Article

Growth performance of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed on practical diets with increasing levels of the Antarctic krill meal, Euphausia superba, reared in clear- versus green-water culture tanks

Article

Growth performance of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed on practical diets with increasing levels of the Antarctic krill meal, Euphausia superba, reared in clear- versus green-water culture tanks

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Abstract

Litopenaeus vannamei were stocked in 25 clear-water 500-L tanks at 100 shrimp m−2 and in 25 green-water 1000-L tanks at 60 animals m−2. Four diets were formulated to include krill meal at 10, 50 or 110 g kg−1; or krill oil at 25 g kg−1 by replacing fish meal, fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol. Diets had similar levels of crude protein, total energy and essential amino acids. After 72 days, shrimp reared in clear and green water showed no differences in performance among diets. In clear water, shrimp attained 13.1 ± 0.59 g body weight, 1.00 ± 0.06 g week−1 growth, 81.4 ± 7.3% survival, 780 ± 118 g m−2 yield, 16.9 ± 1.8 g shrimp−1 apparent feed intake (AFI), and 2.18 ± 0.29 food conversion ratio (FCR). In green water, shrimp attained 14.3 ± 0.81 g body weight, 1.04 ± 0.09 g week−1 growth, 91.4 ± 5.4% survival, 569 ± 69 g m−2 yield, 20.9 ± 3.2 g shrimp−1 AFI, and 2.22 ± 0.34 FCR. Diets containing krill meal or krill oil were able to fully replace the protein and lipid value of fish meal, fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol at no cost to performance.

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... During the rearing period, water quality was kept at 35 AE 1 g L À1 (n = 1260) salinity, 7.95 AE 0.36 (n = 1260) pH and 28.2 AE 0.65°C (n = 1260) temperature. In rearing phases (1) and (3), water quality and feed management followed a similar protocol as described by Nunes et al. (2011). Shrimp were fed in excess throughout the rearing period. ...
... Diets from all experiments were manufactured with laboratory equipment as described in Nunes et al. (2011). Dry matter (drying in a convection oven between 103 and 105°C), ash (sample incineration in a muffle furnace at 550°C), crude protein (Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation), crude lipid (resulting residue extracted with diethyl ether), crude fibre (acid and alkaline hydrolysis) and gross energy (bomb calorimetry) were determined following standard methods (AOAC 2002). ...
... Previous studies had also demonstrated that the benefit of krill meal in low fish meal diets for marine shrimp goes beyond improving feed attractability. Nunes et al. (2011) was able to fully replace the protein and lipid value of fish meal, fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol at no cost to performance using krill meal in L. vannamei diets. S a et al. ...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of soy protein ratio, lipid content and the minimum dietary level of krill meal in plant-based diets over the growth performance and digestibility of Litopenaeus vannamei. Nine plant-based diets varied the soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) inclusion ratio at 1 : 2.3, 1 : 1 and 2.5 : 1, and their dietary lipid content at 121.4 ± 9.4, 102.3 ± 1.2, and 79.9 ± 1.2 g kg−1 (in a dry matter basis). An additional diet containing 120 g kg−1 of fish meal (salmon by-product) was used as a control. Krill meal was included at 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g kg−1 in a new set of plant-based diets. After 10 weeks in clear-water tanks of 0.5 m3, no effect of SBM:SPC ratio and dietary lipid content was detected on shrimp survival. However, dietary lipid levels of 80 and 121 g kg−1 combined with a high SPC to SBM resulted in the lowest final body weight and the poorest apparent crude protein digestibility, respectively. Krill meal increased feed intake at only 10 g kg−1, while at 20 g kg−1, it accelerated shrimp growth, increased yield and reduced food conversion ratio.
... In addition, the concentrations of other essential amino acids, particularly isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine,were higher in krill meal than fishmeal (Table 4). Consistently, growth performance stimulation with krill meal has been reported earlier in red swam crayfish (Gao et al., 2020), P. monodon , Atlantic salmon (Hatlen et al., 2017), P. vannamei (Nunes et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016) and yellow croaker (Wei et al., 2019). Derby et al. (2016) reported that krill meal at 1, 3 and 6% inclusion increased the palatability and consumption of feed pellets in a concentration-dependent fashion in P. vannamei compared to the control group. ...
... However, dietary change did not affect the feed and protein efficiency measures in terms of FCR, PER and APU in this present study. This result is corroborated with the findings of Nunes et al. (2011) in P. vannamei reared in clear and green-water rearing systems and with the finding of Sabry-Neto et al. (2017) in P. vannamei fed plant-based diets with a minimum level of krill meal. However, the reported values of FCR in our study (1.39-1.43) ...
... However, the reported values of FCR in our study (1.39-1.43) were lower than that obtained by Nunes et al. (2011) and Sabry-Neto et al. ...
Article
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary krill meal inclusion in diets with moderate (12%) and low (6%) fishmeal concentrations for Penaeusvannamei.Inasmuch, eight iso‑nitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain 36% crude protein and 5.5% crude lipid. In the moderate-fishmeal diets, krill meal was included at 0, 2, 4 and 6% (called FK12:0, FK12:2, FK12:4 and FK12:6, respectively), likewise in the low-fishmeal diets, krill meal was included at the same concentrations of 0–6% (called FK6:0, FK6:2, FK6:4 and FK6:6, respectively). Shrimp with a starting body weight of 0.55 ± 0.02 g were stocked at 22 animals per tank of 350 lcapacity and fed three times daily. Results revealed that dietary krill meal and fish meal inclusion levels significantly increased growth performance (P < 0.05)and there was no significant effect on interaction between fishmeal and krill meal levels. Shrimp fed 6% krill meal diet had the highest final body weight of 11.61 g, weight gain of 11.05 g, weight gain % of 1969.38%,specific growth rate of 5.41%/d and yield of 229.42 g/tank The weight gain % and SGR showed non significant difference between 4 and 6% krill meal containing groups.Dietary change did not affect feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein utilization(P > 0.05). Survival was significantly increased in the groups containing 6 and 4% krill meal diets compared to 0% krill meal diet (P < 0.05). Inclusion levels of krill meal showed non-significant differences in post-fed body composition except for crude lipid and crude fibre content. Fishmeal inclusion levels showed significant (P < 0.05) variation in C14:0,C16:0,C18:0,C16:1, C18:1n-9,C18:2n-6,C22:6nn-3/n-6 ratio, whereas krill meal inclusion levels showed significant variation in the all n-3 fatty acids only. Immune-related gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated in the shrimp fed high fishmeal diets (12%) for all the analyzed genes (ProPhenoloxidase (ProPO),ProPhenoloxidase activating enzyme (PPAE), Serine Protease (SP), β-1, 3-glucan-binding protein (BGBP), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Hemocyanin (HC)). The dietary change led to a significant difference in both histology and haematology parameters (P < 0.05). The results inferred that krill meal could be used as a potential functional feed ingredient in Penaeus vannamei.The present study suggested beneficial effects of krill meal in shrimp diets. The levels of fishmeal inclusion (12 and 6%) also showed significant (P < 0.05) variations in various growth performance parameters. It is plausible that an inclusion level of 4% is the minimum for a measurable difference in growth performance.
... Shrimp were individually weighed at stocking and at harvest to determine their initial and final body weight (g), weekly growth rate (g/week), yield (g of biomass gained per m 2 ) and final survival (%). FCR (food conversion ratio) was calculated based on apparent feed intake (AFI) determined on a dry matter basis according to Nunes, Sá, andSabry-Neto (2011) andBrowdy, Bharadwaj, Venero, andNunes (2012). AFI was the total amount of feed delivered subtracted from the total amount of feed remains recovered from feeding trays on a dry matter basis. ...
... Shrimp were individually weighed at stocking and at harvest to determine their initial and final body weight (g), weekly growth rate (g/week), yield (g of biomass gained per m 2 ) and final survival (%). FCR (food conversion ratio) was calculated based on apparent feed intake (AFI) determined on a dry matter basis according to Nunes, Sá, andSabry-Neto (2011) andBrowdy, Bharadwaj, Venero, andNunes (2012). AFI was the total amount of feed delivered subtracted from the total amount of feed remains recovered from feeding trays on a dry matter basis. ...
... The sum of feed intake per tank was then divided by the number of stocked shrimp in each rearing unit. Water quality management, shrimp feeding and sampling followed a similar protocol as described by Nunes et al. (2011). ...
Article
Hypersalinity culture of marine shrimp can lead to poor growth and feed efficiency. This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of three oil sources (krill, fish and soybean) on the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared under high salinity. Shrimp of 2.79 ± 0.60 g were reared for 64 days under isosmotic (ISO, 23 ± 1.2 g/L) and hyperosmotic (HOS, 44 ± 2.0 g/L) conditions. Diets varied in their fatty acid composition: Control, 35 g/kg of the diet (as fed basis) soybean oil; Fish, 27 g/kg fish oil and 10 g/kg soybean oil; Krill, 48 g/kg krill oil and 4 g/kg soybean oil; Krill-, 15 g/kg krill oil and 21 g/kg soybean oil; Krill+, 55 g/kg krill oil and 4 g/kg soybean oil. At harvest, Krill diet promoted the fastest shrimp growth (1.01 ± 0.01 g/week) and body weight (11.97 ± 2.01 g), regardless of water salinity. There were no significant differences in shrimp survival (93.4 ± 5.07%) and yield (554 ± 68.5 g/m2) among different diets. Shrimp fed Fish, Krill and Krill+ had higher concentrations of PUFA compared to those fed Control and Krill-diets.
... Experimental diets were prepared following the methodology described by Nunes et al. (2011) with some modifications. To ensure that all micro-ingredients, including HMTBa, were homogeneously distributed in experimental diets, they were first mixed with wheat flour in a Y-mixer (Model MA-201/5MOI/I, Marconi Equipamentos para Laborato´rios Ltda., Piracicaba, Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil) for 10 min. ...
... Rearing system management, shrimp feeding and sampling followed a similar protocol as described by Nunes et al. (2011). Water quality parameters (i.e. ...
... Lemos & Nunes (2008) rearing L. vannamei in 24 clear-water tanks for 56 days under 114 shrimp m )2 reported a final survival of 90.3 ± 5.8% for shrimp between 7.5 ± 0.77 and 11.2 ± 1.10 g body weight. In another study, Nunes et al. (2011), using a similar rearing system and stocking density as adopted in the present work, reported a final survival of 91.4 ± 5.4% for a 14.3 ± 0.81 g shrimp harvested from 25 tanks. ...
Article
This work evaluated the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei to low fish meal diets supplemented with 2‐hydroxy‐4‐(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBa). A basal diet with 150.0 g kg−1 of anchovy fish meal was designed. Two positive control diets were formulated to reduce fish meal at 50% and 100% with 1.0 and 2.0 g kg−1 of MERA™ MetCa (calcium salt with 84% HMTBa activity), respectively. Two nearly equivalent diets acted as negative controls, without HMTBa supplementation. A total of 50 clear‐water tanks of 500 L were stocked with 2.22 ± 0.19 g shrimp under 70 animals m−2. Shrimp survival (92.3 ± 5.1% and 81.4 ± 8.0%), yield (808 ± 12 and 946 ± 17 g m−2) and FCR (2.17 ± 0.19 and 3.12 ± 0.37) showed no differences among diets after 72 or 96 days, respectively. A significantly higher shrimp body weight and weekly growth were observed for those fed with the basal diet or diets supplemented with HMTBa compared with non‐supplemented ones. This study has shown that L. vannamei growth, body weight, survival, yield and FCR were supported by HMTBa supplementation when 150.0 g kg−1 of fish meal was replaced by soybean meal and other ingredients, at 50% and 100%.
... The rearing system adopted in this study has been described by Nunes et al. (2011) and Façanha et al. (2016Façanha et al. ( , 2018. Briefly, the system was composed of independent outdoor tanks, round, blue in color, with 1.14 m of inner diameter on the bottom, 0.74-m height, and a total bottom area of 1.02 m 2 . ...
... In order to maximize shrimp growth, the diet was supplemented with DL-methionyl-DL-methionine (AQUAVI® Table 2), respectively, with a corresponding Met+Cys (cysteine) level of 1.28%. Diets were manufactured with laboratory equipment as described in Nunes et al. (2011). Physical water stability of pellets was measured with an orbital horizontal shaker following a modified method of Obaldo et al. (2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the coming years, supplementation of crystalline amino acids (CAAs) will become a standard practice driven by the trend towards low-fish meal diets. We have evaluated the effect of feeding juvenile L. vannamei several times a day versus two (2×) and four (4×) times using a low-fish meal diet supplemented with CAAs. A total of 1632 shrimp of 1.06 ± 0.16 g were stocked in 16 outdoor tanks of 1 m³ under 100 shrimp/m². Shrimp were either fed manually, 2× or 4× daily, using one feeding tray per tank, or fed with an automatic feeder to deliver multiple (10) meals during the day or during the day and night (D&N) at programmed times. A diet containing 3% fish meal was prepared to contain supplemental levels of CAAs. After 11 weeks of rearing, survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency of shrimp were significantly affected by feeding frequency and time of feeding. Feeding 2× and 4× daily resulted in a lower survival compared to multiple times during the day or D&N. Shrimp body weight was enhanced with an increase in feeding frequency, from 8.74, 10.95, 11.33, and 11.33 g under 2×, 4×, and multiple feedings during the day or during D&N, respectively. FCR was also significantly affected, reducing from a high of 2.46 under 2× to 1.59 under multiple feedings D&N. Our findings indicate that it is more advantageous to feed juvenile L. vannamei multiple times a day when a low-fish meal amino acid-supplemented diet is used.
... However, PL in C and N groups had the highest (767 ± 117 µg) and the lowest (367 ± 44.0 µg) dry weight, respectively, and PL in Y group showed intermediate value (567 ± 117 µg) (Fig. 1c). In this regard, several researches have shown that, L. vannamei larvae grew faster when co-cultured with microalgae because of high quality of protein and amino acid profile, vitamins, cholesterol and carotenoids (Nunes et al.,2011;Sanchez et al., 2012;Iba et al., 2014) [15,27,31] .On the other hand, it has been reported that the beneficial effects of microalgae on growth performance might be related to their immune enhancer effects (Hayashi and Katoh, 1994) [13] as well as anti-inflammatory (Jensen et al., 2001) [16] and antiviral (Hayashi and Hayashi, 1996) [12] properties of microalgae rather than their nutrients. Moreover, Mustafa and Nakagawa (1995) [26] have reported that using microalgae as feed additive led to an increase in growth performance in fish, which associated with improved physiological conditions such as protein assimilation, lipid metabolism, liver function, and stress response. ...
... However, PL in C and N groups had the highest (767 ± 117 µg) and the lowest (367 ± 44.0 µg) dry weight, respectively, and PL in Y group showed intermediate value (567 ± 117 µg) (Fig. 1c). In this regard, several researches have shown that, L. vannamei larvae grew faster when co-cultured with microalgae because of high quality of protein and amino acid profile, vitamins, cholesterol and carotenoids (Nunes et al.,2011;Sanchez et al., 2012;Iba et al., 2014) [15,27,31] .On the other hand, it has been reported that the beneficial effects of microalgae on growth performance might be related to their immune enhancer effects (Hayashi and Katoh, 1994) [13] as well as anti-inflammatory (Jensen et al., 2001) [16] and antiviral (Hayashi and Hayashi, 1996) [12] properties of microalgae rather than their nutrients. Moreover, Mustafa and Nakagawa (1995) [26] have reported that using microalgae as feed additive led to an increase in growth performance in fish, which associated with improved physiological conditions such as protein assimilation, lipid metabolism, liver function, and stress response. ...
Article
This research aimed to evaluate the effects of Artemia enrichment with baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Y) and Chaetoceros gracilis (C) on growth performance, stress resistance as well as fatty acid profile of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae (PL) for 15 days. Newly hatched Artemia franciscana nauplii (N) served as control group. Survival did not changed among different experimental groups. PL in C and N groups had the highest (767 ± 117 µg) and the lowest (367 ± 44.0 µg) dry weight, respectively, and PL in Y group showed intermediate value (567 ± 117 µg). PL in Y and N groups had the highest (52.3 ± 2.9%) and the lowest (31.3 ± 2.8%) survival rate, when exposed to the fresh water stress test, respectively. The concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were higher in Artemia enriched with C. gracilis than other groups. Moreover, the n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratio was significantly higher in PL fed C group than other treatments. In conclusion, feeding enriched Artemia with C. gracilis or S. cerevisiae can improve growth performance and stress resistance in L. vannamei PL.
... At this time, shrimp were size-graded, counted, individually weighed and stocked at 40 shrimp tank À1 (70 shrimp m À2 ) in 500 L clear-water tanks (0.57 m À2 of bottom surface area). Water quality management, shrimp feeding and sampling followed a similar protocol as described by Nunes et al. (2011). ...
... Diets from all experiments were manufactured with laboratory equipment as described by Nunes et al. (2011). The proximate and amino acid composition of the experimental diets were determined following standard methods (AOAC 2002). ...
Article
This work aimed to determine whether a minimum provision of marine oil in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei is required when replacing fish meal (FM) by soy protein concentrate (SPC). The study consisted of three growth experiments conducted in 500-L tanks with 70 shrimp m−2. In experiment #1, FM was progressively replaced by SPC as fish oil (FO) levels increased with a consistent input of whole squid meal (WSM). In experiment #2, FM was replaced by SPC under two levels of FO (10 or 20 g kg−1) without the presence of a feeding effector. In experiment #3, three dietary levels of krill meal (KRL) and WSM (5, 10 and 20 g kg−1) were included in a basal diet containing SPC and low levels of FM. Results showed that under a clear-water condition, the dietary levels of FO in practical diets for L. vannamei have a significant impact on the amount of FM that can be replaced by SPC. As much as 31% replacement of FM/SPC was possible with 20 g kg−1FO. Whenever dietary fat was adjusted by using FO as a lipid source, complete replacement of FM by SPC was achieved with no negative effect on shrimp growth.
... The effect of inclusion of krill meal on penaeid shrimp performance has been investigated (Cordova-Murueta and Garcia-Carreno 2002, Nunes et al. 2011, Sá et al. 2013, Suresh et al. 2011, Williams et al. 2005 and the benefits are summarized in Table 2. ...
... To fully meet shrimp nutrient requirements, feeds must rely on costly ingredients that include fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol, among others. Krill meal at 5 percent can generate a formula cost savings of more than 10 percent without compromising shrimp growth performance (Nunes et al. 2011). This was achieved by eliminating the dependence on soybean lecithin and reducing the use of fishmeal, fish oil and cholesterol. ...
Article
Full-text available
In shrimp farming, increasing attention is given to Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) living in the Southern Ocean to improve yield and stress resistance without increasing production costs. Krill is a shrimp-like swarming pelagic crustacean, which is used as a feed additive in diet formulations, mainly in the form of a high-protein krill meal. Krill meal is a feed attractant and shrimp growth accelerator. Krill meal is a sustainable and pure alternative to fish meal consisting of around 11% omega-3 phospholipids. Shrimp inefficiently produce phospholipids and depend on dietary addition for building membranes, fat storage/transport and resisting to adverse growing conditions. Dietary phospholipids increase the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides and omega-3 fatty acids from the digestive tract to the hepatopancreas and over the hemolymph to tissues. The feed attractants in krill meal improve growth performance of shrimp fed normal, but also vegetable or poultry protein-rich diets and the omega-3 phospholipids may improve energy transport and stress sensitivity.
... Significantly, most researches of KO focused on rodents (Ferramosca et al., 2012;Ghasemifard et al., 2015;Skorve et al., 2015;Tandy et al., 2009;Tillander et al., 2014), humans Ursoniu et al., 2017) and cells (Costanzo et al., 2016;Jayathilake et al., 2016;Su et al., 2018). Few studies were conducted to evaluate the dietary KO nutritive value for crustaceans, which only being found in L. vannamei (Nunes et al., 2011) andS. verreauxi (Shu-Chien et al., 2017). ...
... Thus, researches focusing on the nutritional problem of swimming crabs especially lipid sources will be important to develop cost-effective, environmental friendship and nutritionally balanced feed for swimming crab. To date, there have been a lot of studies focused on the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth, tissue fatty acid compositions, immunity and antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in crustaceans, such as swimming crab or mud crab (Chen et al., 2016;Han et al., 2015;Unnikrishnan et al., 2010), and shrimp (Hu et al., 2011;Li et al., 2011;Nunes et al., 2011;Ramesh and Balasubramanian, 2005;Shu-Chien et al., 2017;Zhou et al., 2007). In recent years, we have primarily focused on some lipid-related exploration of swimming crab, such as the relationship between lipid levels and the intestinal microbiota (Sun et al., 2018), the relationship between phospholipids and vitellogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis metabolism (unpublished data). ...
Article
The effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, feed utilization, hematological characteristics, antioxidant capacity and tissue fatty acid profiles were assessed in juvenile swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Six isonitrogenous (approximately 45% crude protein)and isolipidic (approximately 8% crude lipid)experimental diets were formulated to contain fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), palm oil (PO), rapeseed oil (RO), soybean oil (SO)and linseed oil (LO), respectively. 270 swimming crab juveniles (approximately initial weight 5.43 ± 0.03 g)were randomly stocked and sorted into 270 individual rectangle plastic baskets in three cement pools. The results showed that crabs fed the diet containing KO had a significantly higher percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR)and molting ratio (MR)than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed the KO diet had the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR)among all treatments, followed by the FO diet. However, survival, daily feed intake (DFI)and hepatosomatic index (HSI)were not affected by the dietary lipid sources. Crabs fed the FO and KO diets led to significantly higher glucose (GLU)concentration in hemolymph compared to that fed the vegetable oils (VOs)diets. Moreover, a significant elevation of total protein (TP), glucose (GLU)and low density lipoprotein (LDL)was observed in hemolymph of crabs fed the KO diet. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD)and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)as well as the content of glutathione (GSH)in hepatopancreas of crabs fed the KO diet had the highest value among all treatments. The minimum concentrations of MDA in hemolymph and hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed the KO diet. The fatty acid compositions of tissues reflected that of diets and lipid sources. Crabs fed the FO and KO diets had significantly higher values of EPA, DHA and n-3/n-6 ratio in hepatopancreas and muscle than those fed the VOs diets. In summary, based on the growth response and antioxidant capacity in comparison to VOs even FO, KO appeared to be more effective and beneficial for juvenile swimming crab. This will provide reference for the development of the diet for the reproductive and developmental stage of swimming crab.
... The variability of feed intake had an impact on the FCR values observed in this study with feed conversion values lower with LKM inclusions, but these results are not of any use, because growth was also much lower. Nevertheless, the FCR in the present trial were higher than those cited by some authors (Lim et al., 1997;Davis and Arnold, 2000;Samocha et al., 2004;Amaya et al., 2007b;Bauer et al., 2012;Ye et al., 2012), but similar to those reported by others (Davis et al., 2002;Molina-Poveda and Morales, 2004;Nunes et al. 2011). ...
... Recent trials in L. vannamei reared in ponds (Amaya et al., 2007a;Sookyin and Davis, 2011) have shown the possibility of feeding white shrimp without fish meal with excellent conversion rates, even without dietary supplements of cholesterol. The requirements of this ingredient have been re-evaluated and reduced by Morris et al. (2011) and in fact some authors (Cruz-Suarez et al., 2007;Amaya et al., 2007b;Ye et al., 2011Ye et al., , 2012Nunes et al., 2011;Sá et al., 2013) obtained goods results without any dietary cholesterol supplement, which would have an important effect on diet cost. ...
Article
Two growth trials were conducted with juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei using experimental diets providing 35% protein and 11% lipid, where 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein (FM) was substituted by lupin kernel meal (LKM). Before grinding the lupin seeds, the alkaloids, hull and fat were removed by specific methods. In an indoor clear water aquarium trial, juvenile shrimp (initial weight 1.23 +/- 0.22 g) were stocked at 8 per 50 L aquarium, with 6 replicate aquaria assigned to each treatment in a completely random design. At the end of the 57-day feeding trial, the average survival of the shrimp was >80% and there was no variation (P > 0.05) when FM was replaced partially nor totally with LKM. The results of this study showed that LKM can replace 50% of FM protein without significantly discouraging growth (6.7-7.0 g final weight) (P > 0.05), but the substitution of 75 and 100% resulted in lower growth (4.8-5.2 g final weight). The inclusion of LKM at any of the tested levels resulted in a statistical reduction (P < 0.05) of the apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD) and apparent protein digestibility (APD) of the feed. The gradual increases of LKM in diets produced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in ingestion rate. To demonstrate the inherent effects of water quality and natural food sources found in shrimp ponds, a growth trial was conducted in 1-m(2) bottomless cages in a single 1000-m(2) pond greenhouse. Juveniles weighing 5.84 +/- 0.25 g (mean +/- SD) were stocked in the cages at a density of 30 individuals per m(2). The feed was offered on a tray twice a day for 45 days. Five replicates were performed for each treatment. At the end of the 45-day field evaluation, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in final weight (11.1-12.2 g), specific growth rate (1.4-1.6 % day(-1)), survival (69-79%) nor FCR (2.0-2.3) were found in any of the experimental shrimp diets. These findings show that Lupinus mutabilis Sweet has very good potential as an alternative protein source replacing at least 50% of protein from FM, equivalent to one third of the total protein in the diet for growth-out phase of L. vannamei. The study should be repeated under pond conditions to corroborate results obtained in cages and assess the cost benefit of including this ingredient in commercial feeds.
... However, FM is produced by the capture of wild fish, which is at risk of overexploitation. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop alternative diets with a reduced reliance on FM by incorporating plant-based ingredients or byproducts obtained from agriculture and animal (Naylor et al., 2009;Nunes, Sá & Sabry-Neto, 2011;FAO, 2016). Albeit up to now, the total replacement of FM by alternative ingredients remains a difficult task, it is feasible with the supplementation of crystalline amino acids (AA) (Tacon & Metian, 2008;Nunes, Sá & Sabry-Neto, 2011). ...
... Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop alternative diets with a reduced reliance on FM by incorporating plant-based ingredients or byproducts obtained from agriculture and animal (Naylor et al., 2009;Nunes, Sá & Sabry-Neto, 2011;FAO, 2016). Albeit up to now, the total replacement of FM by alternative ingredients remains a difficult task, it is feasible with the supplementation of crystalline amino acids (AA) (Tacon & Metian, 2008;Nunes, Sá & Sabry-Neto, 2011). Since the development of novel diets with low levels of FM imposes several challenges, investigations into new nutritional strategies to improve the use of alternative diets become critical. ...
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Based on the ''nutritional programming'' concept, we evaluated the long-term effects of an early four-day caloric restriction (40% reduction in feed allowance compared to a normal feeding level) at the protozoea stage in whiteleg shrimp. We analyzed long-term programming of shrimp by studying metabolism at the molecular level, through RT-qPCR of key biomarkers (involved in intermediary metabolism and digestion). The mRNA levels (extracted from the whole body) were analyzed after the stimulus and after the rearing period, at 20 and 35 days, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, shrimp growth performance was evaluated. There was no difference between normal feed allowance (CTL) and feed-restricted shrimp (RES) for performance parameters (survival, final body weight and the number of post-larvae g −1 or PL g −1). The stimulus directly affected the mRNA levels for only two genes, i.e., preamylase and lvglut 2 which were expressed at higher levels in feed-restricted shrimp. In the long-term, higher levels of mRNAs for enzymes coding for glycolysis and ATP synthesis were also detected. This suggests a possible long-term modification of the metabolism that is linked to the stimulus at the protozoea stage. Overall, further studies are needed to improve nutritional programming in shrimp.
... Chromium oxide III (Cr 2 O 3 ) was included at 5 g kg −1 in all diets as an inert marker. Diets were manufactured with laboratory equipment as described by Nunes et al. (2011). Briefly, dried ingredients were ground, weighed, and mixed in a planetary mixer with freshwater. ...
... Lemos et al. (2009) Lemos et al., 2009) and at 95.1% for P. monodon (644 g kg −1 CP, 211 g kg −1 lipid, and 118 g kg −1 ash; Glencross et al., 2018). A number of other studies have reported a positive effect on the feeding and growth of juvenile L. vannamei when fed low dietary inclusions of KRM (Nunes et al., 2011(Nunes et al., , 2019Suresh et al., 2011;Sá et al., 2013;Derby et al., 2016). ...
... Consequently, microalgae and other organisms freely grow in this environment, decreasing the transparency and defining the greenish of the water. This outdoor rearing system is continuously subjected to fluctuations in water parameters (oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity) (Nunes et al., 2011), as commonly observed for other traditional shrimp farming systems. In contrast, the super-intensive BioFloc Technology (BFT) system has appeared as a promising eco-friendly alternative to the traditional shrimp cultures (Ahmad et al., 2017). ...
... Indeed, the BFT environment is not only composed by bacteria, but also by diverse populations of fungi, protozoans, nematodes and rotifers (Ahmad et al., 2017;Emerenciano et al., 2017). In contrast, green-water systems harbor predominantly phytoplankton, such as diatoms (Nunes et al., 2011). In view of this result, one can hypothesize that the immunostimulatory status promoted by the BFT environment could be associated to MAMPs provided by other microorganisms than bacteria. ...
... These have not varied between experimental diets. Diets were manufactured with laboratory equipment as described in Nunes et al. (2011). ...
... For the study, shrimp of 1.97 ± 0.14 g (mean ± standard deviation; n = 4932, CV = 7.1%) were stocked under 50, 75 and 100 shrimp m −2 in 75 circular polypropylene tanks of 1 m 3 with a bottom surface area of 1.02 m 2 . The outdoor rearing system used in this study was described by Nunes et al. (2011). Initially, rearing tanks were filled with sand-filtered sea water at 30 ± 0.5 g L −1 salinity. ...
... Dietary Façanha et al. 3 variation (coefficient of variation, CV) of all amino acids, except Met and Met+Cys, were maintained at less than 3%. Diets were lab-extruded and manufactured following procedures described in Nunes et al. (2011). ...
... The rearing system and water preparation were the same as adopted by Nunes et al. (2011), Façanha et al. (2016, 2018, and Nunes et al. (2019a,b). Outdoor tanks were equipped with their own water inlet and outlet, aeration system, and feeding tray. ...
Article
Full-text available
A 10-week study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed allowance and graded levels of dietary methionine (Met) on growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Juvenile shrimp of 1.83±0.14 g were stocked in 42 outdoor green-water tanks of 1 m3 under 120 shrimp m−2. Animals were fed under two feed allowances, regular and 30% in excess. Five diets with 30 g kg−1 fishmeal were designed to contain 318±2 g kg−1 crude protein and a minimum amount of protein-bound Met. To achieve graded levels of dietary Met, a control diet with 4.6 g kg−1 Met or 8.9 g kg−1 methionine + cysteine (M+C) was supplemented with 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, and 4.2 g kg−1 of DL-methionyl-DL-methionine to result in total dietary Met of 5.6, 6.9, 7.9, and 9.2 g kg−1 (10.0, 11.2, 12.1, and 13.5 g kg−1 M+C, respectively). A final survival of 86.5±3.6% was reached with no significant influence from feed allowance or dietary Met. Feed inputs significantly affected apparent feed intake, weekly shrimp growth, final body weight (BW), and gained yield. Larger meals and a higher dietary Met had no impact on feed conversion ratio. There was a significant interaction between feed allowance and Met over shrimp BW. By feeding animals in excess, BW was enhanced at 6.9 g kg−1 Met. A dietary Met of 7.9 g kg−1 was required to achieve a maximum BW under a regular feed allowance. Thus, shrimp required less amounts of dietary Met to maximize BW when higher feed inputs were delivered. Our findings demonstrate a sparing effect of dietary Met for L. vannamei when a higher feed allowance is adopted. Shrimp farmers should consider adjusting feed allowance to dietary Met to maximize shrimp growth performance and yield.
... Both the feed and grain pellets were prepared in the lab following the methodology described by Nunes et al. (2011). In short, all dried ingredients were ground to 300 μm, weighed, and mixed with the liquid raw materials and feed additives in a planetary mixer until a feed dough was formed. ...
Article
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This study investigated the dietary contribution of fermented grain pellets (FGP) to the growth of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei raised in a biofloc-based system. Grain pellets made of agricultural plant by-products were fermented with distilled water containing dehydrated live probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Shrimp were fed a feed with 396.8 g kg⁻¹ crude protein (CP) under the following proportions: 100:0 (percentage of feed and FGP to the total daily ration, respectively), 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Juvenile shrimp of 1.15 ± 0.12 g were stocked under 133 animals m⁻² and reared for 77 days in thirty-five 1-m³ outdoor tanks. Final shrimp survival reached 89.3 ± 5.7% and was unaffected by dietary treatment. Shrimp body weight decreased significantly from 12.68 ± 1.48 (100:0) and 11.71 ± 0.67 g (75:25) to a low of 5.23 ± 0.40 g (0:100). No differences were found in weekly shrimp growth between shrimp fed under 100:0 (1.06 ± 0.14 g) and 75:25 (0.97 ± 0.06 g). Feed replacement at 25% caused no loss in yield (1,290 ± 87 g m⁻²) compared to no feed replacement at all (1,365 ± 148 g m⁻²). The 75:25 proportion of feed to FGP was able to partially spare feed inputs leading to 0.08 USD kg⁻¹ savings in feeding costs. Results indicated that a feed replacement of 25% compensated by an equivalent amount of FGP as part of the daily ration led to no detriment in shrimp growth performance in a biofloc-based system.
... The efficacy of krill meal, other animal meals, or other chemicals as chemostimulatory additives is often evaluated using growth rate as a measure (e.g. Harpaz, 1997;Felix and Sudharsan, 2004;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2011;Suresh et al., 2011). However, this metric does not allow parsing out the underlying mechanisms, such as enhancement of consumption or direct nutritional effects due to the quality of ingested protein or other nutrients, which is important in designing better additives. ...
... Macrobrachium larvae can be cultivated with success in clear fresh water (Daniels et al., 1992), but including microalgae is also common. From previous research on cultivating prawn larvae, microalgae are recognized for their role in removing wastes and controlling light and dissolved O2 to benefit larvae (Lober & Zeng, 2009;Nunes et al., 2011;Yamasaki-Granados et al., 2013). Most recently, a study by Rojo-Cebreros et al. (2013) found that M. americanum is a good companion for tilapia fish and does not interfere with fish production. ...
Article
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Latin America has a high diversity of Macrobrachium prawns, some of them with commercial interest. Among them, the cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum is a large prawn of the western coast with commercial value due to its size and taste, but it has been extensively subjected to fishery exploitation, leading to population decline. Cultivation is an option for commercial production and conservation. Some research focused on domestication has been performed. Here, we revise the status of that research and discuss possibilities for sustainable freshwater prawn aquaculture in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America.
... The inclusion of CGM up to a level of 8.6% had a negative effect, but similar FCRs were observed in the CGM25 diet and in the CGM0 diet. The FCR of these two diets was higher than those cited by some authors (Lim et al. 1997;Davis & Arnold 2000;Amaya et al. 2007b;Bauer et al. 2012), but similar to those reported by others with varying ingredients (Davis et al. 2002;Molina-Poveda & Morales 2004;Nunes et al. 2011;Molina-Poveda et al. 2013). ...
Article
A 57-day feeding trial was designed to assess the potential of corn gluten meal (CGM) as a plant protein source in practical feeds for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five experimental diets providing 350 g kg−1 protein and 110 g kg−1 lipid were prepared, where 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of fishmeal (FM) protein was substituted by protein from CGM. The results showed that partial or complete replacement of FM with CGM did not affect survival. The growth of the shrimp declined as the levels of CGM increased, diets containing CGM showing a significantly lower final weight (3.2–5.9 g) and specific growth rates (1.7–2.7% per day) compared to those fed on the diet with 0 CGM (7.1 g and 3.0% per day). Feed conversion ratio was also significantly affected by CGM level. The inclusion of CGM resulted in a statistical decrease in the apparent digestibility (AD) of dry matter from 77.9% to 66.0% and in AD of protein from 80.5% to 52.0%, of feed. The AD of amino acids, with the exception of lysine, declined with the dietary incorporation of CGM. In summary, reduced palatability, low protein digestibility and a deficiency of lysine and methionine seem to be the major reasons behind a depressed growth in shrimp fed on CGM protein-based diets.
... All nutritional components required for larval shrimp growth may be fulfilled with microalgae in the rearing tanks. Several research projects have shown that, in the culture environment, white shrimp larvae grew faster when co-cultured with phytoplankton (Gallardo et al. 2002;Sanchez et al. 2012;Ju et al. 2009;Nunes et al. 2011), underscoring the importance of microalgae in shrimp nutrition during hatchery rearing. ...
Article
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Demand for shrimp, particularly the eastern Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931), will continue to increase in Asian and worldwide seafood markets. Providing shrimp farms with a robust, healthy, and continuous supply of shrimp seed is a challenge that must be addressed to meet the demand. Shrimp feed during hatchery production still relies on live microalgae, despite many years of effort to find suitable full or partial-replacement diet alternatives. Successful mass production of microalgae for hatchery feed to obtain good quality shrimp seedstock depends on a number of environmental factors that determine the growth and nutritional values of various microalgal species. These factors include nutrients in the culture medium, light intensity, temperature, salinity, and pH. An overview of the use and the culture of microalgae in shrimp hatcheries is also presented and outlines the need for research for optimisation of algal diets for the rearing of L. vannamei seedstock in Asian hatcheries. Finally, the possibilities of using local isolates for hatchery operation are also highlighted.
... The stress from captivity may inhibit this behavior (Graziani et al., 1993), and this could be a cause for egg mortality. The green water technique is often used for marine shrimp larval culture because it provides less direct light and nitrogen waste (Nunes et al., 2011). Some food treatments do not seem suitable for larval culture since most of the dead larvae had empty or almost empty digestive tracts. ...
Article
Full-text available
The cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum occurs along the Pacific coast of America. This prawn can grow to a large size, making it an interesting option for aquaculture production. Currently, supplies of juveniles are limited because hatchery and laboratory-reared larvae are difficult to raise. This study assesses larval survival for different combinations of stocking density and feeding from larvae cultivated in green water. From these combinations, larvae fed with Artemia nauplii and maintained at a density of 50 larvae L –1 had the highest survival. Cultivo experimental de larvas de langostino Macrobrachium americanum (Bate, 1868), con énfasis en alimentación y efecto de la densidad sobre la supervivencia RESUMEN. El langostino de río Macrobrachium americanum, ocurre a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de América. Este langostino puede alcanzar grandes tallas lo que lo convierte en una opción interesante para la acuicultura. En la actualidad, el abastecimiento de juveniles a partir del cultivo de sus larvas en hatchery y en laboratorio son difíciles de criar. Este estudio evalúa la supervivencia de las larvas con diferentes combinaciones de alimento y densidades de población cultivadas en agua verde. A partir de estas combinaciones, las larvas alimentadas con nauplios de Artemia salina, mantenidas a una densidad de 50 larvas L –1 , tuvieron la mayor supervivencia. Palabras clave: Macrobrachium americanum, desarrollo larvario, alimentación, supervivencia, langostino.
... The stress from captivity may inhibit this behavior (Graziani et al., 1993), and this could be a cause for egg mortality. The green water technique is often used for marine shrimp larval culture because it provides less direct light and nitrogen waste (Nunes et al., 2011). Some food treatments do not seem suitable for larval culture since most of the dead larvae had empty or almost empty digestive tracts. ...
Article
Full-text available
The cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum occurs along the Pacific coast of America. This prawn can grow to a large size, making it an interesting option for aquaculture production. Currently, supplies of juveniles are limited because hatchery and laboratory-reared larvae are difficult to raise. This study assesses larval survival for different combinations of stocking density and feeding from larvae cultivated in green water. From these combinations, larvae fed with Artemia nauplii and maintained at a density of 50 larvae L –1 had the highest survival. Cultivo experimental de larvas de langostino Macrobrachium americanum (Bate, 1868), con énfasis en alimentación y efecto de la densidad sobre la supervivencia RESUMEN. El langostino de río Macrobrachium americanum, ocurre a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de América. Este langostino puede alcanzar grandes tallas lo que lo convierte en una opción interesante para la acuicultura. En la actualidad, el abastecimiento de juveniles a partir del cultivo de sus larvas en hatchery y en laboratorio son difíciles de criar. Este estudio evalúa la supervivencia de las larvas con diferentes combinaciones de alimento y densidades de población cultivadas en agua verde. A partir de estas combinaciones, las larvas alimentadas con nauplios de Artemia salina, mantenidas a una densidad de 50 larvas L –1 , tuvieron la mayor supervivencia. Palabras clave: Macrobrachium americanum, desarrollo larvario, alimentación, supervivencia, langostino.
... Macrobrachium larvae can be cultivated with success in clear fresh water (Daniels et al., 1992), but including microalgae is also common. From previous research on cultivating prawn larvae, microalgae are recognized for their role in removing wastes and controlling light and dissolved O2 to benefit larvae (Lober & Zeng, 2009;Nunes et al., 2011;Yamasaki-Granados et al., 2013). Most recently, a study by Rojo-Cebreros et al. (2013) found that M. americanum is a good companion for tilapia fish and does not interfere with fish production. ...
... In shrimp feeds, FM can be replaced by alternative protein sources, byproducts obtained from agriculture and from the rendering animal industry. However, dietary replacement of FM can only be carried out with adequate supplementation of essential nutrients, such as amino acids, fatty acids and minerals (Nunes et al., 2011(Nunes et al., , 2014Tacon and Metian, 2008). Alternative proteins may contain from 40 to 70% crude protein, but they are often associated with a low nutrient digestibility, unbalanced amino acid profile, anti-nutritional factors, poor attractability and a high carbohydrate content which result in negative effects on growth performance and feed efficiency (Francis et al., 2001;Gatlin et al., 2007;Nunes et al., 2006a). ...
Article
In this study, the concept of metabolic programming has been tested for the first time in whiteleg shrimp (L. vannamei). Shrimp were raised under a 70% feed restriction during the post-larval stage over three days and compared to a control group. After 46 days, shrimp were challenged with 3 diets showing different nitrogen free-extract: crude protein ratios (1.5, 1.0 and 0.7) for 70 days. In order to test the existence of metabolic programming, we analyzed shrimp growth performance as well as mRNA levels of different metabolic and digestive actors after the stimulus, and also before and after the challenge. No direct effects of the stimulus were observed for several digestive and metabolic actors, except for the trypsin mRNA (lower in the feed-restricted group, probably linked to a decrease in dietary protein intake). As expected, significant effects associated with the diet challenge were detected for shrimp performance, i.e., growth was lower in shrimp fed with reduced levels of dietary proteins. More interestingly, some effects linked to the nutritional history were also detected showing an improved growth performance for shrimp previously restricted at the post-larvae stage. After the dietary challenge, significantly lower mRNA levels for hepatopancreatic genes involved in digestion (lipase, preamylase and trypsin), amino acid metabolism (gs), energy metabolism (cox VI b) and glucose metabolism (lvglut 1, lvglut 2 and pk) were found in restricted shrimp. The link between an enhanced growth performance and these molecular markers in early feed restricted shrimp requires further studies. Overall, our study has demonstrated for the first time that shrimp can be programmed by an early nutritional stimulus. This will allow the development of new feeding strategies in shrimp for sustainable aquaculture
... The rearing system, water preparation and feed management were the same as adopted by Nunes et al. (2011) and Fac ßanha et al. Figure 1). ...
Article
We examined if minimum water exchange could spare dietary methionine (Met) required for maximum growth performance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in an intensive outdoor system. Shrimp of 1.98 ± 0.13 g were stocked at 70 animals/m² and reared for 72 days in 50 tanks of 1 m³ under flow-through (14.4% a day) and static (1.4%–2.9% a day) green-water conditions at 32.0 ± 3.7 g/L salinity. Five diets with a minimum inclusion of fishmeal supplemented with a dipeptide, dl-methionyl-dl-methionine, were formulated to contain increasing levels of Met, 4.8, 6.2, 7.2, 8.1 or 9.4 g/kg (on a dry matter basis). Each of the five diets were fed four times daily to five replicate groups. Dietary Met and water exchange significantly influenced shrimp survival, gained yield, apparent feed intake, food conversion ratio and final body weight (p < .05). Raising shrimp under limited water exchange, i.e., static versus flow-through spared the dependence on higher levels of dietary Met to maximize shrimp body weight, from 9.4 g/kg to 8.0 g/kg (14.0 and 12.6 g/kg Met+Cys respectively). In an intensive rearing system, a reduction in water exchange is desirable as it leads to a lower need for supplemental dietary Met.
... All chemoattractants were included during mixing of feed ingredients, prior to pelleting. Diets were manufactured with laboratory equipment as described in Nunes, Sá, and Sabry-Neto (2011). ...
Article
This study compared the feed preference and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to chemoattractants. A diet with 3% fishmeal was supplemented with either 3% salmon meal (POS), 3% soy protein concentrate (NEG), 3% krill meal (KRM), 3% squid meal (SQM), 3% shrimp head meal (SHM), 3% shrimp meal (SM), 3% squid liver meal (SLM), or 5% liquid sardine hydrolysate (SAH). Shrimp with a body weight (BW) of 0.99 ± 0.08 g were stocked at 100 animals/m2 in 56 tanks of 1 m3 and fed 10 times daily for 74 days. Feed preference was evaluated by feeding shrimp of 10.87 ± 1.82 g in excess twice a day for 10 days in two separate feeding trays allocated in 50 tanks of 0.5 m3. Survival reached 93.3 ± 5.80% and was unaffected by supplementation. Final BW was the highest for shrimp fed the KRM‐supplemented diet (11.97 ± 0.93 g), followed by POS (11.11 ± 0.77 g) and SQM (11.01 ± 1.17 g). Diets SHM, SM, SLM, and NEG showed a lower shrimp BW than POS, but were not statistically different among them. Shrimp fed the SAH diet achieved the lowest BW (10.06 ± 1.02 g). The highest gained yield was obtained with diets KRM and POS. No statistical difference was observed in shrimp yield among other diets. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was achieved with shrimp fed KRM (1.31 ± 0.05) when compared to diets SHM (1.47 ± 0.05), SAH (1.47 ± 0.07), and SLM (1.45 ± 0.17). Two‐by‐two comparisons indicated that shrimp preferred SHM and KRM, except when these were compared to SQM and SLM. No difference in feed preference was found between diets with SQM and SLM. SAH was the least preferred raw material in all comparisons. Results indicated that KRM acts as a powerful feeding effector and growth enhancer in fishmeal‐challenged diets for whiteleg shrimp. A dietary supplementation with 3% KRM is more effective than the same dose of any other chemoattractant evaluated.
... The judicious use of additives with growth stimulating properties is relevant for intensification, where stocking densities are too high to rely on supplementation from natural food sources. They also allow better performance of aquafeeds with limited to no fishmeal [180,186]. Higher feed costs are justified in efficient intensive production systems when the following outcomes can be achieved: improved culture performance enabling improved survival and yield, shorter crop cycles allowing for more subsequent crop cycles within the year and/or increases in the final size class of the product to reach premium prices. Future economic modeling to decide on the target market segment with the best economic return for set feed prices is key. ...
Article
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Intensification of the shrimp sector, also referred to as vertical expansion, has been predominately driven by consecutive incidences of global disease outbreaks, which have caused enormous economic loss for the main producer countries. A growing segment of the shrimp farming industry has opted to use production systems with higher density, biosecurity, and operating control to mitigate the risks posed by disease. However, successful super-intensive shrimp production is reliant on an advanced understanding of many important biological and economic parameters in the farming system, coupled with effective monitoring, to maintain optimal production. Compared to traditional extensive or semi-intensive systems, super-intensive systems require higher inputs of feed, energy, labor, and supplements. These systems are highly sensitive to the interactions between these different inputs and require that the biological and economical parameters of farming are carefully balanced to ensure success. Advancing nutritional knowledge and tools to support consistent and efficient production of shrimp in these high-cost super-intensive systems is also necessary. Breeding programs developing breeding-lines selected for these challenging super-intensive environments are critical. Understanding synergies between the key areas of production systems, nutrition, and breeding are crucial for super-intensive farming as all three areas coalesce to influence the health of shrimp and commercial farming success. This article reviews current strategies and innovations being used for Litopenaeus vannamei in production systems, nutrition, and breeding, and discusses the synergies across these areas that can support the production of healthy and high-quality shrimp in super-intensive systems. Finally, we briefly discuss some key issues of social license pertinent to the super-intensive shrimp farming industry.
... A similar result was reported by Schmitt and Santos (1998) in P. paulensis, wherein a higher nitrogen intake in shrimp fed with squid than that of formulated diets was observed which might be related to numerous factors, mainly its attractive characteristics with balanced amino acid profiles of squid. Similarly, the better performances of various fresh protein sources have earlier been reported in Atlantic salmon (Julshamn et al., 2004), Atlantic halibut (Suontama et al., 2007), P. monodon Williams et al., 2005), P. stylirostris (Suresh & Nates, 2011) and P. vannamei (Derby et al., 2016;Nunes et al., 2011). ...
Article
An indoor experiment was carried out to assess the effect of various fresh foods and formulated diets on oxygen consumption in relation to nitrogen metabolism in Penaeus monodon. Seven iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated by substituting fishmeal (w/w) at 0 (control), 2.5 and 5% using groundnut oil cake (GNC-1 and GNC-2, respectively), rapeseed meal (RSM-1and RSM-2) and sesame oil cake (SOC-1 and SOC-2). Simultaneously, five different fresh foods (clam, crustaceans, fish, polychaete and squid) were also tested. Results revealed that nitrogen intake increased (p < 0.05) by 10.5%–86.6% in shrimp fed fresh food compared with control. Among the fresh food, fish meat showed the highest (p < 0.05) oxygen consumption and ammonia-N efflux. The O:N ratio decreased by 4.22–6.62 in shrimp fed on fresh food, whereas it increased by 0.91–3.28 in formulated diets. Regression analysis revealed a higher coefficient of determination for oxygen consumption (R2 = 0.9272) as well as ammonia-N excretion (R2 = 0.8778) in fresh food compared with the formulated feeds (0.3818 and 0.2187), whereas it was found to be low for O:N ratio for both the fresh food (R2 = 0.1789) and formulated feeds (R2 = 0.3260). The results confirmed that the measurement of O:N ratio can be an additional tool for assessing the nutritional quality of feed along with growth and digestibility and was more significant with the nutritional quality of formulated diets in P. monodon over fresh foods, in relation to nitrogen metabolism.
... But feed palatability and shrimp growth were found to be high in the groups fed diets with krill meal compared to those fed on squid liver meal. Nunes et al. (2011) reported that the supplementation of krill meal increased the nutrient utilisation of meat and bone meal as well as soybean meal by substituting dietary fishmeal completely in Penaeus vannamei. The authors also documented that shrimp fed krill meal at the rate of 11% by replacing both fishmeal and lecithin showed comparable growth to those fed a basal diet containing no krill meal in both clear and green water rearing systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture serves as a sustainable source of good quality wholesome food and major input is feed. In recent years, considerable quantities of plant sources have been attempted for inclusion in shrimp feed, due to high demand and high cost of fishmeal. Plant-based ingredients are in general poor in attractability and palatability to aquatic species compared to marine sources. It is desirable to develop an economical and nutritious feed that is attractive and palatable for ensuring reduction of feed wastage. Chemoattractants nowadays are unavoidable in commercial shrimp feeds and are included either individually or in combination. The present review revealed that the various marine sources, in particular krill meal would be more effective for aquatic species, compared to those derived from vegetable origin and chemical compounds. In addition to acting as a feed attractant, marine sources serve as a potential fishmeal substitute due to their rich nutritional composition. However, certain biogenic amines present in these marine-based ingredients need to be examined before their use, since these amines when present in high concentrations reduces feed intake by producing undesirable odour. Use of a combination of chemoattractants would give a better effect, rather than using them individually and compounds from plant origin have limited beneficial effects. The present review concludes that incorporation of chemoattractants would be beneficial in formulation of enriched and economical feeds with better attractability and palatability. The selection of suitable attractant and their supplementation at correct proportion is significantly more important to avoid undesirable effects in cultured shrimp. Further field-based research is needed to predict the actual effects of chemoattractants on farmed shrimp and to provide a sustainable base for the expansion of shrimp aquaculture sector, by reducing feed wastage.
... The dietary inclusions of 48 and 55 g/kg of krill oil improved growth performance under both salinities (23 and 44 g/L) and this effect was probably associated with the valuable antioxidant contents of the krill oil, such as astaxanthin. Moreover, Nunes et al. (2011) investigated growth performance of L. vannamei fed on diets including krill meal at 10, 50 and 110 g/kg; or krill oil at 25 g/kg by reducing levels of fish meal, fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol in clear-water and green-water culture systems. These authors concluded that krill meal or krill oil in the diets (plus increased levels of meat and bone meal and soybean meal) were able to replace the nutritional value of protein and lipid of those ingredients without compromise shrimp growth performance. ...
Article
The inclusion of feeding effectors in plant-based diets is a strategy to accelerate feed detection and consumption by shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of krill meal (KM), krill oil (KO) and fish hydrolysate (FH) addition to a soybean-based diet on feeding behavior and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ten diets (360 g/kg crude protein) were formulated including FH, KM and KO at 0, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg levels named as: Basal (0); FH10 (10 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH20 (20 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH40 (40 g/kg fish hydrolysate); KM1 (10 g/kg krill meal), KM20 (20 g/kg krill meal), KM40 (40 g/kg krill meal); KO10 (10 g/kg krill oil), KO20 (20 g/kg krill oil) and KO40 (40 g/kg krill oil). A growth trial was performed using twenty shrimp (0.15 ± 0.01 g) stocked per 100 L glass aquaria (four replicates/diet) in an indoor clear water recirculation system (4.2 ppt, 28 °C). Animals were fed the experimental diets four times a day for six weeks. At the end of the trial all animals were counted and weighted. Following, 300 animals (3.93 ± 0.35 g) were aleatory selected and transferred back to the system (10 shrimp/aquaria). Three replicates were used per treatment (ten diets) for feed intake and acoustic feeding behavior analysis. The food consumption and feeding activity sounds were recorded simultaneously in 30 min intervals during five consecutive days. All feeding effectors at the inclusion levels tested significantly increased L. vannamei food consumption and the passive acoustic monitoring indicated that shrimp ate faster and for longer periods of time. Food consumption was significantly higher in the treatments KM20, KM40 and KO40. The addition of feeding effectors also enhanced shrimp growth performance and significantly better values of biomass, final weight, and food conversion ratio were observed in the treatment KM40. Weight gain (%) was significantly improved only in shrimp offered KM40, KO20 and KO40 diets. It is concluded that KM, KO and FH can stimulate food consumption of soy-based diet by L. vannamei from 10 g/kg addition while the amount of food consumed and growth has been shown to be in general dose-related, although in a different way, for each type of feeding effector.
... Diets were laboratory-manufactured according to the methods described in Nunes et al. (2011). Pellets of 2.0 mm in diameter by 5 mm in length were ground to obtain crumbled particles. ...
Article
This study evaluated the effect of graded dietary levels of astaxanthin krill oil (AKO) and high protein krill meal (HPK) on the growth performance and stress resistance of postlarval (PL) Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp of 3.6–2.5 mg body weight (BW) were stocked in outdoor and indoor tanks at 2,371–2,504 PLs m−3, respectively. Diets contained 10.0, 30.0 and 50.0 g/kg AKO (outdoor) and 30.0, 50.0 and 70.0 g/ kg AKO with 80.0 g/kg HPK (indoor). After 52 and 41 days of nursery in outdoor and indoor tanks, no statistical effect from the inclusion of AKO and AKO with HPK was observed on final mean survival (84.0%–91.8%), gained yield (1,568–1,611 g/ m3), daily growth (14.2–14.2 mg/day) and feed conversion ratio (1.70–0.89), respectively. However, final shrimp BW was significantly improved with 50.0 g/kg AKO (775 mg) and 30.0 g/kg AKO with 80.0 g/kg HPK (629 mg), respectively, compared with control groups (711 and 567 mg). Resistance to osmotic and thermal stress was significantly increased with 10.0 g/kg AKO. Enhancement in growth performance and resistance may be related to a higher supply of dietary EPA, DHA and astaxanthin resulting from the inclusion of AKO and HPK.
... In shrimp feeds, FM can be replaced by alternative protein sources, byproducts obtained from agriculture and from the rendering animal industry. However, dietary replacement of FM can only be carried out with adequate supplementation of essential nutrients, such as amino acids, fatty acids and minerals (Nunes et al., 2011(Nunes et al., , 2014Tacon and Metian, 2008). Alternative proteins may contain from 40 to 70% crude protein, but they are often associated with a low nutrient digestibility, unbalanced amino acid profile, anti-nutritional factors, poor attractability and a high carbohydrate content which result in negative effects on growth performance and feed efficiency (Francis et al., 2001;Gatlin et al., 2007;Nunes et al., 2006a). ...
Article
Based on the ''nutritional programming'' concept, we evaluated the long-term effects of an early four-day caloric restriction (40% reduction in feed allowance compared to a normal feeding level) at the protozoea stage in whiteleg shrimp. We analyzed long-term programming of shrimp by studying metabolism at the molecular level, through RT-qPCR of key biomarkers (involved in intermediary metabolism and digestion). The mRNA levels (extracted from the whole body) were analyzed after the stimulus and after the rearing period, at 20 and 35 days, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, shrimp growth performance was evaluated. There was no difference between normal feed allowance (CTL) and feed-restricted shrimp (RES) for performance parameters (survival, final body weight and the number of post-larvae g −1 or PL g −1). The stimulus directly affected the mRNA levels for only two genes, i.e., preamylase and lvglut 2 which were expressed at higher levels in feed-restricted shrimp. In the long-term, higher levels of mRNAs for enzymes coding for glycolysis and ATP synthesis were also detected. This suggests a possible long-term modification of the metabolism that is linked to the stimulus at the protozoea stage. Overall, further studies are needed to improve nutritional programming in shrimp.
... Shrimp were reared in 50 1-m 3 outdoor tanks with 1.14-m of inner diameter on the bottom, 0.74 m height and a bottom area of 1.02 m 2 (Façanha et al. 2016(Façanha et al. , 2018Nunes, Sá, and Sabry-Neto 2011). The study was carried out during the rainy season when high evaporation rates and moderate rainfall is recorded on the site. ...
Article
This work evaluated if dietary supplementation of astaxanthin krill oil with or without soybean oil to a grower shrimp feed enhances the growth performance of L. vannamei farmed under salinity stress. Shrimp of 1.08 ± 0.11 g body weight (BW) were reared for 74 days under 135 animals/m 2 in 50 1-m 3 outdoor tanks. Half of the tanks were operated enclosed by a milky-colored sheet and the remaining ones were fully exposed to sunlight and rain. Shrimp were fed a 38% crude protein feed top-coated with astaxanthin krill oil (K) and/or soybean oil (S) at ratios of 0K-3S, 1K-2S, 2K-1S, and 3K-0S% of the diet, as fed basis, respectively. In air-exposed tanks, mean salinity reached 31 ± 6 g/L compared to 36 ± 4 g/L in enclosed tanks. Shrimp survival was similarly high in both rearing systems (90.6 ± 3.8 and 89.2 ± 5.3% in air-exposed and enclosed tanks, respectively) and was unaffected by oil supplementation (P > .05). Shrimp raised in the air-exposed tanks achieved a significantly higher final BW, weekly growth, gained yield, apparent feed intake (AFI) and a lower FCR (feed conversion ratio) compared to animals in the enclosed tanks. As a result of top-coating feed for the air-exposed tanks with the 1K-2S oil mix, the highest shrimp final BW (14.03 ± 0.52 g) and yield (1,515 ± 40 g/m 2) could be achieved when compared to the enclosed rearing system and all the other diets. Under longer exposure periods to hypersalinity in enclosed tanks, a minimum of 2K-1S was required to maximize BW (10.80 ± 0.63 g) when compared to the other enclosed diet groups.
... placed on feeding trays (0.6 Ø 9 0.05 m). Apparent feed consumption in trays was observed to determine, and adjust the feed amount applied each morning before the first meal, according to the method normally used in shrimp production (Nunes, SA´& Sabry-Neto 2010). As co-species, fish were fed the same pelletized commercial diet at 6% of body weight adjusted every 2 weeks (n > 30) in both treatments of Trial 1. ...
Article
In this study, we evaluated the production potential of the polyculture of Freshwater Angel-fish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae) and Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two experi-mental trials were set up. The first trial entailed the use of a randomized design to investigate three treatments options: angelfish monoculture, shrimp monoculture, and fish and shrimp polyculture in 12 experimental 15 m 2 ponds. In the second trial, we investigated two treatments (polyculture of caged fish and uncaged fish) in 10 experimental units. In trial 1, polyculture negatively affected fish growth and survival. However, fish did not affect shrimp growth and the greatest profit was achieved in polyculture. In trial 2, caging fish improve the growth of both fish and shrimp. An economic analysis showed the greatest profit and benefit cost ratio for caged fish compared with uncaged fish. We conclude that growing P. scalare and L. vannamei together is a better strategy than shrimp monoculture in low-salinity water. The use of caged fish in such a polyculture operation would enhance productivity and profitability.
... Because omega-3 fatty acids bind phospholipids, which act as a feeding stimulant, krill meal addition to shrimp feed could improve shrimp culture performance (Burri & Nunes, 2016). In contrast, Nunes et al. (2011) found that diets containing krill meal did not influence the growth performance of L. vannamei possibly because of the low levels of the krill meal addition. ...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary replacement fish meal supplemented with freeze‐dried powder of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (FDPE) on the growth performance, molting, and fatty acid composition of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (initial weight 1.27 ± 0.09 g). Four diets containing 0% (S0 group), 10% (S10 group), 20% (S20 group), and 30% (S20 group) FDPE were used in the present study. At the end of growth trial, the final body weight, weight gain rate, and specific growth rate in the S10, S20, and S30 groups were higher than those in the S0 group. The shrimp in the S10 and S20 groups exhibited better molting synchronism than those in the S0 group. The astaxanthin content in the hepatopancreas from the shrimp in the groups supplemented with FDPE was significantly higher than that in the S0 group (p < 0.05) and increased as the FDPE content in the feed increased. The shrimp in the S10, S20, and S30 groups had a higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in the hepatopancreas than those in the S0 group. The sum of EPA and DHA in the muscles from the shrimp in the S0 group was lower than that in the other groups. These results indicate that the dietary inclusion of 10%–20% FDPE can be used as practical diets in L. vannamei farmed under a clear water system.
... The overall low level of inclusion was due to the high level of crude lipid presented in the silage (37.4%). All diets were processed in the Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition of the Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) using the method described by Nunes, Sa, and Sabry-Neto (2011), with some modifications (i.e., inclusion of sardine hydrolyzed as EAA source; and reduced amount of salmon oil due to the high lipid content of the TPWS). All diets were kept frozen at − 20°C until use. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles reared under biofloc and clear-water conditions fed with different inclusion levels of tilapia processing waste silage (TPWS) based-diets. The experiment was performed in two individual systems: biofloc (BS) and clear-water systems (CWS). The trial used forty 40 L rectangular plastic bins (twenty per system) in a density of 63 shrimp/m2. The juveniles were distributed in a factorial completely randomized experimental design. The treatments were based on the percentage of silage inclusion (control or 0, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5% and 6.0% of inclusion) in BS or CWS, totalizing ten treatments and four replicates. Survival was above 80% in all treatments and was not affected by both systems and diet. Shrimp final weight and SGR were statistically influenced by system (P
... The treatments were based on the percentage of TS inclusion (0 or control, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%) in BF and CW system, totalizing ten treatments. The formulation of diets was followed those described by Nunes et al. (2011), and juveniles were fed twice a day (08:00 am and 06:00 pm) using a feed tray to monitor feed consumption. The tanks were siphoned once a week to remove feces and any other residues. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate if the inclusion of tilapia silage (TS) in diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles and the rearing systems (clear-water and biofloc) could affect the shrimp quality when stored on ice for 15 days post-harvest. The experiment was performed in two experimental systems: biofloc (BF) and clear-water (CW) systems at a shrimp stocking density of 63 shrimp m ⁻² . The treatments were based on the percentage of silage inclusion (control or 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% of inclusion) in each system, totalizing ten treatments and four replicates. Survival was above 80% in all treatments regardless of system or diet. Shrimp final weight and specific growth rate (7.17 g and 2.01% day ⁻¹ – BF; 6.35 g and 1.82% day ⁻¹ – CW) were statistically influenced by the system but not by the diet. Shrimp quality index and shelf life were not affected by the inclusion of TS in L. vannamei diets rather than rearing system with better results for BF. The results suggest that the substitution of fish meal by fish silage in L. vannamei diet in the presence of biofloc conditions increase the sustainability of intensive shrimp culture and the overall shrimp quality and shelf life.
... Four tanks were assigned for the CTL. The rearing system and water preparation were the same as that adopted by Nunes et al. (2011) and Façanha et al. (2016Façanha et al. ( , 2018. ...
Article
The use of supplemental essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to provide an opportunity to minimize excess levels of crude protein (CP) in animal feeds. The present study investigated the effect of reducing the amount of CP in low‐fish meal diets (5%) for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Four sets of diets were prepared containing (% on a fed basis, mean ± SD) 31.24 ± 0.71, 33.70 ± 0.41, 36.90 ± 0.44, and 39.63 ± 0.14% CP, with each protein level containing a total dietary methionine (Met) (Met + Cys) level of 0.56 ± 0.02 (1.07 ± 0.23), 0.71 ± 0.01 (1.22 ± 0.20), 0.88 ± 0.02 (1.38 ± 0.22), or 1.04 ± 0.02% (1.55 ± 0.18%). Shrimp of 1.00 ± 0.08 g were stocked in 84 outdoor tanks of 1 m3 at a rate of 100 shrimp/m2 and raised for 75 days. Final survival ranged from 83 to 97% and was unaffected by Met content. Both survival and yield were significantly depressed when shrimp were fed the 31% CP diet. Shrimp grew at a weekly rate of between 0.79 and 0.97 g, achieving a final body weight (BW) in excess of 10.8 g. There was a significant interaction between CP and Met over BW. Shrimp fed 0.56% Met achieved the lowest BW at harvest. Increasing CP beyond 34% did not enhance BW. With a dietary Met content of 0.71%, the highest BW was achieved with 34% CP compared to other levels. There was a significant improvement in Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) when CP was raised from 31 to 34%. Similarly, dietary Met levels above 0.71% resulted in a significantly better FCR compared to 0.56%. Our study has shown that, if dietary Met (Met + Cys) meets a minimum of 0.71% (1.22%), levels of CP could be reduced from 40 to 34% without adverse effects on shrimp performance.
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Equilibrium between the gastrointestinal bacterial population and the environment is a critical factor for the health of captive aquatic animals. The bacterial enzymes are fundamental for proper nutrition and pathogen resistance in shrimp. Therefore, enzymatic profiles reveal essential characteristics for the selection of probiotic strains that can improve animal development. In this work, we analysed shrimp from a green water system where infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was present. We isolated transient and intestine resident bacterial populations, characterising eight functional groups through different culture media. To identify each isolated bacteria, we used sequences from regions V6–V8 of the 16S rRNA. To determine viral load of shrimp samples, we used real-time PCR. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was similar between IMNV-infected and IMNV-uninfected shrimps. The growth of transient bacteria was higher than the growth of resident. In general, lipolytic bacteria presented higher frequency and genus diversity than the other functional groups. All groups showed higher frequency among transitory bacteria, except the amylolytic functional group, which was more frequent among the resident. We found two major orders of cultivable bacteria, Vibrionales and Bacillales. The genus Vibrio was predominant among the Vibrionales, while Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most frequent among the Bacillales. Recorded Vibrionales and Bacillales included pathogenic and beneficial species of high importance for aquaculture. The results presented here will serve as a basis for improving the nutritional and health conditions of Litopenaeus vannamei in green water farming systems.
Article
A 7-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Antarctic krill meal (AKM) on the growth performance, proximate composition of muscles, and antioxidative capacity of juvenile spotted halibut. Six diets were formulated to contain about 50% protein and 8% lipid. A control diet (R0) without AKM and the other five diets with 8.1, 16.2, 24.3, 32.4, and 42.5% AKM supplementation (R10–50) to replace 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% fishmeal protein were used to feed to juvenile spotted halibut. The juveniles were fed with each diet using three replicates and cultivated in the indoor culture system. Results showed that the specific growth rate, feed intake, and protein efficiency ratio in the R30 and R40 groups were significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Survival rate in the R50 group was significantly lower compared with the R0 group and the other four AKM supplementation groups. Moreover, the rising AKM levels in diets had significant effects on the chemical composition of juvenile spotted halibut, showing significantly decreased contents of crude protein, but increased lipid and ash contents (P < 0.05). The total superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity of serum and liver in AKM groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the contents of malondialdehyde in serum and liver were significantly lower compared with the control group. These findings illustrate that a moderate AKM level in diets can significantly improve the growth performance, feed utilization, and antioxidative capacity in juvenile spotted halibut, which support the finding that AKM may be used as a good protein source for halibut in the aquafeed industry.
Article
The study aims to evaluate the feasibility of completely replacing raw frozen shrimp Palaemon gravieri diets with raw frozen Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the diets of cuttlefish Sepiella japonica. To address the knowledge gap, we conducted a 60‐day feeding trial. At the end of the experiment (day 60), the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica eating Palaemon gravieri (SJP) grew significantly faster than those eating Euphausia superba (SJE), with the specific growth rate (SGR)SJP (7.92%) > (SGR)SJE (7.09%). Approximately 33.3% and 20.0% mortality was observed in the SJE and SJP, during the course of the experiment respectively. Some important fatty acids (i.e. n‐3 and n‐6 PUFAs) were elevated in SJE with respect to SJP. Replacement of Antarctic krill increased the diversity of the gut microbiome composition in the SJE group. Fluoride accumulated in the ink sac and cuttlebone of cuttlefish in SJE. Overall, these findings imply that PUFA‐rich Antarctic krill could replace P. gravieri shrimp for feeding cuttlefish S. japonica.
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Budidaya udang merupakan salah satu kegiatan budidaya yang sangat menguntungkan di wilayah pesisir. Udang merupakan salah satu penghasil devisa terbesar dari sektor perikanan. Introduksi udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) turut berperan besar dalam meningkatnya produksi udang di Indonesia, Selain pertumbuhan cepat, udang vaname memiliki survival rate yang tinggi, serta benih sudah bisa diperoleh yang SPF (specific pathogen free). Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan dalam upaya meningkatkan produksi tambak udang, salah satu yang potensial untuk diterapkan adalah budidaya udang berbasis salinitas rendah. Media dengan salinitas rendah mempunyai keuntungan dapat menekan pertumbuhan pathogen (bakteri, virus) yang merupakan penyebab utama kegagalan budidaya udang. Buku Teknologi Produksi Udang ini berisi tentang produksi udang di Indonesia, biologi udang, limbah budidaya udang, sistem budidaya udang, konstruksi tambak, persiapan tambak, penebaran benih, manajemen pakan, manajemen kualitas air, senyawa tokasik dan bahan-bahan kimia yang dapat digunakan dalam budidaya udang. Buku ini juga dilengkapi dengan budidaya udang vaname salinitas rendah yang dilengkapi dengan data penelitian laboratorium maupun tambak percobaan. Pada bagian akhir buku ini disajikan mengenai penerapan sistem biofloc dalam budidaya udang. Buku ini dapat dijadikan rujukan bagi akademisi dan praktisi budidaya udang yang ingin mendalami tentang teknologi budidaya udang
Thesis
Bu çalışmada, pasifik beyaz karidesi (Litopenaeus vannamei) yemlerinde balık unu ve yağı yerine alternative protein (soya unu ve mısır gluteni) ve yağ (kanola, keten tohumu ve soya yağı) kaynaklarının değerlendirilmesi için izonitrojenik (%39.0) ve izolipitik (%8.2) dört test yemi formulize edilerek denemede kullanılmıştır. Diet 1 ve diet 3 (D1 ve D3) balık unu ile formulize edilirken, diğer dietler (D2 ve D4) balık unu yerine bitkisel protein karışımları (soya ve mısır gluteni) ile formulize edilmiştir. Diğer taraftan D3 ve D4 grubu yemlerinde balık yağı yerine bitkisel yağ karışımları (sırasıyla; kanola, keten tohumu ve soya yağı: %30, %40 ve %30) kullanılmıştır. Karides yavruları (ortalama başlangıç ağırlığı 3.6 g) her tankta 20 adet olacak şekilde dairesel tanklara (0.38 m 2) stoklanmış ve 60 gün süresince günde beş defa otomatik yemlikler kullanılarak deneme yemleriyle beslenmişlerdir. Deneme sonunda ortalama final a ğırlığı, a ğırlık kazancı, yüzde a ğırlık kazancı, günlük a ğırlık kazancı, spesifik büyüme oranı, yem çevirim oranı ve protein değerlendirme oranı sırasıyla 10.9 ile 11.7 g, %211.2 ile 231.4, 123.4 ile 135.6 mg/gün, 1.9 ile 2 %g/gün, 3.1 ile 3.8, 28.1 ile 34.3 arasında hesaplanmıştır. Ham protein ve lipit için görünür sindirilebilirlik katsayıları tüm diet grupları arasında s ı rasıyla ;%74.3-80.7 ve %79.4-85.2 arasında değişmiştir. Sonuç olarak bu çalışma, L. vannamei tarafından bitkisel protein/yağ kaynakları içeren yemlerin hayvansal protein/lipit kaynakları içeren yemler kadar etkili bir şekilde hatta daha iyi kullanıldığını göstermiştir. The present study, four practical isonitrogenous (39.0%) and isolipidic (8.2%) diets were formulated to evaluate the replacement of both fish meal and fish oil with alternative protein (soybean and corn gluten meal) and lipid (canola, linseed and soybean oil) sources in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) diets. Diet 1 and diet 3 (D1-D3) were formulated with fish meal while Diet 2 and diet 4 were formulated with plant protein (soya and corn gluten meal). D3 and D4 were formulated with blend of plant oils (canola, linseed and soybean oil: 30%, 40% and 30%, respectively) as replacement for fish oil. Juveniles (3.6 g mean initial weight) were stoked in circular tanks (0.38 m 2) with 20 shrimp per tank and fed experimental diets 5 times a day using automatic feeders for a 60 day. Mean final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiently ratio were evaluated final values for these parameters ranged from 10.9 to 11.7 g, 211.2 to 231.4%, 1.9 to 2 %g/day, 3.1 to 3.8, 28.1 to 34.3, respectively. Apparent digestibility coefficients for crude protein and lipid were range 74.3-80.7% and 79.4-85.2%, respectively, among all diets group. It can be concluded that plant protein/oil feedstuffs were utilized as efficiently as, or better than, animal protein/lipid feedstuffs.
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To contribute to the knowledge of the nutrient requirements of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wigmann, 1836), two feeding trials were performed. During the first, we determined the effect of three diets with different sources of protein and lipids (meals and oils from fish and krill, soybean meal) on the growth of females (initial weight of 4.2 ± 0.5 g), and on the size and protein and lipid contents of the eggs produced. After 40 days of feeding, the krill meal and oil showed a positive effect on the sexual maturation of the females, as well as on the protein and lipid content of the eggs. In the second trial, we determined the protein requirement for juveniles (initial weight 3.0 ± 0.2 g), by feeding semi-purified diets to the organisms with 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50% crude protein for a period of 80 days. By means of a broken-line analysis and in terms of weight gain, the minimum requirement of protein was estimated to be 37.8%. The information obtained in this study will allow diet formulations for the commercial culture of M. acanthurus to be developed.
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The cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum occurs along the Pacific coast of America. This prawn can grow to a large size, making it an interesting option for aquaculture production. Currently, supplies of juveniles are limited because hatchery and laboratory-reared larvae are difficult to raise. This study assesses larval survival for different combinations of stocking density and feeding from larvae cultivated in green water. From these combinations, larvae fed with Artemia nauplii and maintained at a density of 50 larvae L –1 had the highest survival. Cultivo experimental de larvas de langostino Macrobrachium americanum (Bate, 1868), con énfasis en alimentación y efecto de la densidad sobre la supervivencia RESUMEN. El langostino de río Macrobrachium americanum, ocurre a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de América. Este langostino puede alcanzar grandes tallas lo que lo convierte en una opción interesante para la acuicultura. En la actualidad, el abastecimiento de juveniles a partir del cultivo de sus larvas en hatchery y en laboratorio son difíciles de criar. Este estudio evalúa la supervivencia de las larvas con diferentes combinaciones de alimento y densidades de población cultivadas en agua verde. A partir de estas combinaciones, las larvas alimentadas con nauplios de Artemia salina, mantenidas a una densidad de 50 larvas L –1 , tuvieron la mayor supervivencia. Palabras clave: Macrobrachium americanum, desarrollo larvario, alimentación, supervivencia, langostino.
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Aquaculture is currently the fastest expanding global animal food production sector and is a key future contributor to food security. An increase in food security will be dependent upon the development and improvement of sustainable practices. A prioritization exercise was undertaken, focusing on the future knowledge needs to underpin UK sustainable aquaculture (both domestic and imported products) using a 'task force' group of 36 'practitioners' and 12 'research scientists' who have an active interest in sustainable aquaculture. A long list of 264 knowledge needs related to sustainable aquaculture was developed in conjunction with the task force. The long list was further refined through a three stage process of voting and scoring, including discussions of each knowledge need. The top 25 knowledge needs are presented, as scored separately by 'practitioners' or 'research scientists'. There was similar agreement in priorities identified by these two groups. The priority knowledge needs will provide guidance to structure ongoing work to make science accessible to practitioners and help to prioritize future science policy needs and funding. The process of knowledge exchange, and the mechanisms by which this can be achieved, effectively emerged as the top priority for sustainable aquaculture. Viable alternatives to wild fish-based aquaculture feeds, resource constraints that will potentially limit expansion of aquaculture, sustainable offshore aquaculture and the treatment of sea lice also emerged as strong priorities. Although the exercise was focused on UK needs for sustainable aquaculture, many of the emergent issues are considered to have global application.
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The design of the CCAMLR-2000 Krill Synoptic Survey (CCAMLR-2000 Survey) is described. The primary objective of the survey was to improve estimates of the pre-exploitation biomass of krill which are used in models to estimate sustainable yield in Area 48. The survey design includes two large-scale oceanic strata: one in the southwest Atlantic located in the Scotia Sea, and the other to the north of the Antarctic Peninsula (CCAMLR Statistical Subareas 48.1,48.2,48.3 and 48.4). Within these large-scale strata, four mesoscale strata were included in the survey design; these were located close to the South Sandwich Islands, north of South Georgia, north of the South Orkney Islands and north of the South Shetland Islands. The rationale underlying the selection of the strata and survey boundaries is described. The methods used for selecting the location of each survey transect are explained and the planned cruise tracks for each of the four vessels participating in the survey are shown. Details are also described for adaptively modifying the survey during its execution. This includes information how net haul stations sl~ould be selected and how transects should be modified if the planned survey tracks cannot be completed.
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— We determined the effect of krill hydrolysate as a feed attractant in three freshwater fish species: yellow perch Perca flavescens. walleye Stizostedion vitreium. and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis. Growth trials were conducted using a commercial trout starter diet (control) and the diet that was coated with liquid krill hydrolysate. The krill hydrolysate coated diet increased growth of yellow perch juveniles by 31% compared to control diet (average final wet weight, 734 ± 33 mg and 559 ± 82 mg, respectively). Moreover. weight gains were not significantly different than for tish Id exclusively live Artemiu nauplii. Similar results were obtained with walleye juveniles fed either a trout starter diet or 5% krill hydrolysate coated diet (8.9 ± 0.25 g and 11.6 ± 5.1 g wet weight, respectively). The food conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in fish fed the control diet, although not significantly different (2.95 ± 0.18 and 3.69 ± 0.39. for control and coated diet. respectively). The effect of krill hydrolysate on dry diet ingestion rates of lake whitefish and yellow perch larvae was also determined using radioactive (14C) labelling. A commercial starter diet was coated with krill hydrolysate or the soluble fraction of krill hydrolysate was added to the experimental tank water. In both species. coating the diet with 5% krill hydrolysate resulted in significantly higher ingestion rates. Supplementation of krill hydrolysate soluble fraction to the tank water resulted in 200% increase in ingestion rate in comparison to control (uncoated starter diet), although it was not significantly different from krill coated diet and live Artemia nauplii ingestion rates.
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Outdoor microcosm tanks were used to grow the penaeid blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris, in Brunei Darussalam. The tanks were cylindrical, free standing fiber glass tanks of 1827 L water holding capacity and had a self-cleaning mechanism. In three eight-week feeding trials, juvenile shrimp of 0.9–4.3 g were stocked at a density of 28 shrimp/m2. At the end of each trial, survival rates exceeded 80%. Growth rates ranged from 1.19 to 2.46 g/week. Water quality remained stable and within suitable ranges for L. stylirostris growth in all trials. The tanks had algae and bacterial floc developing within a few days of starting the trials. Fourteen commercial shrimp feeds, each containing more than 40% crude protein, were tested in the trials. In spite of the presence of natural food organisms, significant feed-related differences among treatments were found in each trial. In conclusion, microcosm tanks support excellent growth and survival of L. stylirostris and are appropriate for conducting trials to evaluate feeds for pond growout.
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Meals produced from different marine invertebrate species have been suggested as good alternative protein sources in fish diets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible uptake of fluorine from krill (Thysanoessa inermis and Euphausia superba) and the amphipod Themisto libelulla in fish fed diets where the fish protein was partly or fully substituted with proteins from krill meal or amphipod meal. Feeding trials with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were carried out, and fluorine were analysed in different organs, including muscle, bone and faeces as well as experimental diets and meals. Amphipod meal had the highest fluorine level (4000 ±800 mg kg− 1), while meal from Thysanoessa inermis and Euphausia superba showed about one fourth of that level (780 ± 160 mg kg− 1 and 1160 ± 230 mg kg− 1, respectively). The fluorine concentration increased in the diets with increasing substitution of fish meal with krill or amphipod meal. Fluorine also increased in faeces with increasing fluorine levels in the diets. None of the analysed organs showed any increase in fluorine concentration compared to the control fish which was fed a diet with only fish meal as protein source. All four species were also fed a fish meal based diet where sodium fluoride (NaF) was added (150 mg F kg− 1 dry wt.). Again no organs showed any increase in fluorine levels. Growth and health parameters were not negatively altered. This indicates that the four fish species, when kept in a marine environment, were not affected by relatively high dietary fluorine level.
Article
Rapid in vitro methods for measuring digestibility may be useful in analysing aqua feeds if the extent and limits of their application are clearly defined. The pH-stat protein digestibility routine with shrimp hepatopancreas enzymes was previously related to apparent protein digestibility with juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing different protein ingredients. The potential of the method to predict culture performance of shrimp fed six commercial feeds (T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8) with 350 g kg−1 declared crude-protein content was assessed. The consistency of results obtained using hepatopancreas enzyme extracts from either pond or clear water-raised shrimp was further verified in terms of reproducibility and possible diet history effects upon in vitro outputs. Shrimps were previously acclimated and then maintained over 56 days (initial mean weight 3.28 g) on each diet in 500-L tanks at 114 ind m−2, clear water closed system with continuous renewal and mechanical filtering (50 μm), with four replicates per treatment. Feeds were offered four times daily (six days a week) delivered in trays at feeding rates ranging from 4.0% to 7.0% of stocked shrimp biomass. Feed was accessible to shrimp 4 h daily for 1-h feeding period after which uneaten feed was recovered. Growth and survival were determined every 14 days from a sample of 16 individuals per tank. Water quality was monitored daily (pH, temperature and salinity) and managed by water back flushing filter cleaning every 7–10 days. Feeds were analysed for crude protein, gross energy, amino acids and pepsin digestibility. In vitro pH-stat degree of protein hydrolysis (DH%) was determined for each feed using hepatopancreas enzyme extracts from experimental (clear water) or pond-raised shrimp. Feeds resulted in significant differences in shrimp performance (P < 0.05) as seen by the differences in growth rates (0.56–0.98 g week−1), final weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimp performance and in vitro DH% with pond-raised shrimp enzymes showed significant correlation (P < 0.05) for yield (R2 = 0.72), growth rates (R2 = 0.72–0.80) and FCR (R2 = −0.67). Other feed attributes (protein : energy ratio, amino acids, true protein, non-protein nitrogen contents and in vitro pepsin digestibility) showed none or limited correlation with shrimp culture performance. Additional correlations were found between growth rates and methionine (R2 = 0.73), FCR and histidine (R2 = −0.60), and DH% and methionine or methionine+cystine feed contents (R2 = 0.67–0.92). pH-stat assays with shrimp enzymes generated reproducible DH% results with either pond (CV ≤ 6.5%) or clear water (CV ≤ 8.5%) hepatopancreas enzyme sources. Moreover, correlations between shrimp growth rates and feed DH% were significant regardless of the enzyme origin (pond or clear water-raised shrimp) and showed consistent R2 values. Results suggest the feasibility of using standardized hepatopancreas enzyme extracts for in vitro protein digestibility.
Article
The present experiment was performed to study how fluoride from krill meal enriched muscle, whole fish and bone of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in sea water. Atlantic salmon (mean weight 0.5 kg) were divided into four triplicate groups and fed a commercial fish meal based diets with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g krill kg−1 feed, respectively, for 12 weeks. The fluoride concentrations in the experimental feeds were analysed to be 18, 132, 235 and 358 mg kg−1, respectively. Growth, mortality and feed efficiency were recorded through the experiment. Fluoride concentration was measured in muscle, whole-body, and bone initially and after 12 weeks of feeding. The fluoride concentrations in the samples were determined by alkali fusion and fluoride ion-selective electrode. Growth, mortality and feed efficiency ratio were not affected by the dietary treatments. The results showed that fluoride concentration in muscle, whole body and bone were not affected by the dietary fluoride level. The fluoride concentration in the tissues showed great variation among replicates of the group given the same diet. Fillets of the fish varied between 0.3 and 1.4 mg fluoride kg−1 wet weight, whereas the whole-body concentration of fluoride varied between 3.3 and 6.1 mg kg−1 wet weight and the fluoride bone concentration varied between 5.8 and 7.2 mg kg−1 fresh weight. These results suggest that Atlantic salmon are highly tolerant of dietary fluoride given as krill meal with concentration of fluoride up to 350 mg kg−1 diet, and that accumulation of fluoride from feeding diets containing krill meal does not lead to tissue accumulation in the fish, at least over a short period of time.
Article
A total of six isoprotein and isolipid diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., were prepared substituting from 0 to 100% of fish meal protein (0–68% of diet by dry weight) with meal from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). The feed produced from high inclusion levels of krill meal had lower ability to absorb lipid during vacuum coating than fish meal. Both amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the diets were fairly similar. The experiment commenced using salmon averaging 500 g and ended at a mean weight of 1500–1800 g (140 days of feeding). Moderate amounts of krill meal (20–60% of krill protein) in the diets increased growth during the first 71 days of feeding compared with the fish meal control, while no growth difference was observed during the last 69 days of feeding. This may, at least in parts, be explained by a feed-attractant function of the krill meal. Muscle dry weight and lipid concentrations were unaffected by the diet. Feed conversion rate increased with high levels of krill meal in the diets (e.g. for the last period from 0.94 in the 0% diet to 1.26 in the 100% diet). This indicates that the fish were able to compensate by eating more to maintain growth. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter and protein were not influenced by diet, but both faecal moisture and lipid had a tendency to increase at the highest inclusion level (all protein from krill meal). This may be related to chitin in the krill diet that is known to decrease lipid absorption and induce diarrhoea (increased water content in faeces). Chitin was not utilized to any major extent. Welfare parameters such as blood haemoglobin, red blood cell counts, plasma protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and glucose levels were unaffected by diets. Clinical indicators of cellular damage (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were similar indicating no diet-induced tissue damage during the trial.
Article
The inclusion in feed formulations of ingredients that act as attractants and feeding incitants or stimulants has been proposed as a means of increasing feed consumption, and hence growth, of farmed shrimp. Squid, crustacean and krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates and a betaine product (Finnstim) were examined to assess their relative effectiveness in increasing the feed intake of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These presumed feeding effectors were added to a base feed at between 5 and 50 g kg−1. Given a choice between the base feed and one containing one of the test ingredients, P. monodon showed a significantly greater preference for the feeds containing crustacean or krill meal. Four of the presumed feeding effectors were further evaluated in a growth response experiment. There was no significant difference in the amount the shrimp consumed of any of the feeds. However, the growth rate of the shrimp was about 20% faster on the feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal. Although ingredients such as crustacean meal or krill meal can improve feed intake, in practical feed formulations that contain significant amounts of terrestrial protein but relatively low levels of marine ingredients, there does not appear to be need for additional feeding effectors. However, crustacean meal and krill meal do provide a significant nutritional benefit, as seen by the improved growth rates in this study.
Article
The effects of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) with meal made from northern krill (Thysanoessa inermis), Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) or Arctic amphipod (Themsto libellula) as protein source in the diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) on growth, feed conversion, macro-nutrient utilization, muscle chemical composition and fish welfare were studied. Six experimental diets were prepared using a low-temperature FM diet as control. The other diets included northern krill where 20, 40 or 60% of the dietary FM protein was replaced with protein from northern krill, and two diets where the FM protein was replaced with protein from Antarctic krill or Arctic amphipod at 40% protein replacement level. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric. Atlantic salmon grew from 410 g to approximately 1500 g during the 160 day experiment, and Atlantic halibut grew from 345 g to 500–600 g during the 150 day experiment. Inclusion of krill in the diets enhanced specific growth rate in salmon, especially during the first 100 days (P < 0.01), and in a dose–response manner in halibut for over the 150 day feeding period (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio did not differ between dietary treatments, and no difference was found in dry matter digestibility, protein digestibility and fish muscle composition. Good growth rates, blood parameters within normal ranges and low mortalities in all experimental treatments indicted that fish health was not affected either Atlantic salmon or Atlantic halibut fed the various zooplankton diets.
Article
After preliminary six week experiments showed that shrimp pond effluent from an intensive culture growout pond had the capacity to nearly double shrimp growth in laboratory tanks, an 18 day experiment was designed to determine if similar results occurred in the presence of high quality feeds. The results presented here corroborate the hypothesis that autochthonous factors in shrimp pond water stimulate shrimp growth. These results revealed that performance of currently available shrimp feeds is greatly improved in the presence of pond effluent, regardless of feed quality. Increased feed performance did not appear to be an artifact of supplemental feed availability in pond effluent. The implications from these experiments are that, even in intensive culture systems (above 40 shrimp per m2), in-situ sources of nutrition play an important role in shrimp growth.
Article
We studied partial replacement of fish meal (FM) by krill meal (KM) and how fluoride from KM enriched-muscles and bones of rainbow trout reared in freshwater affected these fish. Diets that replaced FM with KM at proportions of 0, 7, 15 and 30% (control, KM7, KM15, and KM30) were fed to groups of rainbow trout for 92 days and growth was observed. In fish fed KM7 and KM15, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and specific growth rate (SGR) were unchanged compared with fish fed the control diet, but in fish fed KM30, WG, FI and SGR significantly decreased. After the experiment, fluoride concentration in dorsal muscles of each experimental group was below the detected limit (1 mg/kg), but in vertebral bones, the fluoride concentration increased with each increase in KM inclusion in the diets: 490 mg/kg (control), 755 mg/kg (KM7), 1100 mg/kg (KM15), and 2400 mg/kg (KM30). Tissue specimens of liver of each experimental group had no histopathological changes. Therefore, accumulation of fluoride in vertebral bones apparently adversely affected growth of the vertebral bones thus affecting the growth performance as shown by the decrease in WG, FI and SGR.
Article
The fishery for Antarctic krill has been stable for a decade with approximately 100 000 tonnes being caught each year. There is continuing commercial interest in products derived from krill. An examination of patent databases indicates that the development of products for human consumption has been overtaken by the development of aquaculture, pharmaceutical and medical products. The development of products for aquaculture is most likely to be the factor that will drive growth in the krill fishing industry. Management of the Antarctic krill fishery has proceeded in advance of expansion and precautionary catch limits for Antarctic krill currently total 4.89 million tonnes ~50 times the existing harvesting level.
Article
Two 8-week feeding trials were conducted with juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) to compare the growth and performance of animals fed a series of experimental and commercial pelleted shrimp and fish feeds and dietary feeding regimes within an indoor running-water culture system and an outdoor zero-water-exchange culture system. The best overall shrimp growth performance was observed for animals fed the experimental shrimp diet and all-day feeding regime under outdoor zero-water-exchange culture conditions. Final body weight and average weekly growth rate under these conditions were 2.8 and 3.4 times greater, respectively, than animals of similar size fed with the same diet under indoor running-water culture conditions. Although direct comparison between indoor and outdoor culture systems is difficult because of the lower indoor water temperatures, and consequently lower mean daily feed intake of animals, it is believed that the higher growth and feed performance of animals reared under outdoor `green-water' culture conditions was primarily due to their ability to obtain additional nutrients from food organisms endogenously produced within the zero-water-exchange culture system. The most promising features of zero-water-exchange culture systems are that they offer increased biosecurity, reduced feed costs and water use for the farmer, and by doing so provide a potential avenue of moving the shrimp culture industry along a path of greater sustainability and environmental compatibility.
Article
Despite the shrimp ability to obtain additional nutrients from food organisms endogenously produced within the ‘green water’ system has been suggested as one of the causes for the better performance of Pacific white shrimp reared in ‘green water’ in comparison with ‘clear water’, the nutritional components responsible for these effects have yet to be determined. The present study aims to understand the importance of natural food organisms in zero-water exchange systems as source of essential fatty acids for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five treatments were tested: two conducted in mesocosms systems with shrimp-fed diets containing either fish oil (FO) or olive oil, and another three conducted in clear water with shrimp-fed diets containing either olive oil, a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil or an arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. The presence of higher levels of fatty acids 16:1n-7, 17:1, 20:4n-6, 20:3n-3 and 22:5n-6, characteristic of floc lipids, in shrimp reared in mesocosms denoted their assimilation from the floc. Substitution of FO by olive oil in diets for shrimp reared in mesocosms did not affect growth or survival. Survival and growth of shrimp reared in mesocosms was better than those reared in clear water and fed an olive oil diet, whereas DHA or ARA enrichment of non-fish oil (NFO) diet improved survival of shrimp reared in clear water. Higher survival rate, triglyceride and DHA content in whole body and eyes of shrimp fed a DHA-rich diet suggests that under these conditions, in clear water, it is necessary to include at least 4.8 g kg−1 DHA in diet dry weight. ARA enrichment seemed to negatively affect growth. The nutritional contribution of the floc to shrimp in mesocosm culture reduces or eliminates the need for a dietary source of FO and illustrates the importance of DHA and ARA to enhance shrimp survival in clear water conditions.
Article
Continued growth and intensification of aquaculture production depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fish meal in aquafeeds. This document reviews various plant feedstuffs, which currently are or potentially may be incorporated into aquafeeds to support the sustainable production of various fish species in aquaculture. The plant feedstuffs considered include oilseeds, legumes and cereal grains, which traditionally have been used as protein or energy concentrates as well as novel products developed through various processing technologies. The nutritional composition of these various feedstuffs are considered along with the presence of any bioactive compounds that may positively or negatively affect the target organism. Lipid composition of these feedstuffs is not specifically considered although it is recognized that incorporating lipid supplements in aquafeeds to achieve proper fatty acid profiles to meet the metabolic requirements of fish and maximize human health benefits are important aspects. Specific strategies and techniques to optimize the nutritional composition of plant feedstuffs and limit potentially adverse effects of bioactive compounds are also described. Such information will provide a foundation for developing strategic research plans for increasing the use of plant feedstuffs in aquaculture to reduce dependence of animal feedstuffs and thereby enhance the sustainability of aquaculture.
Article
The essentiality of marine invertebrate meals in diets for marine shrimp is unresolved. Three experiments were carried out with juvenile Penaeus monodon of 3–6 g initial weight to address this issue. In a 6-week growth experiment, shrimp head meal (SHM) or whole dried krill Euphausia spp. were included in a basal diet at 5% increments from 0 to 15% without altering the gross nutritional specification of the diet and fed to five tank replicates of shrimp. Shrimp daily growth coefficient (DGC) improved curvilinearly (P < 0.05) from 0.95% per day for the basal to 1.66 and 1.68% per day for the 15% SHM and 15% krill diets respectively. The same SHM and krill meals were extracted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the recovered insoluble and soluble fractions compared with the original meals when incorporated into a basal diet at rates equivalent to 20% of the original (Experiment 2). Diets were fed to six tank replicates of shrimp for 2 weeks. DGCs of shrimp fed diets with krill and the krill PBS-insoluble fraction were identical (1.34% per day) and better than the krill PBS-soluble fraction (1.10% per day), SHM (1.15% per day) and both PBS-insoluble and -soluble SHM fractions (1.14 and 1.19% per day); all of these diets were better than the basal diet (0.92% per day). In Experiment 3, fresh shrimp waste was freeze-dried (SW) and then sequentially fractionated using PBS, followed by 6 M urea with subsequent dialysis and affinity chromatography, to produce three soluble fractions (PBS-soluble and PBS/urea soluble dialysed material of > 3.5 kDa or < 3.5 kDa) and an insoluble PBS/urea fraction. These fractions, individually, and when combined together, and the intact SW, were incorporated into a basal diet at amounts equivalent to 20% of the original product and evaluated against a commercial Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp feed when fed to six tank replicates of shrimp in a 2-week experiment. The M. japonicus feed gave the best DGC (2.57% per day), and better than the SW diet (1.19% per day) which, with the diet containing the insoluble fraction (1.05% per day), were the only diets significantly better than the basal diet (0.79% per day). It is concluded that these crustacean meals contained a growth factor, which was present predominantly in the insoluble protein constituent of the meal.
Article
This study aimed to totally replace fish meal (FM) in diets by low fluoride krill (Euphausia superba) meal (LFK). LFK was prepared by removing exoskeletons from dried whole krill to give a fluoride content of approximately one-fourth of krill meal (KM) at 230 ppm for LFK and 870 ppm for KM. Experimental diets replaced FM with LFK at the replacement proportions of 0.0%, 7.7%, 15.4%, 30.8%, 46.2% and 100.0% (control, LFK7, LFK15, LFK30, LFK46 and LFK100) and were fed to groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in duplicate for 95 days in fresh water and growth was observed. In all experimental groups, feed intake, feed efficiency, specific growth rate and hepatosomatic index were unchanged compared with fish fed the control diet (P < 0.05). After 95 days, the fluoride concentration in dorsal muscles of the fish of each experimental group, except LFK100, was below the detectable limit (1 mg/kg), and in vertebral bones it was between 220 mg/kg and 420 mg/kg. However, the dorsal muscle and the vertebral bone of LFK100 contained 1 mg/kg and 1800 mg/kg of fluoride, respectively. Tissue specimens of the liver of each experimental group at 95 days had no histopathological changes. The total replacement of FM from LFK in diets was successful with no defects of growth performances. This study showed that krill protein had a nutritional value equivalent to FM.
Article
Nine commercial feeding attractants and stimulants for Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated by observation of behavioral responses in animals allotted in one Y-maze aquarium apparatus. In the validation phase, fishmeal–Brazilian origin (FMBO); fishmeal–Peruvian origin (FMPO); blood meal (BM), meat and bone meal (MBM), squid meal (SM), fish oil (FO) and fish solubles (FS) were evaluated. There was also a control without stimulatory raw material. The tested materials were included at 3% in neutral gelatin pellets (wet basis). In each behavioral observation, two different ingredients were offered at the same time in equal quantities, being allotted in the end of each chamber's arm. In Phase II after system validation, the following commercial attractants were tested: 80% crude protein (CP) vegetable dried biomass (VDB80), 68% CP vegetable dried biomass + glutamate + betaine (VDB68), complex of amino acids (alanine, valine, glycine, proline, serine, histidine, glutamic acid, tyrosine and betaine) with enzymatically digested bivalve mollusk (CAA), condensed fish soluble protein (CFSP), squid liver meal (SLM), betaine (Bet), dried fish solubles–low biogenic amines (DFSLB), dried fish solubles–high biogenic amines (DFSHB) and whole squid protein hydrolysate (WSPH). Attractants were used at a 3% level wet basis with neutral gelatin, without any additional ingredient source available. The best four commercial attractants from this phase (CAA, CFSP, SLM and WSPH) were compared under 0.5% and 1.0% levels. In Phase I of the study, a higher percentage of choices were observed for FMPO and FMBO. BM and FO were the least chosen ingredients. In Phase II, the worst results were observed for Bet, DFSHB and, mainly, for VDB80 and VDB68. When two-by-two comparisons were performed, results suggested that CFSP and CAA were the best commercial attractants tested. In the last phase, both CFSP and CAA at 1.0% level were significantly more chosen by shrimp than CFSP (0.5%), SLM (0.5 or 1.0%) or WSPH (0.5 or 1.0%). At both 0.5% and 1.0% levels, shrimp spent a similar amount of time feeding on CFSP and CAA. However, only CAA was statistically better than SLM and WSPH together. Further work is required to better elucidate the chemical drivers of chemostimulation for L. vannamei for each one of the attractants tested.
Article
The use of plant-derived materials such as legume seeds, different types of oilseed cake, leaf meals, leaf protein concentrates, and root tuber meals as fish feed ingredients is limited by the presence of a wide variety of antinutritional substances. Important among these are protease inhibitors, phytates, glucosinolates, saponins tannins, lectins, oligosaccharides and non-starch polysaccharides, phytoestrogens, alkaloids, antigenic compounds, gossypols, cyanogens, mimosine, cyclopropenoid fatty acids, canavanine, antivitamins, and phorbol esters. The effects of these substances on finfish are reviewed. Evidently, little unanimity exists between the results of different studies as to the specific effects of antinutrients, since most studies have been conducted using an ingredient rich in one particular factor and the observed effects have been attributed to this factor without considering other antinutrients present in the ingredient, or interactions between them. Tentatively, protease inhibitors, phytates, antigenic compounds, and alkaloids, at levels usually present in fish diets containing commercially available plant-derived protein sources, are unlikely to affect fish growth performance. In contrast, glucosinolates, saponins, tannins, soluble non-starch polysaccharides, gossypol, and phorbol esters, are more important from a practical point of view. The effectiveness of common processing techniques such as dry and wet heating, solvent extraction and enzyme treatment in removing the deleterious effects of antinutrients from feed materials is discussed. More insights into the nutritional, physiological and ecological effects of antinutrients on fish need to be accumulated through studies using purified individual antinutrients and their mixtures in proportions similar to those in alternative nutritional sources in fish feeds. Such studies would provide data useful for designing optimum inclusion levels of plant-derived materials and treatment methods that would neutralise the negative effects of the antinutritional factors.
Article
The CCAMLR 2000 Survey is the first large-scale multinational, multi-ship survey in the Southern Ocean since 1979/80. Conducted using strict method protocols and within a 32-day time frame it provides a truly synoptic view of the oceanography, zooplankton, krill, and higher predator biomass and distribution for the Scotia Sea and Antarctic Peninsula region. The innovative design of interleaved transects surveyed only during the hours of daylight has provided a comprehensive and robust estimate of krill biomass.
Article
A study of the influence of the proportion of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) in the lipid of diets fed to the prawn, Penaeus monodon, showed clearly that these nutrients are required as a proportion of the total fatty acids in the diet. A factorial array of diets were prepared to contain optimal levels (g kg−1) of the fatty acids, linoleic (LOA, 18:2n−6), linolenic (LNA, 18:3n−3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n−2) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n−3). As a second factor to the study, the total amount of lipid in the diet was also increased at incremented levels from 45 to 135 g kg−1 at 30 g kg−1 increments. The weight gain of prawns was greatest (156.2±6.2%) when their diet contained 75 g lipid kg−1, of which 30 g kg−1 was essential fatty acids. Weight gain of prawns fed with diets containing 45 g lipid kg−1 with 17 g of essential fatty acids kg−1 was greater (148.0±3.4%) than prawns fed with the diet that had 45 g lipid kg−1 and 30 g of essential fatty acids kg−1 (124.0±6.8%). The nutritional condition of the prawns, as determined by the amount of lipid in their digestive glands, was generally reflective of weight gain, though there were exceptions, with higher lipid levels in prawn DG from faster growing prawns. The fatty acid composition of the DG lipid generally mimicked that of the dietary lipid. The proportions of each of the essential fatty acids in the DG lipid varied marginally between treatments, but generally LOA, LNA, EPA and DHA levels in the DG fatty acids were present in slightly lower proportions than that in the diet. The amount of dietary lipid present influenced the composition of the fatty acids in the DG lipid when the lowest inclusion level of lipid was compared with the higher inclusion levels. The results of this study clearly indicate that EFA are required as a proportion of the total fatty acids in the diet, and not as a proportion of the diet. Accordingly, it is suggested that EFA should be defined as a percentage of the total fatty acids in conjunction with an indication of the amount of lipid in the diet. This study also showed that for weight gain, the optimal total lipid level of the diet is less than 105 g kg−1.
Article
Though some protein sources like squid and protein hydrolysates are assumed as growth enhancers for shrimp, little is known about the biochemical basis of this phenomenon. Low, heat-dried squid (Dosidicus gigas) (SQ) and two commercial protein hydrolysates from fish (FH) and krill (Euphasia sp.) (KH) were assayed in feeding trials with Penaeus vannamei. Feeds were prepared with the tested proteins at 3%, 9%, and 15% of the total crude protein. A total of nine experimental feeds plus a commercial one as control (C32) were tried. Additionally, digestibility in vivo and in vitro was evaluated. Survival was not different among groups. Weight gain of shrimp and total and specific proteolytic activity for trypsin and chymotrypsin were affected by type and quantity of supplemented protein. In vivo and in vitro digestibilities were also influenced by the source and quantity of the protein supplement. Shrimp fed feed with FH at 3% protein supplementation grew more than those fed with higher supplementations. Groups fed SQ had similar results as those fed FH, and gained more weight when fed the lowest SQ quantity. SDS-PAGE showed a large concentration of small peptides in SQ, which may explain results similar to FH. KH enhanced shrimp growth at all supplementations and had a lower degree of hydrolysis (DH) than FH. SQ also demonstrated good growth performance, but better at the lower supplementation, probably because of the presence of small peptides and possibly free amino acids from protein hydrolyzed by endogenous enzymes in the squid mantle. We conclude that hydrolyzed protein is a good supplement for shrimp feeds, but it must meet specific requirements for adequate assimilation.
Article
A series of three feeding trials was conducted to determine the influence of different marine protein sources on growth, survival and thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) levels in barramundi larvae. Experimental diets including various proportions of fish meal, squid powder, mussel meal and krill meal were assessed in 14-day feeding trials. The suitability and appropriate inclusion levels of these protein sources for microbound diet formulations were assessed in an integrated manner, relating protein quality indices (amino acid profile and digestibility) to larval performance indices (growth, survival and thyroid hormone level) to elucidate mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of growth promotion in Lates calcarifer. Larvae fed diets containing a combination of fish meal and squid powder showed greater growth than larvae fed diets containing either mussel meal or krill meal. Larvae fed diets containing a 9:1 ratio of fish meal to squid powder, on a gross protein basis, had a higher final mean dry weight than those fed all other diets except the diet containing an 80:20 ratio of fish meal to squid powder, which had an intermediate value. Fish meal and squid powder were found to have a high nutritional value as protein sources for L. calcarifer larvae, by virtue of a synergistically favourable amino acid profile, moderate to high digestibility and low water solubility. The digestibility of squid powder was found to be significantly higher than that of fish meal, indicating that further development of this diet may benefit from processing techniques to increase fish meal digestibility. Thyroxine (T4) levels were found to relate strongly to growth, but did not relate specifically to any particular dietary composition, indicating that T4 is an appropriate indicator of growth performance in L. calcarifer larvae, though may not directly and quantitatively mediate nutritional growth promotion.
Article
"Developments during the past two years confirm the trends already observed at the end of the 1990s: capture fisheries production is stagnating, aquaculture output is expanding and there are growing concerns with regard to the livelihoods of fishers and the sustainability of commercial catches and the aquatic ecosystems from which they are extracted. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004 reports on several of these issues. "It is not only fishers and fish farmers who have these concerns; they are increasingly shared by civil society at large. Moreover, the importance of international trade in fish and fish products, combined with the trend for major fishing and trading companies to operate on a multinational basis, means that such issues are becoming global in nature affecting a growing number of countries, be they large fish producers or large consumers of fish. It is heartening to note that governments and other stakeholders have begun to collaborate with their neighbours and partners in trade in an effort to find shared solutions. "Concrete examples of positive outcomes of this globalization of concerns are the establishment of new regional fishery management organizations and the strengthening of existing ones. It is probable that ongoing discussions among intergovernmental organizations on topics such as trade in endangered aquatic species, the use of subsidies in the fishing industry, and labour standards in fisheries will also result in agreements of overall benefit to world society. "Given the nature and tone of the international discussion on fishery issues and the developments observed during recent years, I believe that fishers and fish farmers, in collaboration with governments and other stakeholders, will overcome the obstacles they face currently and will succeed in ensuring sustainable fisheries and continued supplies of food fish at least at their present levels."
1. In 102 laboratory rats fed with (a) the krill standardized meal, (b) the krill meal with low chitin content, (c) the casein diet with D,L-methionine, (d) the casein diet with D,L-methionine supplemented with the krill carapace meal, (e) the casein diet with D,L-methionine supplemented with ash from the krill standardized meal and (f) the control diet--"Murigran" standard pelleted feed; the different blood indices were investigated. 2. The mean values of following indices: the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the percentage of leucocytes, the corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell diameter were similar in all experimental and control groups. 3. The mean values of haematocrit and haemoglobin levels, the mean corpuscular thickness and volume were lower in rats fed with the casein diet with D,L-methionine supplemented with the krill carapace meal than in other groups. 4. All kinds of investigated indices were similar in rats fed with krill meal with low chitin contents, whose parents received the standardized krill meal and no sex differences have been shown here.
Article
Inorganic fluorides were declared toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 1993 based on their potential to cause long-term harmful effects in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but information on the toxicity of sediment-associated fluoride to freshwater benthic organisms was considered incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of aqueous and sediment-associated fluoride to several species of freshwater organisms and to determine if toxic effects could be expected under environmentally realistic exposures. Toxicity of fluoride (as NaF) in short-term (48-96-h) lethality tests was greatest for the amphipod Hyalella azteca (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 14.6 mg F-/L), followed by the mayfly Hexagenia limbata (32.3), the midge Chironomus tentans (124.1), the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (262.4), and the cladoceran Daphnia magna (282.8). Relative toxicity in long-term (10-28-d) growth and survival tests in spiked sediment was similar. Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species for growth (25% inhibitory concentration [IC25] = 290.2 microg F-/g), followed by C. tentans (661.4), H. limbata (1,221.3), and P. promelas (>5,600); H. azteca was also the most sensitive species for survival (LC50 = 1,114.6 microg F-/g), followed by H. limbata (1,652.2) and P. promelas and C. tentans (>5,600 for both). Concentrations of fluoride measured in sediments near some industrial point sources exceed some of these toxicity thresholds. Fluoride is highly mobile in aquatic systems and could potentially reach toxic levels in the water column during dredging to remove fluoride-contaminated sediment.
Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review
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Directive 2008/76/EC of 25 July 2008
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European Union (2008) Directive 2008/76/EC of 25 July 2008. Official Journal of the European Union, 198, 37-40.
The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture
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FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2009) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2008. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Departament, Rome, Italy, 196 p.
Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds, 573 p
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  • F Piedad-Pascual
Hertramph, J.W. & Piedad-Pascual, F. (2000) Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds, 573 p. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands.