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Exploring the When and Why of Schadenfreude

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Abstract

We summarize the empirical work on schadenfreude, or pleasure felt at someone else's misfortune. Although schadenfreude is a socially undesirable emotion, research reveals at least three conditions in which it commonly arises. One condition is when observers gain from the misfortune. We discuss research showing that gains in ingroup outcomes based on the failures of rival outgroups can create schadenfreude, especially for those highly identified with their ingroups. A second condition is when another's misfortune is deserved. We focus on research showing that the misfortunes of hypocrites are perceived as highly deserved and therefore create schadenfreude in observers. A third condition is when a misfortune befalls an envied person. We summarize studies showing that the core ingredients of envy prime the envying person for schadenfreude when the envied person suffers.

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... These, as a result, pose a threat to democracies (Spohr, 2017;Bishop, 2009) Growth of fake news and misinformation Increasing ideological polarization may drive the dissemination and production of online disinformation (Shin et al., 2017). For example, some people may create fake news to discredit their political opponents (Allcott and Gentzkow, 2017) Hate speech and Schadenfreude In ideologically polarized contexts, radical Internet users may make hate speech and schadenfreude (which refers to the enjoyment obtained from others' troubles, see Smith et al., 2009) A good example was seen when Margaret Thatcher, the former British prime minister, passed away in 2013. Given her controversial right-wing policies in the 1980s, many of her pro-Labour opponents reacted unsympathetically by, for example, holding street parties for celebration (Burns, 2013;Neild, 2013) (McQuail, 2010). ...
... As a social movement activist, Lee had a series of political expressions which were considered extreme and aggressive. While her death was reported neutrally by some media with little coverage on her previous controversial actions, many pro-democracy supporters celebrated online, as they considered Lee's acts should be condemned and suggested that her death due to COVID-19 was due to her wrongdoing (Smith et al., 2009). For example, Sunny Lam, an Internet celebrity-singer, wrote a derivative song (Song No. 2) to celebrate, with karma and retribution emphasized in the lyrics. ...
... At least from the attackers' perspective, these may be considered as institution actions that lead to their polarized actions (Wilson et al., 2020). When Lee died, people expressed happiness and looked forward to the misfortune arrival at Carrie Lam (the Chief Executive) and the Hong Kong Police Force (Smith et al., 2009) ...
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Article
Purpose The impact of ideological polarization has been a serious concern, given its damages to society. In addition, Schadenfreude is increasingly common in the era of ideological polarization. Previous literature may have discussed the cause and outcomes of schadenfreude in general but not specifically related to ideological polarization. This study aims to serve to establish a more informed understanding of online schadenfreude as an outcome of ideological polarization and help society recover from the damages. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopted a case research method with netnography for our study, given that the authors are exploring the phenomena of online schadenfreude, which involves multiple dimensions. Findings The authors identified a three-level model that illustrates how schadenfreude is driven as an outcome of ideological polarization, i.e. macro-environment, camp/partisan and target. These factors of different levels involve political viewpoint differences, perceived appearance, personal conduct, aggressive norms and polarized environment with a lack of conventional opinion expression channel. Moreover, attackers may demonstrate a belief in Karma, creativity and a sense of humor and may call for actions. Originality/value While previous literature focused on the relationship between fake news, echo chambers and ideological polarization, this study is a relatively earlier one on studying schadenfreude as an outcome of ideological polarization, which would facilitate to formulate the solution to repair the damages created to ideological polarization. The authors also discussed the enablers as well as the self-reinforcing nature of ideological polarization, and provided some practical implications for politicians and government officials.
... Schadenfreude is the joy experienced by individuals when observing others' misfortunes. It is typically happening in competitive circumstances (Smith et al., 2009), correlates with selfesteem (van Dijk et al., 2011), and occurs at individual and group levels (Brambilla & Riva, 2017). Schadenfreude can be caused by a threat to one's self-worth (van Dijk et al., 2015) and others' success (Leach & Spears, 2008). ...
... gives an observer gain, schadenfreude tends to occur (Smith et al., 2009). ...
... Second, schadenfreude tends to occur when observers see that others deserve the misfortune because of their hypocrisy or sense of injustice over a person who suffers from the misfortune (Smith et al., 2009). In this way, the observers view the misfortune as a logical answer to that hypocrisy and injustice. ...
... Such an interpretation is supported by the inspection of the confusion matrices (Fig. 3), where it can be seen that, among the four possible classification decisions (amusement, embarrassment, schadenfreude, other), participants were least likely to classify laughs as schadenfreude. Although participants were native English speakers provided with a definition of this emotion, and there is evidence that the concept of schadenfreude can be properly translated to English (e.g., Smith, 2013;Smith et al., 2009), future studies could be improved by including attention checks that would specifically probe participants' understanding of schadenfreude. Finally, there might be an overlap between the categories of amusement and schadenfreude, the latter being defined as pleasure at someone else's misfortune (Smith et al., 2009). ...
... Although participants were native English speakers provided with a definition of this emotion, and there is evidence that the concept of schadenfreude can be properly translated to English (e.g., Smith, 2013;Smith et al., 2009), future studies could be improved by including attention checks that would specifically probe participants' understanding of schadenfreude. Finally, there might be an overlap between the categories of amusement and schadenfreude, the latter being defined as pleasure at someone else's misfortune (Smith et al., 2009). This problem of potentially overlapping production contexts might extend to all three laughter production contexts, since a person can simultaneously experience amusement and embarrassment. ...
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Article
Laughter is a ubiquitous and important social signal, but its nature is yet to be fully explored. One of the open empirical questions is about the role of context in the interpretation of laughter. Can laughs presented on their own convey specific feelings and social motives? How influential is social context when a person tries to understand the meaning of a laugh? Here we test the extent to which the classification of laughs produced in different situations is guided by knowing the context within which these laughs were produced. In the current study, stimuli were spontaneous laughs recorded in social situations engineered to elicit amusement, embarrassment, and schadenfreude. In a between-subjects design, participants classified these laughs being assigned to one of the four experimental conditions: audio only, audio-visual, side-by-side videos of two interactants, and side-by-side videos accompanied by a brief vignette. Participants’ task was to label each laugh as an instance of amusement, embarrassment, or schadenfreude laugh, or “other.” Laughs produced in situations inducing embarrassment were classified more accurately than laughs produced in other situations. Most importantly, eliminating information about the social settings in which laughs were produced decreased participants’ classification accuracy such that accuracy was no better than chance in the experimental conditions providing minimal contextual information. Our findings demonstrate the importance of context in the interpretation of laughter and highlight the complexity of experimental investigations of schadenfreude displays.
... Malicious envy, a dysfunctional form of envy that "motivates to damage the position of the envied person" (van de Ven et al., 2009, p. 428), is a likely reaction from perceived inferiority in economic i-deals since an individual's place in the social hierarchy becomes compromised ("why don't I have i-deals like that right now?") (Reh et al., 2018;Smith, 2000;Wood, 1989). When someone experiences malicious envy, they may engage in ostracism as a less direct or obvious way to relieve the sense of malicious envy (Smith, 2000;Smith et al., 2009). Workplace ostracism is "when an individual or group omits to take actions that engage another organizational member when it is socially appropriate" (Robinson et al., 2013, p. 206). ...
... When worker A perceives worker B as inferior in economic exchange i-deals, worker A's current attainability of i-deals will bring feelings of superiority and joy over worker B's misfortune, leading to the undermining of worker B and increased work engagement for worker A. Pleasure from the misfortune of others is a contrastive emotional reaction referred to as schadenfreude (Smith et al., 2009). Differences in economic exchange i-deals such as financial incentives likely contribute to an overall competitive environment within the organization. ...
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Article
Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) are customized work arrangements that employees negotiate with their employer. Despite the burgeoning growth, ideals research is primarily focused on the benefits to the recipients without sufficiently considering how differences in ideals across group members can have implications at the group and individual levels. To better guide the nascent literature, we (a) conceptualize content, quantity, and magnitude as the three key bases upon which ideals can differ; (b) explain why content of ideals can reflect social or economic exchange; and (c) define relative ideals , that is, how individual group members' ideals compare to coworkers, and group ideals differentiation, that is, the degree of variability in team member ideals , in actual and perceptual terms. In our multilevel theory development of differences in ideals , we offer propositions on (a) effects of perceived relative ideals on outcomes at the individual level, (b) effects of actual and perceived group ideals differentiation on outcomes at the group level, and (c) perceived group ideals differentiation as a moderator of the effects of perceived relative ideals at the individual level. Lastly, we conclude with managerial implications and future directions for research.
... Schadenfreude is a social emotion characterized by the malicious joy people sometimes feel in response to observing others' misfortunes (Smith, Powell, Combs, & Schurtz, 2009; van Dijk & Ouwerkerk, 2014a). Importantly, schadenfreude is passive and distinct from actions that might cause suffering, such as seeking direct revenge or punishing others by actively inflicting pain (Leach, Spears, & Manstead, 2015). ...
... Taking pleasure in another's suffering is socially unacceptable, but this is exactly how people react sometimes. Previous research has shown how schadenfreude arises during intergroup competition or when envied, disliked, or immoral social targets are believed to be getting what they deserve (Feather, 2014;Hareli & Weiner, 2003;Smith et al., 2009). The current research, however, proposed and found support for a novel hypothesis that the accidental misfortunes of people with strong justworld beliefs elicit schadenfreude and that even when these people are not at all responsible for their predicament, perceivers subjectively assign greater deservingness to their misfortunes. ...
Article
When witnessing misfortunes, people sometimes react with schadenfreude—malicious pleasure at another's suffering. Previous research suggests that schadenfreude is elicited for competitors and envied targets, or when misfortunes seem deserved. Six experiments (five pre-registered, N-total = 3324) support a novel hypothesis that perceivers feel greater schadenfreude for social targets who endorse a strong general belief in a just world (BJW), even when misfortunes occur outside of the typical conditions that elicit schadenfreude. Experiments 1–2 show that people feel schadenfreude at the accidental misfortune of a person who expresses strong BJW, based in part on their misfortune seeming more deserved. Experiment 3 demonstrates the same effect for a wealthy, strong-BJW target who suffers a life-changing misfortune. In Experiment 4, we demonstrate that perceivers infer stronger BJW from a wealthy (vs. poor) person and that these inferences lead to increased perceptions that the misfortune was deserved, resulting in greater schadenfreude. Finally, Experiments 5–6 show that the effect of target BJW on schadenfreude via perceived deservingness is moderated by a target's financial status, such that endorsing strong BJW is particularly consequential for wealthy and middle-income targets. We conclude that even when people are not responsible for their predicaments, perceivers believe the misfortunes of people with strong just-world beliefs are more fitting and therefore derive more pleasure at their expense. The current research builds on and extends both schadenfreude and just-world belief literatures by documenting a unique antecedent of schadenfreude based on perceivers' inferences or knowledge regarding how someone generally views their world.
... A brand crisis "can seriously impact an organizations' performance and generate negative outcomes" (Coombs, 2015, p. 3) and is, therefore, a great misfortune for the brand and the company behind it. For disidentifiers, such a situation may, thus, give rise to not only negative emotions but also pleasure and joy in response to the brand's misfortune, that is, schadenfreude (Feather & Sherman, 2002;Leach, Spears, Branscombe, & Doosje, 2003;Smith, Powell, Combs, & Schurtz, 2009). Cikara and Fiske (2012) presented three conditions that commonly predict schadenfreude: when observers gain from the misfortune; when another's misfortune is deserved; and when misfortune befalls an envied person but, likewise, a brand. ...
... Emotional reactions may be different in an accident or a victim crisis (Coombs, 2010). Schadenfreude is most likely to occur when another's misfortune is perceived as deserved (Smith et al., 2009;van Dijk, Goslinga, & Ouwerkerk, 2008), which is clearly true for preventable crises caused by management misconduct, as in the VW case. However, it is unclear whether disidentified consumers differentiate between crisis types or whether they are completely consumed by their state of rejecting the company. ...
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Article
This research explores how consumers react in a crisis situation that happens to a brand with which they disidentify. Consumer–brand disidentification (CBD) is a state of self‐categorization regarding the separation from and rejection of a brand. It predestines individuals to move away from and go against the misbehaving company because the failure of the object of disidentification provides a perfect opportunity for them to validate their identity. We argue that disidentification is closely related not only to a person's propensity to behave but also to feel in a specific way. Surveys data were collected in the United States and Germany to answer the research question regarding the role of emotions in the relationship between CBD and consumers' intention to demonstrate brand‐opposition behavior. Volkswagen, which experienced a crisis related to its manipulation of emission tests, served as the brand stimulus. The results show that CBD can stimulate hostile emotions and schadenfreude, which can function as mediators of the influence of disidentification on brand opposition (negative word‐of‐mouth, brand avoidance, punishing the brand). This research contributes to the growing body of research on the “dark side” of consumer‐brand relationships and its perils for brands. It also enhances understanding of the role of emotions in (dis)identification and social identity research and widens the scholarship on emotions in crises. Managerial implications include to thoroughly consider trade‐offs of creating a strong and unique brand that may give rise to disidentification; monitoring negative voices, especially online; and differentiating disidentified consumers from other types of opposing stakeholders.
... However, the necessary condition for experiencing schadenfreude is the personal importance of the misfortune for the individual (van Dijk et al., 2015). To the extent, an individual appraises envy, deservingness and personal gain toward the object of misfortune, he/she is likely to feel schadenfreude (Smith et al., 2009). Research suggests that millennials are unlikely to feel sympathy toward luxury brands; in fact, they are likely to draw pleasure at their misfortune. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to theorize counterfeit luxury consumption among millennials from a generational identity perspective. Design/methodology/approach The paper proposes and tests a model of counterfeit buying behavior using an online survey of 467 millennial respondents. The study uses multi-item measures from the extant literature and uses the structural equation modeling technique to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings The findings reveal when millennials have a self-defining relationship with their generation, they tend to internalize the generational norm pertaining to counterfeit luxury consumption. Millennials’ counterfeit related values: market mavenism, postmodernism, schadenfreude and public self-consciousness contribute to their generational identity. Moreover, market mavenism, cool consumption and public self-consciousness establish counterfeit luxury consumption as a generational norm. Practical implications The findings of this paper suggest that the expertise and influence of market mavens can be used to deter counterfeit consumption. Moreover, luxury brands must communicate a cool image to offset the rebellious image of counterfeits. Further, from a standardization versus adaption standpoint, the generational perspective allows for the standardization of anti-counterfeiting campaigns. Originality/value The paper makes a novel contribution to the counterfeiting literature by demonstrating that millennials pursue counterfeit luxury brands when they pledge cognitive allegiance to their generation. The paper, thus, extends the identity perspective of counterfeit luxury consumption to group contexts. The authors also test and validate the role of descriptive norms in group contexts by introducing the construct generational norm to counterfeiting literature.
... Another possible explanation for this result may be schadenfreude, which refers to the "pleasure felt at someone else's misfortune" (Smith et al., 2009, p. 530). One condition that may create schadenfreude is when the misfortune of others is perceived as deserved (Smith et al., 2009). Thus, when people watch Squid Game they may find that the characters in the series deserve the negative consequences they experience from their gambling in the game, as all the characters ended up in this situation due to problematic or illegal behavior (e.g., gambling problem, lack of employment, debts, life of crime, etc.). ...
Article
Media exposure for dark consumption products mostly shows glamorized and positive portrayals, rarely showing the negative consequences of consuming those products. However, the Netflix series Squid Game addresses the issue of gambling in its most extreme forms and shows the negative consequences related to it in a shocking manner, which begs the question whether watching the series could act as a preventive tool to increase risk perceptions, de-normalize gambling and reduce gambling behavior. A pre-registered survey study (N = 271) examined whether watching the Netflix series Squid Game affected young adults' (18 to 35 years old) gambling intentions and play behavior through risk perceptions, subjective norms and attitudes toward gambling, and what role audience involvement plays. Although the results show that watching Squid Game increased young adults' subjective norms of gambling (i.e. belief that significant others approve of the behavior in question) and further increased their positive attitudes toward gambling and gambling intention, the study also found an important impact of audience involvement. Audiences who were more involved with the series saw greater risks of gambling and perceived gambling to be less common. This resulted in more negative attitudes toward gambling and further less gambling intention and more motivation to change gambling behavior due to watching Squid Game.
... Schadenfraude is a concept referring to deriving pleasure from someone else's misfortunes. One of the most typical setngs for this phenomenon is when an in-group observes out-group misfortune (Smith et al., 2009). In the case of degenerate streaming, many watchers frequently express an obvious sentment of schadenfraude. ...
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Thesis
Streaming, also referred to as vlogging, is the act of providing real-time video content over the internet. This activity encompasses numerous sub-genres such as video gaming and irl (”in real life”). Degenerate streaming is a new sub-genre often consisting of belligerent public behavior and drug abuse. Streamers sometimes receive monetary donations for their efforts from their audience. The actors taking part in this variety of streaming can be said to embody features of an antihero, a concept appearing in literature since antiquity. An antihero is a central character in a work of fiction who often lacks moral fortitude, resorting to dubious behavioral patterns in order to reach their goals. A dark triad personality is used in scientific literature to describe individuals with a history of psychopathic, opportunistic (i.e. Machiavellian), and narcissistic characteristics. This study frames the public personas of Finnish degenerate streamers as antiheroes in the context of the dark triad personality; their public communications are also analyzed within this framework. The topic is approached using a qualitative data-analysis of a total of 24 hours of degenerate streaming as well as with character typologies. The data-set consists of material created by five individual streamers. The main themes found in this material are identified and further categorized into sub-themes. In the analysis section of this study the life histories and potential root causes of degenerate streamers are discussed; a poor economical standing and mental health issues were identified as contributing factors. Some correlations with Finnish public political discourse are also suggested. This thesis contains descriptions of potentially upsetting events, such as domestic violence.
... For example, one's rival becomes more difficult to vanquish when that rival acquires the support of an ally-a logic that plays out on both interpersonal and international stages-and that can be costly to oneself (e.g., Barakzai & Shaw, 2018;DeScioli & Kurzban, 2009;Liska, 1962). Reciprocally, reductions in the welfare of one's welfare suppressors can be perceived as beneficial to oneself (e.g., Aktipis et al., 2018;Aronson & Cope, 1968;Smith et al., 2009). For example, if a third-party newcomer opposes and antagonizes one's rival-insofar as that antagonism requires an outlay of the rival's finite time and energy to manage-it likely renders one's rival easier to vanquish, or at least leaves less time for the rival to antagonize oneself, which can be beneficial for oneself. ...
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Preprint
Research on close relationships has tended to focus on the dyad (e.g., friends, romantic partners, rivals). Less attention has been paid to the myriad third parties who impact our social lives through their own relationships with our dyadic partners. What drives our feelings toward such third parties? A classic formalist theory, Balance Theory, suggests we like third parties who share our feelings toward our existing partners (and dislike those who do not) because of affective balance. Here, we propose a new embedded dyad framework which foregrounds the substantive indirect effects that third parties can have on our outcomes through their relationships with our partners. Consistent with the embedded dyad framework, we find that people like third parties who share our hatred for our rivals and our love for our friends (as predicted by both views); but we dislike those who share our love for our spouses (countering Balance Theory). Further supporting predictions uniquely derived from an embedded dyad framework, (a) greater perceived exclusivity in positive dyadic relationships (e.g., friendships) drives dislike toward third parties who share our love for our positive partners; (b) greater perceived welfare suppression by our negative partners (e.g., rivals) drives liking toward third parties who share our hatred of our negative partners. This framework thus critically extends cognitive consistency views by emphasizing the real costs and benefits of navigating dyadic relationships within larger social networks.
... A similar reasoning can be used to achieve a greater understanding of the emotion called Schadenfreude, which refers to the sensation of pleasure that arises from perceiving a rival feeling pain(Leach et al., 2003;Smith et al., 2009). In my view, Schadenfreude is nothing more than the joy that comes from realizing success in accomplishing the end of eliminating a threat, which in this case is a rival.Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Article
The goal of this article is to develop a theory about the evaluation process in order to offer a perspective that is potentially capable of parsimoniously explaining a series of phenomena. I argue that not only is categorical thinking shared by humans and other animals, but also certain types of categorization (“what is something?”; “what end to seek?”; “by what means?”; “was there success in accomplishing the end?”), which I understand to be aligned in a mat of categorizations, constituting what I call the basic evaluation process. I hypothesize that within this evaluation process there are five options for basic categorizations pathways (BCP), namely: “identification of patterns in the novelty”; “acquisition of the benefit”, “promotion of the good of the other”; “elimination of the threat”; and “escape the threat”. Thus, the basic evaluation process would follow a certain path depending on the type of categorization “what is something?” performed (“a novelty”, “a benefit”, “an ally (or potential ally) in difficulty”, “a threat that can be eliminated”, or “a threat that cannot be eliminated”). Finally, I defend the idea that if the mental architecture of humans is composed of ancestral structures such as BCPs, it is then possible to locate BCP as being at the root of innumerable subjective phenomena of our species.
... Smith et al., 2009) and harsher legal punishment (Laurent et al., 2014) when perceived as hypocritical rather than not. Then, how do people determine deserved condemnation or punishment for hypocritical wrongdoings? ...
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Article
People often say one thing while doing another, and are therefore criticized as hypocrites. Despite the widespread criticism of hypocrites, relatively less is known about factors that influence moral judgment of hypocrisy. In particular, why are some word-deed inconsistencies condemned more harshly than others? The current research focuses on word-deed inconsistency as a common manifestation of hypocrisy, and examines targets' competence as one important factor that influences moral judgment of hypocrisy. We propose and test a Calculating Hypocrites Effect that people perceive hypocrites as less moral than non-hypocrites (i.e., who transgress with vs. without inconsistent claims), particularly when the targets are high rather than low on competence. Across four studies where competence was either measured (Study 1) or manipulated as expertise (Study 2), occupational status (Study 3) and skills (Study 4), we found support for the presumed Calculating Hypocrites Effect. When the targets were high (vs. low) on competence, people interpreted their misaligned words with deeds as more intentional (Study 2) and self-interested (Study 4), which in turn accounted for their severity of moral judgment. Moreover, the Calculating Hypocrites Effect applied even when the targets were competent in domains unrelated to their hypocritical deeds (Study 3). We conclude that perception of competence is an important factor that determines when, and for whom, hypocrisy incurs moral outrage.
... This inability to afford such prestige and status can manifest envious thoughts to those belonging to wealthier classes (Doss and Robinson, 2013). Research found this perception of inferiority to influence the effect of schadenfreude (Smith et al., 2009). Moreover, envious feelings of discontent aligned with the happiness gained through other's demise. ...
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Article
Purpose-This study aims to investigate how luxury brand attachment (LBA) and perceived envy may influence schadenfreude. In addition, the moderating influence of consumers' need for uniqueness (CNFU) and private vs public consumption is examined. Design/methodology/approach-Data were collected from a consumer panel in Australia. A total of 365 valid and useable responses were analysed through structural equation modelling in AMOS 26. Findings-The results show that LBA has a significant impact on perceived envy. Consumers' perceived envy also results in schadenfreude. However, LBA did not have any significant impact on schadenfreude. The moderating influence of CNFU is partially supported. This research further confirms that consumers' public consumption has more relevance to visible social comparison and potential feelings of malicious envy towards others. Practical implications-The research model may work as a strategic tool to identify, which group of consumers (e.g. high vs low attachment) displays stronger envy and schadenfreude. Brand managers can also explore the personality traits and psychological dynamics that influence the consumers to express emotional bonds and malicious joy within the context of consumer-brand relationships. Originality/value-This is one of the first few studies that have examined the relationships amongst consumers' brand attachment, perceived envy, schadenfreude and need for uniqueness within a luxury branding context.
... For example, marketing research finds that rivalries increase consumers' desire to win and their willingness to pay (Häubl and Popkowski Leszczyc, 2019) and that rivalry associations can be transferred from parent brands to extension categories, affecting extension evaluations (Pontes and Pontes, 2021). Sports marketing researchers examine the role of sincerity in how schadenfreudepleasure, joy or satisfaction that comes from the misfortune, failures, troubles or humiliation of othersaffects the effectiveness of rivalry game sponsorships (Smith et al., 2009;Tyler et al., 2021), and find that emotionally engaged fans increase their purchase intention of brands that sponsor rivalry games. These findings provide exciting insights into the role of emotions in rivalry relationships. ...
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Article
Purpose-This study aims to demonstrate that feelings of resentment, fueled by perceptions of injustice, underlie the formation of rivalries. Further, this study analyzes how consumers evaluate the two brands that participate in a rivalry relationship. Design/methodology/approach-The research uses four experiments. Study 1 uses two conditions to test whether injustice predicts inter-personal rivalries through resentment. Study 2 uses a one-factor design with three levels (resentment vs contempt vs control) to examine the underlying mechanism of resentment on the formation of a rivalry. Study 3 analyzes the effect of brand rivalries on consumers' brand attitudes. Study 4 uses a 2 (Temporal-focus: past vs future) Â 2 (competitive relationship: resentment vs control) between-subjects experimental design, to test the moderating effects of temporal-focus on consumer brand rivalry perceptions. This experiment replicates the effects of brand rivalries on consumer brand attitudes. Findings-Rivalries have an essential emotional component-resentment-that is fueled by injustice and leads consumers to form more favorable attitudes toward the brand that consumers perceive is treated unfairly (target brand) and more unfavorable attitudes toward the brand that is perceived to treat the other brand unfairly (the rival brand). A future-focused mindset attenuates consumer perceptions of brand rivalries, whereas a past-focused mindset enhances these effects. Originality/value-Prior research has failed to identify the emotional components of rivalries and their effects on consumer choices. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that reveals how attitudes change when consumers are exposed to a brand rivalry.
... Sports sponsorship is an area where "things" (teams) can polarize ideas greatly. While fans may experience the transfer of images to their sponsors for their teams, they can likewise transfer the hostility of a rival team to their sponsor, which is consistent with the 'us' and 'them' group mentality (Smith, et al, 2009). Jenkins and Fleming (2002) stated that a football team sponsorship can have significant risks for brands. ...
... Accordingly, we argue that which emotion observers experience after witnessing abusive supervision depends on their appraisal of how the observed abuse will impact their goal achievement (i.e., conducive versus impeditive to their goal achievement). Indeed, abusive supervision toward coworkers can be both conducive (e.g., winning in the promotion competition and attaining limited organizational resources; Li et al., 2019;Smith, Powell, Combs, & Schurtz, 2009) and impeditive (e.g., violating their justice beliefs or causing fear that they could become future victims of abuse; Harris, Harvey, Harris, & Cast, 2013;Priesemuth & Schminke, 2019) to goal achievement. An important variable capturing an employee's evaluation of his or her own goal achievement resulting from a coworker's miserable encounter (i.e., abuse experience) is the perceived goal competitiveness between the employee (i.e., the observer) and the focal coworker (i.e., the victim), which refers to the extent to which there are incompatible goals and rewards between the two parties (Tjosvold, 1988;Wong et al., 2005). ...
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Article
Witnessing abusive supervision is pervasive in the workplace. Intuitively, observers should respond with empathy. Drawing on appraisal theory of emotion, however, we propose that observers’ emotional and behavioral responses to witnessing abusive supervision depend on the perceived goal competitiveness between observers and victims. Specifically, when perceived goal competitiveness is high or made salient, observed abusive supervision is positively associated with observers’ schadenfreude, which in turn decreases their helping behaviors toward victims. In contrast, when perceived goal competitiveness is low, observed abusive supervision is positively associated with observers’ empathic emotion, which in turn increases their helping behaviors toward victims. Data from one experiment and one multi-wave field study provide support for these hypotheses. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
This chapter argues that Agatha Christie’s Crooked House and Shirley Jackson’s We Have Always Lived in the Castle explore the potential for misappropriation of the good outlaw title. If bystanders ultimately decide whether a crime is justified comeuppance or vindictive poisoning, poisoners themselves may not be able to judge accurately the importance of their grievance and so the justice of their conduct. Although genuinely oppressed in various ways, the self-appointed avengers in both novels may be too deluded or too vindictive to judge appropriately, and so they may threaten the very communities that they imagine they are defending. In exploring the moral complexity of the outlaw poisoner, the novels draw upon the legacy of the early modern witch figure, who was, this chapter argues, viewed alternately as a genuine threat or as a pitiful outcast consoling herself with delusions of vengeance. For both witch and poisoner, this chapter finds that the pleasures of administering comeuppance may easily tip into cruelty and narcissism. Readers may thrill to stories about marginalized women using witchcraft or poison to resist an unfair system, but villains and victims are not always so clear-cut. While social injustices such as gendered double standards and racial or ethnic persecution certainly exist, determining whom to blame may be a surprisingly difficult proposition.KeywordsWitch in literatureFemale avengerOutlawGender
Chapter
This introductory chapter describes the familiar wicked witch-poisoner figure in fairy tales, mythology, history, and literature, and then proposes an alternate tradition that retains the figure’s association between femininity, witchcraft, and poison but reverses its meaning from wicked to heroic. While critics have long recognized male good outlaws (such as Robin Hood) who deliver justified comeuppance to abusive authority figures (like the Sheriff of Nottingham), this chapter contends that critics have overlooked female outlaws—witches and poisoners—who repurpose traditionally female chores (such as cooking) in order to deliver comeuppance for gender and class-based abuse ignored by mainstream justice. By drawing on the quintessentially feminine but also quintessentially powerful figure of the poisoner, this female outlaw poisoner creates an alternate configuration of femininity in which women are, and always were, strong, knowledgeable, supportive of, and supported by other women, despite condemnation by mainstream society. The chapter explores the outlaw poisoner in Golden Age detective fiction, especially in works by Agatha Christie which are too often dismissed by critics as conservative and formulaic. Christie’s outlaw poisoners engage readers’ sympathy and so subvert the detective novel’s expected payoff of catching the culprit. Instead of solving the case like a good little detective, readers enjoy the pleasures of schadenfreude or of witnessing comeuppance, thereby transforming the usually conservative detective story into a site of social critique and subversive pleasure.KeywordsPoisonOutlawSchadenfreude in literatureSensation fictionAgatha ChristieDetective fiction
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Article
The failure to understand the needs, beliefs, and values of others is widely blamed on a lack of empathy, which has been touted in recent years as the necessary ingredient for bringing us together and ultimately for tackling issues of social justice and harmony. In this essay, I explore whether empathy really can serve the role it has been tasked with. To answer this question, I will first identify what empathy is and why its champions believe it plays such an essential role in social life. With this in mind, I contend that promoting empathy on its own may make solidarity among diverse populations more difficult to achieve and undermine social reconciliation. Instead, I argue for a different approach that begins with acknowledging our self-oriented perspective and how it shapes what we see, appreciate, and interpret, before turning to others with a kind of loving attention. Unlike empathy, loving attention allows us to see others as they really are, not as we imagine we would be in their shoes, and is that kind of perception that is necessary for bridging divides and building solidarity in our contemporary world.
Article
Brands’ negative word of mouth (NWOM) generated by their unsatisfied consumers is increasingly transmitted by fans of competing brands. Although extant research has examined the generation of NWOM because of consumers’ negative consumption experience, little is known about the role of fans of rival brands in spreading NWOM of a focal brand and how the focal brand can mitigate this rival NWOM transmission. This research aims to investigate why fans who highly identify with rival brands are willing to transmit the focal brands’ NWOM and how the focal brand can mitigate the NWOM transmission. Through four studies comprising two surveys and two experiments, this article shows that consumers’ identification with rival brands leads to the NWOM transmission of focal brands, and that schadenfreude mediates the effect. Furthermore, NWOM transmission can be attenuated when the focal brand has responded to the original NWOM in an empathic way. This study enriches the word-of-mouth literature and offers important managerial implications.
Article
The willingness to support (or denigrate) high‐profile individuals online was examined across cultures using the Tall Poppy Scale. A sample of 106 Chinese and 164 New Zealand Europeans answered an online questionnaire addressing their preference for high achievers to be rewarded or fail. Participants were asked whether they would vote to support reality TV contestants, and offered further information (about success or failure) on a debrief page. The Favour Reward scale predicted willingness to vote and support others. The Favour Fall subscale tended to predict time spent viewing achievement‐related information on a debrief page. The Chinese sample did not prefer reward of high achievers, instead favoring their fall, but spent less time per click on the debrief page, suggesting they disliked recognizing individual achievement.
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Article
This research aims to examine the form of religious schadenfreude reflected on written comments on news. The data in this study were the documentation of comments on national and international news posted on the Youtube channel of national online news portal such as Tribun, Kompas and Liputan 6. It was found that religious Schadenfreude among Indonesian netizens exists in two major situations: Inter-religious relationship and within the religion itself. This phenomenon occurs in an empathetic situation in the form of religious stereotyping, trash-talking other religions and beliefs, the satisfaction of other’s misfortune. To conclude, the religious schadenfreude phenomenon among Indonesian netizens more likely occurs because society focus on the difference exists within the community. Therefore, promoting the beauty of religious diversity is required to eliminate antipathy and provide another perspective on pluralism and multiculturalism.
Article
Across two studies ( Ns = 268 and 574), we examined the perceived legitimacy of sexual harassment allegations made against male allies. Overall, observers were less inclined to believe an allegation (Studies 1 and 2) and endorsed less severe punishments against a perpetrator who engaged in egalitarian (vs. sexist) behaviors toward women (Studies 1 and 2). Observers also endorsed weaker reparatory measures, were more willing to move past the allegation, and were more inclined to blame the victim for the incident when an egalitarian (vs. sexist) man was accused, especially when there was greater uncertainty surrounding his guilt (Study 2). Importantly, these effects were mediated by perpetrator typicality: the egalitarian perpetrator less closely resembled a typical perpetrator of sexual harassment, which, in turn, predicted more lenient evaluations (Study 2). These findings highlight how accusations of male allies’ problematic behavior can reinforce widespread scepticism surrounding sexual harassment allegations and discriminatory attitudes towards victims.
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Article
This study aims to examine the variables of social relationship, self-esteem, and empathy towards schadenfreude in Pagutan Villagers, Mataram, Indonesia. The researcher hypothesizes that there is a significant influence on the variables of social relations, self-esteem, and empathy towards schadenfreude in Pagutan Villagers. The population in this study is people who live in Pagutan Village and are aged between 22-55 years. The respondents in this study found 500 people. This sample was taken using a non-probability sampling technique, namely purporsive sampling. The researcher used the schadenfreude scale, the social relationship scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the interpersonal reactivity index. Test the validity of the measuring instrument using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) technique. Data analysis used multiple regression technique. The results of data analysis show that communication, selfesteem fantasy, and empathetic attention have a significant effect on schadenfreude. Meanwhile, social contact, perspective taking and its effect are not significant on schadenfreude. The results of the study also obtained an R-square result of .330 or 33%. That is, the proportion of variance from Schadenfreude explained by all independent variables is 33%, while the remaining 67% is influenced by other variables outside this study. The researcher hopes that the results of this study will be reviewed and developed again in further research by adding other variables.
Article
Every day, people face choices which could produce negative outcomes for others, and understanding these decisions is a major aim of social psychology. Here, we show that episodic simulation – a key psychological process implicated in other types of social and moral decision-making – can play a surprising role. Across six experiments, we find that imagining performing actions which adversely affect others makes people report a higher likelihood of performing those actions in the future. This effect happens, in part, because when people construe the actions as morally justified (as they often do spontaneously), imagining doing it makes them feel good. These findings stand in contrast to traditional accounts of harm aversion in moral psychology, and instead contribute to a growing body of evidence that people often cast harming others in a positive light.
Article
This paper proposes a new theory of joy as defined by the elation of right relation, i.e., an intense and temporary feeling of heightened positive emotion as a consequence of a just right fit between our identity and the moment we are experiencing. Diverse domains of joy are explored: emotional, social, cognitive, physical, communal, and ideological. Several ‘paradoxical’ forms of joy are also elucidated, including schadenfreude, self-denial, and ‘killjoy’ attempts to thwart the joy of others. Throughout the paper, promising research questions are presented. At the close of the paper, methodological issues in the investigation of joy are discussed. Researchers are encouraged to investigate joy among a wide range of groups – cultures, countries, ages, genders, and social classes.
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Article
Many individuals become aggressive in reaction to an actual or potential danger, or it can be a learned behaviour that assists them in meeting their needs. Anger is a natural emotion that everyone feels at different moments. It is, in effect, a normal reaction to a challenge, assisting us in preparing for defence or standing up for ourselves It usually occurs as a response to thoughts or feelings such as pain, irritation, worry, envy, discomfort, rejection, or shame. The purpose of this investigation is to examine effects of trait anger (AN) and aggressiveness (AG) on life satisfaction (LS) of general adult population, as well as to determine whether trait anger (AN) moderates the mediating effect of aggressiveness (AG) in the schadenfreude (SCH)-life satisfaction (LS) relationship. 390 individuals responded to an online investigation, selected via convenience sampling. Trait anger was found to moderate the effect of schadenfreude and life satisfaction. Increased levels of aggressiveness were linked to low levels of life satisfaction. Conditional effects found a stronger association between schadenfreude and aggressiveness for those low in trait anger relative to those high in trait anger. Participants with low scores in trait anger and high scores in schadenfreude had higher levels of aggressiveness than individuals with lows cores in trait anger. Conclusions and implications are discussed.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate how luxury brand attachment (LBA) and perceived envy may influence schadenfreude. In addition, the moderating influence of consumers’ need for uniqueness (CNFU) and private vs public consumption is examined. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from a consumer panel in Australia. A total of 365 valid and useable responses were analysed through structural equation modelling in AMOS 26. Findings The results show that LBA has a significant impact on perceived envy. Consumers’ perceived envy also results in schadenfreude. However, LBA did not have any significant impact on schadenfreude. The moderating influence of CNFU is partially supported. This research further confirms that consumers’ public consumption has more relevance to visible social comparison and potential feelings of malicious envy towards others. Practical implications The research model may work as a strategic tool to identify, which group of consumers (e.g. high vs low attachment) displays stronger envy and schadenfreude. Brand managers can also explore the personality traits and psychological dynamics that influence the consumers to express emotional bonds and malicious joy within the context of consumer-brand relationships. Originality/value This is one of the first few studies that have examined the relationships amongst consumers’ brand attachment, perceived envy, schadenfreude and need for uniqueness within a luxury branding context.
Article
Purpose This study aims to demonstrate that feelings of resentment, fueled by perceptions of injustice, underlie the formation of rivalries. Further, this study analyzes how consumers evaluate the two brands that participate in a rivalry relationship. Design/methodology/approach The research uses four experiments. Study 1 uses two conditions to test whether injustice predicts inter-personal rivalries through resentment. Study 2 uses a one-factor design with three levels (resentment vs contempt vs control) to examine the underlying mechanism of resentment on the formation of a rivalry. Study 3 analyzes the effect of brand rivalries on consumers’ brand attitudes. Study 4 uses a 2 (Temporal-focus: past vs future) × 2 (competitive relationship: resentment vs control) between-subjects experimental design, to test the moderating effects of temporal-focus on consumer brand rivalry perceptions. This experiment replicates the effects of brand rivalries on consumer brand attitudes. Findings Rivalries have an essential emotional component – resentment – that is fueled by injustice and leads consumers to form more favorable attitudes toward the brand that consumers perceive is treated unfairly (target brand) and more unfavorable attitudes toward the brand that is perceived to treat the other brand unfairly (the rival brand). A future-focused mindset attenuates consumer perceptions of brand rivalries, whereas a past-focused mindset enhances these effects. Originality/value Prior research has failed to identify the emotional components of rivalries and their effects on consumer choices. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that reveals how attitudes change when consumers are exposed to a brand rivalry.
Chapter
Envy is almost universally condemned and feared. But is its bad reputation always warranted? In this book, Sara Protasi argues that envy is more multifaceted than it seems, and that some varieties of it can be productive and even virtuous. Protasi brings together empirical evidence and philosophical research to generate a novel view according to which there are four kinds of envy: emulative, inert, aggressive, and spiteful. For each kind, she individuates different situational antecedents, phenomenological expressions, motivational tendencies, and behavioral outputs. She then develops the normative implications of this taxonomy from a moral and prudential perspective, in the domain of personal loving relationships, and in the political sphere. A historical appendix completes the book. Through a careful and comprehensive investigation of envy's complexity, and its multifarious implications for human relations and human value, The Philosophy of Envy surprisingly reveals that envy plays a crucial role in safeguarding our happiness.
Book
Envy is almost universally condemned and feared. But is its bad reputation always warranted? In this book, Sara Protasi argues that envy is more multifaceted than it seems, and that some varieties of it can be productive and even virtuous. Protasi brings together empirical evidence and philosophical research to generate a novel view according to which there are four kinds of envy: emulative, inert, aggressive, and spiteful. For each kind, she individuates different situational antecedents, phenomenological expressions, motivational tendencies, and behavioral outputs. She then develops the normative implications of this taxonomy from a moral and prudential perspective, in the domain of personal loving relationships, and in the political sphere. A historical appendix completes the book. Through a careful and comprehensive investigation of envy's complexity, and its multifarious implications for human relations and human value, The Philosophy of Envy surprisingly reveals that envy plays a crucial role in safeguarding our happiness.
Article
Social emotions require the correct integration of emotional, cognitive, and social processes and are critical for complex social interactions. Adolescent criminal offenders (AOs) show abnormalities in the experience of basic emotions. However, most research has focused solely on basic emotions, neglecting complex social emotions that could be critical for social reintegration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of social emotions (envy and Schadenfreude) in AOs. We explored the experience of complex social emotions, as well as their anatomical correlates, in AOs (n = 19) and a nonoffenders control group (NOs, n = 20). Additionally, we assessed the relationship between social emotions, executive functions (EFs), and fluid intelligence (FI). Structural brain imaging was obtained in all participants. The results showed that AOs had significantly lower envy and Schadenfreude ratings and exhibited lower performance in EFs compared with NOs. The measurement of EFs relied on the INECO frontal screening (IFS). Experiencing fewer social emotions was associated with diminished EFs but not with FI. Moreover, in AOs, reduced levels of envy and Schadenfreude were linked with reduced gray matter volumes in regions subserving mentalizing abilities (inferior parietal lobe and precuneus) and socioemotional processing (inferior and middle temporal regions), as well as key hubs of the executive frontoparietal network (inferior parietal lobule, orbital and rectus gyri). Additional analysis on the AOs revealed no associations between the type of crime and our variables of interest (EFs, FI and social emotions). Our findings are the first to provide evidence on abnormalities in the experience of social emotions in AOs that are associated with neurocognitive markers of social cognition and EFs. Understanding social emotions and their abnormalities (under-experience) as complex intertwined processes may have important future translational implications, including risk prediction for social adaptation/reintegration, sociocognitive targeted interventions, and skill training for social emotions in vulnerable populations.
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The present study is an attempt to give a brief overview of despotic leadership research in a chronological order. Starting from the pre-historic era, the study links the concept of despotic leadership with Greek era and explains its existence in other domains which includes sociology and political science. It briefly addresses questions like how despotic leadership evolved from the broader construct of destructive leadership. What are the different types of destructive leaders and how despotic leadership differs from other type? It also covers different consequences of the despotic leadership with multiple themes. The study deeply analyzes the integration of despotic leadership research with multiple behavioral and attitudinal work-related outcomes. Finally, current trends and future directions are proposed for further scientific and logical validation. Keywords: Despotic leadership, Historical Review, Multiple Dimensions, Current and Future Trends.
Article
Schadenfreude is defined as the joy individuals feel as a result of the pain felt by opposing group members. In order to experience schadenfreude, it is not enough for the individual who is suffering to be a member of the opposing group, but also the perceived competitiveness level of the opposing group must be high. Although this basic assumption of Schadenfreude's competitiveness is confirmed by self-report-based techniques, there is no study in the literature addressing the subject's neural bases. The aim of this study is to test the competitiveness assumptions of schadenfreude using the electroencephalography-based ERP method. For this purpose, EEG recordings were taken of 40 individuals who expressed themselves as belonging to a political party while watching the outgroup and ingroup party members in pain. Perception of competition levels of outgroup and ingroup members were manipulated during the study. The results show that pain empathy for the suffering individuals changes in relation to the competition level. Particularly related changes have been observed in late ERP components known to be related to consciousness. In this context, our study contributes to the literature as the first confirmation of the assumptions of schadenfreude competitiveness level by neuroscientific methodology.
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Article
Although emotions punctuate almost all the significant events in our lives, the nature, causes, and consequences of the emotions are among the least well understood aspects of human experience. Despite their apparent familiarity, emotions are an extremely subtle and complex topic which was neglected by many social scientists and philosophers. Emotions are highly complex and subtle phenomena whose explanation requires an interdisciplinary and systematic analysis of their multiple characteristics and components. Providing such an analysis is the major task of my book. The book is unique in the broad perspective it takes on emotions: it provides both a conceptual framework for understanding emotions and a detailed analysis of the major emotions. Part I provides an answer to the question : "What is an emotion?" It does so by analyzing the typical characteristics and components of emotions, distinguishing emotions from related affective phenomena, classifying the emotions, and discussing major relevant issues such as: emotional intensity, functionality and rationality, emotional intelligence, emotions and imagination, regulating the emotions, and emotions and morality. The principal emotions discussed in Part II are envy, jealousy, pity, compassion, pleasure-in-others'- misfortune, anger, hate, disgust, love, sexual desire, happiness, sadness, pride, regret, pridefulness and shame.
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Chapter
When someone else suffers a mishap, a setback, a downfall, or another type of misfortune, people often experience sympathy and have feelings of concern and sorrow for the other. However, these events can also elicit schadenfreude – pleasure at the misfortunes of others. Whereas our moral tradition exalts and praises sympathetic people because they show concordance and sympathetic identification, schadenfroh people, by showing discordance and antagonism, seem to violate the obligation to cultivate the virtue of compassion (Heider, 1958; Portmann, 2000). Indeed, throughout history, schadenfreude has predominantly been condemned and regarded as a vice (Portmann, Chapter 2 in this volume; Van Dijk and Ouwerkerk, Chapter 1 in this volume). To illustrate, schadenfreude has been viewed as a malicious and immoral feeling (Baudelaire, 1855/1955), as a disguised expression of aggression (Aristotle, 350 BCE/1941), as harmful to social relations (Heider, 1958), as an “even more hideous cousin” of envy (Kierkegaard, 1847/1995), and as fiendish, diabolical, and “an infallible sign of a thoroughly bad heart and profound moral worthlessness” (Schopenhauer, 1841/1965). Although schadenfreude typically carries a negative connotation, people sometimes “cannot resist a little smile” when another person suffers a misfortune. Given the many displays of schadenfreude in television shows, blogs, magazines, and interpersonal communication (e.g., in gossip), it appears inherent to our human nature. Why do people enjoy the misfortunes of others? The purpose of our present chapter is to examine the role of one’s self-view in schadenfreude. We will argue that striving for a positive self-evaluation constitutes an important underlying motive for the experience of schadenfreude. In the following discussion we provide a theoretical framework in which we combine insights from appraisal theories on emotions and research on self-evaluation, social comparison processes, and self-affirmation, and present the main findings of our research program on the relation between self-evaluation and schadenfreude.
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Article
The present study tested the hypothesis that Schadenfreude, pleasure at another's misfortune, results when a misfortune is perceived as deserved. Participants responded to interviews in which information was provided about a student who suffered a misfortune. The male or female student had either high or average achievements and was either responsible or not responsible for the misfortune. Results showed that responsibility for the misfortune increased Schadenfreude and this effect was mediated by the perceived deservingness of the misfortune.
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Article
The tendency to "bask in reflected glory" (BIRG) by publicly announcing one's associations with successful others was investigated in 3 field experiments with more than 300 university students. All 3 studies showed this effect to occur even though the person striving to bask in the glory of a successful source was not involved in the cause of the source's success. Exp I demonstrated the BIRG phenomenon by showing a greater tendency for university students to wear school-identifying apparel after their school's football team had been victorious than nonvictorious. Exps II and III replicated this effect by showing that students used the pronoun we more when describing victory than a nonvictory of their school's football team. A model was developed asserting that the BIRG response represents an attempt to enhance one's public image. Exps II and III indicated, in support of this assertion, that the tendency to proclaim a connection with a positive source was strongest when one's public image was threatened. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Article
The theory of downward comparison posits that persons experiencing negative affect can enhance their subjective well-being through comparison with a less fortunate other, the process occurring on either a passive or active basis. The present author discusses the basic principle of downward comparison and its corollaries and suggests that these represent the motivational process for phenomena observed in several areas of social psychology. Evidence is considered from studies of the fear-affiliation effect, choice of others for social comparison, scapegoating, projection, aversive environmental events and attraction toward others, social prejudice, hostile aggression, and humor. It is shown that downward comparison principles encompass empirical evidence from these areas, account for nonreplications as well as confirmatory findings, and provide a theoretical basis for the relation among the various phenomena. (111 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a previous study, conducted in several European countries with children between the ages of 6 and 11, it was found that the subjects expressed a preference for people whom they assumed to be nationals of their own country in a photograph-sorting task. One exception to the general pattern of results was found in the data obtained with Scottish children from Glasgow who did not express a preference for their own nationals. The present paper reports two further studies conducted in Glasgow, one in Oxford and one in Haifa. The common purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that, even in situations which are not characterized by intense intergroup tensions and/or by a clear ‘visibility’ of differences between groups (as in the case of the Scots and the English or of Israeli Jews of ‘European’ and of ‘Oriental’ origin), the children are sensitive to subtle social influences which lead to a ‘devaluation’ of their own group as compared with an outgroup conceived in some sense to be ‘dominant’ or ‘superior’. This hypothesis was confirmed. The implications of the data are discussed in relation to the general literature on the attitudes towards their own group held by children who are members of racial and ethnic groups which are underprivileged.
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This work provides an analysis of the basic cognitive components of envy. In particular, the roles played by the envious party's social comparison with, and ill will against, the better off are emphasised. The ill will component is characterised by the envier's ultimate goal or wish that the envied suffer some harm, and is distinguished from resentment and sense of injustice, which have often been considered part of envy. The reprehensible nature of envy is discussed, and traced back to the analysis of its components. Finally, we explore both points of overlap and distinguishing features between envy and other emotions such as jealousy or emulation, and make a few general remarks, pointing to the necessity of overcoming conceptual looseness in the notion of envy.
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Previous research related to pleasure at another's misfortune has focused on the role of envy and competition in inducing such feelings. Additionally, some views assume that this emotion is restricted to mild misfortunes. In this paper, we propose that other-directed negative emotions (e.g., dislike and anger), independent of envy, can give rise to pleasure at another's misfortune and the misfortune can be severe when these other emotions are causal. In addition to providing support for this view in three studies, pleasure at another's misfortune was also associated with different factors when other-directed negative emotions as opposed to envy served as its eliciting condition. For example, given that dislike caused pleasure at another's misfortune, the misfortune was more likely to be perceived as deserved, any misfortune was pleasing, and the observer was more reluctant to help than given envy as the cause.
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When we attend to other people in pain, the neural circuits underpinning the processing of first-hand experience of pain are activated in the observer. This basic somatic sensorimotor resonance plays a critical role in the primitive building block of empathy and moral reasoning that relies on the sharing of others’ distress. However, the full-blown capacity of human empathy is more sophisticated than the mere simulation of the target's affective state. Indeed, empathy is about both sharing and understanding the emotional state of others in relation to oneself. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 17 typically developing children (range 7–12 yr) were scanned while presented with short animated visual stimuli depicting painful and non-painful situations. These situations involved either a person whose pain was accidentally caused or a person whose pain was intentionally inflicted by another individual. After scanning, children rated how painful these situations appeared. Consistent with previous fMRI studies of pain empathy with adults, the perception of other people in pain in children was associated with increased hemodynamic activity in the neural circuits involved in the processing of first-hand experience of pain, including the insula, somatosensory cortex, anterior midcingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray, and supplementary motor area. Interestingly, when watching another person inflicting pain onto another, regions that are consistently engaged in representing social interaction and moral behavior (the temporo-parietal junction, the paracingulate, orbital medial frontal cortices, amygdala) were additionally recruited, and increased their connectivity with the fronto-parietal attention network. These results are important to set the standard for future studies with children who exhibit social cognitive disorders (e.g., antisocial personality disorder, conduct disorder) and are often deficient in experiencing empathy or guilt.
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78 undergraduate job applicants casually encountered a stimulus person whose characteristics were either socially desirable or undesirable. 1/2 the Ss in each of these conditions found the other was competing with them for the same position, and 1/2 did not. Preliminary assessments were also made of the Ss' level of self-consistency. The major dependent variable was self-esteem change. As predicted by comparison theory, the socially desirable stimulus person produced a significant decrease in self-esteem, while the undesirable other significantly enhanced Ss' self-estimates. Ss low in self-consistency were most affected by the presence of the other, while extent of competition had no effect. It was also found that similarity between Ss and stimulus person tended to enhance self-esteem, while dissimilarity tended to reduce it. (21 ref.)
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To test the hypothesis that Schadenfreude, pleasure at the suffering of others, will result when an envied person experiences a misfortune, envy was created in subjects by asking them to watch a videotaped interview of a student who was made to appear either superior or average. An epilogue informed subjects that the student had suffered a recent setback. The envy created in subjects was found to enhance the likelihood that they would feel Schadenfreude on learning of this setback. In addition, dispositional envy predicted subjects' envy of the student, and this envy also mediated subsequent Schadenfreude. These results strongly support linking envy with Schadenfreude. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69046/2/10.1177_0146167296222005.pdf
Book
For centuries, scholars have argued that envy is the source of much aggressive behavior as well as the root cause of much unhappiness, but it is only recently that there have been attempts to examine the emotion from an empirical perspective. This book is the first of its kind to offer a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on envy, provided by scholars from a range of disciplines. The first section of the book focuses on the rich theological, philosophical, and evolutionary foundations of scholarly thinking on envy. The second section covers the social psychological work on envy and includes chapters on social comparison processes, definitional challenges, the link between envy and schadenfreude, inter-group envy, and fear of envy. The third section covers research on envy from organizational psychology, experimental economics, marketing, neuroscience, and anthropology. The fourth section focuses on the implications of understanding envy for physical and mental health, with chapters on psychoanalytic conceptions of envy, health psychology, and the challenges of coping with envy. A final chapter consists of reflective comments on all the chapters, and brings together recurring themes, making suggestions for future research on envy.
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Philosophers have often linked envy with schadenfreude, in the sense that an envied person's misfortune is assumed to be pleasing. Envy contains features (such as hostility) that independently create schadenfreude, and so it follows that envy itself should be set the groundwork for schadenfreude as well, if the envied person suffers. This chapter reviews recent research exploring this assumption. Despite robust theoretical reasons for predicting that an envied person's misfortune should be pleasing, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. The chapter outlines a number of methodological challenges inherent in examining this issue. It suggests reasons for the inconsistent findings and describes a recent study in which these methodological challenges were addressed.
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This short review analyzes the specificity of upward social comparison in the moral domain, suggesting that it blends Festinger's (1954) distinction between opinions and abilities. We discuss positive outcomes (elevation) and negative ones (resentment), and moderators of this reaction. Then we identify the ways in which moral comparison constitutes a uniquely stinging threat (moral inferiority, moral confusion, and imagined moral reproach). Finally, we explore some of the strategies that people might use to defuse this moral threat (suspicion, trivialization and rejection).
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A number of contemporary philosophers have pointed out that justice is not primarily an intellectual virtue, grounded in abstract, detached beliefs, but rather an emotional virtue, grounded in certain beliefs and desires that are compelling and deeply embedded in human nature. As a complex emotional virtue, justice seems to encompass, amongst other things, certain desert-based emotions that are developmentally and morally important for an understanding of justice. This article explores the philosophical reasons for the rising interest in desert-based emotions and offers a conceptual overview of some common emotions of this sort having to do with the fortunes of others and of oneself, respectively. The article does not give a definitive answer to the question of whether those emotions really are virtuous, but aims at enriching our understanding of what kind of virtue they might possibly represent.
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Henry Fleming, the central character of (Stephen Crane’s (1952/1895)) Civil War novel, The Red Badge of Courage, eagerly joins the Union army although he knows little about war. Only much later does he realize how ignorant he is about whether he will run when the fighting starts. This uncertainty about himself sets off a disguised but full-scale search for social comparisons until, through the gut check of battle, he can “… watch his legs discover their merits and their faults” (Crane, 1952/1895, p. 21). Much of the classic and current social comparison theory would find support in how Fleming uses social comparisons during the several days portrayed in the novel (Suls & Miller, 1977; Suls & Wills, 1991). Festinger (1954) emphasized the role of uncertainty in motivating a person’s interest in social comparisons, and it is Fleming’s ignorance about his own capacity for bravery that first prompts him to probe for fears among the other soldiers so as “… to measure himself by his comrades” (Crane, 1952/1895, p. 21). Even the seemingly objective test of battle is confounded by social comparisons. In an early battle, Fleming panics and runs, but it is the sight of other soldiers turning tail first that induces his behavior, creating in social comparison terms a form of social validation (Cialdini, 1993) that spurs him to “…speed toward the rear in great leaps” (Crane, 1952/1895, p. 47).
Book
1 * Philosophers on Sympathy.- 2 * Sympathy in a Biological Context: Charles Darwin and William McDougall.- 3 * The Nature of Sympathy.- 4 * The Definition of Sympathy.- 5 * The Provenance of Sympathy.- 6 * Laboratory Analogues of Sympathy.- 7 * The Role of Faces and Places in the Arousal of Sympathy.- 8 * The Roles of Imagery and Mimicry in Sympathy.- 9 * A Summary of the Theory of Sympathy.- 10 * The Function of Sympathy.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Previous research (Smith et al., 1996) indicated that schadenfreude, pleasure at another's suffering, results when an envied person experiences a deserved misfortune. This study tested whether invidious comparisons affect schadenfreude when the misfortune is undeserved. Male participants watched a videotaped interview of an average or superior male student who had recently suffered either a deserved or undeserved setback. Participants' envy enhanced schadenfreude regardless of deservingness of the misfortune. The manipulation of deservingness, however, had no effect on schadenfreude. The effects of these variables an sympathy were also examined. Sympathy was greater when the student was average (vs. superior) and following an undeserved misfortune (vs. deserved), indicating that sympathy and schadenfreude are not simply opposites of each other.
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This chapter tries to accomplish three objectives. Firstly, it defines the four motives and provides a selective review of research that indicates their prevalence. Secondly, it addresses the issue of the operation of four motives together to regulate self-evaluation. This chapter presents a conceptual framework for understanding the interplay of the four motives. This framework serves as a useful heuristic for consideration of potential moderators that govern the expression of the four motives. Finally, this chapter discusses several problems related to the self-evaluation motives that one believes are in need of empirical attention. This chapter serves to justify the claim that four basic self-evaluation motives have been demonstrated convincingly. Finally, the speculations of this chapter are meant to remind researchers that empirical work to date has taken certain aspects of the self-evaluation process for granted or has neglected other important issues.
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A conceptual analysis is offered that differentiates four motives for acting for the public good: egoism, collectivism, altruism, and principlism. Differentiation is based on identification of a unique ultimate goal for each motive. For egoism, the ultimate goal is self-benefit; for collectivism, it is to increase group welfare; for altruism, to increase one or more other individuals' welfare; for principlism, to uphold one or more moral principles. Advocates claim that these last three motives cannot be reduced to egoism. Evidence for this claim is limited, however, especially for collectivism and principlism. It is hoped that the conceptual distinctions proposed will permit broader, more precise empirical study of nonegoistic motives for acting for the public good.
Article
• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that schadenfreude (or pleasure in another's misfortune) would be more closely related to resentment and a wish to correct a perceived injustice than to envy, and that sympathy would involve different processes. Participants were 184 undergraduates who responded to scenarios in which a student with a record of either high or average achievement that followed high or low effort subsequently suffered failure under conditions where there was either high or low personal control. Results showed that resentment about the student's prior achievement could be distinguished from envy. Schadenfreude about the student's subsequent failure was predicted by resentment and not by envy. Sympathy was not predicted by either resentment or envy. Deservingness was a key variable in the models that were tested.
Book
"This is the classic work upon which modern-day game theory is based. What began more than sixty years ago as a modest proposal that a mathematician and an economist write a short paper together blossomed, in 1944, when Princeton University Press published Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. In it, John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern conceived a groundbreaking mathematical theory of economic and social organization, based on a theory of games of strategy. Not only would this revolutionize economics, but the entirely new field of scientific inquiry it yielded--game theory--has since been widely used to analyze a host of real-world phenomena from arms races to optimal policy choices of presidential candidates, from vaccination policy to major league baseball salary negotiations. And it is today established throughout both the social sciences and a wide range of other sciences. This sixtieth anniversary edition includes not only the original text but also an introduction by Harold Kuhn, an afterword by Ariel Rubinstein, and reviews and articles on the book that appeared at the time of its original publication in the New York Times, tthe American Economic Review, and a variety of other publications. Together, these writings provide readers a matchless opportunity to more fully appreciate a work whose influence will yet resound for generations to come.
Article
This chapter describes how a structural model of deservingness governed by a principle of balance may be applied to the analysis of emotions relating to deserved or undeserved outcomes of other or of self. In each case perceived deservingness/undeservingness is assumed to mediate both general emotional reactions such as pleasure and dissatisfaction and discrete emotions such as sympathy, resentment, disappointment, and guilt, depending on outcome (positive, negative), the evaluative structure of action/outcome relations, and whether outcomes relate to other or to self. Evidence from studies of reactions to success or failure, and reactions to penalties for offences, supports the analysis, as does earlier research on tall poppies or high achievers. The theoretical analysis is then related to the wider psychological literature on justice and emotions, especially to appraisal theory as exemplified in Weiner's approach. Also discussed are issues concerned with reciprocal relations between affect and deservingness, thoughtful versus automatic processing, new extensions of balance theory, and variables such as like/dislike relations, ingroup/outgroup relations, and perceived responsibility that would moderate perceived deservingness/undeservingness, thereby influencing the emotions that are assumed to be activated in each case.
Article
The main aim of this chapter is to examine the relationship between anger about inequality based in envy and that based in inferiority (domain or global) or injustice. To make this possible, envy must be conceptualized in a more narrow way than in most previous treatments. In the first section, I argue that envy is best conceptualized as anger resulting from a frustrated desire for a fortune that is possessed by another party but is perceived as possible for oneself (and thus is something one feels one deserves). In the second and third sections, I suggest that inferiority (domain or global) and perceived injustice may serve as conceptually independent bases of anger about inequality. Although inferiority-based anger and justice-based anger may co-occur with envy, become blended with envy, or be displaced or dissembled expressions of hidden envy, anger based in (domain or global) inferiority or injustice should be distinguished from that based in envy. In essence, I echo others in arguing that to understand the association between envy and a sense of injustice, envy cannot be conceptualized in a way that necessarily includes a sense of injustice or perceived inferiority (domain or global). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Gathers evidence from biology and psychology bearing on the issue of whether altruism is part of human nature. The traditional views of both evolutionary biology and psychology left little room for altruism. Current variants of the Darwinian model—group selection, kin selection, reciprocal altruism, and inclusive fitness—point to the acquisition of altruistic as well as egoistic structures in humans. Psychological research is also compatible with this view. There may be a general human tendency to help others in distress that has properties analogous to egoistic motivation and yet comes into play independently of egoistic motivation. The theory of inclusive fitness also requires that mediators of altruistic action be selected (rather than altruistic action itself), because this would provide the necessary flexibility. Evidence is presented suggesting that empathy may fit the evolutionary requirements of such a mediator: It is reliably aroused in humans in response to misfortune in others, it predisposes the individual toward helping action and yet is amenable to perceptual and cognitive control, and it appears to have a neural base that may have been present early in human evolution. (80 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
80 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 experimental conditions in which they received either positive or negative feedback on a bogus personality test that was either self-definitionally relevant or irrelevant, followed by feedback of successful performance by another person in a domain that was either relevant or irrelevant to the S. Dependent measures included scores on the Depression Adjective Check Lists and the State scale of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Significantly greater jealousy of the other person was reported in the condition in which the S received negative feedback regarding own performance on a self-involving characteristic, and in which the successful performance of the other was on the same characteristic. Ss in this condition were more likely to disparage the rival and less likely to desire his or her friendship. In addition, these Ss tended to feel more depressed and anxious about interacting with the comparison person. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The just world hypothesis states that people have a need to believe that their environment is a just and orderly place where people usually get what they deserve. The present article reviews the experimental research that has been generated by the just world hypothesis. Considerable attention is devoted to an experiment by M. J. Lerner and C. H. Simmons (see record 1966-11086-001). In light of the existing empirical findings, an elaboration of the initial hypothesis is offered, and it is suggested that people's need to believe in a just world affects their reaction to the innocent suffering of others. Finally, recurrent conceptual misinterpretations and methodological errors found in the literature are identified. (73 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
That emotions arise in intergroup contexts is of course uncontroversial. We are thrilled when our national team wins the World Cup against stiff competition, angry when protesters in another country burn our flag, excited as the party we voted for wins the election, and disgusted when local college students brawl drunkenly with a neighboring school. Despite the obvious impetus that intergroup behavior is to emotions, the idea that emotions may actually be intergroup phenomena is not so much controversial as it is, at least in social psychology, unconsidered. In this chapter, we first describe a theoretical approach, intergroup emotions theory (IET), which we have developed to try to capture the intergroup nature of emotions. We then consider the qualities that an emotional experience might have to include to qualify it as intergroup emotion and describe empirical evidence from our own and others' work relevant to these qualities. Finally, we speculate about some other possible implications engendered by the view of emotion as an intergroup phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three studies are reported that concerna attitudes towards a person in a high position (the tall poppy) and towards, the tall poppy's fall. The studies were developed in relation to theoretical analyses concerned with value systems, envy, social comparison, and other psychological processes. In Study 1,531 students in South Australian high schools responded to scenarios in which either a high achiever or an average achiever experienced failure. Results showed that subjects reported feeling more pleased about a high achiever's fall than about an average achiever's fall, more pleased when a high achiever fell to the average position on the performance scale rather than to the bottom, and more pleased and friendly towards a high achiever who fell to the average position than towards an average achiever who fell to the bottom. In Study 2, 361 university students responded to scenarios in which a high achiever or an average achiever cheated at an examination. Results showed that the students were more punitive towards the high achiever who transgressed than towards the average achiever and more pleased about the high achiever's fall. In Study 3, 205 adult subjects completed a Tall Poppy Scale, an extended version of the Rokeach Value Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a measure of political preference. Results for a global measure of tall poppy attitudes indicated that negative attitudes were more likely to occur among subjects who were low in global self-esteem, who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and social power, and who were more to the left in their political preference.
Article
This article describes studies that relate justice-related behavior and experience to the content of human values. The studies are concerned with moral judgment, belief in a just world, distributive justice in the context of allocation decisions, and the nature of deservingness. In each case the focus is on associations between particular values or value types and an aspect of justice. A theoretical analysis of deservingness is presented that takes account of perceived responsibility and the conjunction of positively (or negatively) valued actions and positively (or negatively) valued outcomes. The subjective values (or valences) assigned to the actions and outcomes are assumed to be related to a person's underlying system of values. It is argued that research on justice has tended to ignore the values held by individuals, groups, and cultures, and that this deficiency should be remedied in future research.
Article
Political campaigns are often characterized by the various events occurring that move the tide in favor of one candidate or another. Each event, depending on which candidate it favors or harms, produces either happiness or sadness for those who care about the outcome. This research examined whether such reactions would hold for events that are misfortunes for other people and even when they negatively affect society more broadly regardless of political party affiliation. Ingroup (i.e. political party) identification was examined as an important moderating variable. In four studies, undergraduate participants gave their emotional reactions to news articles describing misfortunes happening to others (e.g. poor economic news and house foreclosures). Party affiliation and the intensity of ingroup identification strongly predicted whether these events produced schadenfreude.
Article
Three hypotheses as to the motivation of empathic helping were tested against each other. The Empathy-Altruism hypothesis suggests that empathy motivates helping that is truly altruistic; the Empathy-Specific Punishment hypothesis suggests that the motive is based on the desire to avoid empathy-specific self-sanctions; and the Negative State Relief hypothesis suggests that empathy leads to a depressed mood which in turn leads to a motivation to alleviate the sadness through helping. Subjects who took either an empathic or nonempathic orientation toward the plight of a needy other were led to expect that one of three events would follow the opportunity to help the victim: exposure to neutral information, exposure to humorous, mood-enhancing information, or the chance to help a different individual. Each of the three hypotheses predicts a different pattern of helping responses within the design. The results showed that empathic subjects demonstrated enhanced helping, except when they anticipated the onset of an alternative event that was likely to restore their mood, a pattern consistent with the predictions of the Negative State Relief hypothesis.
Article
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