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Effects of deep-seawater on blood lipids and pressure in high-cholesterol dietary mice

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Abstract

Three different deep-seawater (DSW) treated by means of reverse osmosis (RO DSW), electrodialysis (ED DSW) and 10% (v/v) dilution with ddH2O (10% DSW) were as treated groups, while distilled water (NDW) was the control group. Body weight changes, feed and water intakes of high-cholesterol dietary mice were not (P < 0.05) influenced by drinking different waters. Although drinking ED and 10% DSW lowered (P < 0.05) serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels than NDW, the HDL-C/non-HDL-C ratio was only improved (P < 0.05) in the ED DSW group. These hypolipidemic effects of ED and 10% DSW might result from more (P < 0.05) fecal cholesterol/TG outputs compared with NDW and RO DSW groups. The rich K+ and Mg2+ contents, as well as better Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios in ED and 10% DSWs may counteract increased blood pressures of high-cholesterol dietary mice due to a higher hypertensive mineral, Na+. Deep-seawater (DSW) was announced to own several health benefits commercially. However, only few researches were available, and the results were inconsistent. Because DSW is rich in minerals which result in high hardness, DSW is necessary to be treated by means of reverse osmosis (RO DSW) and electrodialysis (ED DSW) technologies, and 10% (v/v) dilution (10% DSW). This study aims to investigate the effects of three treated DSW (RO DSW, ED DSW and 10% DSW) on blood lipids and pressures in high-cholesterol dietary mice. Our results demonstrated that ED DSW showed the cardiovascular health effects, such as hindrances of the dietary-induced evaluation of total cholesterol, triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), as well as improvement of HDL-C/non-HDL-C ratio, when compared with RO and 10% DSW. Therefore, ED DSW might be suggested as an ingredient of hypolipidemic health food in some niche markets.

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... It was reported that DSW (hardness: 1000 ppm) showed an amelioration of body-weight increase, blood sugar, and serum lipids in ob/ob (obese) mice [14,17]. Recently, the health effects of DSW from sea water below 700 m in the outer sea of Hua-Lien County, Taiwan, have been demonstrated [14,18]. This DSW was reported as having beneficial effects on hepatic lipid accumulation [14]. ...
... treated DSW (ED DSW; hardness: 4685.90 ppm) could decrease serum lipids and improve the blood cholesterol profile [14,18]. DSW drinking waters could upregulate the expression of hepatic low- density-lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase genes to reduce serum cholesterol levels, and concurrently decrease serum lipid oxidative levels [14,19]. ...
... DSW drinking waters could upregulate the expression of hepatic low- density-lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase genes to reduce serum cholesterol levels, and concurrently decrease serum lipid oxidative levels [14,19]. Miyamura et al. [18] also discussed the role of DSW in prevention of atherosclerosis. It was noted that the DSW Choju showed a strong free radical reducing ability in this study. ...
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Redox status in commercial bottled mineral water, ILOHAS, Mt. Fuji, Choju, Crystal Geyser, Volvic, Evian, Vittel, Perrier and Contrexville was studied. Among the 9 water, Choju and Perrier showed significantly larger DMPO-OH decay rate, k (min-1). Next, redox related correlation was studied with 9 water samples. A strong correlation between the hardness of water and the amount of residue after lyophilization of each water sample was demonstrated. Significant correlations were observed between X-ray-induced •OH generation and pH of the water sample. Another significant correlation was also observed between free radical-reducing ability and 1 minus the ratio of hardness/residue content (1-H/R value) of the sample water, which is a value indicating a ratio of mineral contents other than (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the water sample. No notable correlations were recognized among other factors, such as correlation between DMPO-OH generation C0int and residue weight, correlation between DMPO-OH decay rate and pH, and correlation between DMPO-OH decay rate and residue weight.
... It was reported that DSW (hardness: 1000 ppm) showed an amelioration of body-weight increase, blood sugar, and serum lipids in ob/ob (obese) mice [14,17]. Recently, the health effects of DSW from sea water below 700 m in the outer sea of Hua-Lien County, Taiwan, have been demonstrated [14,18]. This DSW was reported as having beneficial effects on hepatic lipid accumulation [14]. ...
... treated DSW (ED DSW; hardness: 4685.90 ppm) could decrease serum lipids and improve the blood cholesterol profile [14,18]. DSW drinking waters could upregulate the expression of hepatic low- density-lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase genes to reduce serum cholesterol levels, and concurrently decrease serum lipid oxidative levels [14,19]. ...
... DSW drinking waters could upregulate the expression of hepatic low- density-lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase genes to reduce serum cholesterol levels, and concurrently decrease serum lipid oxidative levels [14,19]. Miyamura et al. [18] also discussed the role of DSW in prevention of atherosclerosis. It was noted that the DSW Choju showed a strong free radical reducing ability in this study. ...
Article
In this study, the DNA array, quantitative PCR, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG detection), relative mtDNA copy number compared to the nuclear DNA, and mitochondrial mutation rate were analyzed using blood samples kindly donated by 135 persons, who live in Amami island district, highest centenarian rate (the number of centenarian in 100,000 people) in Japan. The results showed that three genes significantly decreased in over 90-aged population. The genes are, HSPD1, heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (chaperonin), GADD45G, GADD45gamma, growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, and LTBP-3, latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 3. The results of 8OHdG detection showed that gradually and significantly increase of 8OHdG as a function of the age. The detection copy number of mtDNA resulted in increase in the copy number dependent on the age. The mtDNA mutation resulted in no difference among the age. The results showed that the Amami population over 90 years old did not show substantial change in the copy number and the frequency of mutation in mtDNA, suggesting maintaining good health in Amami region.
... Additionally, higher (p < 0.05) food and water intakes were recorded in the DSW-drinking-water groups compared to the NDW group. Although the data in the present study differ from our previous study (Chang et al., 2011) which indicated that drinking RO DSW (hardness: 44.6 ppm), ED DSW (hardness: 4690 ppm), and 10% DSW (hardness: 544 ppm) did not affect sizes of liver and abdominal fat pad in high-cholesterol fed mice, this difference could be explained by different rodent species (hamster vs. ICR mice) and different levels of fat/cholesterol in diets (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol vs. 5% fat/1% cholesterol). ...
... diet decreased serum cholesterol and increased serum HDL-C levels in cholesterol-fed rabbits (Ouchi et al., 1990). Calcium also showed a hypolipidaemic effect. Bell, Hslstenson, and Halstenson (1992) indicated that consuming 1.2 g calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) daily can reduce LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Chang et al. (2011) indicated that drinking deep-seawater lowered serum TAG and TC levels in high-cholesterol-fed ICR mice, compared with those only drinking NDW. The serum lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels are expressed as MDA and TEAC levels, respectively, which highly correlated with cardiovascular health condition (Yang et al., 2010). Drinking ...
... A hypolipidaemic effect of divalent cations, i.e., Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ are accounted for the reaction with fatty acids and insoluble soap formation in the intestine, thus decreasing the absorption of dietary fat (Vaskonen, 2003). An intake of Ca and Mg-rich DSW increases faecal outputs of cholesterol and triacylglycerol (Chang et al., 2011). ...
Article
Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p
... 6 Recently, the health effects of DSW from sea water below 700 m in the outer sea of Hua-Lien County, Taiwan have been demonstrated. 7 It was also reported that electrodialysis (ED)-treated DSW (ED DSW; hardness: 4685.90 ppm) could decrease serum lipids and improve blood cholesterol profile. 7 However, from the viewpoint health food development, ED DSW contains very high concentrations of minerals that may cause dangers for heart or kidney. ...
... 7 It was also reported that electrodialysis (ED)-treated DSW (ED DSW; hardness: 4685.90 ppm) could decrease serum lipids and improve blood cholesterol profile. 7 However, from the viewpoint health food development, ED DSW contains very high concentrations of minerals that may cause dangers for heart or kidney. Hence, we have formulated drinking waters from DSW (hardness: 300, 900, and 1500 ppm) via a combination of reverse osmosis (RO) and ED, and observed that those DSW drinking waters could upregulate expression of hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase genes to lower serum cholesterol levels, and concurrently decrease serum lipid oxidative levels. ...
... Generally, high-fat diets significantly increase body and liver weights, leading to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. 13,14,17 DSW is clean and rich in minerals, such as Ca, Mg, and K. 7 Our formulated DSW drinking waters are also rich in Mg, Ca, and K (Table 1). Mg and Ca supplementations can lower serum lipids and body weight/fat. ...
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Hepatic steatosis is defined as excessive amounts of triglyceride and other fats inside liver cells and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing countries. Deep seawater (DSW)300, DSW900, and DSW1500 drinking waters were formulated via a combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Hamsters on a high-fat diet were assigned to drink the following solutions: (1) normal distilled water, (2) DSW300, (3) DSW900, or (4) DSW1500. Serum, liver, and fecal biochemical values, expression of hepatic genes related to fatty-acid homeostasis, as well as liver antioxidative levels were measured after a 6-week feeding period. Additionally, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to investigate the liver histopathology. Serum/liver lipids, liver sizes, liver malondialdehyde content, and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of high-fat diet hamsters were reduced (p < 0.05) by drinking DSW, while daily fecal lipid and bile acid outputs were increased (p < 0.05). DSW drinking water maintained (p < 0.05) higher liver glutathione and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels. Although hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and malic enzyme gene expression were not (p > 0.05) altered, DSW drinking water upregulated (p < 0.05) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, and uncoupling protein-2 gene expression in high-fat diet hamsters. The lipid droplets in livers were also reduced in DSW-drinking-water groups as compared to those only drinking distilled water. DSW shows a preventive effect on development of hepatosteatosis induced by a high-fat diet.
... DSW has frequently reported to have therapeutic effects on atherosclerosis [20], atopic eczema/dermatitis [21], obesity [22], hyperlipidemia [23,29,30], hypertension [24], liver steatosis [25] and diabetes [26,27] via the action of the rich Mg2+ content. These reports stated that DSW with increased hardness primary from Mg2+ and Ca2+ significantly decreased the atherogenic index [28] and prevented the atherogenesis process [20,30,32]. ...
... DSW has frequently reported to have therapeutic effects on atherosclerosis [20], atopic eczema/dermatitis [21], obesity [22], hyperlipidemia [23,29,30], hypertension [24], liver steatosis [25] and diabetes [26,27] via the action of the rich Mg2+ content. These reports stated that DSW with increased hardness primary from Mg2+ and Ca2+ significantly decreased the atherogenic index [28] and prevented the atherogenesis process [20,30,32]. They suggest that the cardioprotective effects of DSW was ascribed to the minerals in DSW [24,33]. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease caused by oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid deposition within liver cells, and is subsequently contributing to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Deep sea water (DSW) is characterized by its clearance and abundant nutrients with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity to confer therapeutic potential. We aimed to explore the therapeutic capability of our prepared multi-filtration DSW-dissolved organic matter (DSW-DOM) on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and endothelial dysfunction in hamsters. A high-fat/high-cholesterol diet led to increased oxidative stress, including blood reactive oxygen species (ROS), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and hepatic CYP2E1 expression; an increased hyperlipidemic profile and SREBP 1-mediated fatty liver; promoted NFκB p65-mediated hepatic inflammation; triggered PARP-mediated hepatic apoptosis; and enhanced endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and von Willebrand factor (VWF)-mediated atherosclerosis associated with the depressed hepatic antioxidant Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) expression. The DSW-DOM-enriched 1295 fraction, with strong H2O2 scavenging activity, efficiently reduced several oxidative stress parameters, the lipid profile, inflammation, and apoptosis, possibly through the PON1-mediated antioxidant capability. Furthermore, DSW-DOM treatment significantly decreased the endothelial ICAM-1 and VWF expression, subsequently leading to the elongation of time to occlusion of FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis and to the inhibition of FeCl3-induced fluorescent platelet adhesion to mesentery arterioles in the high-fat diet. Based on the above results, our data suggest that DSW-DOM intake via antioxidant defense mechanisms confers protective effects against high-fat diet-enhanced, oxidative stress-mediated hyperlipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction evoked atherosclerosis by downregulating oxidative injury, lipogenesis, inflammation and apoptosis.
... Pressure. DSW could improve cardiovascular hemodynamics and reduce blood pressure [2,6,20]. Hypertensive rats that were treated with DSW for eight weeks had lower blood pressure than the control group [20]. ...
... DSW could improve cardiovascular hemodynamics and reduce blood pressure [2,6,20]. Hypertensive rats that were treated with DSW for eight weeks had lower blood pressure than the control group [20]. Reduced fats and blood lipids, such as in the artery, may be associated with the reduced blood pressure. ...
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Deep sea water (DSW) commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.
... Deep seawater contains various beneficial mineral ions and it has the preventive effect on hepatic steatosis disease caused by high-fat diet and atherosclerosis [21,22]. It may also improve cardiovascular hemodynamics and have the potential as an effective substance for diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and atopic dermatitis [23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
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Compared with the common marine renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and wave energy, etc., the hydraulic pressure stored in the deep seawater can output stable and successive energy flow. Thus, it can be directly coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) process to supply drinkable mineral water for crews of Deep Sea Space Station (DSSS). We proposed a novel submarine RO desalination system driven by the hydraulic pressure of deep seawater (SHP-RO), composed of a desalination branch to generate fresh water and a back pressure branch to ensure the depth independence of the desalination. The influences of the deep sea environment on the RO were analyzed, based on which the pretreatment of the seawater and the preparation of the drinkable mineral water were studied. The turbine-based energy recovery scheme was investigated in virtue of the CFD simulation on the flow behavior in the different turbine series. It was predicted that, when the DSSS was located at the depth of 1100 m and the operating pressure of the RO process was 6.0 MPa, for a drinkable water production rate of 240 m³/d, the recovered hydraulic pressure energy can achieve 39.22 kW·h, which was enough for driving electricity consumers in the SHP-RO system.
... 23 Furthermore, there is a negative relationship between fecal lipid excretion and lipid levels in mice. 26 Therefore, it is reasonable to explain that the amino acid composition and Mg content in this BV-based supplement contributes to the reduced serum triglyceride, cholesterol, and AST levels in rats fed with an HFD (Table 2). Moreover, the lower serum lipid always results in lower serum lipid peroxidation (TBARS values, Table 1). ...
Article
Background: An imbalanced fat or excess energy intake always results in obesity and increased serum/liver lipids, thus leading to metabolic syndromes. Given the bioactive components in the black vinegar (BV), such as branched amino acids, phenolic profile, and mineral contents. Here, we investigated the antiobesity effects of BV-based supplements in rats fed a high-fat diet. Results: A high-fat diet (HFD, 30% fat, w/w) feeding increased (p<0.05) body weight gains, weights of livers, as well as mesenteric, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissues, and serum/liver triglyceride levels relative to those of normal-diet (4% fat, w/w) fed (CON) rats. These increased values were ameliorated (p<0.05) by supplementing BV-based supplements but still higher (p<0.05) than those of CON rats. The increased areas of perirenal adipocytes in rats fed with a high-fat diet were also decreased (p<0.05) by supplementing BV-based supplements, which might result from an upregulation (p<0.05) of AMPK, CPT1, and UCP2 in the perirenal adipose tissues. A similar effect was observed for AMPK, PPARα, RXRα, CPT1, and UCP2 gene and protein levels in livers (p<0.05). Generally, BV-based supplements increased the fecal triglyceride, cholesterol, and bile acid levels of rats fed with a high-fat diet, which partially contribute to the lipid-lowering effects. Furthermore, BV-based supplements increased (p<0.05) hepatic Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and lowered (p<0.05) serum/liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in HFD fed rats. Conclusion: In a chronic high-fat dietary habit, the food-grade BV-based supplement is a good daily choice to ameliorate obesity and its associated co-morbidities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Our data also indicated that fecal levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the HFD+DSW groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those in the HFD group (Table 3). Our previous study indicated that consuming Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ -rich DSW increases the fecal output of cholesterol and triglycerides in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet [24]. ...
Article
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Deep sea water (DSW) is a natural marine resource that has been utilized for food, agriculture, cosmetics, and medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DSW has beneficial lipid metabolic effects in an animal model. Our previous in vitro study indicated that DSW significantly decreased the intracellular triglyceride and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DSW also inhibited the gene levels of adipocyte differentiation, lipogenesis, and adipocytokines, and up-regulated gene levels of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. In the present study, the results showed that body weight, liver, adipose tissue, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, and serum parameters in the high-fat diet (HFD) + DSW groups were significantly lower compared to the HFD group. Moreover, the fecal output of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the HFD + DSW groups was significantly higher than that of the HFD group. Regarding gene expression, DSW significantly increased the gene levels of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, and decreased the gene levels of adipocytokine in the adipose tissue of rats with HFD-induced obesity. These results indicate a potential molecular mechanism by which DSW can suppress obesity in rats with HFD-induced obesity through lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation.
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An alcoholic fatty liver disease was induced by feeding an ethanol diet. Eight mice per group were randomly assigned to each following group: (1) control liquid diet + 0.5 mL ddH2O; (2) control liquid diet + 150 mg silymarin/kg body weight (BW) in 0.5 mL ddH2O; (3) ethanol liquid diet + 0.5 mL ddH2O; and (4) ethanol liquid diet + 150 mg silymarin/kg BW in 0.5 mL ddH2O. The ethanol diet increased (P < 0.05) liver size and total triglyceride levels but a gavage of silymarin reduced (P < 0.05) them. Silymarin also decreased (P < 0.05) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value, the pathogenic hepatic lipid drop and cytoplasmic vacuolization formation in alcohol-fed mice, with respect to the regulation of lipogenesis and alcohol metabolism, although silymarin did not (P < 0.05) influence 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and alcohol dehydrogenase 7 gene expressions. However, proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily e, polypeptide 1, cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 and catalase were up-regulated in the livers of alcohol-fed mice with a gavage of silymarin.
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The effects of taurine (Tau) in regulation of lipid metabolism and decreasing inflammation in chronic alcohol-fed rats was investigated. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) isocaloric solution; (2) 3 g alcohol/kg BW/day; (3) 3 g alcohol/kg BW/day + 1 g Tau/kg BW/day for 6 weeks. Liver size and serum/liver lipids of alcohol-fed rats were decreased (p < 0.05) by Tau supplementation, but daily fecal lipid/bile acid outputs were increased (p < 0.05). Regarding de novo lipogenesis, Tau downregulated (p < 0.05) fatty-acid biosynthesis and upregulated (p < 0.05) cholesterol metabolism (CYP7A1) and energy expenditure (PPAR-α). Serum AST and ALT, and hepatic TNF-α levels and MMP-9 activity of alcohol-fed rats were decreased (p < 0.05) by Tau supplementation which may be related to the maintenance of higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant levels (lower thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances values and higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) in serum and livers. Our study indicates that Tau downregulates lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in chronic alcohol-fed rats.
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Noni juice (NJ) is rich in phytochemicals and polysaccharides. Lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects of NJ were investigated in this study. Fifty male hamsters were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) normal diet and distilled water (LFCD); (2) high-fat/cholesterol diet and distilled water (HFCD); (3) HFCD and 3 ml NJ (including 0.20 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_L); (4) HFCD and 6 mL NJ (including 0.40 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_M); (5) HFCD and 9 ml NJ (including 0.60 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_H) for six weeks. NJ supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, atherogenic index, malondialdehyde levels, and hepatic lipids in HFCD hamsters, whereas serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, glutathione, and fecal lipids in HFCD hamsters were increased (p < 0.05) by NJ supplementation. Although NJ supplementation downregulated (p < 0.05) sterol regulator element binding protein-1c in HFCD hamsters, it upregulated (p < 0.05) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and uncoupling protein 2 gene expressions in HFCD hamsters. Results demonstrate that NJ promotes cardioprotection in a high-fat/cholesterol diet.
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Our recent studies indicated that electrodialysed deep-sea water (ED-DSW) revealed the cardiovascular health effects, such as hindrances of the dietary-induced evaluation of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and nonhigh-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as improvement of HDL-C/non-HDL-C ratio and blood pressure. In the current study, we further revealed the beneficial effects of ED-DSW on high-cholesterol dietary mice by reducing abnormal cardiac architecture, apoptosis and enhancing insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) cardiac survival signaling compared with those mice that were treated with distilled water, reverse osmosis (RO)-DSW or 10% (v/v) dilution with ddH2O (10% DSW). These findings further clarified the possible mechanisms of cardiac protective effects of ED-DSW and might suggest ED-DSW as an ingredient of cardiovascular health food in some niche markets. Deep-sea water (DSW) has been applied on several fields including aquaculture, agriculture, food processing, cosmetics and medicine. Recently, we have indicated that high-cholesterol dietary mice drinking electrodialysed DSW (ED-DSW) showed decreased serum lipids, blood pressure and improving blood cholesterol profile. In this study, we further demonstrated the beneficial effects of ED-DSW on high-cholesterol dietary mice by reducing abnormal cardiac architecture, apoptosis in left ventricle and increasing cardiac survival signaling, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, phosphoinositide-3-kinases and p-AKT/AKT ratio. Altogether, these findings indicated that ED-DSW revealed the cardiac protective effects and might be suggested as an ingredient of cardiovascular health food in a variety of niche markets.
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Drinking deep seawater (DSW) with high levels of magnesium (Mg) decreased serum lipids in animal studies. Therefore the effects of drinking DSW on blood lipids and its antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemic subjects were investigated. DSW was first prepared by a process of filtration and reverse osmosis, and then the concentrated DSW with high levels of Mg was diluted as drinking DSW. Forty-two hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: reverse osmotic (RO) water, DSW (Mg: 395 mg/L, hardness 1410 ppm), and magnesium-chloride fortified (MCF) water (Mg: 386 mg/L, hardness 1430 ppm). The subjects drank 1050 mL of water daily for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected and analyzed on weeks 0, 3, and 6. Drinking DSW caused a decrease in blood total cholesterol levels and this effect was progressively enhanced with time. Serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was also decreased by DSW. Further, total cholesterol levels of subjects in the DSW group were significantly lower than those in the MCF water or RO water groups. Compared with week 0, the DSW group had higher blood Mg level on weeks 3 and 6, but the Mg levels were within the normal range in all three groups. DSW consumption also lowered thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values in serum. In conclusion, DSW was apparently effective in reducing blood total cholesterol and LDL-C, and also in decreasing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and cardiovascular function of Sprague-Dawley normotensive and mineralocorticoid-salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive rats. The rats were pair-fed for 5 wk a purified diet containing either a normal or magnesium-supplemented diet (1.5 or 10 g/kg diet). Magnesium supplementation significantly lowered blood pressure levels in hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive rats. Heart rate was not affected in either group. The blood pressure-lowering effect of magnesium supplementation in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats was associated with a lower in vivo cardiovascular reactivity to norepinephrine and angiotensin II. Norepinephrine reactivity in isolated aortae from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats was not modified by magnesium supplementation. However, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was improved and could be related to the release of endothelial relaxant factors. Magnesium supplementation did not affect cardiac hemodynamics in isolated heart from either normotensive or DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, no protective effects upon myocardial ischemia and ventricular arrhythmias were demonstrated. These findings suggest that the lowering effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive rats may be related to a vascular effect of magnesium that reduces vascular tone. Mechanisms related to the pathophysiological development of mineralocorticoid-salt hypertension may be involved.
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Conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) refers to a group of octadecatrienoic acid isomers that have three double bonds in conjugation. Both pomegranate and tung seed oils are rich in CLN but the major isomer in the former is cis9,trans11,cis13 while in the latter it is cis9,trans11,trans13. The present study examined the effects of CLN, isolated from either pomegranate seed oil or tung seed oil, and alpha-linolenic acid (LN), isolated from flaxseed oil, on serum cholesterol levels in male hamsters (body weight 105 g; age 10 weeks) fed a 0.1% cholesterol and 10% lard diet, for a period of 6 weeks. All hamsters were allowed free access to food and fluid. The blood samples were taken by bleeding from the retro-orbital sinus into a heparinized capillary tube under light ether anaesthesia after overnight fasting at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. It was found that supplementation of CLN at levels of 12.2-12.7 g/kg diet exhibited no significant effect on serum cholesterol level while LN at a similar level of supplementation had serum cholesterol reduced by 17-21% compared with the control diet containing no LN and CLN. Supplementation of CLN and LN significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol but no effect was observed on heart and kidney cholesterol levels. It was concluded that LN possessed hypocholesterolaemic activity while CLN had no effect on blood cholesterol, at least in hamsters.
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Increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and/or decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are major risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. An oxidative modification of LDL represents a key process in atherogenesis. It is well known that the LDL/HDL ratio is more important than the individual LDL and HDL levels to predict atherosclerosis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of mildly oxidized LDL (minimally modified LDL: MM-LDL) and HDL, administrated alone or in combination, on the production and release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in culture. MM-LDL and HDL have opposite effects on aortic SMCs: MM-LDL increases both bFGF production and release and SMC proliferation, while HDL decreases both bFGF production and release and SMC proliferation. The effects of either MM-LDL or HDL on SMCs are mediated through a Gi-protein-coupled receptor. The simultaneous treatment of SMCs with MM-LDL and HDL (MM-LDL/HDL ratio=4.0) produced the inhibition of MM-LDL effects. Our data suggest that the protective role of HDL could also be exerted through the inhibition of the pro-atherosclerotic effects of MM-LDL on SMCs.
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Background.— In recent years, several authors have noted that oral calcium treatment was associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol level. Methods.— Calcium carbonate was examined for its ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were examined in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Patients were treated with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet targeted at the American Heart Association Step-1 diet for 8 weeks before and while receiving placebo or calcium carbonate (9.98 mmol [400 mg] of elemental calcium) three times daily with meals for 6 weeks. Patients were then crossed over to the alternate treatment for an additional 6-week period. Results.— ComparedCompared with placebo, calcium carbonate achieved a 4.4% reduction in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and a 4.1 % increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased by 6.5% with calcium carbonate treatment. Calcium carbonate treatment did not significantly affect blood pressure or serum levels of triglycerides, lipoprotein Apo B, or calcium. Relative urinary saturation rations of calcium oxalate levels were unchanged during calcium carbonate therapy. Compliance with diet and treatment was excellent and no significant adverse effects were noted. Conclusions. Thus, calcium carbonate was a modestly effective and well-tolerated adjunct to diet in the management of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in this clinical study.(Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:2441-2444)
Article
Deep sea water (from a depth of more than 200 m) has cold temperature, abundant nutrients, and good water quality that is pathogen-free and stable. Basic research on the utilization of this water for fisheries in Japan began in 1976 and at present, deep-seawater pumping systems are established in Toyama and Kochi Prefectures and under construction in Shizuoka and Okinawa Prefectures. The research emphasis of many national organizations, prefectures, universities, and private companies is shifting from basic research to feasibility studies or practical applications of deep sea water. For example, in Kochi Prefecture, located in southern Japan, it was found that deep sea water is advantageous in the aquaculture of cold-water species. Current fisheries-related projects include: • aquaculture (sea vegetables, fishes, shellfish, etc.) • basic research on deep sea organisms • restoration of sea grass habitats A wide range of projects unrelated to fisheries that are utilizing deep sea water to develop new industries and contribute to local economies include: • the food industry • medical treatment facilities • cooling water for power stations • agriculture of cold climate vegetables Future investigations should focus on further explorations of deep sea water attributes, a cascade system for using deep sea water, reduction of costs, and potential environmental impacts.
Article
Background.— In recent years, several authors have noted that oral calcium treatment was associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol level.
Article
Numerous clinical reports suggest the beneficial effects of chelation therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive and controversial. The purpose of this present study was to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of chelation liquid (CHL) in experimental atherosclerosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 45 days. In the prophylactic phase of the study subcutaneous 300 mg EDTA + 500 mg magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) injections (five rabbits) and isotonic saline (five rabbits) were given to test and control groups, respectively, along with cholesterol rich diet. The CHL treatment ameliorated the rise of serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations, lowered serum calcium concentrations and reduced the aortic atheroma. In the therapeutic phase of the experiment the cholesterol diet was stopped and the remaining 10 animals were returned to normal diet. Five of these rabbits were given CHL injections and other five animals were given isotonic saline injections for 121 days. Although the level of cholesterol and triglyceride were not significantly different in the two groups, the serum calcium concentration and the percentage of the area of flate aortic specimen occupied by atheroma were significantly lower in the CHL treated rabbits as compared to controls. It is concluded that CHL injections have a definite prophylactic effect on atherogenesis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, and may have some therapeutic value in the regression phase. Further confirmatory studies are suggested.
Article
To clarify the beneficial roles of naturally occurring organic ligands on the growth of phytoplankton in newly upwelled water, phytoplankton culture experiments using disphotic zone water were conducted to discriminate between the effects of EDTA in the detoxification of certain toxic metal ions and increasing the availability of essential metals. Culture media were prepared by adding EDTA and Chelex-100, separately or in combination, to disphotic zone water samples. Our proposed working hypothesis is that phytoplankton growth can be enhanced by removing toxic metal ions from culture media by Chelex-100 and by detoxification of toxic metal ions or increasing the availability of essential metals by EDTA. A shortening of the lag period and an increase of the specific population growth rate were clearly observed after the addition of Chelex-100; nd EDTA. The effects of EDTA were more considerable than those of Chelex-100; a 17 to 44% in shortening the lag period and a 35 to 56% increase in the growth rate, when comparing the effects of Chelex-100 with those of EDTA. The similar effects of removing toxic metal ion by Chelex-100 as those of detoxification by EDTA suggested that EDTA has a role not only of detoxification but also of increasing the availability of essential metals. The present study suggests that the low productivity in newly upwelled water observed by Barber and Ryther (1969) can be ascribed to both toxic metal ions and a lack of available forms of essential metals because of their low contents of free natural organic ligands.
Article
High-fat/cholesterol diets (HFCD) formulated by addition of butter (BU), coconut oil (CO), or flaxseed oil (FX) enhanced (P < 0.05) serum lipids of hamsters compared to the low-fat/cholesterol diet (Control). However, FX groups showed a hypocholesterolaemic effect compared to CO and BU groups. Lower (P < 0.05) hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol contents were measured in FX groups than those of CO and BU groups; whereas, higher (P < 0.05) faecal triacylglycerol and cholesterol contents were observed in FX groups. HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression was upregulated (P < 0.05) by HFCD, whilst FX groups showed no (P > 0.05) influence on LDL-receptor mRNA expression compared to that of Control groups; however, higher (P < 0.05) than those of CO and BU groups. Meanwhile, there was a tendency towards higher CYP7A1 expression in the CO or FX group than the BU group. Thus, the hypocholesterolaemic effect of FX might result from increases of LDL-receptor mRNA expression, and cholesterol catabolism/output.
Article
We demonstrated previously that dietary calcium suppression of calcitriol reduces adipocyte Ca(2+), suppresses lipogenesis, and increases lipid utilization during energy restriction. Notably, dairy calcium sources exert markedly greater effects. To determine the effects of dietary calcium and dairy products on energy partitioning during subsequent refeeding, we induced obesity in aP2-agouti transgenic mice with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, then restricted energy intake from a high-calcium (1.3%) diet for 6 wk to induce fat loss, and then provided free access to a low-calcium (0.4%) diet or to high-calcium (1.3%) diets that utilized either calcium-fortified foods or dairy products (milk or yogurt) for 6 wk. Refeeding the low-calcium diet caused the regain of all weight and fat, whereas all high-calcium diets reduced fat gain by 55% (P < 0.01). All high-calcium diets stimulated adipose tissue uncoupling protein (UCP)2 and skeletal muscle UCP3 expression (P < 0.001) and slightly increased core temperature (P = 0.136), but only the dairy-based diets elicited a marked (>10-fold, P < 0.001) increase in skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha expression. All 3 high-calcium diets produced significant increases in lipolysis, decreases in fatty acid synthase expression and activity, and reduced fat regain (P < 0.03), but the 2 dairy-containing high-calcium diets exerted significantly greater effects on regain (P < 0.01). Thus, high-Ca diets elicit a shift in energy partitioning and reduction of weight gain during refeeding, with dairy Ca sources exerting markedly greater effects.
Article
Deep seawater (DSW) utilization technology has been developed for the fields of medicine and health, among others. To clarify the health effects of DSW as compared with surface seawater (SSW) or tap water (TW), we investigated the changes of immune cell distribution of the peripheral blood, or subjective judgment scores, after hot water bathing. Ten healthy young men were immersed for 10 min in DSW, SSW and TW heated to 42°C. Blood samples were collected before bathing, immediately after bathing and 60 min after bathing. Total and differential numbers of leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, and CD56) were examined using an automated hematology analyzer and a flow cytometer, respectively. The subjective judgment scores were obtained by an oral comprehension test. Since the pre-bathing leukocyte count in the TW group was significantly different from those in the DSW and SSW groups, we excluded the findings of TW bathing from consideration. In hot DSW bathing, CD8-lymphocytes increased significantly immediately after bathing (p<0.05), in contrast to hot SSW bathing, in which no significant changes were detected in the lymphocyte subsets. Additionally, there were no significant changes between repeated measurements in the subjective judgment scores, though the score of thermal sensation in SSW bathing showed a significantly higher value immediately after bathing than before bathing (p<0.01). Our findings suggest that increased CD8-lymphocytes in hot DSW bathing may improve human immune function as well as hot springs do, as compared with SSW bathing. Although hot DSW bathing may have the ability to change human immune cell distribution, well-designed studies are needed to clarify the health effects including not only DSW and SSW but also TW.
Article
The climate record obtained from two long Greenland ice cores reveals several brief climate oscillations during glacial time. The most recent of these oscillations, also found in continental pollen records, has greatest impact in the area under the meteorological influence of the northern Atlantic, but none in the United States. This suggests that these oscillations are caused by fluctuations in the formation rate of deep water in the northern Atlantic. As the present production of deep water in this area is driven by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and continental runoff, atmospheric water transport may be an important element in climate change. Changes in the production rate of deep water in this sector of the ocean may push the climate system from one quasi-stable mode of operation to another.
Article
In recent years, several authors have noted that oral calcium treatment was associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol level. Calcium carbonate was examined for its ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were examined in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Patients were treated with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet targeted at the American Heart Association Step-1 diet for 8 weeks before and while receiving placebo or calcium carbonate (9.98 mmol [400 mg] of elemental calcium) three times daily with meals for 6 weeks. Patients were then crossed over to the alternate treatment for an additional 6-week period. Compared with placebo, calcium carbonate achieved a 4.4% reduction in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and a 4.1% increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased by 6.5% with calcium carbonate treatment. Calcium carbonate treatment did not significantly affect blood pressure or serum levels of triglycerides, lipoprotein Apo B, or calcium. Relative urinary saturation ratios of calcium oxalate levels were unchanged during calcium carbonate therapy. Compliance with diet and treatment was excellent and no significant adverse effects were noted. Thus, calcium carbonate was a modestly effective and well-tolerated adjunct to diet in the management of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in this clinical study.
Article
The objectives to be achieved by a medical therapy of constipation are: 1) to protect the patient from excessive use of dangerous drugs (laxatives), 2) to help the patient to understand what is a "normal" intestinal function, 3) to reduce or eliminate pain and 4) to avoid complications. The first step consists in general measures (reduced stress, regular meals and physical exercise) and some modifications in diet habits (greater than 1.5 1 of water a day, vegetables, fruits, whole wheat bread). The pharmacological therapy is based on drugs which act in different ways: a) some contain unabsorbable substances (i.e. cellulose, emicellulose) that increase the volume of the stools: b) unabsorbable sugars (i.e. lactulose, lactose) or salts (Mg-sulphate, citrate and Na-sulphate) that provoke an osmotic effect and stimulate the colonic motility; c) suppositories that stimulate the defecation reflex; d) drugs able to stimulate colonic secretion and propulsive motility (i.e. anthraquinones, oral bisacodyl, phenolphthalein, castor oil, prokinetics). There are many conditions in which medical therapy fails its objective: in these cases it is important to exclude other causes of constipation (i.e. drug-related constipation, endocrine disorders, metabolic diseases, systemic illnesses or lesion of the enteric plexus) in order to obtain an improvement of this symptom.
Article
The effect of dietary magnesium (Mg) on the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits was investigated. Male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 31) were placed on five kinds of diets: regular, 1% cholesterol, and 1% cholesterol diets supplemented with either 300, 600, or 900 mg (as Mg) of Mg sulfate. The regular and 1% cholesterol diets contained 400 mg of Mg per 100 g. Each rabbit received 100 g daily of the appropriate diet. Additional Mg was well tolerated and did not affect blood pressure or body weight. The rabbits were sacrificed after 10 weeks, and the oil red O-positive atherosclerotic area that covered the aortic intima and the cholesterol content of the aorta was measured. Additional Mg decreased both the area of the aortic lesions and the cholesterol content of the aortas in a dose-dependent manner. The 1% cholesterol diet significantly increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. Additional Mg had no further effect on cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations, but it slightly decreased the rise in triglyceride concentration. These results indicate that dietary Mg prevents the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits by inhibiting lipid accumulation in the aortic wall.
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the magnesium balance in DOCA + NaCl (S)-treated rats and the role of the parathyroid and thyroid glands in these changes during such treatment. A large loss of magnesium in the urine is observed during the onset of DOCA + S treatment, but the magnesium balance was higher after 3 weeks of treatment than in normal untreated rats. DOCA + S treatment provoked the same magnesium losses in the urine of rats without a parathyroid gland and without a thyroid gland. However, the magnesium balance was higher in rats still possessing their thyroid gland. Thus, it appears that the thyroid gland is necessary to provoke a gain in the magnesium balance during mineralocorticoid treatment.
Article
Plasma lipoprotein levels and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, used as a marker of aortic rigidity, were evaluated in 53 young subjects with borderline hypertension by comparison with normotensive controls of the same age and body surface area. Subjects with body weight excess, exaggerated alcohol intake, and/or tobacco consumption were excluded from the study. Borderline hypertensive patients were characterized by significantly higher values of pulse wave velocity and plasma levels of glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein subfraction HDL3, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a). There were no group/sex interactions. A significant dyslipidemia was observed in 13 males of the 53 borderline hypertensive subjects. Only in this subgroup did subjects exhibit a strong positive relationship between pulse wave velocity and either plasma total cholesterol or apolipoprotein B. The correlation was observed even after adjustment for blood pressure. The study provides evidence that, in young males with borderline hypertension, some abnormalities of plasma lipoproteins requiring treatment may be present and are associated with an increased stiffness of the arterial wall.
Article
Magnesium is one of the most abundant ions present in living cells and its plasma concentration is remarkably constant in healthy subjects. Plasma and intracellular magnesium concentrations are tightly regulated by several factors. Among them, insulin seems to be one of the most important. In fact, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that insulin may modulate the shift of magnesium from extracellular to intracellular space. Intracellular magnesium concentration has also been shown to be effective on modulating insulin action (mainly oxidative glucose metabolism), offset calcium-related excitation-contraction coupling, and decrease smooth cell responsiveness to depolarizing stimuli, by stimulating Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. A poor intracellular magnesium concentration, as found in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in hypertensive (HP) patients, may result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity at the insulin receptor level and exaggerated intracellular calcium concentration. Both events are responsible for the impairment in insulin action and a worsening of insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic and hypertensive patients. By contrast, in NIDDM patients daily magnesium administration, restoring a more appropriate intracellular magnesium concentration, contributes to improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Similarly, in HP patients magnesium administration may be useful in decreasing arterial blood pressure and improving insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The benefits deriving from daily magnesium supplementation in NIDDM and HP patients are further supported by epidemiological studies showing that high daily magnesium intake to be predictive of a lower incidence of NIDDM and HP. In conclusion, a growing body of studies suggest that intracellular magnesium may play a key role on modulating insulin-mediated glucose uptake and vascular tone. We further suggest that a reduced intracellular magnesium concentration might be the missing link helping to explain the epidemiological association between NIDDM and hypertension.
Article
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, thirty-three subjects were allocated to undergo either a 4-week treatment with oral Mg supplementation (Mg(OH)2; 411-548 mg Mg/d) or a placebo. The urinary excretion of Mg increased significantly in both the first 2 weeks and the following 2 weeks of Mg supplementation, while the urinary Na excretion also increased significantly over the experimental period. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased significantly in the Mg group, but not in the placebo group. The urinary aldosterone excretion and packed cell volume increased significantly during the last 2 weeks of the experimental period compared with the run-in period and first 2 weeks of supplementation. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the values for urinary noradrenaline excretion and diastolic blood pressure at the end of the supplementation period (both expressed as a percentage of the run-in value). Statistically significant increases in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43; LCAT), HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI were also observed after Mg supplementation. A significant positive correlation was observed between the levels of LCAT and urinary Mg excretion for the experimental period (expressed as a percentage of the run-in value). The total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio decreased significantly during the last 2 weeks of Mg supplementation compared with the first 2 weeks and the run-in periods, but this did not occur in the placebo group. These results suggest that Mg supplementation may lower blood pressure through the suppression of the adrenergic activity and possible natriuresis, while also improving the serum lipids through the activation of LCAT in human subjects.
Article
An increase in magnesium intake has been suggested to lower blood pressure (BP). However, the results of clinical studies are inconsistent. We studied the effects of magnesium supplementation on office, home, and ambulatory BPs in patients with essential hypertension. Sixty untreated or treated patients (34 men and 26 women, aged 33 to 74 years) with office BP >140/90 mm Hg were assigned to an 8-week magnesium supplementation period or an 8-week control period in a randomized crossover design. The subjects were given 20 mmol/d magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide during the intervention period. In the control period, office, home, and average 24-hour BPs (mean+/-SE) were 148.6+/-1.6/90.0+/-0.9, 136.4+/-1.3/86.8+/-0.9, and 133.7+/-1.3/81.0+/-0.8 mmHg, respectively. All of these BPs were significantly lower in the magnesium supplementation period than in the control period, although the differences were small (office, 3.7+/-1.3/1.7+/-0.7 mmHg; home, 2.0+/-0.8/1.4+/-0.6 mmHg; 24-hour, 2.5+/-1.0/1.4+/-0.6 mm Hg). Serum concentration and urinary excretion of magnesium increased significantly with magnesium supplementation. Changes in 24-hour systolic and diastolic BPs were correlated negatively with baseline BP or changes in serum magnesium concentration. These results indicate that magnesium supplementation lowers BP in hypertensive subjects and this effect is greater in subjects with higher BP. Our study supports the usefulness of increasing magnesium intake as a lifestyle modification in the management of hypertension, although its antihypertensive effect may be small.
Article
Alterations in gastrointestinal motility and hormone secretion, especially activation of the ileal brake, have been documented in malabsorption. To investigate whether artificially-induced accelerated small intestinal transit activates the ileal brake mechanism. Eight healthy volunteers (four female, four male; age 21 +/- 3 years) participated in four experiments: (a) meal with either oral magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) or placebo; and (b) fasting with either oral MgSO4 or placebo. Antroduodenal motility was recorded by perfusion manometry. Duodenocaecal transit time was determined by the lactulose H2 breath test. Gall-bladder volume was measured by ultrasound at regular intervals, and blood samples were drawn for determination of cholecystokinin and peptide YY (RIA). Twenty-four hour faecal weight and fat excretion were determined. MgS04 significantly accelerated duodenocaecal transit time and increased faecal fat and weight in all subjects. MgSO4 significantly delayed the reoccurrence of phase III and affected antroduodenal motility during fasting but not after meal ingestion. Postprandial gall-bladder relaxation and postprandial peptide YY release were significantly increased during the MgSO4 experiment compared to placebo. The osmotic laxative MgS04 accelerates intestinal transit both in the fasting and fed state. MgS04 activates the ileal brake mechanism only in the fed state, with peptide YY release and inhibition of gall-bladder emptying.
Article
The potent anti-hypertensive peptide, RPLKPW, has been designed based on the structure of ovokinin(2-7). The sequence encoding this peptide was introduced into three homologous sites in the gene for soybean beta-conglycinin alpha' subunit. The native alpha' subunit as well as the modified, RPLKPW-containing alpha' subunit were expressed in Escherichia coli, recovered from the soluble fraction and then purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The RPLKPW peptide was released from recombinant RPLKPW-containing alpha' subunit after in vitro digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. Moreover, the undigested RPLKPW-containing alpha' subunit given orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg exerted an anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats, unlike the native alpha' subunit. These results provide evidence for the first time that a physiologically active peptide introduced into a food protein by site-directed mutagenesis could practically function in vivo even at a low dose.
Article
Functional constipation in children is a common problem in daily practice, however there is currently no accepted optimal treatment of choice. This study investigated the effect of cisapride in the treatment of pediatric constipation when combined with magnesium oxide (MgO). This prospective study enrolled children with chronic constipation. They were randomly assigned to either MgO (125 mg three times a day for patients weighing less than 20 kg or 250 mg three times a day for those weighing more than 20 kg), or cisapride 0.2 mg/kg (max 5mg/dose) plus MgO for 4 weeks. Twenty-one doctors in 19 major medical centers or hospitals in Taiwan with well- established pediatric departments participated in this study from October 1999 to March 2000. 84 children (51 males, 33 females, 1-7 years of age) with fewer than 2 spontaneous bowel movements per week for at least one month completed the study. After 1 week of therapy, a good response, defined as 3 or more bowel movements per week, was achieved in 30 (68.2%) of children treated with cisapride and MgO compared with 23 (57.5%) children treated with MgO alone (p=n.s.). At the end of the 4-week treatment period, 90.9% of the children in cisapride group compared with 67.5% of the children in MgO group achieved a good response (p=0.013). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the side effects and stool characteristics. In conclusion, it appears that cisapride in combination with MgO may have a synergistic effect and improves the frequency of stool passage in pediatric functional constipation.
Article
To determine the effect of supplementation with calcium citrate on circulating lipid concentrations in normal older women. As part of a study of the effects of calcium supplementation on fractures, we randomly assigned 223 postmenopausal women (mean [+/- SD] age, 72 +/- 4 years), who were not receiving therapy for hyperlipidemia or osteoporosis, to receive calcium (1 g/d, n = 111) or placebo (n = 112) for 1 year. Fasting serum lipid concentrations, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, were obtained at baseline, and at 2, 6, and 12 months. After 12 months, HDL cholesterol levels and the HDL cholesterol to LDL cholesterol ratio had increased more in the calcium group than in the placebo group (mean between-group differences in change from baseline: for HDL cholesterol, 0.09 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02 to 0.17; P = 0.01); for HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio, 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.08; P = 0.001). This was largely due to a 7% increase in HDL cholesterol levels in the calcium group, with a nonsignificant 6% decline in LDL cholesterol levels. There was no significant treatment effect on triglyceride level (P = 0.48). Calcium citrate supplementation causes beneficial changes in circulating lipids in postmenopausal women. This suggests that a reappraisal of the indications for calcium supplementation is necessary, and that its cost effectiveness may have been underestimated.
Article
To investigate whether low dietary Mg2+ intake influences the development of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (spSHRs) and whether these effects are associated with vascular functional and structural changes, and to assess the role of reactive oxygen species and the activation of vascular mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in these processes. Six-week-old male spSHRs (n = 18) were divided into three groups: control (normal chow, 0.21% Mg2+ ), low Mg2+ group (Mg2+ -free diet), and high Mg2+ group (Mg2+ -rich diet, 0.75%). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed weekly for 16 weeks. In a second series of experiments, 6-week-old spSHRs (n = 18) were divided into three groups and studied weekly for 7 weeks: control group, low Mg2+ group, and low Mg2+ group receiving the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol (1 mmol/l). The low Mg2+ diet caused an initial decrease in SBP followed, 5 weeks later, by an exacerbated development of hypertension. This was associated with a transient reduction in the plasma concentrations of substances associated with the thiobarbituric acid reaction (markers of oxidative stress), which increased rapidly 2 weeks later. In the low Mg2+ group, acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation was decreased compared with that in controls ( P<0.05). The media : lumen ratio was greater in rats receiving a low Mg2+ diet than in those fed a high Mg2+ diet ( P<0.05). Mg2+ depletion was associated with increased vascular superoxide anion compared with that in Mg2+ -supplemented rats (1.2 0.24 compared with 0.65 0.1 nmol/min per mg). Phosphorylation of MAP kinases was increased two- to threefold in Mg2+ -deficient rats. Tempol prevented the progression of hypertension and normalized the vascular changes in rats fed a low Mg2+ diet. Chronic Mg2+ deficiency leads to development of severe hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodelling. These processes are associated with oxidative stress and upregulation of redox-dependent MAP kinases. Tempol normalized vascular changes and attenuated the development of hypertension. Our findings suggest that reactive oxygen species play an important part in vascular processes that are associated with progression of hypertension in Mg2+ -deficient spSHRs.
Article
In the United States variations from state to state in death rates from cardiovascular diseases have been unexplained on dietary, racial, or social bases. One variable environmental influence to which all persons are exposed is potable water. Statistical analyses of water hardness and death rates from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease, and noncardiovascular diseases, showed highly significant correlations for all but noncardiovascular causes. Similar relationships were demonstrated for caucasoid men, aged 45 to 64 years, by state and, in the case of coronary disease, in the 163 largest cities. Of 21 constituents of finished municipal water in each city, highly significant correlations were found for magnesium, calcium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, dissolved solids, specific conductance, and pH. In all cases correlations were negative, i. e., softer water was associated with higher death rates. Some factor either present in hard water or missing or entering in soft water appears to affect death rates from degenerative cardiovascular disease.
Article
High serum cholesterol, hypertension and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and together with insulin resistance form a deadly disorder referred to as the metabolic syndrome. All the aspects of this syndrome are strongly related to dietary and lifestyle factors; therefore, it would be reasonable to look for dietary approaches to their modification. Mineral nutrients, such as calcium, potassium and magnesium, lower blood pressure, and especially calcium has beneficial effects also on serum lipids. Recent evidence suggests that increased intake of calcium may help in weight control as well. This review summarizes previous literature on the effects and use of dietary minerals on serum lipids, blood pressure and obesity, with specific focus on the effects of calcium. Calcium and magnesium as divalent cations can form insoluble soaps with fatty acids in the intestine and thus prevent the absorption of part of the dietary fat. Decreased absorption of saturated fat leads to reduction in serum cholesterol level via decreased production of VLDL and increased intake of LDL in the liver. Dietary calcium may also bind bile acids, which increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. Furthermore, calcium appears to enhance the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols. Thus, dietary combination of the mineral nutrients and plant sterols provides a promising novel approach to the modification of cardiovascular risk factors.
Article
When normal rabbits were administered various samples of deep-sea water, their biochemical values changed within normal limits, and no differences from distilled water administration (control) group levels were observed. Furthermore, no histopathological changes were observed in internal organs on the 28th day after administration. The serum total cholesterol (T-Cho) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Cho) levels of normal rabbits fed with a 1% cholesterol-containing diet simultaneously administered deep-sea water (desalinated water, hardness 28, 300, and 1200) increased with time up to about 1500 mg/dl. However, the degrees of increase were smaller than those of the control group, which received distilled water. Furthermore, when prepared hyperlipemia rabbits were administered deep-sea water (desalinated water, hardness 28, 300, and 1200), there were no significant changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Cho), or triglyceride (TG) levels. On the other hand, T-Cho and LDL-Cho levels were reduced when the rabbits were changed to normal food, and the degree of reduction was more than that of the control group. In the liver and main artery bow, as the hardness of the deep-sea water increased, the accumulation of lipid and permeation of macrophages was reduced. This result was well in agreement with the results of the T-Cho and LDL-Cho levels. From these results, it is clear that deep-sea water controls the increase of serum lipid values (T-Cho and LDL-Cho) of cholesterol-fed rabbits, and promotes the reduction of serum lipid hyperlipemia rabbits. The minerals in deep-sea water greatly influence this effect.
Article
The use of deep seawater (DSW) in thalassotherapy has begun in Japan. To clarify the health effects of DSW on the human body, we investigated the changes in plasma lactate and pyruvate concentrations, or subjective judgment scores, after bathing at rest in 9 healthy young men. Subjects were immersed for 10 minutes in DSW, surface seawater (SSW), and tap water (TW) heated to 42 degrees C. Plasma samples were collected before bathing, immediately after bathing, and 60 minutes after bathing. The scores were obtained by an oral comprehension test. In the DSW bathing, plasma lactate and pyruvate concentrations showed no significant changes immediately after bathing or 60 minutes after bathing. In contrast, subjects who bathed in SSW showed a significant decrease in lactate concentrations 60 minutes after bathing compared with immediately after bathing. Subjects who bathed in TW showed a significant increase in lactate concentrations immediately after bathing compared with before bathing, and they showed a significant decrease in lactate and pyruvate concentrations 60 minutes after bathing. We found no significant change in the thermal sensation score in the DSW bathing, though significant differences were found between before and immediately after bathing in the SSW and TW groups. Moreover, the score decreased significantly 60 minutes after bathing compared to immediately after bathing in the TW bathing. Higher concentrations of salts contained DSW such as sodium, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, and silicate-silicon may have a good influence on human health. Although additional studies are needed to support our findings, DSW is the mildest water to the human body among the three kinds of water, since no significant changes in the items measured were found only in DSW.
Article
Alterations in the metabolism of calcium and magnesium have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension. Calcium influx across the external cellular membrane in smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes plays a crucial role in the control of cellular excitation contraction and impulse propagation. Intracellular calcium and magnesium concentrations are controlled by reversible binding to specific calcium-binding proteins. The calcium and magnesium flux across the external membrane is regulated by a calcium pump (calcium-magnesium-ATPase), calcium channels, and binding to the membrane. In cell membranes and in lymphocytes of essential hypertensives our group showed increased calcium and a decreased magnesium and increased calcium/magnesium ratio in hypertensive cells. In this context, in aortic smooth muscle cells from 13 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the Münster strain (systolic blood pressure 188.4 ± 9.8 mm Hg) and 13 normotensive rats (NT, systolic blood pressure 118.5 ± 7.2 mm Hg) aged 9 months, the intracellular calcium and magnesium contents were measured under nearly in vivo conditions by electron probe microanalysis. Measurements were performed in aortic cryosections 3 μm thick; the calcium content was 124.7 ± 4.5 mmol/kg dry weight in SHR versus 110.3 ± 4.1 mmol/kg dry weight in NT (mean ± SD, P < .01 for both), the magnesium content was 35.5 ± 3.9 in SHR versus 50.1 ± 4.9 mmol/kg dry weight in NT (P < .01 for both). The calcium/magnesium ratio was significantly increased in SHR versus NT (3.56 ± 3.9 versus 2.23 ± 0.27 [P < .01 for both]). Thus, aortic smooth muscle cells from SHR are characterized by a markedly elevated intracellular calcium and decreased intracellular magnesium contents compared with normotensive cells. Cellular calcium and magnesium handling is disturbed in SHR aortic smooth muscle cells as it is in hypertensive blood cells. The increased calcium/magnesium ratio in hypertensive cells is a pathogenetic factor for the development of arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2004;17:59–62 © 2004 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.
Article
Various processed foods and beverages have been manufactured using deep seawater (DSW), desalted DSW (dDSW), and concentrated DSW in Japan. To confirm the safety of dDSW, we investigated hematologic and blood chemical effects of dDSW in mice. The dDSW and desalted surface seawater (dSSW) were diluted to 6.7%, 10%, and 20% with purified water. BALB/c mice were housed for 12 weeks, and administered the diluted dDSW, dSSW, or purified water as a control during the period. The results for dDSW were compared with those for dSSW and purified water. None of the groups of mice showed any clear abnormal growth or behavior; neither did any show signs of illness nor a single case of death during the 12 weeks study. We found no significant differences between the dDSW and control groups in terms of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, and neutrophil counts, whereas white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the 10% dSSW group at the end of 4 and 12 weeks than those in the control group. A significantly higher triglyceride level was detected only in the 6.7% dSSW group. Our results show no evidence of acute or subacute effects of diluted dDSW. Effects of diluted dDSW on hematologic and blood chemical values in mice are thought to be similar to those of purified water. This finding suggests that dDSW is as safe as purified water for drinking water.
Article
Using surface and deep seawater collected in the sea area of Muroto Cape (Kochi, Japan), desalinated drinking samples of about 1200 hardness were prepared and examined for the effects on the prevention of atherosclerosis in dietary induced hyperlipidemia rabbits. The plasma LDL cholesterol level was lower in the deep seawater group than in the surface seawater group. GPx activity was significantly higher in the deep seawater group than in the control group, while there was no difference between the surface seawater and control groups. The level of LPO was also significantly lower in the deep seawater group than in the control group. The Sudan IV lipid stained area ratio on the inner surface of the aorta was significantly lower in the deep seawater groups than in the control group, while there was no difference between the surface seawater and control groups. The oil red O stained cross section of the aorta in the control and surface seawater administration group foam cells had accumulated to form thick layers, while in the deep seawater administration group, the degree of their accumulation was very low. These results suggested that the deep seawater was useful for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis compared to the surface seawater, and it was found that reduction of the LDL cholesterol level and enhancement of GPx activity were involved in its effects.
Article
The ASTEROID trial (JAMA 2006; 295:1556-1565) showed that very intensive statin therapy with rosuvastatin 40 mg once daily results in highly significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis as assessed by serial intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). The mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level achieved with this regimen was 61 mg/dL, and the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level increased by 15%. While the merits of concomitant LDL-C-lowering and HDL-C-raising therapies remain to be determined, the results of the ASTEROID and other recent trials suggest that the optimal strategy for lipid-lowering in patients with coronary artery disease is to try for the lowest LDL-C level that can be attained without adverse effects.
Article
The coexistence of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia from youth may increase the prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease and stroke. We thus investigated haemodynamics of mild hypertension in young Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolaemic (KHC) rabbits aged 10-12 months old, as models of heritable hypercholesterolaemia. Pressure and flow waves were simultaneously recorded at the ascending aorta with a catheter-tip micromanometer and ultrasonic flow meter under pentobarbital anaesthesia, respectively. Systolic (119.3 +/- 6.5 and 138.4 +/- 7.4 mmHg (mean +/- SD) for control and KHC rabbit groups; p < 0.001), diastolic (95.7 +/- 6.1 and 109.8 +/- 5.2; p < 0.001), mean (105.8 +/- 6.5 and 122.5 +/- 4.9; p < 0.001) and pulse (23.7 +/- 2.5 and 28.6 +/- 4.0; p < 0.001) pressures as well as total peripheral vascular resistance (0.32 +/- 0.02 and 0.37 +/- 0.03 mmHg/ml/min; p < 0.001) were significantly greater in the KHC rabbit group than those in the age-matched control rabbit group, respectively, while there were no significant differences in the mean aortic flow, heart rate or stroke volume between the two rabbit groups. Aortic input impedance (p < 0.05) and reflection coefficient (p < 0.05) were significantly greater at lower frequency in the KHC rabbit group than in the control rabbit group, whereas there was no significant difference in the characteristic impedance between the two rabbit groups. Plasma angiotensin I (p < 0.01) and II (p < 0.01) levels and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity (p < 0.05) were significantly greater in the KHC rabbit group than in the age-matched control rabbit group. Atheromatous plaque was in the early stage and composed mainly of abundant foam cells. Neither sclerotic lesions nor stenosis were observed in main peripheral arteries. The mild hypertension in young KHC rabbits was due partly to the increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system. These findings may be thought provoking in elucidating the mechanism and developing preventive and therapeutic strategies in young patients with coexistent hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia.
Article
Adiponectin influences insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation. Because low plasma adiponectin concentrations are suspected to promote atherosclerosis, we retrospectively assessed relationships of plasma adiponectin concentration to characteristics of coronary heart disease (CHD). Japanese men undergoing coronary angiography for CHD (n = 139) were grouped according to serum adiponectin concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (low, <4.0; medium, 4.0-8; high, >8.0 microg/mL). Numbers of coronary arteries with at least 50% stenosis were determined. Serum adiponectin concentration correlated positively with age at onset of CHD (r = 0.285, P = .003). Age at CHD onset in the low-adiponectin group was younger than in the medium or high groups. Adiponectin was protective against CHD onset at ages younger than 58 years (relative risk, 0.778; P = .0047). Significantly more arteries were affected in low-adiponectin patients than in the medium or high group (each P < .01). Adiponectin concentration correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and negatively with triglyceride concentration. Only in diabetic patients did serum adiponectin concentration correlate negatively with body mass index. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations were associated with early CHD onset and multiple atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries. Thus, adiponectin concentrations may influence risk of CHD and might serve as one of the screening tests facilitating early intervention.
Article
Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence indicates an inverse association between Mg(2+) levels (serum and tissue) and blood pressure. Magnesium may influence blood pressure by modulating vascular tone and structure through its effects on numerous biochemical reactions that control vascular contraction/dilation, growth/apoptosis, differentiation and inflammation. Magnesium acts as a calcium channel antagonist, it stimulates production of vasodilator prostacyclins and nitric oxide and it alters vascular responses to vasoactive agonists. Mammalian cells regulate Mg(2+) concentration through specialized influx and efflux transport systems that have only recently been characterized. Magnesium efflux occurs via Na(2+)-dependent and Na(2+)-independent pathways. Mg(2+) influx is controlled by recently cloned transporters including Mrs2p, SLC41A1, SLC41A1, ACDP2, MagT1, TRPM6 and TRPM7. Alterations in some of these systems may contribute to hypomagnesemia and intracellular Mg(2+) deficiency in hypertension. In particular increased Mg(2+) efflux through altered regulation of the vascular Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger and decreased Mg(2+) influx due to defective vascular and renal TRPM6/7 expression/activity may be important. This review discusses the role of Mg(2+) in vascular biology and implications in hypertension and focuses on the putative transport systems that control vascular magnesium homeostasis. Much research is still needed to clarify the exact mechanisms of Mg(2+) regulation in the cardiovascular system and the implications of aberrant transcellular Mg(2+) transport in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
Article
The present study aimed to show whether long-term moderate magnesium (Mg)-deficient (150 mg/kg) and Mg-supplemented (3200 mg/kg) diets (versus control diet: 800 mg/kg), modified the occurrence of cardiovascular risk induced by aging in the rat. Cardiovascular and arterial functions were determined by a systemic hemodynamic study and by ex vivo measurements of vasoconstriction and endothelium dependent-vasorelaxation. Arterial wall structure was determined using pressure myograph chamber and histomorphometric methods. The main changes observed in old rats (96 weeks old) fed a control diet, in comparison to adult rats (16 weeks old) were increased pulse pressure, a loss of aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation, increased aortic wall thickness and a decrease of the aortic wall elastin/collagen ratio. Long-term moderate Mg deficiency progressively increased systolic blood pressure. Intra-arterial pulse pressure was higher in Mg-deficient old rats than in age-matched control rats. Histological examination showed that Mg deficiency increased the age-induced deleterious effects on composition and structure of aorta (media thickness, increased collagen content and reduction in the elastin/collagen ratio), which lead to large artery rigidity. Hypertension and increased pulse pressure may have contributed to the increase in the mortality rate observed in the hypertensive Mg-deficient group. Although the long-term Mg-supplemented diet lowered blood pressure and decreased the mortality rate, it had no significant effect on aortic wall thickening and stiffening. It is suggested that a long-term and moderate Mg-deficient diet increases age-induced arterial thickness and stiffness in rats, and thus increases the cardiovascular risks incurred by aging.
Kaiyo shinousui ni yoru atopy sei hihuen no tiryou. (Medical treatment of atopic dermatitis using deep seawater)
  • NOMURA
NOMURA, T. 1995. Kaiyo shinousui ni yoru atopy sei hihuen no tiryou. (Medical treatment of atopic dermatitis using deep seawater). Magazine Kaigan 34, 7–10 (in Japanese).
Dietary magnesium supplementation modifies blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mineralocorticoid-salt hypertensive rats but not in normotensive rats
  • LAERANT