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Undermining the Zeigarnik effect: Another hidden cost of reward

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Abstract

Forty college students participated in a study ostensibly designed to obtain measures of the hemispheric activity while they worked on a spatial reasoning task. In fact, our true interest was in determining whether subjects would return to the spatial reasoning task once the hemispheric recordings were completed. Subjects would normally be expected to return to the task by virtue of the Zeigarnik effect because no subject completed the task during the “hemispheric recording” phase. The manipulation involved telling one group of subjects that they would be paid $1.50 for participating in the study (expected reward group). The remainder of the subjects were not led to expect the reward (unexpected reward group). The result was that 86% of the unexpected reward subjects but only 58% of the expected reward subjects (p < .05) manifested the Zeigarnik effect. This differential tendency to return to the task was further reflected in time differences. The average unexpected reward subject spent 3 min 48 sec of a five-minute free-choice period at the task, whereas the average expected reward subject spent only 2 min 20 sec (p < .05). Reward expectancy, therefore, led to an undermining of the Zeigarnik effect. This observation supports Condry's prediction that rewarding performance at a task can lead to premature task disengagement.

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... Intrinsic motivation is discussed as one of the fundamental ingredients of creativity leading to innovation and a mechanism through which leadership influences creativity and brings innovation in individuals (Amabile, 1988;Oldham & Cummings, 1996). Intrinsic motivation has a very close association with employees in a sense that it makes them to be cognitively more formable and determined (McGraw & Fiala, 1982;McGraw & McCullers, 1979), which enables them to find out several alternative solutions of the problems and practice nontraditional and be determined. Employees intrinsically motivated are more likely to be more creative and innovative in their working. ...
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... First, intrinsic motivation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Oldham & Cummings, 1996) suggests that situational factors, such as cognitive diversity, exert influence on creativity via intrinsic motivation. When team members feel excited about the tasks and highly engaged in the task for its own sake in a cognitively diverse team, they are more likely to explore innovate cognitive pathways, to play with different ideas, and to concentrate on the task for a longer period (McGraw & Fiala, 1982;McGraw & McCullers, 1979). Such extensive exploration and persistence thus should result in higher team creativity. ...
... According to the intrinsic motivation theory of creativity, heightened interest in an activity itself can motivate individuals to search for novel and superior ways of doing things (e.g., Amabile 1996). Similarly, intrinsically motivated employees tend to be more enduring and cognitively more flexible (McGraw and Fiala 1982;McGraw and McCullers 1979). They are more inclined to search for alternative solutions, to address issues in unconventional ways, and to be generally more persistent. ...
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... From this perspective, people should be inclined not to increase performance on an intermediate task when presented with rewards that can be earned only through future performance. However, research has also shown that when people pursue a future reward, the reward information is automatically maintained in memory and remains highly accessible until the reward is obtained222324252627. Consequently, we predict that rewards for future performance may immediately lead to preparation for optimal performance–even on tasks that are non-instrumental to the reward. ...
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In everyday life contexts and work settings, monetary rewards are often contingent on future performance. Based on research showing that the anticipation of rewards causes improved task performance through enhanced task preparation, the present study tested the hypothesis that the promise of monetary rewards for future performance would not only increase future performance, but also performance on an unrewarded intermediate task. Participants performed an auditory Simon task in which they responded to two consecutive tones. While participants could earn high vs. low monetary rewards for fast responses to every second tone, their responses to the first tone were not rewarded. Moreover, we compared performance under conditions in which reward information could prompt strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented for a relatively long duration) to conditions preventing strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented very briefly). Results showed that high (vs. low) rewards sped up both rewarded and intermediate, unrewarded responses, and the effect was independent of the duration of reward presentation. Moreover, long presentation led to a speed-accuracy trade-off for both rewarded and unrewarded tones, whereas short presentation sped up responses to rewarded and unrewarded tones without this trade-off. These results suggest that high rewards for future performance boost intermediate performance due to enhanced task preparation, and they do so regardless whether people respond to rewards in a strategic or non-strategic manner.
... The experimental mean {X^ was the condition in which rewards were applied contingently, and the control group mean (X^.) was either a non-contingent or a no-reward condition. One exception was a study by McGraw & Fiala (1982) in which a non-contingent expected reward was compared against an unexpected reward. This study was retained because the expected {X^ and unexpected QQ rewards we.re administered prior ro the freetime measure. ...
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... In other words, the individual sees the process of doing the task as an end in itself, rather than as a means to an end ( Deci & Ryan, 1985). An intrinsically motivated individual tends to be cognitively more flexible ( McGraw & Fiala, 1982;McGraw & McCullers, 1979), to prefer complexity and novelty ( Pittman, Emergy, & Boggiano, 1982), and to seek higher levels of challenge and mastery experience ( Boggiano, Ruble, & Pittman, 1982;Pittman et al., 1982). Therefore, he or she is more likely to find many alternatives to solve a problem, to use nontraditional approaches, and to be persistent. ...
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... The influence of the followers by the leader is found to broaden their experience and to elevate their goal, which leads to a confidence to perform beyond their expectations. The employees, because they have been recognised as contributing to the overall good and effectiveness of the organisation, then become cognitively more flexible and persevering (McGraw and Fiala, 1982;McGraw and McCullers, 1979). Such employees are more likely to use alternative means to solve problems rather than relying on more traditional approaches. ...
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Leadership and management of ethical dilemmas set the overall tone of the organisation where nurses and healthcare members work. Numerous reports cite the nursing profession is facing leadership and management crisis related to healthy work environment. In this paper, we will examine the impact of ethical leadership on work environment. Problematic leadership behaviours are analysed in relation to the health of the individuals and the workplaces. Different leadership styles are reviewed in relation to the outcomes of healthy and productive workplaces. Practical suggestions will be made, connecting learning environment for the next generations of nurses and healthcare members.
... Intrinsic motivation is discussed as one of the fundamental ingredients of creativity leading to innovation and a mechanism through which leadership influences creativity and brings innovation in individuals (Amabile, 1988;Oldham & Cummings, 1996). Intrinsic motivation has a very close association with employees in a sense that it makes them to be cognitively more formable and determined (McGraw & Fiala, 1982;McGraw & McCullers, 1979), which enables them to find out several alternative solutions of the problems and practice nontraditional and be determined. Employees intrinsically motivated are more likely to be more creative and innovative in their working. ...
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Drawing on the social exchange theory, this research examines how inclusive leaders foster innovative work behavior and creativity in employees. Data were collected in two steps from the 320 employees working in Chinese R&D organizations to draw the result for this research. The findings indicate a positive impact of inclusive leadership on innovative work behavior and creativity. In addition, intrinsic motivation mediates this relationship. The implications and future research are also discussed.
... Focusing on Study 2 data, we used a mediational analysis (Baron & Kenny, 1986Lepper & Greene, 1978; McGraw & Fiala, 1982), whereas other research has pointed to its often undesirable cognitive consequences (e.g., McGraw & McCullers, 1979; Sieber, 1974). The present research adds another, previously unrecognized aspect of reward, namely its informational value in the interaction between the person who offers the reward and the person to whom the reward is offered. ...
Article
Based on a conversational logic framework (Grice, 1975), we examined the implications of rewarding performance on a reasoning task. We argued that, in the interaction between experimenter and participant, financial incentives signal that a problem requires effort and that its solution is difficult to find. Thus, we hypothesized that reward would lead participants to distrust obvious, but correct, solutions and lower their task-related confidence. Two experiments (n = 33 and n = 36) tested these predictions using various versions of the Wason four card selection problem. Consistent with our prediction, rewarded participants were less likely than non-rewarded participants to include an obvious and correct card in their final solutions. At the same time, rewarded participants worked longer on the task, found it more difficult and were less confident in their answers.
... Scholars have long regarded intrinsic motivation as a proximal predictor of creativity and innovative behavior (Amabile, 1988;Chen, Farh, Campbell-Bush, Wu, & Wu, 2013). Intrinsically motivated employees are higher in cognitive flexibility and persistence (McGraw & Fiala, 1982) and are more likely to generate innovative and nontraditional solutions to problems. Following the intrinsic motivation perspective (Amabile, 1988(Amabile, , 1996, we hypothesize a mediating role of intrinsic motivation in transmitting the effect of supervisor support on employee innovative behavior. ...
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Previous research is inconclusive about whether supervisor support always increases employee innovative behavior. To address this inconsistency, this research explores how and when supervisor support promotes innovative behavior by examining intrinsic motivation as a mediator and employee general self-efficacy and internal locus of control as boundary conditions. Although these two positive self-view variables are similar in terms of their positive effects on a variety of desirable work outcomes, we draw on self-verification theory, which posits that self-confirming information draws more attention, to reason that they exhibit opposite moderating effects on the influence of supervisor support. Based on two samples of employees in different industries and locations in China, this moderated mediated model was supported. General self-efficacy showed an enhancement moderating effect, such that it amplified the mediated relationship between supervisor support and employee innovative behavior via intrinsic motivation. In contrast, internal locus of control showed a substitutional moderating effect, such that it weakened this mediated relationship. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Post-reward decrements have been reported in the majority of studies that have examined task-contingent rewards [6,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. In contrast, decrements have not been reported in the majority of studies that have examined participation-contingent rewards (e.g., [9,[17][18] or performance-contingent rewards [1,4,[19][20][21][22]. ...
... It posits that intrinsic motivation-the motivational state in which one is interested in working on a task mainly for its own sake instead of solely for the purpose of obtaining an external reward or avoiding punishment-is a key ingredient for creativity. This is because an intrinsically motivated person tends to be curious and learning oriented, to be cognitively flexible, to be willing to take risks, and to be persistent when faced with obstacles and challenges ( Boggiano, Ruble, & Pittman, 1982;Deci & Ryan, 1980, 1985McGraw & Fiala, 1982;Utman, 1997), all of which should increase the chance of coming up with creative ideas. In addition, this perspective suggests that supervisor behaviors affect creativity via their influences on intrinsic motivation. ...
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Study 1 was conducted to examine the contribution of the joint condition of supervisor close monitoring and the presence of creative coworkers to employees' creativity. In addition to replicating Study 1's results, Study 2 examined (a) the joint condition of supervisor developmental feedback and presence of creative coworkers and (b) whether creative personality moderated the contributions of the 2 joint conditions. Converging results from the 2 field studies demonstrated that when creative coworkers were present, the less supervisors engaged in close monitoring, the more employees exhibited creativity. Study 2 also found that the contribution of this joint condition was stronger for employees with less creative personalities and that when creative coworkers were present, the more supervisors provided developmental feedback, the more employees exhibited creativity.
... It posits that intrinsic motivationthe motivational state in which one is eager to work on a task mainly for its own sake instead of solely for the purpose of obtaining an external reward or avoiding punishmentis a key ingredient for creativity. This is because an intrinsically motivated person tends to be curious and learning oriented, to be cognitively flexible, to be willing to take risks, and to be persistent 203 Incivility impair team's creative performance when faced with obstacles and challenges (Boggiano et al., 1982;Deci andRyan, 1980, 1985;McGraw and Fiala, 1982;Utman, 1997), all of which should increase the chance of coming up with creative ideas. Pirola- Merlo and Mann (2004) argue that team creativity could be defined as the (weighted) average of individual creativity, describing individual creativity as a raw substance that shifts to a group-level construct when team processes occur. ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how a supervisor’s incivility in teams impact team’s creative performance through the mediating factor of knowledge sharing intention among team members. Moreover, the moderating role of collaborative climate was investigated as protector against leaders’ incivility. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed multi-level model was tested by surveying 312 health care providers nested within 42 work units at eight large hospitals in Iran. Multi-level regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings – The findings revealed that those team members experiencing incivility from their supervisors are more likely to show reluctance to share knowledge with team members and as a consequence this response further decreases team’s creative performance. However, the climate of collaboration inside hospitals can buffer the negative impact of incivility on their readiness to share knowledge. Practical implications – In team-based organizations, a supervisor’s incivility can stifle the creative performance of his/her team through blocking the knowledge sharing of members. First, human resource department should have some plans to curtail incivility of supervisors. Second, establishing a climate of collaboration and trust among team members can mitigate the insidious effects of supervisors’ incivility. Originality/value – In prior research studies, the role of incivility on individual outcomes has been highlighted. This paper, according to the best knowledge of the author, is the first considering the negative impact of incivility on team’s performance. Moreover, collaborative climate is a novel moderator considered in this study.
... In particular, those individuals who are intrinsically motivated would be expected to have higher levels of curiosity, cognitive flexibility, risk taking, and persistence (Zhou & Shalley, 2003). Such individuals tend to maintain a sense of purpose in the face of difficulties or discouragement (McGraw & Fiala, 1982) and to generate new or alternative solutions using non-traditional approaches (Shin & Zhou, 2003). Amabile et al. (1994) suggested that given challenging and enjoyable assignments, intrinsically motivated individuals may develop new skills, exercise more creativity, and become deeply involved in their work. ...
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This article addresses the theoretical limitations of social network theory as it applies to individual creativity. Social network theory implicitly assumes that social interactions influence creativity identically for all individuals in all circumstances. We argue that the extent to which individuals take advantage of their social ties may vary depending on individual characteristics, based on the componential model and the investment theory of creativity. Building on an interactional approach, this article explores the role of individual differences in the relationship between social networks and individual creativity and proposes that weak ties enhance creativity when information recipients are highly open to experience, have more domain knowledge, have an innovative style, and are intrinsically motivated. This article contributes to the current debate on the relationship between social networks and individual creativity by rationalizing the conditions under which weak ties enhance individual creativity. Implications for business managers and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
... Tech companies do not want users satisfied; they want to keep them in a state of dissatisfaction, with the anticipation of future deferred satisfaction. Technically, this is known as a Zeigarnik loop, where anticipation drives continuous consumption and satisfaction is endlessly deferred (e.g., social media newsfeeds; McGraw and Fiala 1982). All of these design choices likely enhance the addictive potential of a digital experience. ...
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We spend our days looking at them, talking to them, and touching them. We sleep with them, work with them, and play with them. They increasingly consume our time, attention, and money: we are addicted to our digital devices—or, more precisely, the digital experiences they enable. This addiction is both akratic (we are aware of the negative consequences) and engineered (designed on purpose). Marketers are complicit in this engineering: through digital networks and big data they ubiquitously monitor and experiment on consumers. This knowledge is used to create ever-more addictive digital experiences enabled by devices, their platforms, and their content. In this article, the authors explore marketing’s role in the rise of the phenomenon: from product design, through advertising and big data, to the dynamics of ubiquitous distribution and “free” pricing. The authors then turn to policy solutions and discuss how informing, guiding, and restricting can help ameliorate the problem and promote the public good. The article concludes by outlining multiple areas for marketing and public policy research.
... They are positively interrelated and show positive effects on various required outcomes (Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen, 2003). Naturally motivated employees have a high level of cognitive flexibility, are persistence and innovative (McGraw & Fiala, 1982). Those with internal locus of control are emotionally intelligent. ...
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In the recent past Emotional intelligence has evoked a lot of attention in leadership. While intelligence quotient and technical skills contribute considerably to leadership, emotional intelligence is the gold standard for leadership. This study explores the differences in emotional intelligence scores between the mid-level managers and of the team leaders. Therefore, a quantitative approach was adopted. Correlational study design was employed to explore the emotional intelligence scores between the two levels of leadership in a private city hospital. An adopted seven- Likert scale emotional intelligent inventory; self-administered tool was used in data collection from the two groups of leaders. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of the two groups was generated and correlated, and the standard deviation was identified. The findings of the study demonstrated that the mid-level managers demonstrated higher levels of emotional intelligence score in some facets like flexibility with a standard deviation of 38.1, and optimism with a standard deviation of 17.7. On the contrary, the team leaders demonstrated higher emotional intelligence score on emotional self-control with a standard deviation of 2.1 and an initiative with a standard deviation of 3.5. The conclusion was drawn that, in deed, emotional intelligence is a valuable construct in leadership. The senior leaders had higher emotional intelligence scores than the junior leaders. There is need for further study using variant triangulated tools to measure emotional intelligence comprehensively.
... In organizational progress, knowing employee motivational state is important and intrinsic motivation is one of the key ingredients for employee to perform their duties (Amabile et al., 1996). Employees having the intrinsic motivation are more likely to be flexible and persevering (McGraw and Fiala, 1982). In the literature, intrinsic motivation has been found one of the important factors of creativity that attracted to employee work (Amabile, 1998;Jaussi and Dionne, 2003). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the effect of transformational leadership on followers’ inventiveness and organizational innovation. It studies transformational leadership and innovation at the organizational level and creativity at the individual level. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical model was created, which entailed the development of variables and hypotheses. A survey instrument was used to obtain data, through a self-completion questionnaire. The final sample was made up of 503 individuals, recruited using a random sampling technique. Findings The results showed that transformational leadership has a significant positive relationship with both followers’ creativity and organizational innovation. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship was found between followers’ creativity and organizational innovation. In addition, the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ creativity, through the mediating role of employees’ psychological empowerment, support for innovation, workplace relationships and employee learning, was also found to be both positive and significant. However, the data showed that intrinsic motivation does not significantly affect the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity. Practical implications The study provides guidance to organizations that need to change their leadership style and approach, as well as their innovation and creativity mechanisms, at a strategic level. The resulting guidance provides organizations with insight into how they can improve the creativity of their employees through motivating, supporting and inspiring them. Originality/value This study is an attempt to illustrate the extent to which transformational leadership can affect organizational innovation in Saudi Arabia, specifically in the public sector, and to explore how employees’ creativity can be improved. This research is beneficial for academics, organizations and policy makers, especially in the Gulf countries.
... In addition, leaders' individualized consideration can allow followers to experiment with ideas (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Shamir et al., 1993) and focus on tasks instead of external concerns (Shin & Zhou, 2003). That is, albeit different in their mechanisms, transformational leadership components can increase employees' intrinsic motivation for creativity, which can in turn make them cognitively flexible but persistent in challenging the status quo and solving problems (McGraw & Fiala, 1982;Shin & Zhou, 2003). Thus, we propose that transformational leadership can positively influence intrinsic motivation for creativity (H2a), which in turn can positively affect creativity (H2b). ...
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We conduct a meta‐analytic review that yields important insights about the existing research on transformational leadership and creativity. Additionally, we propose and test an integrated model using meta‐analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) and full information MASEM (FIMASEM) techniques to better understand the intervening mechanism through which transformational leadership acts on creativity. The results of meta‐analysis of 127 studies show that most of the bivariate relationships among transformational leadership, employee creativity, and pre‐identified mediators are significant; further, geographic base of studies significantly moderates some of the relationships. The MASEM results indicate that several mediators intervene in the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity. Although the total effect of transformational leadership on creativity is positive, its direct effect is negative when mediators are included. Additionally, there are significant relationships among the mediators that can be theoretically supported, but have not been investigated in prior transformational leadership and creativity studies. Based on these findings, we provide conclusions and directions for future studies.
... Intrinsically motivated employees are more prominent towards being risk-averse and find divergent pathways (Amabile et al., 1990). There is a general tendency of being intellectually more deterministic and adaptable, which is found in employees who are intrinsically motivated (McGraw and Fiala, 1982). Oldham and Cummings (1996) propagated that intrinsic motivation involves excitement within an individual about the task fulfillment and is completely motivated for engaging in it until the execution of the task is being completed. ...
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Purpose: This study aims to focus on examining the impact of transformational leadership on employee creativity to enhance organizational innovation through mediating effect of intrinsic motivation and the moderating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between employee creativity and organizational innovation in Indian automobile industries. Design/methodology/approach: Responses were collected from engineers, managers and R&D professionals from car manufacturing and R&D units from southern India through a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. The validity of the constructs and the theoretical model were confirmed by applying structural equation modeling approach using IBM SPSS Amos version 20. Findings: Empirical findings proved that transformational leadership has a positive effect on employee creativity, as mediated by intrinsic motivation. Studies also revealed that employees tend to exhibit higher creative potential when they are exposed to a higher degree of distinct shared assumptions, values and beliefs, which governs their behavior in an organization. Research limitations/implications: As research was carried out in Indian automobile manufacturing and R&D units, it cannot be generalized across the broader range of sectors and international environment. Originality/value: This research is unique in its attempt to empirically test the moderating effect of organizational culture in enhancing organizational innovation in Indian automobile industry.
... In addition, leaders' individualized consideration can allow followers to experiment with ideas (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Shamir et al., 1993) and focus on tasks instead of external concerns (Shin & Zhou, 2003). That is, albeit different in their mechanisms, transformational leadership components can increase employees' intrinsic motivation for creativity, which can in turn make them cognitively flexible but persistent in challenging the status quo and solving problems (McGraw & Fiala, 1982;Shin & Zhou, 2003). Thus, we propose that transformational leadership can positively influence intrinsic motivation for creativity (H2a), which in turn can positively affect creativity (H2b). ...
... Research has explored the drivers of individual creativity; in particular, intrinsic motivation has received the most scholarly attention (Amabile, 1996;Shalley et al., 2004). Scholars have long argued that intrinsic motivation drives individuals to be curious, take risks, break routines, and persist despite obstacles (Amabile, 1988;McGraw & Fiala, 1982), thereby stimulating creativity (Amabile, 1988;Shin & Zhou, 2003). ...
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Recent research has questioned the assumed positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity. Going beyond previous studies that explored the question of “when” intrinsic motivation affects creativity, this research addresses the question of “how.” Drawing on motivated information processing theory, we propose a motivational-cognitive model of creativity, such that intrinsic motivation exerts a positive indirect effect on creativity through cognitive flexibility. Results from two field studies provide convincing empirical evidence for our central hypothesis. To further explore how the motivational–cognitive processes to creativity are stimulated, we identify job autonomy as a contextual antecedent and find that job autonomy is positively and serially related to creativity through intrinsic motivation and cognitive flexibility. Moreover, such a serial mediating effect is stronger when supervisory autonomy support is high. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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This study investigates the effect of transformational leadership on the followers' creativity through the mediation of creative thinking and intrinsic motivation. Data were collected from the Research and Development employees of 50 companies in Taiwan. It is found that the creative thinking and the intrinsic motivation fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity. It is also found that the transformational leadership has a relatively smaller effect on creative thinking than on intrinsic motivation. In addition, creative thinking has a greater effect on creativity than does intrinsic motivation. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Creativity is a topic of ever-increasing interest, given its importance and applicability to literally every field. Personality traits have been frequently and predictably related to creative achievement. Amabile (19833. Amabile , T. M. ( 1983 ). The social psychology of creativity . New York : Springer Verlag . [CrossRef]View all references) pointed out that individuals may have certain traits and abilities that are favorable for creativity, but whether these will actually result in achieving creative results depends on their intrinsic motivation. Additionally, under certain circumstances extrinsic motivation has been found to have a positive effect on creativity. We hypothesized a conceptual model and tested the mediating and moderating role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation respectively in the relationship between 3 personality traits (openness to experience, self-efficacy, and perseverance) and creativity. This study, conducted in a university setting, found support for the potential mediating role of intrinsic motivation between creativity/openness to experience as intrinsic motivation partially mediated this relationship. Self-efficacy was closely related to creativity, with intrinsic motivation completely mediating this relationship. Extrinsic motivation moderated the relationship between self-efficacy/creativity and perseverance/creativity and had a negative association with creativity.
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Contrasting predictions from expectancy valence and cognitive evaluation theories were tested in a 2 × 2 factorial design in which intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were independently manipulated. Based on critiques of earlier research, several relevant factors were considered in the present design: type of extrinsic reward, measure of intrinsic motivation, and use of moderator variables, such as higher order need strength. 94 college students worked on either an interesting or boring task for a low or high extrinsic reward. The primary measure of intrinsic motivation was subjects' return rate to a second experimental session. Results support the expectancy valence hypothesis that intrinsic and contingent extrinsic rewards have an additive effect on motivation. Both types of rewards show significant main effects. There were no significant moderator effects. Differences between this study and research supporting cognitive evaluation theory are discussed.
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Integrating cognitive evaluation theory with creativity literature, this study theorized and found a curvilinear relationship between role ambiguity and creativity, with a moderate amount of role ambiguity being the most conducive to work creativity. Tolerance of ambiguity moderated this curvilinear relation, suggesting that employees who have a high tolerance of ambiguity exhibit higher creativity in the situation of intermediate role ambiguity than those who have a lower tolerance of ambiguity. To further build the theory linking the interactive effect of role ambiguity and tolerance of ambiguity on creativity, this study investigated and found a mediating effect of creative self-efficacy. Two hundred and forty-two graduate students in business or a related field participated in the laboratory experiments. Two different experimental tasks were used to address the inherent limitations and bias associated with a single task in experimental studies. It is the first study that demonstrates an inverted U-shape relation between role ambiguity and employee creativity. Detailed theoretical contributions, practical implications, and future research directions are discussed.
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The clinical spectrum of caudal dysplasia sequence (CDS) is noted for its diversity. The origin of CDS remains unknown, though poorly controlled gestational diabetes has been implicated in some cases. Here we describe the case of a newborn with CDS associated with penile enlargement (PE). The main anomalies included anal atresia, agenesis of the kidneys and of the sacrococcygeal vertebrae, dysgenesis of lumbar vertebrae, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Penile enlargement (7 cm), a rather unusual finding, has so far not been reported in association with CDS. Chromosomal analysis failed, and the neonate died 30 min after birth. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis using stored DNA showed a balanced normal male DNA content, which negates chromosomal losses or gains as a cause of CDS and/or PE. PE due to virilizing-type adrenal hyperplasia, caused by common mutations in the genes encoding for the adrenal enzymes 21-hydroxylase and 11-hydroxylase, was ruled out. We report on a previously unpublished case of the coexistence of PE and severe CDS and propose a possible pathogenetic hypothesis of this association. © Wiley-Liss. Inc.
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Substantial research indicates that tangible rewards, such as money, prizes, and tokens, decrease response rates by undermining intrinsic motivation. In contrast, praise appears to increase response rates by enhancing intrinsic motivation. Based on their interpretation of available evidence, many social-cognitive researchers warn not to use tangible rewards in applied settings and to use praise instead. Furthermore, they suggest that the differential effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation cannot be explained using principles of operant psychology. Cognitive evaluation theory provides one of the most recent and widely cited social-cognitive explanations for the different effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). However, a review of existing research found little support for the explanations based on this theory and revealed three potential confounding effects: (a) temporal contiguity, (b) the number of reward administrations, and (c) discriminative stimuli associated with reward availability. These three confounding factors provide explanations for the effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation that are consistent with principles of operant psychology.
Chapter
This chapter reviews both theory and research on autonomous self-regulation as a form of optimal motivation in the workplace. It discusses the metatheoretical and theoretical underpinnings of self-determination theory (SDT). The chapter focuses on both theory and research on intrinsic life goals as a set of optimal aspirations in the workplace. It reflects on how managerial support for basic psychological needs might facilitate autonomous self-regulation and the pursuit of intrinsic life goals among employees in the workplace. The chapter offers several directions for future research on optimal motivation in the workplace using the perspective of SDT. It examines a conceptual model based on SDT in which managerial need support is associated with optimal motivation among employees, which in turn is associated with psychological wellness, social integration, physical health, behavioral persistence, and performance in the workplace.
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Using a sample of 403 technical professionals from 129 Chinese companies in 28 cities, we found that (1) comparing with supervisors, work support from coworkers may have potentially long-lasting effects on creativity, (2) intrinsic motivation partially mediated the contribution of work support from coworkers to technical professional creative ability. We discuss implications of these results for research and practice.
Article
Prior research has revealed as many as 12 leadership constructs that influence employee creativity by affecting intrinsic motivation. However, little research has explored how leaders might improve employee creativity by directly enhancing creative ability. In this article, we explore the confluence of three streams of research to establish theory supporting leader heuristic transfer (LHT) as a potential influence on employee creativity. LHT is defined as the conveyance of a leader’s experience-based processes for pattern recognition, discovery, and problem solving—rules of thumb employees’ may adapt for their own creative application. Using a sample of 289 employee–supervisor–coworker survey triads, results indicate that LHT has a positive relationship with employee creativity, even when controlling for established creativity-enhancing factors. Furthermore, structural equation modeling shows that LHT’s influence on creativity exceeds the intrinsic motivation hypothesis central to existing constructs. Where the existing constructs focus on increasing employee intrinsic motivation in the hope that creativity occurs as a by-product, it appears that LHT boosts creativity directly, with intrinsic motivation as a positive by-product of a more capable employee.
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Conducted a field experiment with 3-5 yr old nursery school children to test the "overjustification" hypothesis suggested by self-perception theory (i.e., intrinsic interest in an activity may be decreased by inducing him to engage in that activity as an explicit means to some extrinsic goal). 51 Ss who showed intrinsic interest in a target activity during baseline observations were exposed to 1 of 3 conditions: in the expected-award condition, Ss agreed to engage in the target activity in order to obtain an extrinsic reward; in the unexpected-award condition, Ss had no knowledge of the reward until after they had finished with the activity; and in the no-award condition, Ss neither expected nor received the reward. Results support the prediction that Ss in the expected-award condition would show less subsequent intrinsic interest in the target activity than Ss in the other 2 conditions. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. Results indicate that (a) when money was used as an external reward, intrinsic motivation tended to decrease; whereas (b) when verbal reinforcement and positive feedback were used, intrinsic motivation tended to increase. Discrepant findings in the literature are reconciled using a new theoretical framework which employs a cognitive approach and concentrates on the nature of the external reward. (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Theories of management and work motivation distinguish between two kinds of rewards—extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards are ones such as money and verbal reinforcement which are mediated outside of the person, whereas intrinsic rewards are mediated within the person. We say a person is intrinsically motivated to perform an activity if there is no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. All of the theories of work motivation which consider both kinds of rewards assume that the effects of the two are additive. This paper examines that assumption by reviewing a program of research which investigated the effects of external rewards and controls on intrinsic motivation. It was reported that a person's intrinsic motivation to perform an activity decreased when he received contingent monetary payments, threats of punishment for poor performance, or negative feedback about his performance. Noncontingent monetary payments left intrinsic motivation unchanged, and verbal reinforcements appeared to enhance intrinsic motivation. A cognitive evaluation theory was presented to explain these results, and the theory and results were discussed in relation to management.
Article
Male subjects (N=80) were randomly assigned to either an intrinsically appealing or an intrinsically nonappealing assembly task. Half of the subjects were paid according to a highly salient, continuous, contigent reward schedule, while the other half were paid according to an extremely noncontingent payment schedule. Thus, 20 subjects worked for both intrinsic and extrinsic incentives, 20 for extrinsic only, 20 for intrinsic only, and 20 for minimal incentives of either type. Data on four dependent variables (performance, intrinsic motivation, orientation toward the tasks, and intrinsic satisfaction) provided convergent support for Deci's hypothesis that intrinsic and extrinsic incentives are not additive in determining attitudes and behavior.
Article
80 male Ss were randomly assigned to either an intrinsically appealing or an intrinsically nonappealing assembly task. Half of the Ss were paid according to a highly salient, continuous, contingent reward schedule, while the other half were paid according to an extremely noncontingent payment schedule. Thus, 20 Ss worked for both intrinsic and extrinsic incentives, 20 for extrinsic only, 20 for intrinsic only, and 20 for minimal incentives of either type. Data on 4 dependent variables (performance, intrinsic motivation, orientation toward the task, and intrinsic satisfaction) provided convergent support for E. L. Deci's (see record 1968-02190-001) hypothesis that intrinsic and extrinsic incentives are not additive in determining attitudes and behavior. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews recent evidence on the effect of task-extrinsic incentives on motivated activity, first from a historical perspective and then from the standpoint of recent research on the topic. Three early studies are reviewed in detail to establish the paradigm case, and then additional studies are categorized by content. The purpose of this article is to outline the entire range of the effect under investigation. The evidence from these studies suggests that in certain contexts the effect of task-extrinsic incentives is to undermine performance of and subsequent interest in the rewarded activity. The research is discussed in terms of what it suggests about the contrast between self-initiated and other-initiated learning. (88 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Experimental results are presented which challenge the conclusion of previous investigators that the essential need of the child is the decisive factor in the resumption of interrupted tasks. Although the quantitative results of this investigation agree with those of previous studies, they are misleading, for qualitative study reveals that interrupted tasks originated by the child himself are psychologically very different from physically identical interrupted tasks begun by others. It is by no means clear that the needs of the individual are the only factors decisive for resumption.
Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning The hidden costs of reward Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation
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Overjustification research and beyond: Toward a means-ends analysis of intrinsic motivation The hidden costs of reward
  • M R Lepper
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Lepper, M. R., & Greene, D. Overjustification research and beyond: Toward a means-ends analysis of intrinsic motivation. In M. R. Lepper and D. Greene (Eds.), The hidden costs of reward. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.
Behavior and development as a function of the total situation Manual of child psychology Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment
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  • L Ross
Lewin, K. Behavior and development as a function of the total situation. In L. Car-michael (Ed.), Manual of child psychology. New York: lohn Wiley, 1946. McGraw and Fiala Nisbett, R., & Ross, L. Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980.