available on the South African market.
... Otro método de control que se puede utilizar es la colocación de barreras de exclusión con lubricante, para evitar que los adultos accedan a las plantas (Cowles, 1997), además de capturas masivas de adultos o la utilización de plantas resistentes o tolerantes al ataque de la plaga (Morton y García del Pino, 2005). Entre los métodos de control biológico que se pueden aplicar contra estos insectos del suelo están hongos entomopatógenos como Metarhizium anisopliae y Beauveria bassiana, bacterias como Bacillus thuringiensis (Caballero, 2002) y nematodos entomopatógenos (NEP) de los géneros Steinernema y Heterorhabditis (Beeding y Miller, 1981; García del Pino, 2002; Ehlers, 2002). Estos últimos tienen una gran efectividad para el control de insectos del suelo ya que son muy móviles y eficaces, buscando de forma activa a sus huéspedes. ...
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Resumen Los nematodos entomopatógenos (NEP) son un grupo de nematodos parásitos obligados de insectos, que se caracterizan por estar asociados simbióticamente con bacterias que les confieren un elevado potencial como insecticidas biológicos. Estos nematodos pertenecen a los géneros Steinernema y Heterorhabditis, y están asociados a bacterias de los géneros Xenorhabdus y Photorhabdus, respectivamente. Los nematodos entomopatógenos penetran en la larva del insecto, provocando su muerte en un corto periodo de tiempo, por lo que están siendo utilizados para combatir numerosas plagas que afectan a diversos cultivos. Una de las plagas de insectos más importantes en plantas de vivero son las larvas de curculiónidos, en especial las pertenecientes al género Otiorrhynchus. Sus larvas son muy voraces, alimentándose, durante todo su desarrollo larvario, de las raíces, debilitando la planta y en algunos casos provocando su muerte. El control de estas plagas se realiza habitualmente con el empleo de productos químicos, no obstante, la legislación actual tiende a la eliminación de muchas de las materias activas disponibles en el mercado, lo que hace necesaria la búsqueda de métodos de lucha alternativos para combatir estas plagas. En este trabajo, se ha realizado un ensayo de eficacia en laboratorio con larvas de Curculio elephas Gyll., para estudiar el comportamiento de cuatro cepas de nematodos entomopatógenos frente a este insecto, a diferentes temperaturas y concentraciones de inóculo, y un ensayo de eficacia en campo mediante la aplicación de NEP de una cepa autóctona de la especie Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, para evaluar su efectividad contra larvas de curculionidos en plantas de Camellia spp., en dos viveros de nuestra comunidad. INTRODUCCIÓN Los curculiónidos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) son un grupo de insectos fitófagos presentes en numerosos cultivos. Uno de los géneros más importantes, por el daño que ocasiona, es Otiorrhynchus, que afecta a plantaciones como la vid, olivo, fresa y a plantas ornamentales de viveros, como Rhododendron, Begonia, Cyclamen, Taxus, Evonymus y Camellia (Bonneimaison, 1976; Mansilla et al., 2002). Los adultos se alimentan de hojas jóvenes y tiernas, que aparecen con el borde festoneado y pequeñas muescas irregulares. Las larvas se alimentan de raíces, debilitando la planta y en ocasiones causando un estrechamiento del cuello. Este ataque es mucho más grave en vivero, ya que, en el campo, las hembras distribuyen más los huevos y solo algunas raíces se ven afectadas, mientras que en vivero, atacan a casi todo el sistema radicular, pudiendo causar la muerte de la planta (Mansilla et al., 2002).
... The results of numerous efforts to control different species of weevil larvae with nematodes have pointed out various degree of success (BEDDING & MILLER, 1981;BERRY et al., 1997). ...
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Laboratory experiments have been performed to control Rhytidoderes plicatus Oliv. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) larvae on potted savoy cabbages with entomopathogenic nematodes. Previous tests on last instar grubs of the weevil, in Petri dishes with a filter paper dampened with about 2,000 IJs in 1 ml of H 2 O, showed the capacity of S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora to kill 100% of the insects after 24 h and a slower activity of S. feltiae. The results of the second experiment, spraying 30,000 IJs in 50 ml of H 2 O on the soil of each potted savoy cabbage, put in evidence that H. bacteriophora was able to control 97% of the grubs after 5 days and 100% after 10 days while S. carpocapsae needed 5 days to kill 73% and 15 days to control 93% of the larvae. A slower activity was performed by S. feltiae that controlled only 30% of the weevil grubs after two weeks.
... The commercial M. anisopliae -based product was determined to be promising as an alternative control product for grapevine phylloxera. The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Curculionidae) is an important pest of horticultural crops, including grapes in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and damage to grapes due to adult feeding on clusters and larval feeding on root systems in Europe and central Washington (Bedding and Miller 1981 ) . Several new products such as Met 52 ® Granular (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) are currently commercially available, making this fi eld of study an option, especially in ground-dwelling pests. ...
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Biological control has been defined as: The action of parasites, predators or pathogens in maintaining another organisms population density at a lower average than would occur in their absence (De Bach 1964). Therefore, successful biological control of arthropod pests relies on the presence and viability of effective predators, parasitoids and/or entomopathogens in sufficient numbers and at critical seasonal periods to provide population regulation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.
... Onder glas bleken de larven van varenrouwmuggen (Sciara-soorten) geschikte targets te zijn voorSteinernema feltiae (Strong, 2002). De eerste testen op sciara's dateren van het eind van de jaren 80 (Poinar, 1992;Bedding & Miller, 1981). Vervolgens probeerde men ze in te zetten tegen niet-natuurlijke targets, en wel tegen plagen die een knelpunt vormen in de moderne geïntegreerde bestrijding. ...
... EPNs in the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are currently used as biological control agents against many pests, including O. sulcatus (Gaugler, 2002; Cowles et al., 2005; Georgis et al., 2006 ). EPNs have been successfully used to control O. sulcatus larvae in potted plants and glasshouse crops (Bedding & Miller 1981; Simons, 1981; Dolmans, 1983; Georgis & Poinar, 1984; van Tol, 1993; Cowles et al., 2005; Lola-Luz & Downes, 2007; Susurluk & Ehlers, 2008). In Europe, Heterorhabditis megidis, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema kraussei are sold for control of O. sulcatus in ornamentals and strawberry. ...
... Onder glas bleken de larven van varenrouwmuggen (Sciara-soorten) geschikte targets te zijn voorSteinernema feltiae (Strong, 2002). De eerste testen op sciara's dateren van het eind van de jaren 80 (Poinar, 1992;Bedding & Miller, 1981). Vervolgens probeerde men ze in te zetten tegen niet-natuurlijke targets, en wel tegen plagen die een knelpunt vormen in de moderne geïntegreerde bestrijding. ...
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Er is, vooral in de sierteelt, vraag naar nieuwe, betere tripsbestrijders. De laatste tijd worden insectenpathogene aaltjes naar voren geschoven als bestrijders van de californische trips. Ze worden verkocht zowel voor bodemtoepassing tegen de poppen als voor bladtoepassing tegen larven en adulten. Bij telers leven echter nog veel vragen over de effectiviteit van deze producten tegen trips onder veld-omstandigheden. De evaluatie daarvan in de praktijk is gebrekkig: de plaagdichtheid is doorgaans te laag, een goede evaluatiemethode ontbreekt, het proces in de bodem is sowieso onzichtbaar, en de try-outs worden vaak verstoord door chemische ingrepen. Wereldwijd worden aaltjes vooral ingezet tegen keverlarven en rupsen. Over hun bruikbaarheid als tripsbestrijders is veel minder informatie beschikbaar. In dit verslag wordt een overzicht gegeven van wat er momenteel bekend is over de toepassing van insectenpathogene nematoden tegen tripsen.
... Although plant species produced in containers are capable of growing in a wide range of soil types and potting media (3,5,7,8,11), studies have identified optimum medium composition for specific species or cultivars to obtain op timum growth and quality (2,6,15). With the increasing cost of peat moss, which has traditionally been used in potting media, various cost-effective alternative materials have been tested and sometimes improved plant production has resulted. ...
Article
Entomophagous nematodes were applied to beds of Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hard. Mazz. in an urban park to evaluate their potential for controlling black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius). Although no significant difference was attributed to nematode treatments, weevil damage in non-irrigated beds was lower than in irrigated beds. Irrigation management may be helpful for controlling this pest.
... The discovery of S. carpocapsae and other species resulted in renewed interest in using nematodes for biological control programs. Excellent control was obtained against insect pest in moist, cryptic habitats in the Iate 1970 s and early 1980s ( Bedding and Miller, 1981;Lindegren et. aL., 1981;Miller and Bedding, 1982) but fai!ures against foliage feeding insects from the 1950s to early 1980s clearly demonstrated that these nematodes were poorly adapted to the foliage environment ( Begley, 1990;Kaya,1985). ...
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ABSTRACT Most of all nematodes studied for biological control of insect, those in the families Steinemematidae and He-terorhabditidae have aroused the most interest, and information about them is growing exponentially. These two families , mutualistically associated with bacteria in the genus Xenorhabdus are similar in their actions and are considered here together.
... El-Kholy et al. (2014) reported that application of entomopathogenic nematodes in controlling larvae or pupae of Z pyrina infested olive branches either via spraying or injection caused significant control inside the branches. By comparing nematodes and recommended insecticides for controlling S. myopaeformis on apple trees, our findings agree with that of Bedding and Miller (1981); Deseo et al. (1984a); Deseo and Docci (1985); Solomon (1985); Kaya and Brown (1986) (2009) indicated that nematodes applied in control of the peach tree borer, S.exitiosa reduced damage to levels similar to what is achieved with recommended chemical insecticide treatments. Bari and Kaya (1984); Deseo et al. (1984b);EL-Bishry & Bekheit (1994); Gill &Michael (1994); Azazy (1996) and Pasqualini et al. (1996) indicated that combination between entomopathogenic nematodes and recommended dose of B. thuringiensis did not result insignificantly greater control than that achieved by the nematode alone. ...
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Three field trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of two local strains of entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Ar-4 and Ht strains) isolated from EL-Arish and Giza in Egypt and two commercially available nematode species, Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain) and H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain) for the control of fruit tree borers, Synanthedon myopaeformis and Zeuzera pyrina on apple trees. The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were used alone or combined with recommended dose of the microbial pesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Diple2X), and insecticides, diazinon and phenthoate. The obtained results showed that the combined EPNs with insecticides were more effective as injection technique than spray method. Mortality percentages of S. myopaeformis ranged between 47.61 to 88.88 % in the injection treatments while in the spraying one it ranged between 37.14 to 74.07 %. In comparison between the efficacy of native and imported entomopathogenic nematodes in controlling Z. pyrina using spray technique, percentage mortality resulted from the combination of native nematodes i.e. H.bacteriophora (Ht strain) and H. bacteriophora (Ar-4 strain) and insecticides either penthoate or diazinon reached 69.23; 64.00 and 22.72; 64.18%, respectively. Whereas, percentages mortality were 44.44; 50.00 and 52.94; 54.16% with S. carpocapsae (All strain) andH. bacteriophora (HP88 strain), respectively. The susceptibility of Z. pyrina to the nematode species differed greatly according to the nematode species used either alone or in combination with the recommended dose of B. thuringiensis. The entomopathogenic nematode H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain) was more virulent than S. carpocapsae (All strain) in controlling Z. pyrina with percentage mortality reached 77.5 and 62.1%, respectively.
... Il faudra encore attendre jusqu'aux années soixante-dix pour que les recherches ne prennent une réelle importance. Les premiers succès ont été obtenus dans les années 1980 avec la lutte contre plusieurs insectes, notamment les Charançons (BEDDING & MILLER, 1981). ...
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... The observed variation in results is within the range found in most studies on infectivity of nematode species and isolates for certain insect pests (e.g. Bedding & Miller, 1981). ...
Article
Infective juveniles (J3) of the entomogenous nematodes Steinernema feltiae DD-136 (ca. 10,000 J3/100 ml) and S. glaseri (ca. 2,500 J3/100 ml) were incubated in steam-sterilized and nonsterilized sandy soil and bark compost for 8 weeks at 25 C. The nematodes were recovered by a two-step extraction procedure at 1-week intervals, and their infectivity to lepidopterous larvae (Spodoptera litura and Galleria mellonella) and their effect on the population and community of native nematodes in soil were determined. Survival of inoculated nematodes and mortality of insects were enhanced in sterilized media. Nonsterilized bark compost proved to be equally as suitable a medium as sterilized compost. In nonsterilized soil, the survival curve of S.feltiae declined more rapidly than that or S. glaseri which was less infective to insects despite its greater persistence even in nonsterilized soil. Soon after the addition of steinernematids to soil, the population of native nematodes showed a fluctuation with an increase in rhabditids and a decrease in other kinds of nematodes.
Article
At the turn of the century, damage by Otiorhynchus sulcatus was sporadic and limited to small areas. Increasing horticultural intensification and the adoption of husbandry techniques favourable to the weevil, such as the use of polythene mulches, increased its pest status. The development of the early inorganic pesticides reduced the number of serious outbreaks of this pest and weevil control was further improved by the development of the persistent organochlorine insecticides in the 1940's. The banning of a number of the more persistent insecticides over recent years has now left the horticultural industry in a very vulnerable position.
Article
Trials conducted under glasshouse conditions showed that control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus larvae in strawberry plants can be effective using Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis megidis, given that temperature and moisture extremes are avoided. In field experiments, the double line T-Tape® drip irrigation system performed better than the single line T-Tape® system, effectively distributing the nematodes along and across strawberry raised beds, and placing them close to the root zone where O. sulcatus larvae feed. As soil temperatures are satisfactory for nematode infectivity from late spring to early autumn, nematode applications were aimed at late instar larvae during spring, and early instar larvae during summer. Late summer field treatment with S. carpocapsae induced 49.5% reduction of the early instar larvae, and field application of the same nematode species in late spring resulted in 65% control of late instar larvae. In the same trial, spring application of H. megidis caused 26% mortality of late instar larvae of O. sulcatus.
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Abstract 1 Outdoor trials were carried out during 2001–02 on strawberries grown in commercial growing bags naturally infested with black vine weevil larvae (BVW) Otiorhynchus sulcatus in Co. Wexford, Ireland. 2 The two nematode isolates used in these trials were Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Heterorhabditis downesi (K122), both laboratory cultured. Growing bags received nematodes either once (May 2001), twice (May and October 2001) or three times (May, October 2001 and May 2002). Ten days after each application date, nine blocks (of the total 27) were randomly selected, destructively assessed and discarded. 3 The single application (May 2001) resulted in a mortality of black vine weevil larvae, of 93.4% with H. megidis and 51.3% with H. downesi, compared with the control treatment at that date. Respective figures after the double application (May 2001 and October 2001) were 78.9 and 77.6% and after the triple application (May 2001, October 2001 and May 2002) the figures were 93.7 and 88.1%. 4 Results from these trials clearly indicate that entomopathogenic nematodes are good alternatives to chemical control of the black vine weevil on strawberries grown in growing bags in Ireland.
Article
SUMMARYA survey of insect parasitic nematodes was carried out in Northern Ireland between November 1986 and June 1987. A total of 1093 soils were examined using Galleria mellonella larvae as bait. Nematodes were recovered from 41 of these soils. The rate of recovery declined from February onwards and possible reasons for this are discussed. Clay and clay loam types accounted for 56·1% of the survey samples but only 9·8% of the recovered nematode populations. Loams comprised 39·6% of samples and 85·4% of nematodes, indicating a greater likelihood of recovering insect parasitic nematodes from lighter soils. The nematodes were also recovered from peat soils (4·3% of samples and 4·9% of nematodes). All the recovered isolates were Neoaplectana bibionis.
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Introduction Integrated Control by Pest Type Novel Methods and Spray Application The Future Literature Cited
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Otiorhynchus sulcatus es una plaga importante de un gran número de plantas ornamentales y hortícolas, que se alimenta tanto de las hojas como de las raíces, causando daños que afectan tanto al crecimiento como a la calidad de la planta producida. En el presente estudio se ha evaluado la susceptibilidad de las larvas y pupas de O. sulcatus a diferentes nematodos entomopatógenos en condiciones de laboratorio en placas de Petri y en macetas. Se ha comparado la eficacia de cepas autóctonas frente a cepas comerciales tanto de heterorhabdítidos como steinernemátidos. En los ensayos realizados en placas de Petri, la exposición de las larvas del insecto a los nematodos Steinernema feltiae cepa PA y S. arenarium cepa S2 causó una mortalidad moderada (23 y 20 % respectivamente). Los resultados obtenidos con los nematodos S. arenarium cepa S2 y Heterorhabditis bacteriophora en el control de las pupas fueron, en ambos casos, de un 100 % de mortalidad. El ensayo realizado con plantas de hiedras en maceta se realizó con los nematodos entomopatógenos S. arenarium cepa S2 y H. bacteriophora. La eficacia de ambos tratamientos resultó ser importante en el control de los adultos (>87 %), y moderado en el control de las pupas de O. sulcatus (>33 %).
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Naturally occurring entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria are important biotic factor in suppression of insect pest populations in soil and cryptic habitats. The virulent species of these nematodes are commercially produced as biological control agents all over the world encompassing North America, Europe, Asia and Australia in glasshouse crops, orchards, ornamentals, turf, lawn, and forestry. India has a great potential to exploit these beneficial nematodes for the suppression of insect pests. Recent emphasis on mass production and formulation technologies of these nematodes in India stresses a need to implement safer and effective pest control methods. This article provides an overview of recent development on formulation and commercialization of entomopathogenic nematodes, and evaluates their potential exploitation in India. Introduction Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are used to control several agriculturally important insect pests of the different orders. The first nematode (S. carpocapsae) used successfully in the control of an insect pest was reported 30 years ago from Australia; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) was the first in the world to use EPNs commercially against black vine weevil in ornamentals and against currant borer moth in black currants (Georgis, 2002). There are several species of EPNs used around the world against a variety of pests in niche markets (e.g. fungus gnats in nurseries, hydroponics, and mushroom; weevils on ornamentals, strawberries, cranberries, citrus and bananas; scarabs of turf, ornamentals and blue berries; cutworms, webworms, billbugs and mole crickets; termites in wooden articles and trees; peach borer moth in apples and carpenter worm in shade trees in China, and fig trees in USA) (Poinar, 1990). Recently out of 13% bio-insecticide sale in industrialised countries, EPN sale was only second to Bacillus thuringiensis at 80% (Lisansky & Coombs, 1994).
Article
Laboratory and field assessments were made to determine the root weevil species composition in some Finnish strawberry fields, to test their susceptibility to common entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi, and to follow the persistence and effects of augmented entomopathogen populations under field conditions. The two most common Otiorhynchus species were O. dubius and O. ovatus. In general both species occurred in one field, but the proportions varied greatly with time and site. O. ovatus was active primarily in spring, while O. dubius could be collected later. Most damages occurred in areas with sandy soils. Otiorhynchus larvae were in the laboratory highly susceptible to entomopathogenic Steinernema isolates. Steinernema occurred also naturally in some strawberry fields. Beauveria bassiana was less effective against root weevils than the other tested pathogens. Some strains of Metarhizium anisopliae killed the pest larvae nearly as well as the nematodes. All tested M. anisopliae strains were also able to persist in soil over several growing seasons. On the contrary, B. bassiana persisted poorly in the soil. Augmented nematode populations were able to persist at least for two years in the strawberry fields. At the area with no weevil infection, the persistence of nematode populations was not as good as in the areas with a heavy pest population. Introducing M. anisopliae spores and/or entomopathogenic nematodes to the soil appears reasonable if there is a danger of pest infestation. Spores might be better as a preventive means, while nematodes can be effective even if the pests already exist in the plantation.
Article
A survey for entomopathogenic nematodes in the central Rift valley region of Kenya was conducted at altitudes between 1800 and 3000 m above sea level and from croplands and noncropland habitats. The sampling depth was 0–30 cm. GPS (global positioning system) was used to measure site positions. One hundred and twelve soil samples were collected and entomopathogenic nematodes trapped through Galleria mellonella. Entomopathogenic nematode presence was demonstrated by G. mellonella mortality and viable ones bulked through the same host. Nematode recoveries from two consecutive extractions were 30% per extraction and 52% for cumulative extractions. Recoveries from agro ecological zones ranged between 18% and 71%. Recovery frequency was higher from disturbed cropland habitats than the stable noncrop habitats. Steinernema species were more frequent than Heterorhabditis (9 : 1). Nematode occurrence clustered at 2–3% carbon and pH 5.3–6.3 with no specific pattern demonstrated from soil types. Nematode species of the two genera from high altitudes lost their culturing ability within 1 month of isolation. There was a tendency for recovering both nematode genera at the shores of water bodies. This is the first report of Steinernema yirgalemense and S. weiseri in Kenya and of S. karii in the central Rift valley region. The Heterorhabditis species has not been confirmed yet. This has widened the genetic base of entomopathogenic nematodes from Kenya. The entomopathogenic nematodes are available for developement as biological control agents of athropod pests.
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This article reflects the author's experience of research and changes in priorities over the last 50 years in four main areas: i) fumigants as nematicides; ii) non-volatile nematicides; iii) biological control of insects; and iv) training in nematology. The developments in each of these topics are discussed from a personal perspective and speculation is made on the future direction of these areas of applied research.
Article
Laboratory tests were conduced to determine the susceptibility of Sitona hispidulus to entomophagous nematodes: Steinernema feltiae, St. bibionis and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora at the contact method application and infective dose of 30 L3 per insect. The L3 of S. hispidulus were more susceptible than L1 and L2 instars or pupae and adults. St. feltiae was the most aggressive nematode species, causing 100 % larval mortality after 6 days. The nematodes multiplied sufficiently in all insects at all stages of development; however, production of infective-stage larvae per host cadaver was variable. It can be concluded that S. hispidulus belongs to the best hosts for each of the three nematode species. Empfindlichkeit des Kleewurzelrüßlers, Sitona hispidulus F. (Col., Curculionidae), gegenüber den entomophagen Nematoden Steinernema feltiae, St. bibionis und Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Es wurde im Labor die Empfindlichkeit von Sitona hispidulus gegenüber den Nematoden Steinernema feltiae, St. bibionis und Heterorhabditis bacteriophora mit Hilfe der Kontaktmethode unter Verwendung von je 30 L3 der Nematoden pro Wirtsinsekt untersucht. Die L3 von S. hispidulus waren empfindlicher als die L1, L2, Puppen und Adulten. St. feltiae envies sich als aggressivste Nematodenart, die nach 6 Tagen 100 % der Käferlarven vernichtet hatte. Die Nematoden vermehrten sich in allen Wirtsstadien, doch schwankte ihre Produktion in Wirtskadavern beträchtlich. Aus den Ergebnissen kann abgeleitet werden, daß S. hispidulus zu den geeignetsten Wirtsarten für alle 3 Nematodenarten gehört.
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E l desarrollo de insecticidas de síntesis entre 1940 y 1950 causó una revolución en la agricultura, debido a que el agricultor podía resolver los problemas fitosanitarios e incrementar su productividad, y así ampliar la frontera agrícola con mayor confianza hacia un mercado más seguro, con productos de buena calidad y con un flujo permanente. Sin embargo, el uso continuo de estas moléculas muy pronto mostró que su eficacia no se mantenía a través del tiempo, debido a la resistencia que los insectos empezaban a desarrollar, lo cual exigía de la industria nuevos productos para reemplazar los existentes. A pesar de que se seguían desarrollando nuevos insecticidas, su vida en el mercado era muy corta por la rápida pérdida de su eficacia debido a su uso intensivo, sin tener en cuenta las complejidades de los ecosistemas y la dinámica de las poblaciones plagas, que en muchos casos llevaban a desastres económicos de grandes proporciones entre los agricultores. El uso intensivo e indiscriminado de plaguicidas para controlar insectos plagas (Falcon, 1973; Falcon y Smith, 1974; Bustillo, 1983; Andrews y Quezada, 1989) ha generado varios problemas como son: el desarrollo de resistencia por parte de los insectos a los insecticidas utilizados. ƒ Este hecho ha sido documentado en más de 300 especies de insectos en el mundo. En Colombia, en los cafetales el uso indiscriminado de aplicaciones de endosulfan han llevado al desarrollo de la resistencia a este insecticida por parte de Hypothenemus hampei. El problema no solo se ha desarrollado con los insectos a los cuales va dirigido el insecticida, sino también en los sitios adyacentes. Por ejemplo, en Centro América el uso continuo de plaguicidas para el control de plagas en algodón ha producido resistencia en un mosquito que transmite malaria, Anopheles albimanus, que habita muchos tipos de vegetación que incluye algodonales. el resurgimiento del insecto atacado después de aplicar el insecticida recomendado. ƒ Esto implica la necesidad de aplicaciones repetidas del plaguicida para reprimir la plaga cada vez que vuelve. En California las poblaciones de Heliothis zea, frecuentemente resurgen después de aplicar monocrotofós.
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املستخلص: رضرا أبسبب الأ ا الجسيمة التي سببتها اآلفات الحشرية في الحقول الز اعية والتي كلفت مليا ات الدوال ات سنوي ، لذا اقدمت البلدان على استخدام املبيدات الكيمياوية للقضاء على هذه اآلفات، لكن االأستخدام املستمر للمبيدات الكيماوية في الحقول الز اعية ً أدى إلى خلق أنواع عديدة من اآلاثا أ البيئية عالوة على ظهو املقاومة لآلفات الحشرية مما أدى إلى البحث عن حل أقل تهديدا للبيئة وصحة اإلنسان وفعال ملعالجة مشاكل اآلفات الحشرية نتيجة لذلك اكتسبت املكافحة البيولوجية لآلفات الحشرية أهمية كبيرة في الحقول الز اعية لكفاءتها وسالمتها للبشر والكائنات الحية الخرى غير املستهدفة وتواجدها الطبيعي في البيئة و خص اثمنها وأأكثرأها ً ً صداقة للبيئة وبديال أفضل ا ملبيدات اآلفات الكيميائية االصطناعية فضال عن كونها آمنة بيئي فهي ال تساعد فقط على إ ساء المن
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Because of the severe damage caused by insect pests in agricultural fields, which cost billions of dollars annually, countries used chemical pesticides to eliminate these pests. The continuous use of chemical pesticides led to many environmental impacts, besides the emergence of resistance to insect pests. Therefore, it was necessary to search for an effective treatment for insect pest problems that was environmentally friendly and safe for human health. Biological control of insect pests has gained considerable importance in agricultural fields for its efficiency and safety for humans and other non- target organisms. In addition to its natural presence in the environment, cheaper cost, and more environmentally friendly, And a better alternative to synthetic chemical pesticides as well as being environmentally safe, they not only help establish food security by fighting against insect pests but also ensure food safety, they have enormous potential for achieving agricultural sustainability and environmental safety. In this review, we will highlight the definition and classification of insect pests, microbial pesticides. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of these kinds of pesticides. We will also focus on the most effective bacterial species used in the production of pesticides and protein toxins that kill insect pests, their mechanism of action, method of marketing, and application to insect pests. We have looked at future research in eradicating insect pests.
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Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.
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C. viridivittatus, picudo de los cítricos está distribuido en región andina y cafetera de Colombia. Las larvas se alimentan de raíces y los adultos de hojas y flores. En tres fincas citrícolas del Valle del Cauca se aislaron y evaluaron hongos y nematodos entomopatógenos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana y Steinernema sp. y Heterorabditis sp. sobre larvas de C. viridivittatus 26, 36, 48 y 53 días de edad. En 120 de 132 muestras de suelo se encontraron 21 aislamientos de Metarhizium y Beauveria y ninguna con nematodos entomopatógenos. B. bassiana comercial, B9 y B10 causaron el 100 % de mortalidad en adultos en 4 y 4,3 días. M. anisopliae M6 y M7 causaron el 94 % y 97 % de mortalidad a los 4,3 y 5 días. Steinernema sp. UNS09 causó 65 % de mortalidad sobre larvas de 48 y 53 días de edad en siete días. No hubo diferencia entre Steinernema UNS09 y Heterorhabditis UNH16. Steinernema sp. UNS09 causó 85,7 % mortalidad a larvas de 53 días y 81,9 % y 81,1 % a larvas de 36 y 26 días y Heterorhabditis sp. UNH16 con 79 %, 81 % y 75,4 % de mortalidad sobre larvas de 36, 26 y 56 días a los siete días. En síntesis, los hongos y nematodos entomopatógenos pueden considerarse como alternativa de manejo de larvas de C. viridivittatus.
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The black plantain weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is one of the pests that most severely damages this crop. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EN) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are biological control agents of the insect with the possibility of being incorporated into IPM programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the virulence of Steinernema carpocapsae All Strain and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on adults and last instar larvae of the weevil. The bioassay used was individual infection in multiple well plates with paper filter in concentrations of 10, 100, and 1.000 infective juveniles (IJ)/25 μl. Every 12 h the number of dead individuals per plate was recorded up to a maximum of 120 h for larvae and 228 h for adults. The cadavers were put in a drying chamber (development of the nematode inside the insect) and later in a "white chamber" (emergence of IJ). The variables studied were mortality of the stages, IJ multiplication and emergence duration. Under the conditions evaluated, both adults and larvae were susceptible to the attack of both nematodes, responding differentially to the increase of dose. Typical symptoms of infection and multiplication in larvae were observed for the nematode species evaluated. Conditions such as the limited niche of the insect and high humidity in plantain corms that are favorable for nematode survival, as well as the high mortality registered with low IJ concentrations and the capacity to develop especially in the larvae, make these agents promising tools for the control of the pest in the field.
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Simple new methods are described for rearing species of Neoaplectana and Heterorhabditis monoxenically and cheaply in large quantities for use in biological control. Yields of more than half a million nematodes/g of an homogenate of pig kidney/fat on crumbed polyether polyurethane sponge in conical flasks were obtained consistently for some species. The method lends itself to industrial development.
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The new family, Heterorhabditidae, containing the new genus and species, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is described. This new species of Rhabditoidea was recovered from Heliothis punctigera Hall (Noctuidae) at Brecon, South Australia. The infective stage juveniles of this nematode carry a specific bacterium in their intestines which is released after the parasites enter the body cavity of a healthy insect. The bacteria kill the insect in 48 hours, and the infective stage juveniles develop into hermaphroditic females that produce young which develop into males and females. The latter mate and produce juveniles that develop into infective stages, which leave the cadaver and search for a new host. H. bacteriophora differs from other nematodes in the Rhabditoidea by possessing a vestigial valve in the basal pharyngeal bulb, a reduced stoma, and dauer stages capable of entering the body cavity of healthy insects. Aside from members of the genus, Neoaplectana, it is the only nematode known to serve as a vector for a bacterial disease of insects. The new species also exhibits heterogony. The nematode described by Pereira (1937) as Rhabditis hambletoni is transferred to the genus Heterorhabditis.
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Control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) in nonflooded cranberry bogs was obtained with 2 summer applications of carbofuran 10 G at 2.24 kg AI/ha per application. The rate or number of applications could not be reduced. Treatment of bogs by growers under special provisions by the Federal Government resulted in complete control of the weevil.
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The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.), was responsible for severe damage in blackcurrants (cv. ‘Magnus’) and strawberries (cv. ‘Tioga’) at Lincoln College in 1974. Larval root pruning of blackcurrants significantly reduced cane growth but had no significant effect on cane initiation. Strawberry plants in a black vine weevilinfested bed were separable into four damage classes based on visual assessment of leaf area: no damage, moderate damage, severe damage, and dead plants. Mean numbers of wcevil larvae per plant were 1.95, 8.35, 37.70, and 39.65 respectively. Comparisons of leaf area, number of leaves, and number of developing berries among the four damage classes showed that significant differences were detectable. Weevil larvae numbers per plant were significantly different among the first three classes but no difference was found between the severe-damage and dead-plant classes. Correlations between plant factors and weevil numbers within the first three damage classes were tested. Significant correlations in all three classes were found among the various plant factors, confirming relationships between leaf area, number of leaves, and number of developing berries. Only within the moderate-damage classes were significant correlations between number of weevils and the plant factors obtained. In strawberries economic loss will occur with between two to eight larvae per plant.
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The black vine weevil (Brachyrhinus sulcatus (F.)) caused injury during 1961 to Concord grapes in south central Washington by feeding on berry pedicels and cluster stems. Injury resulted in reduced berry weight and loss of berries or portions of the cluster. Weekly counts on 20 tagged clusters per cover crop provided estimates of loss (tons per acre) for grapes grown in 5 different cover crops, as follows: no cover, 3.36; oats and vetch, 3.45; alfalfa, 2.42; creeping red fescue, 3.08; and creeping red fescue in combination with oats and vetch, 3.29. Weevils caught in specially designed funnel traps indicated B. sulcatus was closely associated with creeping red fescue as a cover crop. Injury in other cover crops was apparently the result or adult movement away from creeping red fescue.
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This paper is presented as a progress report on the studies of Brachyrhinus sulcatus Fabr. in the nurseries and greenhouses of Pennsylvania. Its distribution in Pennsylvania, the possibility of its being distributed by means of Taxus as balled nursery stock, and the relationship between greenhouse infestations and Taxus are discussed. Life history studies thus far indicate that greenhouse plants are infested by adults developing out of doors. The species is capable of parthenogenetic reproduction. Dry lead arsenate mixed with the potting soil gives promise of one method of control for this insect on greenhouse plants.
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A knowledge of the life cycles of free-living, mycetophagous nematodes has been utilized in developing methods for the monoxenic mass rearing of hundreds of millions of Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. This tylenchid nematode causes sterility in female Sirex noctilio F., a serious pest of pine trees in southeastern Australia; it has been liberated over many of the areas affected by Sirex using the simple but highly effective techniques described.
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Laboratory tests under controlled conditions were carried out in Antibes, Guadeloupe and Madagascar, to investigate the host range ofNeoaplectana carpocapsae Weiser. 128 insect species including members of Odonata, Dictyoptera, Isoptera, Phasmida, Orthoptera, Planipennia, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera and a few other arthropods, were tested. Results confirmed that the potential host range ofN. carpocapsae is very broad in spite of some cases of resistance, mainly in Diptera. The effectiveness rapidity of the nematode, its ability to multiply in the host and some other of its ecological requirements for practical use, were also studied.
  • SMITH F. F.