Article

The Role of Actors' Race in White Audiences' Selective Exposure to Movies

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Movie producers are often reluctant to cast more than a few minority actors in otherwise race-neutral movies for fear that the White audience will largely avoid such films. Two experiments were conducted to test the idea that the racial makeup of a cast could influence White audiences' selective exposure to movies. Results revealed that actors' race does influence selective exposure in certain contexts. For nonromantic movies, participants' racial attitudes moderated the relationship between race and selective exposure. For romantic movies, regardless of racial attitudes, White participants showed significantly less interest in seeing movies with mostly Black casts than in seeing movies with mostly White casts. These findings are discussed in light of both social identity theory and social cognitive theory.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Media users would therefore be biased to select content in which their own group appears more frequently and/or is depicted in favorable ways, as well as content in which the outgroup appears less frequently and/or is depicted in less desirable ways (Harwood, 1997(Harwood, , 1999Trepte & Krämer, 2007). Other authors drew from social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2009) in suggesting that media users show group-related selection bias because they prefer people who are similar to themselves when they seek behavioral models in media to learn from (Appiah et al., 2013;Knobloch-Westerwick, Appiah, & Alter, 2008;Weaver, 2011). ...
... While African American users spent more time on websites that targeted their group and with news stories reporting on ingroup members, Caucasian American users did not show comparable preferences (Appiah, 2003;Knobloch-Westerwick et al., 2008). Nonetheless, Caucasian American users were repeatedly found to avoid movies with mainly African American casts (Grier, Brumbaugh, & Thornton, 2006;Weaver, 2011). These findings were supported by survey evidence (Ward, Day, & Thomas, 2010) and comparable findings in other social groups (Harwood, 1999;Trepte & Krämer, 2007). ...
... If (favorable) ingroup and (unfavorable) outgroup attitudes are strongly correlated (e.g., in the presence of intergroup threat), prejudiced users are likely to prefer contents that contain less outgroup members and depict them in less favorable ways (Harwood, 1999; see also Appiah et al., 2013). But even in situations where ingroup and outgroup attitudes are not correlated, more prejudiced users might still show a larger bias as they might perceive outgroup media persona as less similar (Weaver, 2011) or avoid them due to feelings of anxiety, social distance, or cultural alienation. ...
Article
Researchers have started to demonstrate that media exposure to outgroups can reduce prejudice. However, in contexts of segregation a bias to select ingroup-rich media might hinder exposure and prevent those positive effects. We conducted a survey study (n = 1,095) in South Africa, a context with a notorious history of racial separation and persisting informal segregation. In accordance with the social identity gratification approach and social cognitive theory, respondents showed group-related selection biases. Respondents who identified more strongly with their ingroup, who perceived more distance towards outgroups, and who had less direct contact showed stronger biases. The findings remind us that those who would potentially benefit the most from outgroup exposure might also be those who are least likely to be exposed.
... More recent examples can be seen with Johnny Depp playing Tonto, a Native American in the Lone Ranger (2013) and Scarlett Johansson playing Kusanagi, a Japanese woman in Ghost in the Shell (2017). The arguments for why there is a preference for Whitewashing has targeted both movie producers who argue they would be unable to find financial support for their movies without casting predominantly White actors (Alexander, 2001;Horn, 2002;Samuels & Leland, 1999) and also targeting White moviegoers, who perceive movies without White actors as not appealing to them or their identity (Weaver, 2011). However, recent criticism has put doubt to the idea that all White actors are financially necessary for successful movies (Chow, 2016). ...
... However, the research concerning in-group racial preference on casting choices is still nascent (Weaver, 2011). Weaver's (2011) studies demonstrated some credence to the argument that people prefer racial ingroup members in lead roles, however, this was only demonstrated for White individuals and other factors like genre of movie and celebrity of actors seemed to impact his findings. Additionally, Weaver (2011) found that colorblindness (Neville, Lilly, Duran, Lee, & Browne, 2000) moderated the findings that Whites were more likely to prefer their racial ingroup in movies. ...
... Weaver's (2011) studies demonstrated some credence to the argument that people prefer racial ingroup members in lead roles, however, this was only demonstrated for White individuals and other factors like genre of movie and celebrity of actors seemed to impact his findings. Additionally, Weaver (2011) found that colorblindness (Neville, Lilly, Duran, Lee, & Browne, 2000) moderated the findings that Whites were more likely to prefer their racial ingroup in movies. Colorblindness is the endorsement that racial identity and membership have no consequence or impact in one's life; an incidentally ironic cognitive bias considering that such an endorsement is indicative of greater prejudice against people of color (Richeson & Nussbaum, 2004). ...
... Likewise, Black respondents spent more time browsing a news website when it was targeted toward and featured African-Americans (Appiah, 2003), whereas Whites did not exhibit a significant difference. Experimental data from Weaver (2011) found that White moviegoers in the USA to be equally interested in selecting films with no, few, many, or all Black actors. However, this was moderated by racial attitudes such that those with prejudicial tendencies were less likely to select films with more Black actors. ...
... However, this was moderated by racial attitudes such that those with prejudicial tendencies were less likely to select films with more Black actors. Additionally, participants were less interested in selecting romantic films with Black leads (Weaver, 2011). Appiah, Knobloch-Westerwick, and Alter (2013) extended these findings by also manipulating the valence of depictions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Media users exercise control over their information and entertainment environments. Selective exposure to media allows individual to choose channels and messages that satisfy their interests and motivations. A variety of selective exposure studies have assessed selective exposure to messages about ingroup versus outgroup members. Relevant theoretical perspectives include information seeking, confirmation bias, informational utility, self and affect management, reinforcing spirals, boundary expansion, exemplification, and social comparison. Each of these theories of selective exposure identifies an attitudinal or self-conceptual basis for media use, yet also allows for the role of social identity or beliefs about intergroup members and interactions. In addition, the distinction between selective exposure and selective avoidance is critical for understanding intergroup media contact, as is the distinction between positive and negative portrayals of relevant social groups. Applicable findings from survey and experimental studies illustrate that age identity, sex and gender identity, and race and ethnicity all produce patterns of selective exposure in which ingroups are generally favored. Information about outgroups is more likely to be selected if it suits the situational or dispositional needs of the individual. Partisan selective exposure is also examined from an intergroup perspective, as is selective exposure to information about aspirational future selves and self-expansion. Depictions of persons that exemplify social groups or allow for social comparison are also discussed, yet little direct evidence exists about exposure to outgroup members in these processes. Finally, interpersonal new media are considered with regard to intergroup contact. Immersive media such as virtual reality provide interactive contact with outgroups, and social identity plays an important role in the distribution of user-generated content, the cultivation of online social networks, and the ongoing convergence between mass and social media. Selective exposure researchers are increasingly considering intergroup contact as an important type of media content relevant to their theories, and intergroup contact researchers are increasingly accounting for the selectivity factor in media processing and effects. Integrating key findings and building a more programmatic approach to this topic will enhance the understanding of individuals’ self-selected exposure to media about, and produced by, outgroups. Indeed, for intergroup media contact to be successful in producing less stereotyping, more positive attitudes, and more intergroup harmony, media users must first choose to come into contact with messages about outgroup members, specifically messages that can convey and produce beneficial effects for intergroup relations.
... Whether or not the racial minorities reject whitewashing can influence Hollywood's use of it. Typically, casting Caucasains or "whiter" actors of a nonwhite racial group is supposed to occur for financial purposes, as it is purported that Caucasians who are the racial majority in the US identify more with White characters (Aumer et al. 2017;Hooks 2009); however, some research may suggest otherwise (Weaver 2011;Hunt et al. 2018). ...
... Whether a film is romantic or not, the celebrity status of the actors, and the racial attitudes of the audience all play a role in whether or not a same-race bias plays out in the audience; though it appears the race of the actors in a film can influence the audiences' perception of a film as being relevant or irrelevant to their racial group. Weaver (2011) found that in some instances, audience members may forfeit their preference for films that relate to their ingroup for an interest in the genre of film; however, this research focused primarily on White audiences, and the only other antithetical research the researchers are aware of finds an anti-Asian bias toward Asian actors in Western stories (Aumer et al. 2017). Aumer et al. (2017) found mere-exposure effect from media consumption did not appear to affect viewers' preference for actors of a certain race. ...
Article
In order to understand how people from all major racial groups in the United States feel about racial representation in film, this study employed Q methodology to assess the motivations, attitudes, and opinions of individuals on this issue. Four factors were identified: (1) balanced critics, (2) storyline devotees, (3) tolerant learners, (4) grounded advocates. These four groups of people with common opinions on diversity in film represent a spectrum on perceptions of race, from colourblind to anti-racist. Variation in factor differences are explained through the lens of symbolic interactionism. In three of the four groups, individuals indicated a desire for more racially diverse film casts. The fourth group did not oppose racial representation in film, rather, these individuals were more concerned about the quality of the storyline. Implications for Hollywood’s incorporation of racially diverse casts are discussed.
... Previous research shows that cast members' race could influence audience desire to see a film (e.g., Weaver, 2011). This experiment replicated these findings. ...
... Hollywood continues to whitewash cast lists due to the belief that White audiences will be less likely to consume movies with minority actors than movies with White actors. Previous research suggests that this belief may have some validity (e.g., Grier et al., 2006;Weaver, 2011). Both of the experiments presented here replicated the finding that White audiences were less interested in viewing movies with Black actors and noted that this effect occurred regardless of gender, age, or the genre of the movie. ...
Article
Previous research has found that White audiences exhibit less preference for movies with minority casts than for movies with White casts. We conducted two experiments to explore why this race-based bias occurs and how to overcome it. In the first study, we examined potential mediators of the relationship between actors’ race and intention to view movies with minority actors. Results indicated that perceptions of the intended audience fully mediated the relationship. The second study manipulated this perception via social media postings. Findings suggest the race bias can be eliminated for White audiences. Specifically, the drop in interest in seeing a movie with a Black cast was erased when Whites read positive comments about the film from other Whites.
... Interracial romances are more likely to be disapproved of than intraracial ones (Paterson et al., 2015), and the treatment of interracial relationships in media reflects this societal trend. Weaver (2011) found that audiences only demonstrated a preference for media containing all White casts when the media was classified as romance. So, while individuals may be open to certain types of intergroup media, intergroup media featuring significant intergroup intimacy may be especially unattractive for some potential viewers. ...
... The presentation of intergroup couples in media can in some circumstances have a positive effect on intergroup attitudes (Lienemann & Stopp, 2013;Paterson et al., 2015). However, intergroup romance has also been shown to be uniquely unattractive to White audiences (Weaver, 2011), a potentially problematic effect given that forming more long-term and intimate relationships is a highly effective form of face-to-face contact (Pettigrew, 1997). As a result, we were interested in whether the presence of romance would disrupt the ability of the other intergroup media features to gratify their theoretically linked social identity motivations. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this experiment we manipulated three features (intergroup social comparison, outgroup character stereotypicality, intergroup intimacy) of an intergroup TV pilot proposal. We examined how two underlying social identity motivations (social enhancement, social uncertainty reduction) were gratified by the aforementioned features, and whether this gratification predicted media attractiveness. Findings indicate that when social comparison was manipulated to advantage the ingroup, intergroup media gratified existing social enhancement motivations and led to audiences rating the show as more entertaining and attractive. This finding was most clearly evident in the absence of intergroup romance. The gratification of social uncertainty reduction motivations was also shown to increase audience perceptions of intergroup media attractiveness, but outgroup stereotypicality was weakly associated with the gratification of this motivation. These results are discussed in terms of both theoretical implications as well as applications to media campaigns.
... In particular, Raney (2004) points out that the moral character of fictional characters conditions the affective disposition that audiences develop towards them: characters who are considered morally good stimulate favorable affective dispositions, whereas those considered villains arouse negative affective dispositions. In addition, Weaver (2011) affirms that the ethnic or racial origin of the main character in a fictional program acts as a kind of cue that leads the viewer to experience greater or lesser similarity, assess the character in a differential way and manifest a greater or lesser desire to continue to consume specific audiovisual contents. Thus, in his experimental research he observed that exposure to fictional programs was less likely if the main character belonged to an ethnic minority. ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of characters in fictional audiovisual productions has received much emphasis in research on media entertainment. However, despite the centrality of characters, analysis of the factors that influence their design is a topic that has scarcely been approached. The objective of this research study was to analyze the process of designing fictional audiovisual characters. Participants (N = 303) were audiovisual communication students whose task was to create a fictional character while being manipulated experimentally (through instructions) as to the type of character to design (general versus immigrant character) and the fictional setting (hospital versus police station). The dependent variables were related to the attribution of narrative characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics, personality traits and potential for audience identification with the character. The results show that the type of character and narrative setting influenced the occupation assigned to that character: when the character to be designed was an immigrant and the action was to take place in a police station they were most frequently considered criminals. It was also confirmed that the character type to be designed affected the narrative role, role in the plot, educational level and socio-economic status assigned to the created character. In addition, the immigrant character was assigned a lower identification potential and this, in turn, influenced the personality traits assigned to the character.
... Die Breite des Angebots sowie das Grundprinzip der Selektivität prägen die Nutzungsweise von Onlinemedien. Selektive Zuwendung zu Medien passend zu eigenen Einstellungen und Weltbildern lässt sich bei der Nutzung von internetbasierten Medien vielfältig belegen, sowohl für Information (Garrett, 2009;Knobloch-Westerwick & Meng, 2011) als auch für Unterhaltung (Weaver, 2011). An die Verschiebung der Mediennutzung bestimmter Bevölkerungsgruppen von traditionellen Massenmedien hin zu Onlinemedien (Busemann & Engel, 2012;Engel & Mai, 2010) schließen sich dann die eingangs dargestellten Befürchtungen von Sunstein (2007) an, der Internetnutzer in "Echokammern" sieht, in denen sie wieder und wieder wahrnehmen können, was sie bereits wissen oder wovon sie bereits überzeugt sind. ...
... Social scientists describe best friend roles as examples of reflective racial ordering, a psychological behavior that occurs daily as individuals develop nuanced color-consciousness reinforced by social standards of power, privilege, and colorblind racism (Turner, 2012;Smith, 2013). It is also suggested that with films of certain contexts (most significantly romantic films) audience members, particularly White audience members, prefer films with the majority same race (Weaver, 2011). ...
... lüsse von Alter (Knobloch-Westerwick & Hastall, 2010), Geschlecht (Knobloch-Westerwick, Brueck, & Hastall, 2006;Knobloch-Westerwick & Hoplamazian, 2012;Lim & Kwon, 2010;Lorigo et al., 2006) und insbesondere in US-amerikanischen Studien der Ethnie der Rezipienten (Appiah, Knobloch-Westerwick, & Alter, 2013;Knobloch-Westerwick, Appiah, & Alter, 2008;A. J. Weaver, 2011) untersucht. Neben Effekten auf die Zuwendung zu bestimmten Themen -so bevorzugten in zwei Studien Frauen gegenüber Männern eher Gesellschaftsthemen, während Männer häufiger Artikel auswählten, die über wirtschaftliche oder sportliche Leistungen berichteten (Knobloch-Westerwick et al., 2006, S. 339) -betreffen solche soziodemographischen ...
Chapter
Search engines have established themselves as the central means of searching for information online. This book examines which criteria are important for the selection of search results when Internet users search for information using search engines. For this purpose, the book systematises and combines both the search process and relevant factors which influence selection decisions in a model that describes the effect of various influences on the individual steps in the search process. In three preliminary studies and one main study, each following an experimental design and relying on the automated recording of search behaviour, it empirically tests selected steps in the model. The results of this show that ranking acts as the dominant influence in the selection of search results. However, source characteristics and individual attributions (e.g. the perceived credibility of search results) also have a distinct influence on the search process.
... Research on cognitive dissonance theory and selective exposure have long shown that people's attitude toward messages matter in that people prefer to read messages that align with their belief systems and tend to tune out information that does not (Festinger, 1957). This selective exposure holds true for most media messages be they political (Chaffee, Saphir, Graf, Sandvig, & Hahn, 2001;Garrett & Stroud, 2014), social (Knobloch-Westerwick & Hastall, 2010;Knobloch-Westerwick & Hoplamazian, 2012), and racial or ethnic (Appiah et al., 2013;Weaver, 2011). Moreover, very little of what people know about the world comes from firsthand experience. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ethnic identity (EI) has long been known to supersede race as a predictor for attitudes and behaviors. However, little is known about the constituent parts that comprise and influence ethnic identity. In order to improve communications that target EI, we examine both demographic and communication variables to determine which have a greater pull on people’s attitudes and actions. Race appears to moderate the effects of age on ethnic identity, whereby age was negatively related to ethnic-identity exploration among White participants and positively related to ethnic identity commitment among Black participants (p < .05). Having a higher income, print-media use, and information engagement orientation were also positively correlated with ethnic identity; education and gender were not. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Article
Color-blind racism has transformed how race scholars understand race relations in contemporary society. Previous researchers mainly utilized this theory to identify frames of color-blind racism in various social settings and interactions. What has received less attention, however, is how frames of color-blind racism are produced within material conditions in which social interactions and relations occur. In this study we use film reviews to exemplify how color-blind racism is produced in a specific materialist context—film reviews. Film reviews garner discussion among scholars for their impact on the box office revenues of films. Less attention is given to the content of these reviews and, particularly, how their writers address issues of race. This study provides a qualitative content analysis of film reviewer’s discussions of race in their reviews of twenty-first-century films featuring black protagonists to illuminate some ways in which mainstream and niche media outlets discuss race. Results suggest that the source of the reviews influences how race is considered and communicated among film reviewers. Mainstream reviewers differ widely from niche reviewers in both content and delivery in their discussions of race.
Article
This study examined whether the positive or negative valence of a news story, and the race of the character portrayed in the story, would influence Black or White readers' selection of a story. The study employed selective exposure methodology to unobtrusively measure story selections among Black and White readers as they browsed a news site. The results demonstrated Black newsreaders were more likely to select and read positive and negative stories featuring their racial ingroup, and more likely to select and read negative vis‐à‐vis positive stories about their outgroup. In contrast, Whites' story preference was not affected by story valence or character race. Theoretical assumptions from social identity, social comparison, and social cognitive theories are used to explain the findings.
Article
What role should racial difference play in the American workplace? As a nation, we rely on civil rights law to address this question, and the monumental Civil Rights Act of 1964 seemingly answered it: race must not be a factor in workplace decisions. In After Civil Rights, John Skrentny contends that after decades of mass immigration, many employers, Democratic and Republican political leaders, and advocates have adopted a new strategy to manage race and work. Race is now relevant not only in negative cases of discrimination, but in more positive ways as well. In today's workplace, employers routinely practice "racial realism," where they view race as real--as a job qualification. Many believe employee racial differences, and sometimes immigrant status, correspond to unique abilities or evoke desirable reactions from clients or citizens. They also see racial diversity as a way to increase workplace dynamism. The problem is that when employers see race as useful for organizational effectiveness, they are often in violation of civil rights law. After Civil Rights examines this emerging strategy in a wide range of employment situations, including the low-skilled sector, professional and white-collar jobs, and entertainment and media. In this important book, Skrentny urges us to acknowledge the racial realism already occurring, and lays out a series of reforms that, if enacted, would bring the law and lived experience more in line, yet still remain respectful of the need to protect the civil rights of all workers.
Article
Full-text available
International news articles often compare different countries, favoring one country over another. On the basis of this notion, we hypothesized that when people read international news articles favoring their own country over another, they would afterwards evaluate their country (in-group) better than the other country (out-group) – a tendency referred to as positive distinctiveness in social identity theory (SIT). We further hypothesized that when people read international news articles favoring their own country, they would afterwards have better knowledge of the news articles they read. An experiment with two groups (positive vs. negative articles in terms of participants’ own national identity) was conducted in Germany and the US (total N = 364). We found that when participants read positively valenced news articles, they afterwards showed more positive distinctiveness (e.g., U.S. students believed that the US had a better national educational system than Germany). We also found that when German participants read positively valenced news articles, they demonstrated better knowledge of the articles. This effect was not found in the U.S. sample. Overall, we found support for the notion that social identity mechanisms are relevant when it comes to analyzing the effects of news media.
Chapter
Full-text available
Social identity theory and self-categorization theory suggest that people categorize themselves as belonging to certain groups such as nationality, gender, or even sports teams. Social identity theory focuses on how group memberships guide intergroup behavior and influence an individual's self-concept. Closely tied to self-categorization is an individual's evaluation of the in-group. To reach positive evaluations of one's own in-group, people engage in processes of social comparison. They derogate the out-group with the aim of increasing their own self-esteem. Self-categorization theory proposes that, depending on salience in a situation, either personal identity and interpersonal behavior, social identity and intergroup behavior, or dynamic interplay prevails. These theories have widely been used to explain media use and media effects on people. For example, it has been shown that media users prefer media featuring positively portrayed protagonists of their own in-group.
Article
Intergroup contact research demonstrates that contact with outgroups (including mediated contact) improves attitudes about those groups. However, people often avoid such contact, including avoiding outgroup media messages. In two studies, we investigated voluntary exposure to outgroup media. Our research builds on intergroup contact theory and the reactive approach model. The latter suggests (counterintuitively) that, sometimes, anxiety can motivate people to engage with the unfamiliar. Both studies measured potential predictors of voluntary contact, provided musical options for respondents, and measured which options people chose as well as their engagement with and enjoyment of those choices. Study 1 provided a simple choice between two musical options (ingroup versus outgroup); Study 2 used a more extensive array of ingroup and outgroup options, including ingroup-outgroup collaborative music. Findings suggest a limited role of personality traits in determining seeking outgroup media, but a more powerful role for diversity-related attitudes and past exposure to outgroup media. Some evidence supported reactive approach models (e.g., self-expansion motives drove time spent listening to outgroup media in Study 1, but only for people who reported high levels of intergroup anxiety).
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation is often a transcoding into a different set of conventions, and here we argue that print to film adaptations introduce and depend upon a bundle of conventions and techniques which are already globalised and hence facilitate cross-cultural understanding more than print media might do. Films for children and young adults seldom reach a cross-cultural audience, but we contend that this is a consequence of uni-directional globalisation rather than any barriers constituted by the films themselves. In an analysis of narrative conventions and cinematic techniques in film adaptations from China, South Korea and Japan we show that cinematic features enable boundary crossing and ensure childhood experiences are intelligible cross-culturally. These features are broadly of two kinds: elements of narrative, especially global scripts, and cinematic techniques of cognitive and technical kinds. Scripts, whether of general types such as a children's film structure or cause-and-effect structure, or thematic types such as the triumph of the underdog, are widely recognisable. We examine conceptual metaphors, which are intrinsic to human cognition, the visual strategy of emotional mirroring, and film as a metonymic mode which sustains a deeper significance while requiring minimal decoding activity on the part of viewers and promoting mutual understanding between cultures.
Article
Purpose This study aims to analyze the association of information technology and non-information technology reviewer information and advertisement format, and also demographics and theory of planned behavior variables for watching a new movie release. Design/methodology/approach The authors surveyed 809 college students about various advertisement topics of traditional media/print, Internet, social media, and both print and online reviews. Findings For advertising, outdoor billboards and YouTube video were each positively associated with watching a new movie release while reviewer information of critic reviews in print, critic reviews online, and user reviewers were each not associated with watching a new movie release. For race/ethnicity, Hispanics were positively associated with watching a new movie release while South Asians were negatively associated with watching a new movie release. For theory of planned behavior variables, behavioral control and intentions were each positively associated with watching a new movie release. Practical implications In conclusion, movie production companies should dedicate large portions of their advertising budget to YouTube and outdoor billboard advertising. Also, movie production companies should continue to advertise and possibly even tailor advertising to Hispanics. Originality/value This is the first study for watching a new movie release to simultaneously include predictors of advertisement format including from many types of social media platforms, reviewer information whether from professional critics or user reviews, and the theory of planned behavior.
Article
Previous research argues that readers should prefer messages featuring their own ethnicity. However, in China, messages featuring white people are common. We investigate Chinese participants evaluation of ethnicity-(in)congruent messages to understand why communication practices diverge from theoretical expectations. Two normative health prevention messages, tested in a quasi-experimental design, were constructed to be ethnically (in)congruent. The results contradict the popular Chinese practice of ethnicity-incongruent messages; Chinese participants generally prefer ethnicity-congruent messages. However, participants reporting higher out-group favoritism, ethnicity-incongruent messages were evaluated more positively. We discuss in/out-group identification in evaluation of ethnicity-featuring messages and conclude with implications for communication practices in China.
Article
The Princess and the Frog (2009) offered Disney audiences a story unlike any other the animation pioneer had ever told: the tale of its first Black princess. Engaging scripting theory and critical whiteness studies, I analyze the portrayal of the Black character Tiana and her relationship with White character Charlotte to explain how they are framed in the context of other mediated portrayals of blackness. By attending to how Tiana’s character is primarily presented to viewers in the form of a frog, I argue that her Black body is scripted as simultaneously absent yet present, enabling audiences to accept this “new” twist to the Disney princess motif. In addition, I explain how the film gives value to its first Black princess by positioning her against a flawed White character. This reduced Tiana’s blackness. Thus, via The Princess and the Frog, Disney continued to feature whiteness as the central framework upon which Black characters may be understood and appreciated. While Disney made a paltry gesture to demonstrate that representation matters, the film also indicates that Disney’s movement toward creating a more diverse animated world has been stunted in ways that continue to influence the portrayals offered by the industry giant.
Article
Full-text available
This study provides a clearer understanding of how audience members’ race influences their media choices. It finds that in today’s overwhelmingly negative media environment, people prefer reading negative stories about persons in their own racial group over stories about racial out-group members. This suggests social movements seeking to change the attitudes of people of different races using media (e.g., Black Lives Matter) might not be as successful as those in the past (e.g., Civil Rights Movement). Today, people tend to ignore such news when there is other bad news that affects people in their own racial group.
Article
This study explored psychological predictors that may impact viewers’ decision to watch television shows on the basis of perceived racial or ethnic representation. 1998 undergraduate students selected from a list of motivations for watching television that included race-specific motivations such as “a character is of my race/ethnicity.” Participants also completed attitudinal measures of colorblind racial ideology, social dominance orientation, ethnic identity, and ethnic stigma consciousness. Analysis revealed that prejudicial beliefs predicted less salience for racial representation when making choices about television watching, while deeper connection to one’s ethnic group predicted greater salience for representation when making these choices.
Article
The study examines psychological characteristics of dominant group allies (White, cisgender heterosexual individuals) in the context of media consumption. A survey of U.S. Americans (N = 272) examines the relationship between personality traits (openness and empathy) and support for racial and sexual diversity in the media. Both traits were predictive of (1) endorsing media diversity policies and (2) intention to consume diverse media content. However, these effects were largely mediated by the motivation to expand the boundaries of one’s self-concept rather than by social justice views. The findings are discussed in terms of allyship and media psychology.
Article
The Rush Hour films disrupt the interracial buddy cop formula largely by erasing whites from the films. Despite the unconventional casting, the franchise has achieved “mainstream” popularity, which I argue is at least partly because the films construct Carter and Lee in an oppositional binary as a multiracial “odd couple,” converting Carter and Lee, the two lead detectives played by Chris Tucker and Jackie Chan, into physical embodiments of blackness and yellowness, fencing in the perimeters of whiteness. Thus, whiteness is able to remain protected and undetected in the normative center. Like a physical fence, however, the boundaries are semi-permeable, creating narrative openings to challenge whiteness. Therefore, the Rush Hour franchise protects white normality but leaves it somewhat vulnerable at the margins.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW), which operationalizes the idea that racism has a host of psychosocial costs for White individuals. Data from 727 participants were collected in 3 interrelated studies that subjected the items to the rigors of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analysis results suggested a 16-item scale with 3 factors as follows: (a) White Empathic Reactions Toward Racism, (b) White Guilt, and (c) White Fear of Others. Results also indicated that participant responses were not simply reflections of socially desirable responding. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 3-factor model was a good fit for the data. Estimates of internal consistency, temporal stability, and construct validity are provided.
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the role of media in facilitating and inhibiting the accessibility of stereotypes primed by race-related news stories. Specifically, it examines experimentally the effects of two strategies for reducing stereotype accessibility: an audience-centered approach that explicitly instructs audiences to be critical media consumers, a goal of media literacy training; and a message-centered approach using stereo-type-disconfirming, counter-stereotypical news stories. Participants viewed either a literacy or control video before reading stereotypical or counter-stereotypical news stories about African Americans or Asian Indians. Implicit stereotypes were measured using response latencies to hostile and benevolent stereotypical words in a lexical decision task. Results suggest that a combination of audience-centered and message-centered approaches may reduce racial stereotypes activated by news stories.
Article
Full-text available
Preface All individuals exist in social, political, historical, and economic contexts, and psychologists are increasingly called upon to understand the influence of these contexts on individuals' behavior. The "Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organiza- tional Change for Psychologists" reflect the continuing evolution of the study of psychology, changes in society at large, and emerging data about the different needs of par- ticular individuals and groups historically marginalized or disenfranchised within and by psychology based on their ethnic/racial heritage and social group identity or member- ship. These "Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Train- ing, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists" reflect knowledge and skills needed for the profession in the midst of dramatic historic sociopolitical changes in U.S. society, as well as needs of new constitu- encies, markets, and clients. The specific goals of these guidelines are to provide psychologists with (a) the rationale and needs for address- ing multiculturalism and diversity in education, training, research, practice, and organizational change; (b) basic information, relevant terminology, current empirical re- search from psychology and related disciplines, and other data that support the proposed guidelines and underscore their importance; (c) references to enhance ongoing edu- cation, training, research, practice, and organizational change methodologies; and (d) paradigms that broaden the purview of psychology as a profession.
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices that is grounded in social identity theory. The idea that viewing choices are driven by age identity motivations is tested via a content analysis and an experiment. The content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers demonstrate a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults’ preference for viewing young adult characters exists even when the content of the program is controlled. The findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical perspective, and implications for previous research on underrepresentation of particular groups on television are explored.
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the relatively new idea that individuals engage with media in an effort to meet their social identity needs. Specifically, the study broadens the social identity gratifications (SIG) approach to the domain of ethnicity by examining how African Americans’ ethnic identity gratifications selection and avoidance are related to their perceptions of ingroup vitality. Two mediation models involving level of ethnic identification are proposed. Although the model of television selection is not supported, the model of television avoidance is supported. Implications and future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the influence of participation in formal campus diversity experiences (e.g., courses and workshops) and interracial friendships on 2 specific democratic racial beliefs among a racially diverse sample of freshmen (N = 589). Using separate path analyses for each outcome, the authors examined the effects of diversity experiences and friendships on universal diverse orientation (UDO) and color-blind racial ideology over the course of an academic year. While controlling for sex and entrance attitudes, the authors found support across racial groups for models predicting UDO and racial color-blindness. Furthermore, participation in formal diversity experiences and interracial friendships mediated a number of the associations. The authors also tested 2 causal mediation models examining the influence of 1 racial belief at entrance on the other racial belief at follow-up (e.g., UDO at entrance on racial color-blindness at follow-up) and found that the model predicting color-blind racial ideology provided an adequate fit to the data for White, Black, and Latino/a students; participation in formal diversity experiences mediated this association among White students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this investigation was to develop a conceptually grounded scale to assess cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. Five studies on the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) with over 1,100 observations provide initial reliability and validity data. Specifically, results from an exploratory factor analysis suggest a 3-factor solution: Unawareness of Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues. A confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the 3-factor model is a good fit of the data and is the best of the competing models. The CoBRAS was positively related to other indexes of racial attitudes as well as 2 measures of belief in a just world, indicating that greater endorsement of color-blind racial attitudes was related to greater levels of racial prejudice and a belief that society is just and fair. Self-reported CoBRAS attitudes were sensitive to diversity training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The authors develop and evaluate a framework for investigating and understanding ethnic product crossover, that is, when a product intended for one ethnic minority group gains significant penetration among consumers outside the referent ethnic group. In three studies, the authors investigate how a product's characteristics, the promotion and distribution decisions made for the product and consumers' propensity for diversity influence the product's likelihood of crossing over from the intended ethnic target market to mainstream white consumers. Product characteristics interact with both other marketing decisions and consumers' diversity-seeking tendencies to influence whether consumers will be interested in ethnic products and the social context in which they are willing to consume them. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for theory and practice and provide directions for further research that include consideration of the product's ethnic embeddedness, the context in which the product will be consumed, and consumers' diversity-seeking tendencies.
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
This research examines the effect of target marketing on members of the advertiser's intended audience as well as members not in the target market: the "non-target market." The results of three experiments show that unfavorable non-target market effects are stronger for members of non-distinctive groups (e.g., Causasian individuals, heterosexual individuals), and that favorable target market effects are stronger fro members of distinctive groups (e.g., Africian-American individuals, homosexual individuals). The results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that the psychological processes by which target and non-target market effects occur differ by viewer group: felt similarity with sources in an advertisement drives target market effects for distinctive viewers, while felt targetedness drives target market effects for non-distinctive viewers. Finally, Experiment 3 shows that these consumer feelings of similarity or targetedness are associated with underlying processes of identification and internalization. Theoretical implications regarding the impact of distinctiveness theory in consumer persuasion effects, and potential social effects of target marketing are discussed.
Article
G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
Article
Data collected from 251 Israeli undergraduates are used to explore sex differences in reactions to the television show Ally McBeal. Female viewers found the show more relevant and liked the show more than did their male counterparts. The findings are discussed within the framework of reception theory, feminist theories, and the impact of cultural contexts on the interpretation of television texts.
Article
Appeal of personae in news is investigated based on social comparison theory. Participants (N = 276) of two age groups browsed through online news while selective exposure was unobtrusively logged. Manipulated articles focused on individuals and varied along three within factors: sex and age group of portrayed individual and story valence. After browsing news, participants completed a questionnaire including a self-esteem scale. Recipients preferred news on same-sex individuals, and young readers favored articles about same-age characters. Impacts of self-esteem to positive and negative articles, offering upward and downward comparison opportunities, were mediated by sex of recipient. Exploratory analyses indicated that this interaction results from gender-based preferences for comparison contexts—social issues for women and achievement topics for men.
Article
Although the uses and gratifications approach lacks a single general theory, it is not inherently atheoretical, and the author suggests how progress can be made in dealing with four conceptual issues facing this tradition: the nature of the "active" audience; the role of gratification orientations in mediating effects; the social origins of media needs and uses; and the interest shared with students of popular culture in perceptions of and cognitions about mass media content formed by audience members.
Article
The research examines the effect of priming negative stereotypic and positive counter-stereotypic portrayals of African Americans (Study 1) and women (Study 2) on interpretations of actual media events. A counter-stereotypic portrayal of an African American male led participants to subsequently make more external or situational attributions of responsibility to other African American males involved in unrelated media events (i.e., Rodney King and Magic Johnson), whereas stereotypic portrayals led to more internal or personal attributions. Similarly, a counter-stereotypic portrayal of a female tended to increase the perceived credibility of females involved in unrelated media events (i.e., the Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas hearings and the William Kennedy Smith/Patricia Bowman rape trial) whereas stereotypic portrayals decreased their perceived credibility. Study 2 also revealed an ingroup-outgroup bias in the interpretation of media events, with females tending to be more sympathetic toward other females. Implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions made for future research.
Article
This study examines whether White majority and Black minority members differ in selecting news stories that featured either individuals of their own group or dissimilar others. Hypotheses derived from social-cognitive theory, social comparison theory, and distinctiveness theories were tested utilizing unobtrusive observations of news story selections. This selective exposure research design overcomes methodological constraints of previous experimental studies that employed self-reports and forced-exposure techniques to measure responses of Blacks and Whites to race-specific media sources. Our sample consisted of 112 Blacks and 93 Whites, who browsed 10 online news stories while exposure was unobtrusively logged via software. The news site displayed equal numbers of Black and White characters, with the pictures associated with the news stories rotated across participants. Results indicate that Whites showed no preference based on the race of the character featured in the news story. In contrast, Blacks strongly preferred news stories featuring Blacks and spent more than twice the reading time on them compared to exposure to news stories featuring Whites.
Article
Children aged 7 to 12 were interviewed about their favorite TV character. Nearly all boys and about half of the girls selected same‐sex favorites. Regression analyses used perceived character traits (attractiveness, strength, humor, intelligence, social behavior) to predict wishful identification and parasocial interaction with characters. For male characters, wishful identification was predicted by intelligence and (for girls only) humor; parasocial interaction was predicted by intelligence, attractiveness, and (for boys only) strength. In marked contrast, for female characters (chosen only by girls), attractiveness was the only significant predictor. Although girls rated female characters as more intelligent than male characters, this trait apparently was not an important determinant of attraction. Interpretations of the findings and implications for socialization effects are discussed.
Article
Based on the postulates of social identity theory (SIT), this study examined the relationship between exposure to stereotypical media messages regarding race/ethnicity and subsequent social judgments. Specifically, the association between Whites' evaluations of self and other (Latino) as a result of varying media content pertaining to criminality stereotypes was investigated. The findings were partially consistent with the posited relationships. As predicted, negatively stereotypical racial depictions in mediated messages were found to be significantly associated with social judgments. Only limited support, however, was provided for the predictions that increasing levels of racial identification would be related to increased ingroup favoritism, or that esteem would be enhanced from this mediated process of intergroup comparison.
Article
Members of four undergraduate clubs rated their own club as more heterogeneous on a series of personal characteristics than they rated the three other clubs. This tendency was unrelated to the number of in-group or out-group members known, or to the degree of preference for the in-group.
Article
Two studies investigated the pervasiveness of race as a social categorization and whether the organization of information around racial categories is sensitive to contextual factors. Both studies measured accentuation effects (more intra- than inter-race errors) and own-group bias (fewer confusions between own- than other-group members) in person memory, using the paradigm developed by Taylor, Fiske, Etcoff and Ruderman (1978). Experiment 1 studies the generalization of these effects across ethnic group membership (black/white) and topic (categorization-relevant/irrelevant) in a 2 × 2 [× 4] between-subject design, with type of error as a repeated measure. There was a highly significant accentuation effect, which was not affected by either topic or group membership. Experiment 2, using white subjects only, manipulated anticipated future interaction/no interaction, which affected overall accuracy/error rate, but not the strong accentuation effect. Neither study found any support for an own-group bias. Results are discussed in terms of the automaticity of race as a basis for social categorization.
Article
Using relevancy as a conceptual framework, this study investigates women and men spectators’ experiences with the 1991 film, Thelma & Louise. An analysis of the spectators’ self‐report essays explicates contradictory cultural subjectivities and subsequent interpretations of the film between the spectators: women tended to like the film—men generally hated it. While issues of sexism and women's marginalization appear irrelevant to the cultural subjectivities of the men, sexism and its consequences are the major relevant issues in the viewing experiences of the women. Women spectators overwhelmingly interpreted the events in the film as evidence of women's marginalized status in a patriarchal society, an interpretation that resulted in their endorsement of and identification with the film's protagonists. Men failed to make this connection, resulting in their interpretations of the film generally as an unfair exercise in male‐bashing. Women also identified strongly with Thelma and Louise's friendship, while men either ignored the relationship or interpreted it as based on the characters’ shared negative attitudes toward men. Explanations for these differences are suggested by linking the relevancies explicated from the spectators’ essays to their social discourses and cultural subjectivities, and to gender‐based cultural myths and stereotypes.
Article
Studied reactions to racial cues in advertising among high- and low-prejudice White adults. 160 paid White volunteers were randomly assigned to receive an advertisement featuring a Black or a White actor promoting either a liquid laundry detergent or a fur coat. Racial attitudes were measured by a survey based on the Subtle Derogatory Belief Scale of the Multifactor Racial Inventory. Regardless of their attitudes toward Blacks, Whites were less likely to purchase the products and had less favorable attitudes toward the products and the advertisements when the advertisements featured Black rather than White actors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Is it really important to talk about race in therapy? Does discussion of societal racism have any place in the consulting room? The American Psychological Association's (2003) recent multicultural guidelines highlight the limitations of a racially "color-blind" perspective for clinical practice. This study explored the relationships between color-blind racial attitudes and White racial identity. In a sample of 177 White counseling and clinical psychology trainees, we found that higher levels of attitudes that minimized or distorted the existence of contemporary racism (i.e., color-blind attitudes) were positively related to attitudes associated with less integrated forms of racial identity. Conversely, the results indicated that greater awareness of racism was related to more integrated White racial identity statuses. Implications for assessment, treatment, training, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Chinese, German, and U.S. American 4- to 6-year-old boys and girls were asked to select videos of children stories that they would most like to see. Choices were either between pairs of story videos presenting aggressive versus peaceful, nurturing content, with male or female sex of story protagonists held constant, or between pairs of videos featuring male versus female protagonists, with aggressive or peaceful story content held constant. Across countries/cultures, boys showed a strong preference for aggressive stories; girls for peaceful, nurturing ones. Again across countries/cultures, both sexes favored stories featuring protagonists of their own sex. However, the preference for same-sex story protagonists was particularly strong in American and Chinese girls. In comparison, American and Chinese boys showed only a moderate preference for male characters.
Article
This study examines the effect of four national television advertisements for product category leader brands. These ads were developed expressly for black consumers. Through the use of cultural values, responses to ethnic or subculturally oriented marketing communication was measured. Two hundred and seventy one black and white respondents were drawn from a large urban, mid-western city and a midsize deep-south city. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between responses to each advertisement by black versus white respondents. The study confirmed the results that black respondents display a more positive affect toward a commercial message featuring black actors than do comparable whites.
Article
The present study is one of a series exploring the role of social categorization in intergroup behaviour. It has been found in our previous studies that in ‚minimal' situations, in which the subjects were categorized into groups on the basis of visual judgments they had made or of their esthetic preferences, they clearly discriminated against members of an outgroup although this gave them no personal advantage. However, in these previous studies division into groups was still made on the basis of certain criteria of ‚real' similarity between subjects who were assigned to the same category. Therefore, the present study established social categories on an explicitly random basis without any reference to any such real similarity.It was found that, as soon as the notion of ‚group' was introduced into the situation, the subjects still discriminated against those assigned to another random category. This discrimination was considerably more marked than the one based on a division of subjects in terms of interindividual similarities in which the notion of ‚group' was never explicitly introduced. In addition, it was found that fairness was also a determinant of the subjects' decisions.The results are discussed from the point of view of their relevance to a social-cognitive theory of intergroup behaviour.
Article
Several studies have shown that social categorization into groups, unaffected by other variables such as own interest, interpersonal relations, conflict of interests, previous hostility, etc., was a sufficient condition to induce discrimination against an outgroup. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the subjects' uncertainty and insecurity in a novel situation was, at least in part, responsible for this phenomenon. Two groups of subjects were tested: one group was made familiar with the social and physical setting of the experiment in a situation closely resembling the actual experiment, and came back for a second session in which the actual experiment was conducted; the second group came only for the actual experimental session. The results clearly indicate that, contrary to the hypothesis, the “familiar” group engaged in more out-group discrimination than the “unfamiliar” one. The theoretical and methodological implications of this finding are discussed.
Article
Winner of the Frank Luther Mott Award for best book in Mass Communication and the Robert E. Lane Award for best book in political psychology. Living in a segregated society, white Americans learn about African Americans not through personal relationships but through the images the media show them. The Black Image in the White Mind offers the most comprehensive look at the intricate racial patterns in the mass media and how they shape the ambivalent attitudes of Whites toward Blacks. Using the media, and especially television, as barometers of race relations, Robert Entman and Andrew Rojecki explore but then go beyond the treatment of African Americans on network and local news to incisively uncover the messages sent about race by the entertainment industry-from prime-time dramas and sitcoms to commercials and Hollywood movies. While the authors find very little in the media that intentionally promotes racism, they find even less that advances racial harmony. They reveal instead a subtle pattern of images that, while making room for Blacks, implies a racial hierarchy with Whites on top and promotes a sense of difference and conflict. Commercials, for example, feature plenty of Black characters. But unlike Whites, they rarely speak to or touch one another. In prime time, the few Blacks who escape sitcom buffoonery rarely enjoy informal, friendly contact with White colleagues—perhaps reinforcing social distance in real life. Entman and Rojecki interweave such astute observations with candid interviews of White Americans that make clear how these images of racial difference insinuate themselves into Whites' thinking. Despite its disturbing readings of television and film, the book's cogent analyses and proposed policy guidelines offer hope that America's powerful mediated racial separation can be successfully bridged.
Article
This study examines the impact of black and white actors' race and viewers' racial attitudes on advertisement evaluation. A total of 160 white and 140 black participants rated an advertisement featuring a white or black actor promoting a portable word processor or a liquid laundry detergent. An assessment of whites' racial prejudice and blacks' identification with black culture followed product, advertisement, and actor ratings. It was hypothesized that high prejudiced whites and high identification blacks would be more strongly influenced by source-based cognitions than would low prejudiced whites and low identification blacks. It was also hypothesized that low prejudiced whites and low identification blacks would be more strongly influenced by message-based cognitions than would high prejudiced whites and high identification blacks. The findings indicated that, when the black actor promoted the relatively inexpensive liquid detergent, viewers with firmly established racial attitudes were more likely to employ racially focused heuristics (i.e., perceived similarity or dissimilarity, symbolic role identification or lack thereof) than viewers with less defined racial attitudes. These heuristics positively (for high identification blacks) or negatively (for high prejudiced whites) influenced viewers' likelihood of purchase given the black actor. However, the data did not support the notion that viewers with less defined racial attitudes would be more likely to consider the message claims than viewers with firmly established racial attitudes. Thus, the study's hypotheses were partially supported. Support was also found for the hypothesis that perceived similarity and symbolic role identification were factors through which the actor's race operates in advertising.
Style or substance? Viewers' reactions to spokesperson's race in advertising
  • J S Spira
  • T E Whittler
Spira, J. S., & Whittler, T. E. (2004). Style or substance? Viewers' reactions to spokesperson's race in advertising. In J. D. Williams, W. N. Lee, & C. P. Haugtvedt (Eds.), Diversity in advertising: Broadening the scope of research directions (pp. 247-257). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
They've got next: Today's young Black pack learns to stand up against the same old Hollywood hang-ups-and the new box-office jitters caused by
  • A Samuels
  • J Leland
Samuels, A., & Leland, J. (1999, April 5). They've got next: Today's young Black pack learns to stand up against the same old Hollywood hang-ups-and the new box-office jitters caused by ''Beloved.'' Newsweek, 58-60.
Reaching the silver screen. Black Enterprise
  • G Alexander
Alexander, G. (2001). Reaching the silver screen. Black Enterprise. Retrieved from http://www.blackenterprise.com/Archiveopen.asp?source=/archive2001/12/1201-34.htm.
Social cognitive theory of mass communication
  • A Bandora
Bandora, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3, 265-299.
A majority audience for 'minority' films
  • J Horn
Horn, J. (2002, December 16). A majority audience for 'minority' films. Los Angeles Times. Jones, A. (2005, February 23). Where there's a Will. Birmingham Post, C1.
Latin translation: Is the country ready for a Hispanic Rocky Social categorization and similarity in intergroup behavior
  • Audience Actors 'race
  • A J Selective
  • Weaver
  • L Bannon
Actors' Race and Audience Selective Exposure A. J. Weaver Bannon, L. (2000, April 6). Latin translation: Is the country ready for a Hispanic Rocky? Wall Street Journal, A1. Billig, M., & Tajfel, H. (1973). Social categorization and similarity in intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 27–52.
White like me: A combination of economics, viewing patterns and institutional racism conspires to keep black dramas off network TV
  • A Frutkin
Frutkin, A. (1998). White like me: A combination of economics, viewing patterns and institutional racism conspires to keep black dramas off network TV. Mediaweek, 8, 28-38.
Media entertainment: The psychology of its appeal
  • M B Oliver
Oliver, M. B. (2000). The respondent gender gap. In D. Zillmann & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Media entertainment: The psychology of its appeal (pp. 215-234). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
The gospel of Will Smith
  • A Samuels
Samuels, A. (2008, December 8). The gospel of Will Smith. Newsweek, 66-67.
The color of money. The New York Times
  • T Coates
Coates, T. (2005, July 10). The color of money. The New York Times, B1.
Latin translation: Is the country ready for a Hispanic Rocky
  • L Bannon
Bannon, L. (2000, April 6). Latin translation: Is the country ready for a Hispanic Rocky? Wall Street Journal, A1.
Where there's a Will
  • A Jones
Jones, A. (2005, February 23). Where there's a Will. Birmingham Post, C1.