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Abstract

“Retail therapy” is often applied to the notion of trying to cheer oneself up through the purchase of self-treats. The negative moods that lead to retail therapy, however, have also been associated with greater impulsivity and a lack of behavioral control. Does this lead to mindless shopping when consumers are “down” and regret later? The current work documents that a bad mood does lead to greater purchase and consumption of unplanned treats for the self. However, it also provides evidence that the consumption of self-treats can be strategically motivated. Those individuals who do indulge can also exercise restraint if the goal of restraint also leads to improved mood. Finally, retail therapy has lasting positive impacts on mood. Feelings of regret and guilt are not associated with the unplanned purchases made to repair a bad mood. The implications of the research are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... According to Hama (2001), the surge in spending is primarily related to the desire of people to relieve unexpected stress through shopping after the pandemic. Moreover, many retail therapy studies have evidenced that people reduce negative emotions such as depression, anxiety, and sadness by shopping (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Kang and Johnson, 2010;Rick et al., 2014). In other words, people shop to make themselves feel better. ...
... In sum, the moods of people influence certain behaviors when they face negative situations. People tend to alleviate their negative emotions through shopping (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Kang and Johnson, 2010;Rick et al., 2014), and reactions to adverse emotions vary according to individual characteristics. 2 Hence, researchers must examine how distinct emotions influence shopping motives and shopping attitudes. ...
... The most common emotions that could occur include anxiety, fear, boredom, depression, and anger (Brooks et al., 2020;Holmes et al., 2020;Joensen et al., 2020;Li et al., 2020;Mahmud et al., 2020). Retail therapy studies have demonstrated that in negative situations, people try to change their mood or relax their mind and body by shopping (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Kang and Johnson, 2010). Besides coping with everyday stress, shopping also serves as a breakthrough solution to relieve the stress caused by the threat to survival. ...
People tend to alleviate their negative emotions by shopping. Considering the change of shopping behavior during COVID-19 outbreak, negative emotions are the key contributors to this change. In this light, this study aims to investigate how negative emotions caused by COVID-19 affect shopping behaviors. This study classified consumer groups based on their perceived negative emotions (i.e., anxiety, fear, depression, anger, and boredom). By clustering analysis, four groups (i.e., group of anxiety, depression, anger, and indifference) were derived. Then, this study examined how each of the emotional groups differently affect the shopping-related motivations (i.e., mood alleviation, shopping enjoyment, socialization seeking, and self-control seeking) and shopping behaviors (i.e., shopping for high-priced goods and buying of bulk goods). Results revealed all emotional groups affect socialization seeking and influence high-priced shopping intentions. However, depression and indifference are positively associated with socialization seeking and influence bulk shopping intentions. In addition, other emotions except for anxiety affect mood alleviation and influence high-priced shopping intentions. Finally, anger is associated with self-control seeking and affects bulk shopping intentions. This study enables practitioners and researchers to better understand how people control negative emotions by shopping in pandemic situations such as the current COVID-19 crisis.
... [eHealth, 2015]) In another survey commissioned by the Huffington Post (Gregoire, 2013), nearly one in three Americans shops to alleviate stress. Similar figures have also been reported in academic investigations (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). On the other hand, it has been found that, besides work and sleep, shopping is a daily activity on which people around the world spend the most amount of their time (Hutton, 2002). ...
... Before introducing and elaborating on our proposed conceptual framework, it is essential to first clarify our definition of retail therapy. Put simply, retail therapy refers to the use of shopping and buying as a means to repair or alleviate negative feelings (Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Babin & Griffin, 1994;Faber & Christienson, 1996;Isen, 1984;Lee, 2015;Rick et al., 2014). Hence, in order to distinguish retail therapy from shopping in general, we shall limit our discussion to shopping with the goal of repairing one's negative feelings as opposed to amplifying one's already positive feelings or purely utilitarian shopping. ...
... Indeed, consumers seem to prefer immediate rewards over delayed rewards especially when experiencing negative affect (Seeman & Schwarz, 1974), and thus may choose to indulge in temporarily gratifying consumption to improve their mood. Similarly, consumers may practice self-gifting and reward themselves with self-treats when experiencing negative moods; these self-treats are typically not accompanied by feelings of guilt or regret, and could have sustained reparative benefits even if the purchases were unplanned (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). Furthermore, particularly when the purchases are unplanned, feelings of "consummatory indulgence" or the perceived freedom to buy as the heart pleases could release retail-therapy seekers from the psychological encumbrance of their negative emotions (Falk & Campbell, 1993;Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2011). ...
... Addressing the repairing function of indulgence [20] in the individualism value, we chose consumer indulgence as a positive mediator between unneeded consumption behaviour and work engagement. Based on the effects of responsibility reminders [1] in the collectivism value, perceived consumer effectiveness was considered as the negative mediator in the hypothetical model. ...
... Why do consumers expend their economic resources to buy unnecessary products? When these consumers engage in unneeded consumption behaviour, they may improve their mood [20] by satisfying the psychological needs that the acquisition of necessities might not meet [27]. Such unneeded consumption behaviour fluctuates daily and such fluctuations always coincide with changes in resource conservation and generation [28]. ...
... Therefore, there are fewer recovery-based benefits through unneeded consumption behaviour when suppressing indulgence. Consumers can strengthen and repair their mood by indulging in unneeded consumption behaviours and attain more resources for work, based on the recovery level [20]. Hence, we argue that there should be a correlation between indulgence and unneeded consumption behaviour on work engagement. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has become an important global contagion that requires workers to implement necessary behaviours to cope. Based on the conservation of resources theory, the present studies explore the effects of unneeded consumption behaviour on consumers’ recovery level and work engagement and the moderated mediating process of such relationships. Using a purchasing experiment, study 1 examined the positive effect of unneeded consumption behaviour on recovery among 100 MBA students. Using the experience sampling method, the data in study 2 were collected from 115 consumers (employees) using ten iterations of 2-day continual questionnaires (Sunday and the following Monday) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results from multilevel structural equation modelling indicate that unneeded consumption behaviour positively impacts work engagement in a moderated mediating mode. Consumer indulgence positively moderates the mediating effect of recovery level on the relationship between indulgent consumption behaviour and work engagement, while perceived consumer effectiveness negatively moderates the mediating effect of recovery level. This paper also identifies the value of transformation from consumption to work during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Shopping for oneself is a self-rewarding act and serves to distract one from Retail therapy for consumers of accessible luxury: A qualitative study from Poland and Turkey negative feelings (Kang and Johnson, 2011). Atalay and Meloy (2011) argued that unplanned purchases cause one to feel better and do not lead to regret, and the relationship between moods and shopping is explained as a retail therapy phenomenon (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Rick et al., 2012;Underhill, 2009). Consolidating these findings, we formulate two propositions: ...
... Shopping for oneself is a self-rewarding act and serves to distract one from Retail therapy for consumers of accessible luxury: A qualitative study from Poland and Turkey negative feelings (Kang and Johnson, 2011). Atalay and Meloy (2011) argued that unplanned purchases cause one to feel better and do not lead to regret, and the relationship between moods and shopping is explained as a retail therapy phenomenon (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Rick et al., 2012;Underhill, 2009). Consolidating these findings, we formulate two propositions: ...
... The theory is based on the notion of managing multiple (and frequently competing) goals and ideals that are usually in conflict to some extent. Individuals try to control their priorities and emotions (Baumeister et al., 2000) and create a ranking of priorities that contributes to the self-regulation of their mood (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Carver and Scheier, 2002). ...
... Bu noktada ürünler ilk akla gelen çözüm alternatifleri olabilmektedir. Ruh halimizi düzenlemede ve kendimizi iyi hissetmede tüketim önemli bir rol oynamaktadır (Kacen, 1998;Andrade, 2005;Atalay ve Meloy, 2011). Duygularımız tüm davranışlarımızda etkili olduğu gibi tüketimimizde de etkilidir. ...
... Bu kavramın perakende bağlamına uygulanması, genellikle "perakende terapisi" olarak adlandırılır (Atalay ve Meloy, 2011, s. 639). Araştırmalar stresi azaltmak için artan tüketimin, ilaç veya ameliyat olmaksızın zihinsel semptomları iyileştiren bir terapi türü olarak işlev gördüğünü bulunmuştur (Atalay ve Meloy, 2011;Rick, Pereira ve Burson, 2014). Perakende terapisi, olumsuz ruh hallerini hafifletmek için alışverişi ifade eder (Kacen, 1998). ...
... Ruh halini düzenlemek ve psikolojik faktörleri iyileştirmek için alışverişin duygusal ve psikolojik değeri hakkında önemli çalışmalar yapılmıştır (Atalay ve Meloy, 2011;Kacen ve Lee, 2002). Türkiye'de yapılan çalışmalar incelendiğinde perakende terapi konusunda sadece bir çalışmaya rastlamıştır ve bu çalışma kişilik özellikleri ile perakende terapi kavramını birlikte incelemiştir (Uyar, 2019). ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı tüketicilerin olumlu ve olumsuz duygu durumlarının online perakende terapi üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırma verileri online alışveriş yapan tüketicilerden, 7-21 Nisan 2021 tarihleri arasında toplanmıştır. Çalışmada 466 kullanılabilir veri elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada olumlu duyguların online perakende terapi üzerinde etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Online perakende terapi ölçeğinin boyutları incelendiğinde ise olumlu duygu durumunun; terapatik alışveriş motivasyonları, pozitif duygu takviyesi ve terapatik alışveriş sonucu üzerinde pozitif yönde etkiye sahipken negatif duygu durumu azalması üzerinde ise istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkisinin olmadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmada ayrıca olumsuz duygu durumlarının da online perakende terapi üzerinde etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Yine perakende terapi ölçeğinin alt boyutları incelendiğinde olumsuz duygu durumlarının terapatik alışveriş motivasyonları ve pozitif duygu takviyesi üzerinde etkisinin olmadığı görülmüştür. Buna karşın negatif duygu durum azalması ve terapatik alışveriş sonucu üzerinde etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda elde edilen bulgular ışığında, tüketicilerin duygu durumlarının online perakende terapi düzeyi üzerindeki etkisine ilişkin yorumlar sunulmuş ve araştırma kısıtları belirtilmiştir.
... Unsurprisingly, Ger and Belk (1996) acknowledged that such highly materialistic individuals always tried to own more things than others, even when perceiving the pandemic's risks. Another possible attention-worthy explanation is the therapeutic property of shopping, that Atalay & Meloy (2011) referred to as the retail therapy, in which, individuals attempt to cheer themselves via the acquisition of self-treats. Negative moods serve as a driving force of the consumption behavior that results in a greater rate of buying and the acquisition of unplanned treats. ...
... Negative moods serve as a driving force of the consumption behavior that results in a greater rate of buying and the acquisition of unplanned treats. Mood improvements, without the feelings of guilt and regret, which follow such unplanned buying sprees, is a lasting positive effect of this therapy aimed at mood adjustments (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). The pandemic brings many restrictions to life, at the very least, to say nothing of its lethality and the consequent traumatizing impact. ...
... Because negative emotions are basically aversive, people are more likely to find distractions or ways to reduce or get rid of their negative feelings. One way of seeking distractions and a positive mood is engaging in impulsive buying (Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Gardner, 1985). Hence, consumers would find the impulsive purchase as a means to alleviate their fear about the COVID-19 situation. ...
... 430), which reinforce consumers' intention to purchase impulsively. Further, when an individual is in a negative mood state, impulse buying behavior acts as a self-regulatory mechanism to seek distractions and reduce the negative feelings (Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Gardner, 1985;Verplanken et al., 2005). In this study, consumers' impulse buying of fitness products functions to alleviate their fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, consumers are found to be more impulsive to purchase fitness products online. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate a moderated mediation model of consumers' perception of COVID-19 and impulse buying behavior through fear moderated by income. A total of 608 responses were collected from consumers in the United States, and this study employed partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to examine the hypothesized relationships in the research model. The results showed that the perception of COVID-19 had a positive influence on fear, which in turn led to impulse buying behavior of fitness products. Moreover, consumers' income levels negatively moderated the positive relationship between fear and impulse buying behavior. The findings contribute to a better understanding of consumers' behavior and offer practical implications that enable marketers and retailers to predict consumers' behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Cognitive studies on esthetic judgments argued that gaze fixations are affected by the symmetry in architecture, visual arts, and faces; visual behavior represents an aesthetic preference for visual configuration and balance (Treder, 2010;Hodgson, 2011;Giannouli, 2013). Eye-tracking has also been implemented in retail studies: (1) the visual attention of customers to signage and products affects their purchasing probability at retail stores (Huddleston et al., 2015;Tang and Auffrey, 2018); (2) directional patterns (e.g., vertical and horizontal sightlines) in the visual navigation of consumers on retail displays (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Goldberg and Helfman, 2011;Deng et al., 2016); (3) there is no significant or direct effect of the first fixation on consumer choice (van Der Laan et al., 2015); (4) consumers have a more favorable attitude and positive perception toward merchandise and service quality and feel more aroused or pleased in a store with social cues presented, e.g., in-store displays of graphics with a social implication (Hu and Jasper, 2006). ...
... Although studies argued that visual symmetry and directional configurations affect gaze fixations and sightlines (Treder, 2010;Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Goldberg and Helfman, 2011;Hodgson, 2011;Giannouli, 2013;Deng et al., 2016), this study showed no evidence of greater attention to visual symmetry nor directional patterns (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical sightlines) in the scanpaths and heatmaps of the gaze data. Such gaze patterns may occur in certain types of retail stores with many sales products, displays, and other related visual information but may be less relevant to other interior environments that involve many human actions and interactions in consumers' sight. ...
Article
Full-text available
A critical question in interior design is how multisensory information is integrated into occupant perception and interpretation of the environmental contexts and meanings. Although there have been efforts to identify and theorize visual perception of interior factors or features (e.g., colors, fixtures, and signs), the hidden meanings behind visual attention and behaviors have been neglected in interior design research. This experimental phenomenological study investigates the impact of auditory stimuli on the gaze behaviors of individuals and the hidden meanings of their audio-visual perceptions of commercial interiors. Implementing eye-tracking and open-ended interviews, this study explored how the neurophysiological and phenomenological methods in complementary can serve for interior design research on the meaning of gaze behaviors. The study used a convenience sample of 26 participants, three coffee shop interior images, and two musical stimuli. Essential to this study is the interpretive analysis of corresponding eye-tracking and interview data. The results show that visual perception is affected by auditory stimuli and other interior elements and factors associated with personal experiences; however, no distinct gaze pattern is identified by the type of auditory stimuli. The fixation patterns showed mixed reflections of the participants' perceptions, e.g., a single fixation pattern reflecting participants' likes and dislikes. Findings included six essential meanings of participants' gaze behaviors. This study suggested that auditory and visual stimuli are reciprocal in individuals' perceptions. Rather than one affects the other, the interaction between sensory stimuli contributes to the complexity and intensity of multisensory stimuli people associate with their experiences and conceptualize with meanings they establish.
... Notably, shopping can serve as a self-rewarding act and distract one from negative feelings (Gilovich and Gallo 2020;Ortiz Alvarado, Rodríguez Ontiveros, and Quintanilla Domínguez 2020;Urkmez and Wagner 2020;Vieira, Santini, and Araujo 2018). Unplanned shopping causes one to feel better (Atalay and Meloy 2011), but the influence of situational factors and their impact on purchases that are made to elevate the mood and improve well-being has not yet been studied. ...
... Shopping can be a self-rewarding act and distract one from negative feelings (Gilovich and Gallo 2020;Ortiz Alvarado, Rodríguez Ontiveros, and Quintanilla Domínguez 2020;Vieira, Santini, and Araujo 2018). Unplanned shopping enables one to feel better and not regret doing it (Atalay and Meloy 2011). In line with Ekici et al. (2018, p. 336) we define shopping well-being to involve "perceptions that shopping contributes to the overall quality of life of oneself and one's family. ...
Article
This paper examines the relationships between online therapeutic shopping motivation, crisis-coping shopping, and therapeutic shopping purchases in disruptive situations. It explicitly addresses the research question of how online shopping motivation and crisis-coping shopping affect therapeutic shopping purchases. Empirical evidence was obtained in Europe and Latin America. We used partial least squares modeling and multigroup analysis to compare consumers’ culture-driven responses to crisis. The effect of crisis-coping shopping is almost three times stronger than the effect of online therapeutic shopping motivation on therapeutic shopping purchases. This study investigates the concepts of hedonic shopping and retail therapy in the online environment and disruptive situations by examining therapeutic shopping purchases. Cultural differences are highlighted in relation to purchases made to regulate mood during a crisis. Finally, this study examines the roles of retail therapeutic motivation and crisis-coping online shopping and discusses the implications for consumers, managers, and future research.
... The best-documented example of such behavior is shopping to make oneself feel better, a phenomenon commonly known as retail therapy. Consistent with lay intuition, a correlational study conducted in a mall showed that shoppers who were in a more negative mood at the start of their shopping trip were more likely to make unplanned purchases to treat themselves (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). In a subsequent diary study by the same authors, 62% of participants reported a desire to repair their negative mood as their main reason for buying a product as a treat to themselves, with most of these mood-repair purchases being unplanned. ...
Article
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This article provides a critical review of what is known about affect regulation in relation to consumption behavior. Based on numerous findings from psychology, communication research, and consumer research, we identify a core set of general principles of affect regulation in consumer behavior. First, we define affect regulation, clarify its relations to the concepts of coping and compensatory consumption, and refine the emerging concept of “displaced coping.” We then review the generic strategies used in the regulation of general negative affective states. Next, we synthesize evidence that distinct negative emotions are regulated by emotion‐specific strategies, and propose an overarching explanatory principle: the “part‐regulation principle.” We then review the main strategies used in the regulation of positive affective states. Finally, important contingencies in affect regulation are identified, including the asymmetric regulation of positive versus negative affective states, triggers of downward affect regulation, and key moderators of affect regulation.
... While indulging in temptations feels good in the moment (Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Fenton-O'Creevy et al., 2018), when reflecting on these introspectively, they often trigger negative psychological and behavioral consequences. Consumers feel ashamed of having failed to exercise willpower, leading to poor self-evaluations of self-control (Higgins et al., 1986;Kivetz & Simonson, 2002b). ...
Article
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Consumers are often exposed to recurrent temptations that might threaten the achievement of their long‐term goals (e.g., savings, diet), and while they might initially resist the temptation, they may find that with the passage of time, they eventually indulge in the goal‐conflicting act. In such instances, does the ultimate goal failure undermine consumers' perceptions of self‐control, or does the mere act of delaying the goal transgression serve to buffer against negative self‐views? In the current research, we term delayed goal failure the sequence of events whereby a consumer initially resists a goal‐conflicting temptation, but upon subsequent exposure to the same temptation, follows through with the goal transgression. Our findings show that delayed (vs. immediate) goal failure allows consumers to maintain positive perceptions of self‐control, particularly when the cause of failure is unspecified (i.e., open to interpretation), allowing consumers to interpret their ultimate decision as thought‐through and justified. Finally, our findings reveal a positive downstream effect of delayed (vs. immediate) goal failure on subsequent self‐regulation, and identify positive perceptions of self‐control as the underlying driver of this effect.
... Previous research suggests that the greater the discrepancy between the current affective state and an ideal one, the stronger desire for individuals to regulate their moods (López & De Maya, 2012). Hence, mood regulation activities are normally driven by the intent to repair a bad mood (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). Many studies have shown that individuals in a bad (vs. ...
Article
Despite the prevalent use of savings messages (e.g., “get $x off” and “save $x”), no previous tourism and hospitality research has examined their effect on consumer responses. To fill that void, this study investigates the joint effect of savings message type (gain-framed vs. nonloss-framed) and weather conditions (sunny vs. rainy) on consumer attitude. The results show that individuals in rainy weather respond more favorably to a gain-framed (vs. nonloss-framed) message, and this effect is attenuated among people in sunny weather. Furthermore, this study reveals a boundary condition. When the amount of savings is presented in percentage terms (e.g., “get x% off” and “save x%”), the superiority of a gain frame disappears. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... Purchasing gifts for themselves is a sign-post of memorable occasions such as birthday, Christmas. This differs from reward self-gifting motivation where individuals celebrate goals achievement of themselves (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). Mick (1991) has proposed that customers who are not having intimate relationships or singles who are living along mostly engage with self-gifting behaviour. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract: The trending and novel concept of self-gifting apparently taking the ‘treat yourself’ spirit into a stylish level. Though the concept has emerged in Western culture, today it has been widely spread across the world. Since the consumption patterns and shopping behaviours are shaped and re-shaped with growing vogues as self-gifting, extra attention is required on this phenomenon from scholarly and practitioners’ standpoint. Thus, this conceptualization is aiming to establish a cherished contribution concerning the connection between the extents of post-purchase regret resulting from self-gifting behaviour as per the shoppers’ behaviours. This argument is grounded since most of the self-gifting purchases are not compulsive buying, it might result negative emotions as post-purchase regret. Accordingly, this paper intends to magnify the existing body of knowledge and footing for succeeding studies in consumer behaviour. Keywords: Post-Purchase Regret, Self-Gifting Motivation, Shopping Behaviour
... In the case of revenge buying, the elimination of behavioral From panic to revenge: Compensatory buying behaviors during the pandemic Samuel Lins 1 , Sibele Aquino 2 , Ana Raquel Costa 1 and Rita Koch 1 International Journal of Social Psychiatry 00(0) freedom impedes buying, which drives the consumers to recover from this deprivation by purchasing hedonic products. Besides working as a compensatory perform, revenge buying appears as a therapeutic consumption, a way for consumers to improve their mood and well-being through the purchase of self-treating (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). ...
... Because marketing as an applied science that cannot get away from the Realist Approach is of great importance to conduct research with a psychological perspective. As a matter of fact, marketing science, which has positive results from psychological approached researches, continues its research and applications in highly specialized areas such as "retail therapy" (Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Kang & Johnson, 2011;Plastow, 2012). ...
Article
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Understanding the psychological structures of consumers is of great importance for a well understanding of the Post-Modern society, which is also called the consumption society.Because now there are brands competing to sell their products rather than consumers competing for having products.When this situation is considered together with Post-Modern consumer behaviours, it seems inevitable for brands to understand the psychological conditions of consumers in their target markets.In a sense, these developments with a Realist Approach perspective have made interdisciplinary studies a necessity in postmodern science. In this study designed in this context, the effects of depression levels of consumers on their consumption style were researched.For this purpose, the globally accepted Consumer Styles Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used.During the research process, the data obtained from both scales were tested in terms of correlation and cause-effect relationship with quantitative methods.The findings of the study show that there is no correlation between depression and Consumer Styles Inventory in a cumulative sense.In other words, a change in the depression levels of the consumers does not change the consumer behaviour as a whole.However, when it is focused to the sub-factors of the Consumer Styles Inventory, it has been observed that there is a high correlation between price focusing and depression level.Other sub-factors of the Consumer Styles Inventory were also evaluated in this context.Additionally, the
... Ruh halinin tüketicinin satın alma kararı üzerinde etkili olduğu gibi ürün değerlendirme süreci üzerinde de etkili olduğu yine bu alandaki çalışmalarda ele alınmıştır (Cameron vd., 2003;Forgas ve Ciarrochi, 2001). Ruh halinin satın alma davranışı üzerindeki etkilerinin ürüne (Atalay ve Meloy, 2011), yaşa (Andrade, 2005) ve kültürel özelliklere göre (Maier vd., 2012) farklılaştığı görülmüştür. ...
Article
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Çalışmanın amacı, tüketici ruh halinin tüketilen üründen alınan haz ve ürüne ödenmek istenen bedel (fiyat) arasındaki ilişkileri açıklamak ve bu süreçte kişilik boyutlarından biri olarak „hislere/deneyime açıklığın“ nasıl etki ettiğini ortaya koymaktır. Bu kapsamda veriler, kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak 400 kişilik örneklem üzerinden yüz yüze anket yardımıyla toplanmıştır. Kişilerin ruh halini olumlu yönde etkileyen, kişiyi iyi hissettiren hedonik ürün olarak çikolata tercih edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre, araştırmada çikolatanın tüketiminden alınan haz kişinin ruh haline göre farklılaşmaktadır. Aynı zamanda olumsuz ruh hali durumunda çikolata ürününe yönelik ödenmek istenen bedel (fiyat), olumlu ruh haline göre daha yüksektir. Ruh halinin üründen alınan haz ve ürüne yönelik ödenmek istenen bedel (fiyat) üzerindeki etkisi, kişinin hislere/deneyime açıklığına göre değişmemektedir. Ancak, hislere/deneyime açıklık kişinin olumlu ruh halinde ürüne yönelik ödenmek istenen fiyat üzerindeki etkisinde istatiksel açıdan anlamı değişime neden olmaktadır.
... This prior work suggests that both self and social signaling play an important role in the funeral planning context. Second, although some of our qualitative informants noted that planning the funeral prevented them from engaging in emotional coping, spending is often viewed as a way to cope with sadness (Rick et al., 2014) and repair mood (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). Consistent with this account, experimental work has shown that spending on others promotes happiness (Dunn et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Funeral rituals perform important social functions for families and communities, but little is known about the motives of people planning funerals. Using mixed methods, we examine funeral planning as end‐of‐life relational spending. We identify how relational motives drive and manifest in funeral planning, even when the primary recipient of goods and services is dead. Qualitative interviews with consumers who had planned pre‐COVID funerals (N=15) reveal a caring orientation drives funeral decision‐making for loved ones and for self‐planned funerals. Caring practices manifest in three forms: (a) balancing preferences between the planner, deceased, and surviving family, (b) making personal sacrifices, and (c) spending amount (Study 1). Archival funeral contract data (N=385) reveals supporting quantitative evidence of caring‐driven funeral spending. Planners spend more on funerals for others and underspend on their own funerals (Study 2). Pre‐registered experiments (N=1,906) addressing selection bias replicate these results and find generalization across different funding sources (planner‐funded, other‐funded, and insurance; Studies 3A‐3C). The findings elucidate a ubiquitous, emotional, and financially consequential decision process at the end of life.
... Lastly, we test whether results are moderated by being unhappy or hungry at the time of the shop. This is likely as a negative mood has been associated with greater impulsivity and less control [22] and hungry grocery shoppers have been shown to choose energy-dense food more frequently [23], and to find it more rewarding [24]. All hypotheses were pre-specified. ...
Article
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Background: Several front-of-pack (FOP) labels identify healthier options by comparing foods within product categories. Alternative approaches label healthier options by comparing across categories. Which approach is superior remains unknown. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a within-category versus across-category FOP lower calorie label on 1) the percentage of labeled products purchased, 2) several measures of calories purchased (total, per dollar and per serving), and 3) total spending. We also tested the moderating effects of hunger and mood on purchasing patterns. Methods: Using an online grocery store, we conducted a 3 × 3 crossover trial involving actual purchases with 146 participants randomly exposed to: 1) no labeling control; 2) within-category lower calorie labels, and; 3) across-category lower calorie labels. We labeled the 20% of products with the lowest calories per serving within or across categories. Purchases were compared using a fixed effects regression on first-differenced outcomes. Results: Relative to the control condition, there was a 3 percentage point increase (p = 0.01) in labelled products purchased in the within-category arm and a non-significant decrease of 1 percentage point (p = 0.711) in the across-category arm. There was no significant difference in the proportion of labeled products purchased between the two labelling conditions. Neither strategy resulted in reductions in any measure of calories purchased or in total spending. When limited to beverages, there was a 398 cal reduction (p = 0.01) in the within-category arm and a 438 cal reduction (p < 0.01) in the across-category arm versus the control. Mood and hunger did not modify the effects for either strategy. Conclusions: Results provide evidence that both labelling strategies have the potential to influence food purchasing patterns. However, we cannot definitely state that one labelling approach is superior or even that an increase in the proportion of labelled products purchased will lead to a reduction in calories purchased. Trial registration: The American Economic Association's registry for randomized controlled trials, RCT ID: AEARCTR-0002325; Prospectively Registered October 06, 2017. In compliance with ICMJE policy, the trial was also registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, RCT ID: [NCT04165447]. Retrospectively Registered 11 November 2019.
... Rick, Pereira, and Burson (2014) defined shopping as a potentially effective way to minimize the sadness that lingers (residual sadness) after a sad event. Atalay and Meloy (2011) found in a diary study that most participants reported positive feelings when thinking about their most recent purchase that was motivated to reduce sadness. Furthermore, the participants in another study showed an increased willingness to spend money (Cryder et al. 2008). ...
Article
The coronavirus pandemic has changed retailers' proceedings, con-sumers' buying behavior, and the perception of space within the aisles. In a grounded theory-building procedure, the study questions the relationships of consumers' perceived risk, adapted behaviors , and emotional self-regulation. Only a few studies have focused on customer behavior in such disruptive situations. They generally take a unidirectional perspective and explain panic buying and stockpiling by considering buying behavior as only a reaction to panic and uncertainty. We conducted 18 qualitative interviews in Brazil and Germany to gain insight into changes in buying behavior and consumers' feelings on the changed circumstances , which provided a bidirectional perspective on perceived risk, adapted buying behavior, and emotional self-regulation. We attempt to explain changed buying behavior as well as differing behaviors and motives in Brazil and Germany during the crisis. Critical reflection on media reports about panic buying and hoarding as well as on self-observed situations in local stores affords a better assessment of the overall situation and risk. ARTICLE HISTORY
... If these groups are less likely to moderate their purchases, the effectiveness of the tax could be reduced. Furthermore, a negative mood has been associated with greater impulsivity and less control (Atalay and Meloy, 2011) and hungry grocery shoppers have been found to buy more calories (Tal and Wansink, 2013), which both could influence the effectiveness of a tax. ...
Article
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Public health taxes on less healthy food and beverage products have been shown to be effective in various settings. However, it is unclear if observed reductions in the quantity of taxed products purchased is a result of price increases due to the tax or the accompanying messaging and if the effects are influenced by the level of support for such taxes within the population. 941 adults residing in Singapore were randomized and asked to shop in one of four versions of a fully functional on-line experimental grocery store: 1) no tax control; 2) implicit tax showing only post-tax prices (i.e., 20 % higher than control prices) on high-in-calorie products; 3) fake tax showing pre-tax prices and a label falsely indicating that the price includes a 20 % tax on high-in-calorie products; and 4) explicit tax showing the same label as in 3) and an actual 20 % price increase applied to the high-in-calorie products. The proportion of high-in-calorie products purchased was 14 % in the control arm. We were unable to reject the null hypothesis of no effect in the implicit tax arm compared to control (0.08, 95 % CI -3.31 to 1.77) or in the fake tax arm compared to the control (2.59, 95 % CI -5.04 to 0.00) but observed a statistically significant 3.35 percentage point decrease (95 % CI -6.01 to -0.5) in the explicit tax arm compared to control. We were unable to reject the null hypothesis of no effect in any of the outcomes related to diet quality. Individuals who support the tax showed greater responsiveness to the explicit and fake taxes compared to those who do not (price elasticities of demand of -1.38 and -0.51 respectively). Results suggest that reductions in the proportions of high-in-calorie products purchased may be largely attributable to explicit messaging rather than to price increases. However, even when effective, policymakers should recognize that changes in purchasing patterns may not improve diet quality and that results may not generalize to other areas where levels of support differ.
... Considered from a regulatory rather than a resource perspective, selecting hedonic consumption when under stress may also be an act of high self-control driven by selfregulatory motives. Several studies have shown that selecting and using hedonic consumption under stressful conditions may be motivated by emotional regulation (e.g., Tice et al., 2001;Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Dorman Ilan et al., 2019). Mead et al. (2016), moreover, show that pleasure can offset stress if it is sufficiently potent and can benefit subsequent goal pursuit and long-term affective wellbeing -which are also hallmarks of high self-control (Tangney et al., 2004;de Ridder et al., 2012). ...
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Hedonic consumption is pleasant but can interfere with the capacity to self-regulate. In stressful moments, when self-regulation is arguably still important, individuals often indulge in hedonic consumption. In two experiments, we investigate whether hedonic consumption negatively affects self-regulation under moderately stressful conditions and whether selecting hedonic consumption under moderately stressful conditions is driven by high or low self-control. In both studies, participants were randomly exposed to a mental arithmetic task that was either completed under time pressure with performance feedback (moderate stress) or without time pressure and without feedback (no stress). Experiment 1 assigned participants to a hedonic (vs. neutral) consumption task and then measured impulse control via a color-word Stroop task. Experiment 2 measured self-control as a second independent variable and recorded hedonic (vs. neutral) consumption. The results show that moderate stress buffered the negative effect that hedonic consumption has on self-regulation under no stress conditions and that high rather than low self-control predicts hedonic over neutral consumption under stress. These findings indicate that hedonic consumption in response to moderate stress may be a strategic choice to reap the pleasure benefit of hedonic consumption while the costs to self-regulation are low.
... Furthermore, both constructs increase their target's sensitivity toward inclusionary cues (Dewall et al., 2009), and have a similar effect on an individual's consumption preference and behaviour. In particular, as passive coping strategies, such behaviour includes preferences for majorityendorsed goods (Wang et al., 2012), indulgence in materialism (Gentina, 2014), 'retail therapy' (Atalay & Meloy, 2011) and opting for nostalgic products (Loveland et al., 2010;Sedikides et al., 2008). ...
Article
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While social exclusion in the consumption context has gained significant interest recently, its literature remains fragmented and underexplored due to restricted categorization and limited conceptual lenses. This systematic review attempts to broaden social exclusion literature by including multiple possible aspects of social exclusion, and providing a nuanced approach to identifying changes in the consumption response of excluded individuals. Using the “Scientific Procedures and Rationales for Systematic Literature Review” (SPAR‐4‐SLR) (Paul et al., 2021) protocol to assemble, arrange, and assess studies published between 2010 and 2021, we selected 83 studies as the basis of this review. With the objective of providing a synthesized view of the existing literature and presenting possible explanations for inconsistencies, this paper (a) undertakes a systematic review of the existing research in the domain, (b) introduces a conceptual framework, and (c) provides a taxonomy to categorize diverse strands of consumption responses. Identifying gaps, this study also provides directions for future research using the TCCM (Theory, Characteristics, Context, and Methodology) framework (Paul and Rosado‐Serrano, 2019; Paul and Criado, 2020). This study can thus enable marketers, advertisers, and public policymakers to understand the needs of socially excluded individuals, and subsequently make more inclusive decisions.
... The negative relationship between stress and self-regulation is well documented, whereby stress intensity has been shown to shift consumer priority away from long term goals, and toward more immediate pleasures(e.g., overspending, overeating: O'Guinn & Faber, 1989;Tice et al., 2001). Past research has generally adopted the viewpoint that distressed individuals succumb to immediate gratifications to reinstate a positive affective state (i.e., affect regulation:Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Duhachek, 2005;Fenton-O'Creevy et al., 2018). In the present research, we uncover a new perspective, clarifying the nature of the relationship between stress and indulgent decisions.Specifically, our findings reveal that stress does not only motivate gratifying decisions by triggering the need to reinstate positive affect, but it might also result in indulgent choices by evoking feelings of deservingness. ...
Article
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Consumers frequently experience goal conflict, where they have to choose between staying on course to achieve a goal and succumbing to a tempting indulgence that interrupts goal pursuit. This study introduces a novel strategy consumers use to justify the choice of an indulgent (goal‐conflicting) option over a righteous (goal‐aligned) one. In three experimental studies involving real consumption decisions, the authors show that before choosing a goal‐conflicting option over a goal‐aligned one, consumers overstate the severity of their life problems before making their choice to feel more deserving of the indulgence. This justification strategy is apparent when the goal‐conflicting option is chosen over a goal‐aligned option (vs. over another goal‐conflicting option—i.e., no goal conflict), and when the severity of life problems is reported before (vs. after) making the final choice. Furthermore, the findings reveal a positive downstream consequence of the proposed justification strategy on choice satisfaction. These findings contribute to the growing research on consumers' tendency to create reasons to justify indulgences, in this case at the expense of deliberately degrading one's current state to feel more deserving of indulgence.
... However, in general, Indian women are more isolated than men (Nevetia, 2019), thereby suggesting that isolation may bring about contextual reasons for self-gifting, such as cheering oneself up or managing moods (Atalay & Meloy, 2011 ...
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Before the COVID-19 pandemic, insecure attachments and rising levels of loneliness threatened consumers’ well-being across the globe. Insecure and lonely individuals lack interpersonal support for positive and negative events resulting in the utilization of shopping as a coping mechanism. The arrival of the pandemic collided with the existing epidemic of loneliness, exacerbating loneliness and simultaneously changing shopping as it once was known. By virtue of lacking support, insecure and lonely consumers may be more motivated to engage in a particular type of shopping known as self-gifting. This research examines a conceptual model across countries with samples from collectivist and individualistic societies (n=610), revealing a universal framework to explain self-gifting motivation parallels for consumers affected by insecure attachment and emotional loneliness. Theoretical and practical implications provide cross-cultural research on the connections of attachment style and self-gifting to help the disconnections of loneliness in today’s world.
... Hedonic shopping is often associated with fun or enjoyment. However, it is also known as an emotion-focused coping mechanism in response to stress (Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Tauber, 1972). Larson and Shin (2018) view hedonic shopping as a distal defence because it involves symbolic aspects and a cultural worldview. ...
... The idea of self-regulation may be unappealing when tempted by a product that offers immediate pleasure (Atalay and Meloy, 2011). Given that self-regulation may confer short-term hardship, it may initially be experienced as an interruption of natural tendencies (Tangney et al., 2004), but its application endorses resistance to temptation, thereby supporting a path toward achieving long-term aims (Myrseth et al., 2009). ...
... It has been suggested that materialism and consumption are endorsed by individuals as a coping mechanism, to lift one's mood and to escape negative moods (e.g., Atalay & Meloy, 2011;Donnelly et al., 2016). Extensive evidence suggests that materialism is associated with lower life satisfaction (e.g., Felix & Garza, 2012;Frost & Frost, 2000;Norris & Larsen, 2011;Wong et al., 2003), a higher negative affect (e.g., Hudders & Pandelaere, 2012;Kasser et al., 2004;Romero et al., 2012), and higher stress and anxiety levels (e.g., Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Niemiec et al., 2009). ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has led to an increase in the factors that typically facilitate the endorsement of materialistic values (e.g., higher media consumption, stress and anxiety, loneliness, death anxiety, and lower moods). In this paper, we examine how contextual changes affecting the antecedents of materialism influence its advocacy with a mixed‐method approach. First, a correlational study (Study 1) suggests that increases in media consumption and stress and anxiety during the pandemic predicted current levels of materialism, however, these effects were limited. Second, contrary to our expectations, a longitudinal study (Study 2) shows that people's focus on money decreased during the pandemic. Last, a social media content analysis (Study 3) reveals a downward trend in users’ online discourses about consumption‐related behaviors, but an upward trend in brands promoting spending as a way to attain well‐being. The observed effects could fuel deeper societal change in the labor market and in consumer behavior, and have further implications for individual and societal well‐being in a post‐pandemic world. We recommend future interventions aimed at diminishing materialistic attitudes to examine the effects of decreasing media consumption and to explore how other factors introduced by the pandemic (e.g., a health or well‐being focus) might moderate its advocacy.
... Many college students have a desire to spend, possibly due to poor money management, less parental monitoring and control, or because spending provides students with a sense of personal satisfaction or a state of temporary happiness (Britt et al., 2011;Koran et al., 2006). Some young adults may turn to "retail" therapy as a way to deal with emotional issues (e.g., feelings of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem), even though such spending behaviors may turn into compulsive or addictive behaviors (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). Other students may also use shopping to promote their level of prestige or status (Durband & Britt, 2012;Hanley & Wilhelm, 1992;Roberts & Jones, 2001). ...
Thesis
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Using data collected from undergraduate students attending a southeastern United States University, the current dissertation includes two manuscripts examining the relationships between personal characteristics, financial socialization, financial capability and financial well-being among college students. These relationships were also compared between a focal group of students identifying as minority, low-income, and first-generation students to a comparison group not identifying as minority, low-income, or first-generation students. The first study used structural equation modeling to explore the relationships between personal characteristics (i.e., attachment, locus of control, and self-esteem), financial socialization, and the four dimensions of financial capability (financial knowledge, access to financial resources, attitudes, and actions). Findings suggest financial socialization partially mediated the relationships between personal characteristics and financial attitudes and financial actions. These findings suggest that parents continue to play a role in the development of financial attitudes and behaviors of college students. The second study used regression analysis to examine how financial knowledge and skills (i.e., applied knowledge), materialistic attitudes, compulsive spending behaviors, and access to financial resources (i.e., number of bank accounts, credit cards, and alternative financial services) are related to students’ financial well-being. Findings suggest greater financial skills and less materialistic views are related to greater financial well-being. However, among those not identifying as minority, low-income, or first-generation college students less compulsive spending behaviors and greater credit card use were positively related to financial well-being; among minority, low-income, or first generation college students, alternative financial services usage was related negatively to financial well-being.
... Stereotypes of "retail therapy" (Atalay & Meloy, 2011;DeLillo, 1984) aside, it appears that compensatory consumption occurs when ambitions or desires in other realms are blocked. For example, Chinoy (1952) found that American automobile workers were trapped in blue collar jobs with no chance of advancement. ...
Article
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This interpretive study derives a conceptual framework explaining how Indian women experience a loss of self through the transformational event of marriage. The self-discrepancy of losing one’s self motivates these women to renegotiate their sense of self through consumption. Data were collected through 76 in-depth interviews analyzed by a constant comparative method and grounded theory. Our research question is to what degree and in what ways do women in India experience a loss of self upon marriage and, if they do, through what consumer practices (if any) do they attempt to compensate for this feeling of loss? Analysis revealed three common stages in Indian women’s married life (1) Marriage as a life transitional event inducing liminality (2) Loss of Self: dissonance (3) compensatory consumption as a response to dissonance. Our research contributes to life cycle theory by focusing on liminal transitions. We find that self is a possession that women can lose after marriage in India. Based on these findings we argue that understandings of identity and life cycle must be amended to consider self-discrepancy and coping processes. We develop a model of consumption that results from a perceived loss of self. This is all part of a process of self-identity reconstruction. We also expand psychological ownership theory to include ownership of self.
... Several studies of shown that most people engage in shopping improve their mood. Atalay and Meloy (2011) found that among 69 college participants, 43 (62%) reported having purchased an item to treat themselves in the past one week in order to repair their mood; in comparison, 19 (28%) were motivated (Yarrow, 2013). A new study conducted by TNS Global on behalf of Ebates.com has found that more than half of Americans admit to engaging in "retail therapy." ...
Article
This paper investigates the influences of product packaging design on rational and irrational behaviours in consumption choices. Contemporary consumers display levels of rationality and irrationality in their consumption preferences. Rational factors influencing consumption patterns are considered to be thoughtful and evaluative while irrational factors are known to be impulsive and reactive. Therefore, the study assessed the relevance of product packaging in prompting the patronage of some selected household items amongst university students. These items are phones, laptops and consumables. The students were randomly selected on gender basis. The collected data from respondents was analyzed using the Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings revealed that the influence of rationality and irrationality are inherent in consumer behaviours, but personal interest of consumers at a particular point in time takes precedence.
... Also high emotional activation can lead to unplanned purchases or impulse purchases. Macinnis, (2010) stated that consumer's decision for buying can be affected by both positive and negative emotions [2]. Murray, (2013) stated that majority of people trust that the selections they make result from a balanced evaluation of available alternatives [3]. ...
Article
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Retail therapy refers to the act of going shopping or buying special things for oneself in order to feel better when they are unhappy. In other words, it is the habit of shopping in order to make oneself feel more cheerful and to get rid of negative moods. The article i ntends to understand the motive and psychology behind the behaviour of obtaining comfort through shopping. Retail therapy describes that purchase behaviour which uplifts one's mood. Shopping has now turned into a stress-relief activity. Successful mood management during the course of shopping might affect perceived quality of life and emotional well-being. The significance of retail therapy was acknowledged in retail businesses and has been utilized in marketing efforts.
Article
Depression is a serious mental health problem. Recently, researchers have proposed novel approaches that use sensing data collected passively on smartphones for automatic depression screening. While these studies have explored several types of sensing data (e.g., location, activity, conversation), none of them has leveraged Internet traffic of smartphones, which can be collected with little energy consumption and the data is insensitive to phone hardware. In this paper, we explore using coarse-grained meta-data of Internet traffic on smartphones for depression screening. We develop techniques to identify Internet usage sessions (i.e., time periods when a user is online) and extract a novel set of features based on usage sessions from the Internet traffic meta-data. Our results demonstrate that Internet usage features can reflect the different behavioral characteristics between depressed and non-depressed participants, confirming findings in psychological sciences, which have relied on surveys or questionnaires instead of real Internet traffic as in our study. Furthermore, we develop machine learning based prediction models that use these features to predict depression. Our evaluation shows that Internet usage features can be used for effective depression prediction, leading to F1 score as high as 0.80.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the outcomes of online browsing for consumers, a behavior that is on the rise as social media and online content increased exponentially in the last year. An extensive literature review about browsing and its outcomes to consumer behavior, together with empirical data collected from 10 in-depth interviews with Generation Z consumers from Portugal, showcased that online browsing mainly produces positive outcomes, such as discovering new brands and products, increasing product knowledge and therefore improving consumer confidence in their purchase decision. Gen Z consumers from Portugal behave as expected, except that because they live in a more conservative and traditional context, they still have some barriers to online shopping and experience more traditional retail in their daily lives. However, the positive outcomes for online browsing remain the same, as consumers from this generation are digital natives.
Article
Consumers often respond to a self‐discrepancy in a certain domain by engaging in consumption that may restore their perceived standing in that domain. However, less is known about when and why consumers seek products that affirm the self in domains that are important to their self‐worth, yet unrelated to the discrepancy (known as fluid compensation). We address this gap by identifying an important factor that influences fluid compensation: thinking style. Across five studies and three follow‐up studies, we find that people with a temporarily activated or dispositional holistic thinking style are more likely to engage in fluid compensation than people with an analytic thinking style. This phenomenon occurs because, by perceiving parts as more functionally related to a larger whole, holistic (vs. analytic) thinkers are more likely to view fluid compensation as instrumental to enhancing global self‐worth. Holistic (vs. analytic) thinkers’ greater propensity to engage in fluid compensation, in turn, better enables them to restore their global self‐worth. These findings contribute to the literature on compensatory consumption, thinking style, and consumer well‐being.
Article
This research aimed to empirically explore whether impulsive consumption in the hospitality industry could be explained as a form of compensatory behavior that individuals engage in to cope with pessimistic self-evaluations. In this study, these self-evaluations have been operationalized as status discrepancy and perceived socioeconomic immobility. To test the hypotheses, this study used a three-way factorial design in two consumption settings: (1) leisure activities and (2) restaurant visits. Across the two studies, the results indicated that satisfactory self-assessments, rather than status discrepancy or socioeconomic immobility, lead to impulsive consumption. Despite the reversed findings, this study verified that participants jointly reflect status discrepancy and socioeconomic immobility in consumption contexts. Moreover, the findings suggest that millennials are more sensitive towards mobility information than older generations. This study sheds light on generational differences in impulsive consumption in the hospitality industry.
Article
With the exponential growth of mobile smartphones, shopping through them has received considerable attention from online retailers, who wish to offer an interactive and personalised online shopping marketing. However, interactive mobile shopping marketing is still in the early stages of development, and the impact of individual shopping context, such as emotional state of online shoppers’ visual behaviour, is unexplored yet. To address this question, this study adopted the eye-tracking paradigm to examine the ways in which consumers’ pattern of visual attention varies according to their emotional states (positive vs. negative) in mobile screen compared with desktop screen. Results revealed that those with negative emotion paid greater visual attention to online shopping information presented on the mobile and desktop screen than with positive emotion consumers. The gap of the impact of emotional state on consumers’ visual behaviour was more evident in the case of the small screen of mobile device. Regardless of emotional status, visual attention was more highly appeared in mobile screen than desktop screen.
Article
Objective The literature onadolescent consumption behavior asserts that environmental features affect buying impulsiveness of the urban youth in Korea. This research assesses this assertion by examining adolescents’ buying impulsiveness through the integration of mediating and moderating effects that exert influence on them. Method We used a structural equation model to evaluate the relationships between all constructs and the measurement errors of multi-indicators, and to determine whether the proposed relationships are supported by the data. Results School as an environmental feature did not universally influence adolescents’ materialistic values, as its effect in this respect was instead moderated by students' level of exposure to mass media. When a high level of such exposure was present, school had a substantial impact on the presence and growth of materialistic values. In terms of another environmental feature, the influence of students' peers significantly increased their buying impulsiveness, while the influence of parents moderately decreased it. Conclusion This study contributes to the elaboration of a more comprehensive causal model of adolescents' buying impulsiveness.
Article
Despite the prevalence of both chronic and transient loneliness and the detrimental consequences associated with them, as a negatively-valenced response to social exclusion, loneliness has received surprisingly little attention in the marketing literature. Based on research showing that lonely people often lack meaning in their life, we propose that ritualistic behavior that involves consumer products may reduce loneliness by increasing meaning in life. Specifically, a series of studies finds that engaging in even minimal, unfamiliar rituals reduces loneliness among lonely consumers. Support for the important role of meaningfulness comes from results showing that the effect of rituals on loneliness is mediated by meaning in life via perceived product meaningfulness, and that ritualistic behavior no longer impacts loneliness when the experience of meaningfulness can be derived incidentally.
Article
This study investigates the influence of online shopping on Korean female consumers’ negative mood, positive mood, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Study 1 compared two groups of respondents. The experimental group engaged in online shopping (so-called, “retail therapy”) and the control group rested. The results indicated that online shopping significantly improved subjects’ negative and positive moods and self-efficacy. The results revealed that online shopping was significant and stronger than resting in mitigating a negative mood, but only online shopping improved self-efficacy. Study 2 included an online browsing group and demonstrated that online browsing had a significant effect on subjects’ negative moods. Comparing the three groups revealed that the effect of online shopping on improving both negative and positive moods had the most significant and strongest effect. Furthermore, only online shopping improved self-efficacy. The results of this study provides academic and managerial insights about online retail therapy.
Article
How firms directly interact with consumers is crucial in establishing and maintaining loyalty. Yet, consumerism does not exist in a vacuum and therefore it is likely that consumers approach new experiences while still undergoing feelings from prior unrelated experiences. Three studies highlight that negative consumption experiences can enhance loyalty towards unrelated brands and products that consumers already prefer and patronize (e.g., increase repurchase intentions, decrease switching behaviors). We argue that this occurs because some negative consumption experiences can threaten consumer competence perceptions, which then drives consumers to be more loyal in subsequent unrelated decisions because they want an “easy win.” Overall, results suggest that positive loyalty behaviors can emanate from consumer experiences completely outside a firm’s control, but that these firms can act as a safe haven, providing hurt consumers with a stable offering, helping them regain their competence.
Article
The goal of the study is to understand the effect of retail therapy (RT) based on individuals’ body shame, body mass index (BMI) and weight preoccupation. A total of 285 female college students, with an average age of 20.55 years, were collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare four types of RT (i.e. therapeutic shopping motivation, positive mood reinforcement, negative mood reduction and therapeutic shopping outcomes) based on the degree of body shame, BMI and weight preoccupation. The effect of RT was significantly stronger for individuals who experience body shame. However, based on the individuals’ BMI, the effect of RT did not show statistical differences for any of the subcategories. Only negative mood reduction was significantly stronger for individuals who were highly preoccupied with their weight. Individuals who shop to compensate for personal features may do so to rectify negative perceptions of their weight. Retailers should focus on creating a shopping environment for plus-size consumers and provide a shopping environment that will change their weight perceptions by carrying a broader range of sizes in their stores. Mental health professionals should investigate RT as a modality to treat the symptoms of body image issues.
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This research considers self‐gift giving as an individual disposition – that is, the extent to which a consumer is inclined to buy herself or himself gifts –, and examines some determinants and consequences of this general tendency. A conceptual model was developed where self‐gift giving propensity is hypothesized to follow from gift‐receiving experiences during childhood and lead to long‐term consequences relative to materialism and satisfaction with life (SWL). In addition, gift‐receiving experiences during childhood are also presumed to give rise to a greater level of consumer sociability and, ultimately, a better satisfaction with life. The model was tested using data collected by means of a survey among a sample of 186 adult consumers. Mediation analyses were used to test the conceptual model. The results show that self‐gift giving propensity may have positive or negative effects on consumer SWL, depending on the particular psychological mechanisms that intervene. As a behavioral response to various events in one’s life, self‐gifting episodes lead in a cumulative fashion to a better satisfaction with life. However, self‐gift giving propensity also lead to a higher level of materialism and, as a consequence, a degradation of life satisfaction. In contrast with previous research in the domain of self‐gift giving, this study has adopted a life‐span perspective on this particular behavior. Accordingly, it has contributed to identify different psychological processes that explain how self‐gift giving tendencies come about as well as the long‐term consequences that they engender. By doing this, the study has enriched our knowledge of the self‐gift phenomenon by placing this common consumption behavior in a broader perspective than the motivational, and episodic, approach that has characterized most research in this domain until now.
Article
Payment frequency is a fundamental yet underexplored feature of consumers’ finances. As higher payment frequencies are becoming more prevalent, consumers are receiving more frequent yet smaller paychecks. An analysis of income and expenditure data of over 30,000 consumers from a financial services provider demonstrates a naturally occurring relationship between higher payment frequencies and increased spending. A series of lab studies support this finding, providing causal evidence that higher (vs. lower) payment frequencies increase spending. The effect of payment frequency on spending is driven by changes in consumers’ subjective wealth perceptions. Specifically, higher payment frequencies reduce consumers’ uncertainty in predicting whether they will have enough resources throughout a period, increasing their subjective wealth perceptions. As such, situational factors that reduce prediction uncertainty for those paid less frequently (e.g., the timing of consumers’ expenses, income levels) moderate the impact of payment frequency. The effects of payment frequency on subjective wealth and spending can occur even when objective wealth favors those with lower payment frequencies. More broadly, the current work underscores a need to understand how timing variations in consumers’ income impact their perceptions, behaviors, and general well-being.
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Food preferences are often influenced by environmental cues such as temperature, scent, and sound. Although air pollution is a subtle but daily presence in consumers’ lives, a lack of marketing research exists on whether and how it affects food preferences. This article theorizes that as a natural stressor, air pollution can induce bad moods in people and in turn lead to an increase in unhealthy food preferences. We combine three complementary methodologies to test our hypotheses. Based on large-scale, daily search data, the results of our econometric analysis reveal that people are more prone to search for unhealthy foods when local air pollution is higher. A field study demonstrates that air pollution increases consumer purchases of unhealthy food. Finally, we validate the proposed mechanism through a randomized experiment.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented and devastating impact on the travel and tourism industry worldwide. To sustain tourism organizations in the post-pandemic period, it is crucial to understand the factors that maintain, boost, or diminish the potential demands of international travel. With faith in the industry’s resilience, travel and tourism organizations are counting on the prospect of compensatory travel. However, little is known about the factors affecting potential demands and compensatory travel intention in a post-pandemic world. Hence, this study attempts to conceptualize compensatory travel and to investigate tourists’ cognitive and emotional processes that link risk perception about COVID-19 and compensatory travel intention. The findings support the proposed dual-processing model of suppressing and accelerating travel desire caused by COVID-19. The effect of travel desire on compensatory travel intention is also found.
Article
Consumers around the world use retail therapy to alleviate negative emotions. In response, marketers have incorporated cute elements into product design, capitalizing on the demand for products that provide healing effects. Grounded on attention restoration theory, this study explores how baby and whimsical cuteness generate feelings of healing. It also clarifies the moderating effect of product type and examines whether feelings of healing affect consumer subjective well-being, product attitudes, and purchase intentions. The results indicate that products with cute elements generate stronger feelings of healing. Baby cuteness is relatively more effective than whimsical cuteness. Cuteness arouses feelings of healing through the mechanisms of fascination and extent. Incorporating cute elements with utilitarian (vs. hedonic) products enhances these healing effects. Feelings of healing mediate the cuteness effect on well-being and attitudinal responses. These findings are valuable to marketing theory and practice and consumer well-being.
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Body image research focuses almost exclusively on women or overweight and obesity or both. Yet, body image concerns among thin men are common and can result, at least in part, from mixed messages in society around how men qua men should dress and behave in order to look good and feel good. Stand-alone interventions to meet these different messages tend to provide men with little therapeutic relief. This conceptual paper draws on literature from the medical humanities; gender and body image studies; the social psychology of clothing; and the author’s own lived experience to address this contemporary problem. The paper embraces visual culture as a resource that can frame discussion of how two sets of ‘performativity’ might reduce male anxiety about thinness. First, thin men could choose repeatedly to wear masculine-looking clothing, which could create their masculinity as a personal aesthetic that strengthens the confidence to harness masculine traits in healthy ways. Secondly, health and allied health service providers could promote and reinforce such dress behavior by offering advice that integrates aesthetic and functional aspects of clothing. Empirical studies are needed to test this dual model of performativity.
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The development of an adequate assessment instrument is a necessary prerequisite for social psychological research on loneliness. Two studies provide methodological refinement in the measurement of loneliness. Study 1 presents a revised version of the self-report UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Loneliness Scale, designed to counter the possible effects of response bias in the original scale, and reports concurrent validity evidence for the revised measure. Study 2 demonstrates that although loneliness is correlated with measures of negative affect, social risk taking, and affiliative tendencies, it is nonetheless a distinct psychological experience.
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This article tackles empirically the phenomenon of mood-alleviative consumption in Finland. In an attempt to advance consumer-behavior theory development toward building a theory or model of mood-alleviative consumption, empirical insights derived from Finnish consumers concerning the practices and therapeutic power of mood-alleviative consumption activities are offered. A phenomenological analysis identified eight types of therapeutic power stemming from different mood-alleviative consumption activities: distraction, self-indulgence, stimulated elaboration, outcomes of mood-alleviative activities, recharging, discharging, retreat, and activation. It was also discovered that certain mood-alleviative consumer behaviors can be therapeutic in multiple ways simultaneously, that different persons may experience the same mood-alleviative consumer behavior therapeutically differently, and that certain mood-alleviative consumption activities are more typically engaged in by women, whereas certain other mood-alleviative consumption activities are more typically pursued by men. The article is concluded by a discussion highlighting theoretical implications and suggestions for further research. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This article addresses the convergence and complementarity between self-regulatory control-process models of behavior and dynamic systems models. The control-process view holds that people have a goal in mind and try to move toward it (or away from it), monitoring the extent to which a discrepancy remains between the goal and one's present state and taking steps to reduce the discrepancy (or enlarge it). Dynamic systems models tend to emphasize a bottom-up self-organization process, in which a coherence arises from among many simultaneous influences, moving the system toward attractors and away from repellers. We suggest that these differences in emphasis reflect two facets of a more complex reality involving both types of processes. Discussion focuses on how self-organization may occur within constituent elements of a feedback system—the input function, the output function, and goal values being used by the system—and how feedback processes themselves can reflect self-organizing tendencies.
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A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the area of pricing, are developed.
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Throughout the past few thousand years, historical accounts, philosophical treatises, and works of fiction and poetry have often depicted humans as having a need to perceive themselves as good, and their actions as moral and justified. Within the last hundred years, a number of important figures in the development of modern psychology have also embraced this notion that people need self-esteem (e.g., Adler, 1930; Allport, 1937; Homey, 1937; James, 1890; Maslow, 1970; Murphy, 1947; Rank, 1959; Rogers, 1959; Sullivan, 1953). Of these, Karen Homey most thoroughly discussed the ways people try to attain and maintain a favorable self-image. The clinical writings of Horney, and other psychotherapists as well, document the ways in which people attempt to defend and enhance self-esteem; they also suggest that difficulty maintaining self-esteem, and maladaptive efforts to do so, may be central to a variety of mental health problems. In this chapter, we will first review the research supporting the existence of a need for self-esteem. Then we will present a theory that accounts for this need and specifies the role it plays in a variety of phenomena including self-presentation.
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Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.
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We propose a theory of regret regulation that distinguishes regret from related emotions, specifies the conditions under which regret is felt, the aspects of the decision that are regretted, and the behavioral implications. The theory incorporates hitherto scattered findings and ideas from psychology, economics, marketing, and related disciplines. By identifying strategies that consumers may employ to regulate anticipated and experienced regret, the theory identifies gaps in our current knowledge and thereby outlines opportunities for future research.
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Each scale is prefaced by the same information. Details are provided of construct, description, development, samples, validity, scores, sources, references, and other evidence. The book includes a number of measures that have been used in several studies. The volume serves as a guide to the literature and may spur further refinement of existing measures in terms of item reduction, dimensionality, reliability, and validity. This Handbook also aims to help identify areas where measures are needed, thus encouraging further development of valid measures of consumer behavior and marketing constructs.
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Making choices, responding actively instead of passively, restraining impulses, and other acts of self-control and volition all draw on a common resource that is limited and renewable, akin to strength or energy. After an act of choice or self-control, the self's resources have been expended, producing the condition of ego depletion. In this state, the self is less able to function effectively, such as by regulating itself or exerting volition. Effects of ego depletion appear to reflect an effort to conserve remain ing resources rather than full exhaustion, although in principle full exhaustion is possible. This versatile but limited resource is crucial to the self's optimal functioning, and the pervasive need to conserve it may result in the commonly heavy reliance on habit, routine, and automatic processes.
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Consumers' attempts to control their unwanted consumption impulses influence many everyday purchases with broad implications for marketers' pricing policies. Addressing theoreticians and practitioners alike, this paper uses multiple empirical methods to show that consumers voluntarily and strategically ration their purchase quantities of goods that are likely to be consumed on impulse and that therefore may pose self-control problems. For example, many regular smokers buy their cigarettes by the pack, although they could easily afford to buy 10-pack cartons. These smokers knowingly forgo sizable per-unit savings from quantity discounts, which they could realize if they bought cartons; by rationing their purchase quantities, they also self-impose additional transactions costs on marginal consumption, which makes excessive smoking overly difficult and costly. Such strategic self-imposition of constraints is intuitively appealing yet theoretically problematic. The marketing literature lacks operationalizations and empirical tests of such consumption self-control strategies and of their managerial implications. This paper provides experimental evidence of the operation of consumer self-control and empirically illustrates its direct implications for the pricing of consumer goods. Moreover, the paper develops a conceptual framework for the design of empirical tests of such self-imposed constraints on consumption in consumer goods markets. Within matched pairs of products, we distinguish relative "virtue" and "vice" goods whose preference ordering changes with whet her consumers evaluate immediate or delayed consumption consequences. For example, ignoring long-term health effects, many smokers prefer regular (relative vice) to light (relative virtue) cigarettes, because they prefer the taste of the former. However, ignoring these short-term taste differences, the same smokers prefer light to regular cigarettes when they consider the long-term health effects of smoking. These preference orders can lead to dynamically inconsistent consumption choices by consumers whose tradeoffs between the immediate and delayed consequences of consumption depend on the time lag between purchase and consumption. This creates a potential self-control problem, because these consumers will be tempted to over consume the vices they have in stock at home. Purchase quantity rationing helps them solve the self-control problem by limiting their stock and hence their consumption opportunities. Such rationing implies that, per purchase occasion, vice consumers will be less likely than virtue consumers to buy larger quantities in response to unit price reductions such as quantity discounts. We first test this prediction in two laboratory experiments. We then examine the external validity of the results at the retail level with a field survey of quantity discounts and with a scanner data analysis of chain-wide store-level demand across a variety of different pairs of matched vice (regular) and virtue (reduced fat, calorie, or caffeine, etc.) product categories. The analyses of these experimental, field, and scanner data provide strong convergent evidence of a characteristic crossover in demand schedules for relative vices and virtues for categories as diverse as, among others, potato chips, chocolate chip cookies, cream cheese, beer, soft drinks, ice cream and frozen yogurt, chewing gum, coffee, and beef andturkey bologna. Vice consumers' demand increases less in response to price reductions than virtue consumers' demand, although their preferences are not generally weaker for vices than for virtues. Constraints on vice purchases are self-imposed and strategic rather than driven by simple preferences. We suggest that rationing their vice inventories at the point of purchase allows consumers to limit subsequent consumption. As a result of purchase quantity rationing, however, vice buyers forgo savings from price reductions through quantity discounts, effectively paying price premiums for the opportunity to engage in self-control. Thus, purchase quantity rationing vice consumers are relatively price in sensitive. From a managerial and public policy perspective, our findings should offer marketing practitioners in many consumer goods industries new opportunities to increase profits through segmentation and price discrimination based on consumer self-control. They can charge premium prices for small sizes of vices, relative to the corresponding quantity discounts for virtues. Virtue consumers, on the other hand, will buy larger amounts even when quantity discounts are relatively shallow. A key conceptual contribution of this paper lies in showing how marketing researchers can investigate a whole class of strategic self-constraining consumer behaviors empirically. Moreover, this research is the first to extend previous, theoretical work on impulse control by empirically demonstrating its broader implications for marketing decision making.
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This field study examined the role of procedural justice on escapist coping at work, affective outcomes, and intentions to quit. Results indicated that even after controlling for problem-solving coping, escapist coping mediated the effects of procedural justice on job satisfaction. Further, lower job satisfaction and higher strain mediated the effects of escapist coping on intentions to turnover. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are offered.
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Two hundred and twenty-six females and 104 young adult males indicated the extent to which 80 comments concerning chocolate applied to them. Factor analysis indicated that three factors accounted for these data. The first factor was weighted on questions that indicated a craving for chocolate and the tendency to seek comfort from chocolate under emotionally stressful conditions: it was labelled craving. The second factor was weighted with comments that reported that negative feelings were associated with eating chocolate and dissatisfaction with weight and body image: it was labelled guilt. A third factor reflected a functional approach, for example chocolate was used to give energy when taking exercise or if a meal was missed. Craving but not guilt was associated with the eating of chocolate bars. A high guilt score was associated with a tendency to report symptoms such as bingeing and vomiting.
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Self-control is a promising concept for consumer research, and self-control failure may be an important cause of impulsive purchasing. Three causes of self-control failure are described. First, conflicting goals and standards undermine control, such as when the goal of feeling better immediately conflicts with the goal of saving money. Second, failure to keep track of (monitor) one's own behavior renders control difficult. Third, self-control depends on a resource that operates like strength or energy, and depletion of this resource makes self-control less effective. Trait differences in self-control predict many behaviors. Implications for theory and research in consumer behavior are discussed.
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The major patterns of self-regulatory failure are reviewed. Underregulation occurs because of deficient standards, inadequate monitoring, or inadequate strength. Misregulation occurs because of false assumptions or misdirected efforts, especially an unwarranted emphasis on emotion. The evidence supports a strength (limited resource) model of self-regulation and suggests that people often acquiesce in losing control. Loss of control of attention, failure of transcendence, and various lapse-activated causes all contribute to regulatory failure.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mood is distinguished from emotion, and mood regulation is distinguished from coping. A model of mood regulation is presented which draws on principles of control theory, which distinguishes between maximizing pleasure and minimizing psychic pain, and which emphasizes individual differences in several component subprocesses. A preliminary taxonomy of strategies and behaviors for remediating unpleasant affect is presented. Important topics for future research are discussed, including the assessment of successfulness of mood-regulation strategies, affective specificity in strategies (e.g., what works for anger might not work so well for sadness), and person specificity in strategies (e.g., socializing or helping others may be more effective strategies for extraverts than introverts). The relationship of mood regulation to overall life satisfaction and global happiness is discussed.
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Understanding how emotion regulation is similar to and different from other self-control tasks can advance the understanding of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has many similarities to other regulatory tasks such as dieting, and abstaining from smoking, drugs, alcohol, ill-advised sexual encounters, gambling, and procrastination, but it differs in a few important respects. Emotion regulation is similar to other kinds of self-regulation in that it consists of three components: standards, monitoring, and strength. Emotion regulation involves overriding one set responses with another, incompatible set, just like with other types of self-control. And like other regulatory tasks, emotion regulation can fail either because of underregulation or because of misregulation. Although emotion regulation is similar in many respects to other regulatory tasks, it is a special case of self-regulation in that it can often undermine attempts at other kinds of self- control. Specifically, focusing on regulating moods and feeling states can lead to a failure of self-control in other areas.
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Introduces the concept of self-gifts (SGs) to retailing research. 15 female consumers (aged 18–55 yrs) were intercepted at a retail site and completed a TAT-like projective test regarding their motivations and meanings for buying SGs. Personal situations related to significant life transitions, work-related matters, and disrupted interpersonal relations provoked Ss' SG behaviors, and they established a variety of motivations and symbolic meanings that pervaded the SG retail experience. Factors in the retail setting that affected the process and realization of SG behavior included the novelty or predetermination of the brand, the brand's price, and the sales person's empathy for the buyer's personal situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined whether the emergence of automated retailing systems is associated with a perceived depersonalization of the retail transaction and the consumer's evaluation of the shopping experience. The authors address the role that retailing establishments play as a source of social contact, especially for those individuals categorized as lonely. The issue of loneliness is discussed, and the role of store personnel as a preventive or mitigator resource is assessed. Questionnaires were administered to 327 adults (aged 20–91 yrs) via personal contacts. Lonely and nonlonely Ss had different perceptions and were differentially affected by automated new technologies. In view of the importance of retail contact to some consumers, retailers need to be sensitive to the possible adverse effects of automation on their clientele. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research in consumer behavior points to a relationship between self-regulation and buying behavior. This chapter addresses how three types of buying behaviors--self-gifting, impulse buying and compulsive buying--result from self-regulatory efforts or failures. Existing literature on self-gifting suggests that it can serve to reward self-control efforts as well as be an outcome of self-regulatory failure. Impulsive and compulsive buying most often result from failed efforts at self-control. Impulse buying is often the result of a single violation stemming from underregulation caused by resource depletion. Compulsive buying, conversely, is best be described as chronic inability to self-regulate resulting from misregulation due to conflicting goals and ineffective monitoring. Findings regarding compulsive buying closely match expectations derived from escape theory. This chapter suggests that future research on self-regulation and consumption can serve to further our knowledge regarding both disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We use this opportunity to respond to the issues raised by Inman (2007), and Roese, Summerville, and Fessel (2007) by addressing four broad topics that embrace the most important comments on our regret regulation theory. These topics are the feeling-is-for-doing approach on which regret regulation theory rests, the importance of emotion specificity, factors that modulate the intensity of regret, and the focus on action, inaction and choice in the elicitation of regret. Together this results in a first update, version 1.1.
Article
In this article definitions of mood and the behavioral effects of negative moods are reviewed and scrutinized. This is an important task for two reasons. First, in prior studies, consumer researchers have treated concepts such as affect, mood, feeling, and emotion vaguely and arbitrarily. This has resulted in confusion regarding the substance of mood. In an attempt to dispel a part of this confusion, this article offers a conceptual analysis of mood. Second, a large part of prior consumer behavior- and advertising-related mood research has addressed the relation between mood and mental constructs. The relation between mood and actual consumer behaviors is a more neglected research area. The behavioral effects of negative moods are an especially interesting phenomenon, because past studies have produced mixed and contradictory results. Thus, to offer novel insights, the key conclusion of the conceptual analysis of mood is harnessed to explain the inconsistent findings regarding the negative mood–(consumer) behavior relation. Another theoretical contribution is the provision of starting points for conceptualizing mood-alleviative consumer behavior. Suggestions for future research are also briefly outlined in the concluding section of this article. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Research pertaining to the consumption impulse is sparse in the literature. To address this lacuna, the author presents and validates a detailed theoretical framework explicating the consumption impulse formation process, and examining the role played by cognitive and volitional processes in its resistance or enactment. The model makes the distinction between consonant (harmonious) impulses and dissonant (conflicting) impulses and elaborates on the role of the impulsivity trait, situational variables, and constraining factors in enactment or resistance of the consumption impulse. The results of two studies provide support to the general working of this theoretical framework. This research has the potential to inform many critical issues surrounding consumer behavior, such as regulating consumption impulses in retail and on-line shopping environments, and developing interventions for prevention of harmful consumer behaviors such as addictions. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This article proposes and tests a model of regret minimization in the consumer decision-making context of sales promotions. The work examines how regret is minimized in a risk-avoiding planned purchase by conducting information search and primarily rejoicing afterwards. For risk-seeking impulse purchases, the model proposes a one-or two-pronged strategy for minimizing the regret over lost opportunities to experience immediate pleasures of an impulse purchase. The one-pronged strategy is characterized by a rapid impulse purchase without prior intent, and the two-pronged strategy involves moseying around and deliberate placement in harm's way of an impulse purchase followed by the rapid conclusion of the impulsepurchase transaction. Results from three studies indicate that regret is minimized before and after planned and impulsive purchases in different ways. The results also indicate that, consistent with the idea of defending self-image by emulating a master plan where there was none, consumers will confess to moseying around and deliberate placement in the presence of a potential impulse purchase more readily when they actually conclude the purchase as opposed to walk away from the impulsive purchase. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chapter
Self-regulatory models of personality emphasize the system of goals that make up the self, the relationships among goals at different levels of abstraction, and the processes by which people try to move toward goals and away from threats. Our view is that actions are managed by one set of feedback processes, and that feelings arise from a different set of feedback processes. Another element in this view is that when people encounter obstacles to goal attainment, their expectancies of success help determine whether they continue to try, or disengage from further effort. Disengaging can create problems for people, but giving up the unattainable is an important part of life. The view discussed here also assumes that people's aspirations tend to recalibrate over experience, such that successes tend to promote higher goals and failures tend to promote lowering of goals. Sometimes goals conflict, so that trying to attain one means suppressing another. This effort sometimes backfires, though, bringing the suppressed desire even more into awareness. Efforts to suppress also sometimes fail, producing a loss of self-control. Finally, the self-regulatory models discussed here continue to grow. One direction for growth is provided by ideas in recently emerging bodies of thought known as dynamic systems theory and connectionism. Keywords: attractors; connectionism; disengagement; dynamic systems; expectancies; feedback; goals; self-regulation
Article
Mental accounts are often characterized as self-control devices that consumers employ to prevent excess spending and consumption. However, under certain conditions of ambiguity, the mental accounting process is malleable; that is, consumers have flexibility in assigning expenses to different mental accounts. We demonstrate how consumers flexibly classify expenses, or construct accounts, to justify spending. An expense that can be assigned to more than one account (i.e., an ambiguous expense) is more likely to be incurred than an unambiguous expense that is constrained either by existing budgets or by previously constructed accounts. We explore the justification processes that underlie these results and their implications for mental accounts as self-control devices.
Article
The study implemented 419 mall-intercept interviews with people who are 55 or older in large malls in three metropolitan cities in the United States. The five subdimensions of mall-shopping motivation of older consumers were identified under two dimensions: Consumption-oriented mall-shopping motivation (service consumption, value consumption, and eating) and experiential mall-shopping motivation (diversion and aesthetic appreciation). The structural model revealed significant effects of social interaction, loneliness, and mall-shopping motivations on mall spending. Outcomes suggest that a mall can be a place to reduce older consumers' loneliness and that retailers in the mall can attract and make older consumers spend more by emphasizing value consumption and service consumption. Results also provide the implication for mall developers that providing more experiential features and events in malls may attract more older consumers. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Volitional behaviors can be construed as “work” (extrinsically motivated) or as “fun” (intrinsically motivated). When volitional behaviors are construed as an obligation to work, completing the behavior depletes a consumer, and subsequent self-control becomes more difficult. When volitional behaviors are construed as an opportunity to have fun, completing the behavior vitalizes a consumer, and subsequent self-control becomes easier. Six studies show how individual differences and contextual factors influence the construal of a task, the motivation for completing it, and subsequent regulatory behavior.
Article
Across six studies, we demonstrate that consumers have beliefs pertaining to the transience of emotion, which, along with their current feelings, determine the extent to which they regulate their immediate affect. If consumers believe that emotion is fleeting, those feeling happy (vs. unhappy) engage in affect regulation because they infer that they need to take actions to maintain their positive feelings. In contrast, if consumers believe that emotion is lasting, those feeling unhappy (vs. happy) engage in affect regulation because they infer that the negative feelings will persist unless they take actions to repair them. These effects are obtained with measured and with manipulated beliefs, and they occur only when the theories pertain specifically to emotion. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.
Article
A new task goal elicits a feeling of pride in individuals with a subjective history of success, and this achievment pride produces anticipatory goal reactions that energize and direct behavior to approach the task goal. By distinguishing between promotion pride and prevention pride, the present paper extends this classic model of achievement motivation. Regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) distinguishes between a promotion focus on hopes and accomplishments (gains) and a prevention focus on safety and responsibilities (non-losses). We propose that a subjective history of success with promotion-related eagerness (promotion pride) orients individuals toward using eagerness means to approach a new task goal, whereas a subjective history of success with prevention-related vigilance (prevention pride) orients individuals toward using vigilance means to approach a new task goal. Studies 1–3 tested this proposal by examining the relations between a new measure of participants' subjective histories of promotion success and prevention success (the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ)) and their achievement strategies in different tasks. Study 4 examined the relation between participants' RFQ responses and their reported frequency of feeling eager or vigilant in past task engagements. Study 5 used an experimental priming technique to make participants temporarily experience either a subjective history of promotion success or a subjective history of prevention success. For both chronic and situationally induced achievement pride, these studies found that when approaching task goals individuals with promotion pride use eagerness means whereas individuals with prevention pride use vigilance means. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the area of pricing, are developed. This article was originally published in , Volume 4, Issue 3, pages 199–214, in 1985.
Article
Moods, defined as diffuse or global feeling states, may lead us to take self-regulatory action designed to maintain them (good moods) or eliminate them (bad moods). This paper first surveys theories that help explain the origin and nature of such feeling states and then goes on to review and evaluate evidence purporting to demonstrate that self-regulation of mood occurs. Some support was found for the idea that people in bad moods will engage in various self-gratifying or self-indulgent acts as therapy. Other techniques that appear to be used are alcohol consumption and self-serving cognitive processes. The evidence regarding other sorts of self-regulation is fragmentary and/or anecdotal. It is argued that research on the self-regulation of mood would profit from better theoretical development, and some ideas along these lines are offered.
Article
Why do consumers sometimes act against their own better judgment, engaging in behavior that is often regretted after the fact and that would have been rejected with adequate forethought? More generally, how do consumers attempt to maintain self-control in the face of time-inconsistent preferences? This article addresses consumer impatience by developing a decision-theoretic model based on reference points. The model explains how and why consumers experience sudden increases in desire for a product, increases that can result in the temporary overriding of long-term preferences. Tactics that consumers use to control their own behavior are also discussed. Consumer self-control is framed as a struggle between two psychological forces, desire and willpower. Finally, two general classes of self-control strategies are described: those that directly reduce desire, and those that overcome desire through willpower. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
Article
The proposed model integrates two streams of research on affect by specifying how evaluative and regulatory mechanisms interact to guide behavior. Two experiments demonstrate that when no mood changes are expected, the affective evaluation mechanism guides behavior, leading to a monotonic increase in behavioral intentions as affect conditions shift from negative to positive. When participants expect the behavioral activity to change their current affective states, a combination of affect regulation and affective evaluation produces a U-shape pattern when a mood-lifting cue is present (experiment 1) and an inverted U-shape pattern when a mood-threatening cue is present (experiment 2). (c) 2005 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
Article
The experience of a mood consists of more than emotional states such as happiness, anger, sadness, or fear. It also includes mood management processes that can facilitate or inhibit the experience of the mood reaction. A multidomain framework is described for organizing such experience, and 2 studies are reported that analyzed separately emotion-related and emotion-management-related mood experiences. In both studies, emotion-related experience, including physical, emotional, and cognitive subdomains, could be characterized by Pleasant-Unpleasant and Arousal-Calm dimensions. Also, both studies yielded evidence for the emotion-management dimensions of Plans of Action, Suppression, and Denial. These broader dimensions of mood experience predicted criterion variables such as empathy better than Pleasant-Unpleasant and Arousal-Calm dimensions alone.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
Mood experience is comprised of at least two elements: the direct experience of the mood and a meta-level of experience that consists of thoughts and feelings about the mood. In Study 1, a two-dimensional structure for the direct experience of mood (Watson & Tellegen, 1985) was tested for its fit to the responses of 1,572 subjects who each completed one of three different mood scales, including a brief scale developed to assist future research. The Watson and Tellegen structure was supported across all three scales. In Study 2, meta-mood experience was conceptualized as the product of a mood regulatory process that monitors, evaluates, and at times changes mood. A scale to measure meta-mood experience was administered to 160 participants along with the brief mood scale. People's levels on the meta-mood dimensions were found to differ across moods. Meta-mood experiences may also constitute an important part of the phenomenology of the personal experience of mood.
Article
For researchers studying how people cope with job stress, a major empirical concern is the development of coping measures. This article presents construct validity evidence for three measures of coping behavior related to job stress: control, escape, and symptom management. The psychometric properties of the scales as well as preliminary evidence for construct validity support further use and evaluation of these coping scales. Measurement issues are identified, particularly the time-dependent nature of coping and the dilemma of multimethod assessment. Suggestions are offered for future coping scale development.
Article
Four studies evaluated the success of behaviors and strategies used to self-regulate bad moods, raise energy, and reduce tension. Study 1 (N = 102) used an open-ended questionnaire to identify behavioral categories. Studies 2 and 4 surveyed a representative sample (N = 308) with a fixed-response questionnaire to quantify behaviors, general strategies, and individual differences. Study 3 used psychotherapist (N = 26) judgments of the likely success of the strategies. Therapist and self-rating converged on success of strategies and gender differences. These studies clarify and confirm previous research findings, particularly gender differences in controlling depression. Exercise appears to be the most effective mood-regulating behavior, and the best general strategy to change a bad mood is a combination of relaxation, stress management, cognitive, and exercise techniques. Results support a 2-dimensional biopsychological model of mood.
Article
Increased risk taking may explain the link between bad moods and self-defeating behavior. In Study 1, personal recollections of self-defeating actions implicated bad moods and resultant risky decisions. In Study 2, embarrassment increased the preference for a long-shot (high-risk, high-payoff) lottery over a low-risk, low-payoff one. Anger had a similar effect in Study 3. Study 4 replicated this and showed that the effect could be eliminated by making participants analyze the lotteries rationally, suggesting that bad moods foster risk taking by impairing self-regulation instead of by altering subjective utilities. Studies 5 and 6 showed that the risky tendencies are limited to unpleasant moods accompanied by high arousal; neither sadness nor neutral arousal resulted in destructive risk taking.