ArticlePDF Available

Stereotyping Effects on Consumers' Evaluation of Advertising: Impact of Racial Differences Between Actors and Viewers

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The present experimental study compared the efficacy of two social/psychological theories of stereotyping for explaining the impact of race on consumers' evaluations of advertising. One theory, in-group bias theory, posits that in-group members on the basis of race will evaluate other in-group members more favorably than out-group members. A second theory, polarized appraisal theory, predicts that out-group members will be evaluated more extremely (positively or negatively) than in-group members. A major finding of the present study is that in-group bias theory explains the effect of race in consumers' evaluation of advertising more accurately than does polarized appraisal theory.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Over the years, two frameworks have been proposed to investigate the impact of race on consumers' evaluations of advertising: the ingroup bias theory-whereby members of the ingroup will be evaluated more favourably than members of the outgroup-and the polarized appraisal theory-for which members of the outgroup will be evaluated more extremely, both positively or negatively, than members of the ingroup-. An experimental study conducted by Qualls and Moore [20] revealed that the ingroup bias theory is better than the polarized appraisal theory at explaining the effect of ethnicity in consumers' evaluation of advertising. However, the depiction of specific ethnic groups in advertising and commercial have been proven to evolve over time. ...
... In line with recent works on the Halo Effect [14], we hypothesize that (H1) the perception of the trustworthiness of an ATM does not significantly differ after a time delay (7 days). Moreover, (H2) in line with the results of Qualls and Moore [20], we expect a stronger higher perceived trustworthiness for ingroup individuals, of similar age and gender. Finally, (H3) we predict a higher perceived trustworthiness on ATMs when children faces are displayed vs. when adult or elderly faced are used for this purpose. ...
Article
Full-text available
Trustworthiness is a core concept that drives individuals’ interaction with others, as well with objects and digital interfaces. The perceived trustworthiness of strangers from the evaluation of their faces has been widely studies in social psychology; however, little is known about the possibility of transferring trustworthiness from human faces to other individuals, objects or interfaces. In this study, we explore how the perceived trustworthiness of automated teller machines (ATMs) is influenced by the presence of faces on the machines, and how the trustworthiness of the faces themselves is transferred to the machine. In our study, participants (N = 57) rated the trustworthiness of ATMs on which faces of different age, gender, and ethnicity are placed. Subsequently, the trustworthiness of the ATMs is compared to the trustworthiness ratings of faces presented on their own. Results of our works support the idea that faces’ trustworthiness can be transferred to objects on which faces are presented. Moreover, the trustworthiness of ATMs seems to be influenced by the age of presented faces, with ATMs on which children faces are presented are trusted more than the same machines when adults’ or elders’ faces are presented, but not by the ethnicity (Asian or Caucasian) or gender (male or female) of presented faces.
... 3.6.2.2 Appraisal theory. Appraisal theory was postulated by Scherer (1984) and gradually developed over the years by researchers in psychology (Smith and Ellsworth, 1985), sociology (Schaeffer, 1992) and marketing (Qualls and Moore, 1990) fields. Appraisal theory was developed to explain the cause of emotions (Ellsworth, 2013) where, "human emotions result from the subjective evaluation of events" (Broekens et al., 2008, p. 173). ...
Article
Purpose- The purpose of this study is to present a systematic review of the online service failure (OSF) literature and conduct an exhaustive analysis of academic research on this emerging research area. Design/methodology- The current study has adopted a structured systematic literature review approach to synthesize and assess the OSF literature. Further, the study uses the Theory-Context-Characteristics-Methodology (TCCM) framework to propose future research directions in the OSF domain. Findings- This systematic review shows that OSF research is still developing and remains mainly incoherent. Further, the study develops a conceptual framework integrating the frequently reported antecedents, mediators, moderator, and consequences in the extant literature. This review also synthesizes the theoretical perspectives adopted for this domain. Research limitations- The study followed specific inclusion and exclusion criteria to shortlist articles. Further, articles published only in the English language were considered. Hence, the findings of this review cannot be generalized to all OSF literature. Practical implications- This systematic review has classified antecedents into customers’ and service providers’ roles which will enable online service providers to understand all sets of factors driving OSF. It also synthesizes and presents service recovery strategies and emphasizes the role of online customer support to fix OSF. Originality/value- The OSF literature is still developing and remains highly incoherent, suggesting that a synthesized review is needed. This study has systematically reviewed and synthesized the OSF literature to study its development over time and proposes a framework which provides a comprehensive understanding of OSF.
... Literature Review and Hypotheses Development: Research shows mixed results regarding whether consumers prefer domestic models or not (e.g., Qualls & Moore 1990). More recent research indicates that domestic or foreign models impact source credibility dimensions of trustworthiness and expertise (Clow et al., 2011). ...
... However, for consumers from the majority group, results are much less consensual. Some researches show that majority groups prefer advertisements with majoritary cultural cues (Szybillo and Jacoby, 1974 ;Bush, Hair, and Solomon, 1979 ;Pitts & al, 1989 ;Qualls & Moore, 1990 ;Whittler, 1991 ;Whittler et DiMeo ;1991 ;Grier & Brumbaugh, 1999 ;Aaker & al, 2000 ;Sierra & al., 2009 ;Appiah & Liu, 2009). These studies have their roots in the same theories underlining minority groups (In-group Bias Theory; Social Theory; Identity Theory). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present article examines how the presence of others from a different social group (i.e., outgroup audience) influences consumers' food choices relative to the presence of others from their own social group (i.e., ingroup audience). In four studies, using various types of group memberships (race, university affiliation, and work affiliation), we first find that consumers are more likely to make healthy food choices in the presence of racial (Study 1) and university (Study 2) outgroup (vs. ingroup) audiences. Then, using an experimental causal‐chain mediation approach, we show this effect occurs because consumers anticipate more negative judgment from outgroup (vs. ingroup) audiences (Studies 3a and 3b). We discuss the possible role of outgroup contact and diversity in promoting healthy eating.
Article
We investigate the effect of model ethnicity (in-group vs. out-group) in a charity appeal and how this interacts with the scope of the charity (local vs. global) on message recipients’ attitude toward and intention to donate money to the charity. We also test the mediating role of the perceived trustworthiness of the models in the appeal and ad skepticism. In a controlled experiment, we exposed Caucasian (French, n = 201) and Indian (n = 194) respondents to a group of Caucasian or Indian models for either a local or a global charity. Models of the same ethnicity as the message recipient (in-group) lead to more positive responses for a local charity, while models of a different ethnicity than the message recipient (out-group) lead to more positive responses for a global charity. As expected, these effects are mediated by the perceived model trustworthiness and ad skepticism.
Article
This study examines how Asian American consumers respond to ads that use the “model minority” stereotypes of Asian Americans. Based on the theoretical explanations of the match-up effect between perceived spokesperson characteristics and product attributes, this study proposes that the existing association derived from model minority stereotypes between the model minority image and particular product types influences Asian Americans’ responses to advertising. This study further proposes that the level of acculturation influences Asian Americans’ responses to ads that use stereotype-consistent portrayals of Asians. Study 1, focusing on Asian Americans’ responses, indicated that Asian Americans responded more favorably to the stereotype-consistent match than they did to the stereotype-inconsistent match. Further, Asian Americans’ acculturation levels significantly and positively affected their evaluation of the ad featuring the stereotype-consistent match. In Study 2, examining Caucasian Americans’ responses, a significant two-way interaction was found, demonstrating that Caucasians responded more favorably to the stereotype-consistent match than the -inconsistent match in ads, similar to the responses of highly acculturated Asian Americans.
Chapter
In this chapter, we extend our discussion of foreign languages in advertising to related phenomena. It reviews studies on foreign accents in advertising, on foreign languages on product packaging and on foreign languages in the linguistic landscape. We also discuss important complexities relating to foreign languages in advertising. These include the relationship between the use of English as a global language and the standardization-adaptation debate and the effects of ethnic language on consumers outside the target group. As a final complexity, we discuss critical views on the use of foreign languages in advertising, which argue that such foreign language use functions as mock language and reductive stereotyping.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction effect of endorser ethnicity (local Chinese vs Western) and portrayal (smart vs sexy) on Chinese women’s attitudes toward luxury advertisements and brands, as well as any moderating effect appearance self-esteem has on the above-mentioned interaction. Design/methodology/approach Two online experiments were conducted. Study 1 was a 2×2 factorial design (with 280 participants), while Study 2 was a 2×2 ×2 factorial design (with 320 participants). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test and simple effect analysis. Findings Results demonstrated that Chinese female consumers are more likely to have a positive attitude toward advertisements for luxury goods and brands when a local Chinese (vs Western) endorser is used and portrayed as smart (vs sexy), particularly if consumers have low appearance self-esteem. Research limitations/implications The research focused only on female consumers and only one product type was used for the experiments. The use of controls for potential confounding effects was insufficient in this study design. Practical implications To maximize profits, marketers should choose the most appropriate combination of endorser ethnicity and portrayal in the Chinese luxury goods market. Accordingly, if adopting a localization strategy and using a Chinese female endorser, the endorser should be portrayed as smart rather than sexy. In contrast, if a luxury brand adopts an internationalization strategy and uses the same Western female endorser as in other countries, it is more effective to portray her as sexy rather than smart. Furthermore, advertisers should pay particular attention to Chinese female consumers who have low appearance self-esteem when advertising their product and/or brand. Originality/value Compared with past studies concerned with consumers’ perceptions of endorser image in advertisements through a focus on endorser ethnicity, this study linked endorser portrayal with his/her ethnicity and discussed the interaction effects between these two factors on consumers’ attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand portrayed in the advertisement. The findings herein contribute new insights to the body of work on luxury marketing and endorser advertising.
Article
The reactions of black and white consumers to all-black and all-white cast versions of a television commercial suggest that the black version was more meaningful to black viewers, whereas the race of the cast had little influence on the reactions of white respondents.
Article
The reactions of black and white consumers to all-black and all-white cast versions of a television commercial suggest that the black version was more meaningful to black viewers, whereas the race of the cast had little influence on the reactions of white respondents.
Article
Most research studies on the use of black models to advertise to predominantly white audiences have measured consumer attitudes only and not reactions in terms of sales. This study was designed to analyze the sales responses of white consumers to black models in the specific situation of in-store promotional materials. The findings indicate that the race of the models apparently had no effect on the consumers' purchase decisions.
Article
The authors report the results of a 2 x 3 factorial experiment which measures high and low prejudice white consumers' evaluations of ads for which models' race is manipulated. The study disconfirms the results of a previous study which differ substantially from those of the general body of literature on the effects of black models. The response of consumers to black models is found to be consistent with previous research findings.
Article
This analysis of advertisements which appeared in four mass circulation magazines between 1965 and 1970 suggests that, in a variety of subtle ways, they are contributing to the perpetuation of racial stereotypes rather than their eradication.
Article
Reactions of high and low prejudiced college seniors were obtained to the same 3 ads with illustrations using whites and Negroes (integrated), whites only, and Negroes only. Results of analysis "imply that an advertiser who uses integrated advertising may incur an unfavorable reaction from more highly prejudiced consumers, but is unlikely to obtain an offsetting reaction from "white liberal' consumers. There is no evidence . . . less prejudiced Ss rate ads which pictured Negroes more favorably than those which pictured only whites." Moreover, the "less prejudiced . . . evaluated integrated and Negro ads about the same as white ads." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hypothesized that (a) people have a more complex cognitive representation of their own group than of other groups; (b) the less complex a person's representation of stimuli from a given domain, the more extreme will be the person's evaluations of stimuli from that domain; and (c) people will evaluate out-group members more extremely than in-group members. Using age as an in-group/out-group variable, Exp I supported the 1st hypothesis: Male undergraduates demonstrated greater complexity in their descriptions of their own age group than of an older age group. Results of Exps II and III support the 2nd hypothesis, with parallel findings for dispositional and manipulated complexity. Results from Exp II support the 3rd hypothesis in that younger males evaluated older male targets more extremely than they did younger ones. When the target was favorable, the older male was evaluated more positively than the younger one; when the target was unfavorable, the older male was evaluated more negatively. (52 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Experimental research on intergroup discrimination in favor of one's own group is reviewed in terms of the basis of differentiation between in-group and out-group and in terms of the response measure on which in-group bias is assessed. Results of the research reviewed suggest that (a) factors such as intergroup competition, similarity, and status differentials affect in-group bias indirectly by influencing the salience of distinctions between in-group and out-group, (b) the degree of intergroup differentiation on a particular response dimension is a joint function of the relevance of intergroup distinctions and the favorableness of the in-group's position on that dimension, and (c) the enhancement of in-group bias is more related to increased favoritism toward in-group members than to increased hostility toward out-group members. Implications of these results for positive applications of group identification (e.g., a shift of in-group bias research from inter- to intragroup contexts) are discussed. (67 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed and tested a model that assumes that people have a more complex schema regarding in-groups than out-groups and consequently, that appraisals of out-group members will be more extreme or polarized than appraisals of in-group members. Four experiments with 415 White male and female undergraduates tested this model, as well as predictions derived from attribution principles. In Exp I, Ss read and evaluated a law school application containing incidental information about the applicant's race and gender. A Black applicant with strong credentials was judged more favorably than an identical White applicant, supporting a prediction derived from the augmentation principle. In Exp II, an applicant with weak credentials was included in the design. Results support the prediction that out-group members would be evaluated more extremely: When the application credentials were positive, the out-group member (a Black or opposite-sex applicant) was evaluated more favorably than the in-group member (a White or same-sex applicant). When the application credentials were weak, the out-group member was evaluated more negatively. Exp III and IV provided support for the 2 assumptions underlying the complexity–extremity hypothesis: First, White Ss demonstrated greater complexity regarding Whites than Blacks. Second, greater complexity resulted in evaluative moderation. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)