Article

On the Control Over Stereotype Activation and Stereotype Inhibition

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Abstract

Stereotypes are known to influence how we think about (judge, feel, plan, attend to, remember), and act toward, others. Stereotyping is typically described as pervasive in society for a variety of reasons, one of which being that the cognitive processes that initiate stereotyping occur effortlessly, without conscious intent, and without awareness. That is, upon encountering members of stereotyped groups, we ‘uncontrollably’ have stereotypes of those groups retrieved and held accessible in a state of perceptual readiness. This occurs without our knowledge or awareness of the stereotype’s ‘primed’ status, and thus our lacking awareness of its potential to influence how we respond. The current article explores various ways this implicit process of stereotype activation is controlled. Despite the fact that stereotype activation happens with ease, and outside of awareness, control processes also operate with ease, and outside of awareness. The review illustrates a variety of ways in which a stereotype may not be triggered (and thus downstream stereotyping of a person controlled) upon encountering a person. The dominant response to a person, stereotypic or not, is determined by the goals the individual perceiver has upon entering the interpersonal encounter. Many goals relevant to interpersonal interaction promote stereotyping. However, stereotype promotion is a form of stereotype control, and if control can be exhibited in the form of promotion, it should also be demonstrable in the form of prevention. Indeed, goals that are incompatible with stereotyping yield dominant responses to having encountered a member of a stereotyped group that does not involve activation of, and may involve inhibition of, stereotypes.

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... Moskowitz şi colaboratorii (Moskowitz, 2010;Moskowitz & Li, 2010) observă că majoritatea cercetătorii privesc controlul cognitiv al stereotipurilor şi prejudecăţilor din perspectiva modelelor proceselor duale. Dintr-o astfel de perspectivă, pe care autorii amintiţi o consideră limitată, în sensul că nu reuşeşte să surprindă complexitatea individuală şi situaţională a controlui cognitiv, actorii sociali care constată incompatibilitatea dintre stereotipurile activate automat şi convingerile sau scopurile lor de procesare, recurg la o "strategie reactivă" (Moskowitz & Li, 2010) de inhibiţie activă a stereotipurilor. ...
... Dintr-o astfel de perspectivă, pe care autorii amintiţi o consideră limitată, în sensul că nu reuşeşte să surprindă complexitatea individuală şi situaţională a controlui cognitiv, actorii sociali care constată incompatibilitatea dintre stereotipurile activate automat şi convingerile sau scopurile lor de procesare, recurg la o "strategie reactivă" (Moskowitz & Li, 2010) de inhibiţie activă a stereotipurilor. Într-o serie de studii, Moskowitz şi colaboratorii (1999;2010) argumentează existenţa unui "control proactiv al stereotipurilor" (Moskowitz & Li, 2010), antrenat automat de scopurile egalitariste urmărite constant de individ, prin care se previne activarea stereotipurilor din memoria de lungă durată, chiar dacă procesul de categorizare socială a avut loc. Moskowitz (2010) atrage atenţia asupra faptului că eficienţa funcţională este o calitate esenţială a sistemului cognitiv, iar automatizarea procedurilor şi a proceselor care şi-au dovedit utilitatea în condiţii de utilizare frecventă, contribuie la asigurarea acestei eficienţe funcţionale. ...
... Într-o serie de studii, Moskowitz şi colaboratorii (1999;2010) argumentează existenţa unui "control proactiv al stereotipurilor" (Moskowitz & Li, 2010), antrenat automat de scopurile egalitariste urmărite constant de individ, prin care se previne activarea stereotipurilor din memoria de lungă durată, chiar dacă procesul de categorizare socială a avut loc. Moskowitz (2010) atrage atenţia asupra faptului că eficienţa funcţională este o calitate esenţială a sistemului cognitiv, iar automatizarea procedurilor şi a proceselor care şi-au dovedit utilitatea în condiţii de utilizare frecventă, contribuie la asigurarea acestei eficienţe funcţionale. Stereotipurile sunt structuri cognitive comune, la care indivizii recurg în mod cotidian, servind unor scopuri importante pentru adaptarea socială a persoanei (identificare pozitivă, eficienţă cognitivă, stimă de sine, superioritate, protejare de necunoscut, cunoaşterea celorlaţi şi planificarea acţiunilor în raport cu aceştia etc). ...
... As suggested by other authors, we believe the encountering of Indigenous communities in a dayto-day setting, rather than in the context of poor health, can facilitate positive exchanges and cultural awareness. [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]35 These encounters also differ from the usually negative views to which undergraduates are exposed during their training. 8,24,35 The benefit of community exposure is indirectly supported by the strong association between time spent in a First Nations community and the likeliness to work with Indigenous people reported by family medicine residents. ...
... [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]35 These encounters also differ from the usually negative views to which undergraduates are exposed during their training. 8,24,35 The benefit of community exposure is indirectly supported by the strong association between time spent in a First Nations community and the likeliness to work with Indigenous people reported by family medicine residents. 18,24,35 In our study, more items of the O-PATAS showed a significant reduction than in the M-PATAS. ...
... 8,24,35 The benefit of community exposure is indirectly supported by the strong association between time spent in a First Nations community and the likeliness to work with Indigenous people reported by family medicine residents. 18,24,35 In our study, more items of the O-PATAS showed a significant reduction than in the M-PATAS. Such reduction is relevant as after medical school, family medicine residents mostly reported stereotyped perceptions related to alcoholism and poverty. ...
Article
Mini-Med Schools (MiMS) are an opportunity for health sciences and social work undergraduates to discuss health-related topics with Innu and Atikamekw youth in Canada. More than 500 undergraduates and 1,000 students have taken part in the project since its beginning in 2011. This study aims to assess the impact of both 1) MiMS's predeparture training and 2) the MiMS themselves on undergraduates' prejudices toward Indigenous peoples. Satisfaction of the undergraduates taking part in the activity was also assessed. Seventy-eight undergraduates were recruited and completed the Old-fashioned and Modern Prejudiced Attitudes Toward Aboriginals Scales (O-PATAS and M-PATAS) at baseline, after the pre-departure training, and after the MiMS. They also completed satisfaction surveys. This study shows a reduction of prejudices after participating to a MiMS, but no effect of a pre-departure training. The activities were overall appreciated by undergraduates and most of them would like to take part again in the MiMS.
... Considering this substantial body of empirical evidence, one question remains: if human information processing in general is threatened by physical attractiveness, are there reasons to believe that IAs are immune to it? A substantial line of empirical evidence suggests that biases in judgments following the physical attractiveness stereotype might be corrected to different degrees, depending on the assessors' cognitive capacities (low vs. high ability) and their belief that it is inappropriate to rely on physical appearance (low vs. high motivation) (Bodenhausen and Macrae 1998;Hart, Ottati, and Krumdick 2011;Rahn and Cramer 1996;Wegener and Petty 1997). For instance, Hart et al. (2011) find that voters generally evaluated attractive political candidates more favorably than otherwise equivalent unattractive candidates (see also Efran and Patterson 1974). ...
... For instance, Hart et al. (2011) find that voters generally evaluated attractive political candidates more favorably than otherwise equivalent unattractive candidates (see also Efran and Patterson 1974). However, others have reported that this effect can be reduced (under-corrected), accurately corrected or even overcorrected (reversed) provided participants dispose of high ability and motivation (see also Wegener and Petty 1997;Rahn and Cramer 1996;Bodenhausen and Macrae 1998). ...
... Based on such findings, Hart et al. (2011) proposed a simple process model of appearance-based stereotyping (for similar conceptualizations see also Bodenhausen and Macrae 1998;Wegener and Petty 1997). According to this model, an individual's physical appearance is initially categorized (attractive vs. unattractive), followed by activation of the physical attractiveness stereotype. ...
Article
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Independence and objectivity are the chief principles assumed to underlie internal auditors’ fraud-risk judgments. However, a substantial body of evidence regarding attractiveness stereotyping and the attractiveness halo effect suggests that physical attractiveness of potential suspects may influence internal auditors’ fraud-risk judgments according to the proverb “what is beautiful is good”. In this seminal inter-disciplinary experimental study we investigated whether internal auditors are susceptible to such appearance-related biases, or whether they correct for them due to their expertise and motivation as suggested by the process model of appearance-based stereotyping. 193 internal auditors were presented a misappropriation-of-assets scenario, in which the attractiveness of a suspect was manipulated. To determine whether professional expertise is associated with increased resilience to appearance-related biases, their fraud-risk judgments were contrasted with those acquired from 240 control subjects with no auditing experience. In line with our predictions attractiveness modulated naïve subjects’ fraud-risk judgments, whereas internal auditors did not show any indication for appearance-related biases. Our findings demonstrate that internal auditors’ experience and motivation immunize them to the well-documented phenomena of physical attractiveness stereotyping and the attractiveness halo effect – at least when fraud-risk judgments do not involve face-to-face interactions. We propose a two-step procedure to maximize objectivity of internal auditors’ fraud-risk judgments.
... Discrimination results from a stereotyped perception (Moskowitz, 2010), which is both a common belief about attributes that a group of people share (Lippmann, 1922), and the mental representation one uses to attribute features to a group (Bordalo et al., 2016). In his book, entitled Public opinion, Walter Lippmann describes how our perception of reality is biased, with the direct consequence of making it inaccurate, although being convinced it is real. ...
... As far as the understanding of the social world is concerned, stereotyping is a tool which helps the brain to quickly calibrate a series of situations that eventually make sense (Moskowitz, 2010). In this regard, stereotyping makes people quickly attribute characteristics to someone; this process is called "social categorisation" (Tajfel and Wilkes, 1963;Uhlmann and Cohen, 2007). ...
... Source: authors. (Moskowitz, 2010), as of today no method has been proved to work. Indeed, although stereotypes' activation and application are quite automatic, responses are not (Gilbert and Hixon, 1991). ...
Article
Abstract This enquiry sets out to further our understanding of the nuances of information trustworthiness on Facebook, from a French user perspective, focusing on Gen Y and Z netizens and their interaction with online content for sourcing and sharing information. The findings suggest that while the majority of participants designated Facebook as their primary Social Networking Site (SNS), secondary sources were regularly used for confirming the information; only a small fraction of the participants claimed to use Facebook as their sole source of news and information. Facebook was found to have limited functionality and value in promoting participation from these generations for sharing news and information. This study puts forward possible causes and reasons to explain the ‘passive’ consumption of SNS by Gen Y and Z, the majority of whom are increasingly reluctant to post, comment or even forward news and information via Facebook. In a digital age that fosters rapid, multilateral exchange of knowledge, Facebook may appear less ‘trustworthy’ than previously imagined. Résumé Cette enquête vise à approfondir notre compréhension des nuances de la fiabilité des informations via Facebook, du point de vue de l'utilisateur français, en se concentrant sur les internautes appartenant aux générations Y et Z et leur interaction face à un contenu en ligne lors de la recherche et du partage d'information. Les résultats suggèrent que même si la majorité des participants désignaient Facebook comme leur principal réseau social (SNS), des sources secondaires étaient régulièrement utilisées pour confirmer les informations trouvées sur Facebook ; seule une petite fraction des participants a déclaré utiliser Facebook comme l’unique source d’actualité. Il a été constaté que Facebook avait une fonctionnalité et une valeur limitées pour promouvoir la participation de ces générations au partage de nouvelles et d'informations. Cette étude propose des causes et des raisons possibles pour expliquer la consommation « passive » de SNS par les générations Y et Z, dont la majorité est de plus en plus réticente à publier, commenter ou même transmettre des nouvelles et des informations via Facebook. À l'ère du numérique qui favorise un échange multilatéral rapide de connaissances, Facebook peut sembler moins « digne de confiance » qu'on ne l'imaginait auparavant. Key words: SNS, Facebook, News and information, Gen Y and Z, business models Mots clés : Réseaux sociaux, Facebook, Actualité et Information, Générations Y et Z, modèles économiques
... There are several strategies for diminishing the activation and use of negative stereotypes, attitudes and behaviors in judgment and interaction. 8 For example, training physicians in cultural competence can play a significant role in decreasing behaviors that may discourage some patients from using available health services and in diminishing implicit acts of discrimination that prevent minority members in the community from getting the care they demand and deserve. 4 Nevertheless, it is to be noted that despite the potential influence of discriminatory behavior of physicians on the quality of provided healthcare, there were few studies on the effects of doctors' perceptions and beliefs regarding characteristics and appearance of their patients. ...
... Saudi Med J 2020; Vol. 41(8) ...
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Objectives: To explore implicit stereotyping among primary healthcare (PHC) physicians and to identify determinants of physicians' stereotyping of patients based on the patients' characteristics and appearance. Methods: This study followed an analytical cross-sectional design conducted between October 2019 and December 2019, and included 250 primary healthcare (PHC) physicians in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which included items concerning physicians' sociodemographic characteristics, and their attitudes toward patient characteristics and patient appearance. Results: Prevalence of stereotyping among PHC physicians was 63.6% with respect to patient characteristics and 57.6% with respect to patient appearance. Stereotyping based on patient characteristics was higher among younger participants, females, those with bachelor's degrees, those in general practitioner positions, and those with less experience in PHC. Conclusion: Most PHC physicians in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are liable to implicit stereotyping based on patient characteristics (namely, gender and educational level) and patient appearance (namely, clothing). Therefore, it is recommended to train PHC physicians in cultural competency to reduce unintentional acts of discrimination toward their patients.
... This approach is common to corporate investment decisions (Datar and Rajan 2014). When the decision is denominated in dollars, CSR-related injunctive and personal norms are not integral in decision making and, therefore, have minimal effect (Houghton and Tipper 1996;Bodenhousen and Macrae 1998). ...
... In this way, preprint accepted manuscript nonfinancial measures provide a contextual cue emphasizing the CSR program's societal involvement. Notably, contextual cues, even subtle cues, serve as a norm-activating mechanism (Cialdini et al. 1990;Rege and Telle 2004) because they increase the cognitive accessibility of related concepts that are applied to subsequent judgment or decision making (Higgins and Brendl 1995;Bodenhousen and Macrae 1998). ...
Article
We experimentally investigate how managers' decisions to invest discretionary resources in the company's corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives are affected by whether the investment decision is denominated in financial or nonfinancial measures (i.e., the measurement basis used for decision making). We posit that nonfinancial measures bring attention to the society-serving nature of CSR investments, thus activating the pro-CSR social norms of the company and managers' personal CSR norms. Norm activation, in turn, influences managers' investment decisions to the extent that social norms are congruent with personal norms. As predicted, we find that the level of CSR investment is higher under a nonfinancial measurement basis than under a financial measurement basis, but only when the manager is personally supportive of CSR. Supplemental analysis indicates that CSR-supportive managers continue to invest more under a combined financial/nonfinancial measurement basis than under a financial measurement basis only. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. JEL Classifications: C91; M41.
... The demonstration that stereotypic responses can be stopped quickly offers reassurance to those concerned about the controllability of this process (Bargh, 1999;Blair, 2002;Moskowitz, 2010). However, before concluding that the deleterious consequences of stereotyping can readily be subdued, a cautionary caveat is in order. ...
... What seems likely is that stereotype inhibition may be sensitive to the strength of people's prior beliefs and the specific stereotypes under consideration (Bar, 2004(Bar, , 2007. For example, differences in the extent to which stereotypes are endorsed, in combination with people's executive abilities and desire to appear nonprejudiced, may influence the ease with which as soc i ated beh avi oura l ou tputs c an b e sto ppe d (Moskowitz, 2010;Moskowitz, Gollwitzer, Wasel, & Schaal, 1999). In particular, whereas people are probably highly practiced at inhibiting culturally sensitive stereotypes, for other social groups the tendency to avoid stereotyping is unlikely to have been developed (Devine, 1989;Payne, 2005). ...
Article
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Restraining the expression of stereotypes is a necessary requirement for harmonious living, yet surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of this process. Accordingly, in two experiments, here we used a stop-signal task to establish how effectively stereotype-related responses can be inhibited. In Experiment 1, following the presentation of gender-typed occupational contexts, participants reported the sex of target faces (i.e., Go trials) unless an occasional auditory tone indicated they should withhold their response (i.e., Stop trials). In Experiment 2, following the presentation of male and female faces, participants made either stereotypic or counter-stereotypic judgments, unless a stop signal was presented. Regardless of whether stereotyping was probed indirectly (Experiment 1) or directly (Experiment 2), a consistent pattern of results was observed; inhibition was faster for stereotypic compared with counter-stereotypic responses. These findings demonstrate that stopping stereotyping may be less challenging than has widely been assumed.
... Instructing medical students in how to control their implicit stereotyping is consistent with current theory and research in social psychology on the activation and control of implicit processes (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006;Gonsalkorale et al., 2009). According to Moskowitz (2010), people can learn to use both proactive and reactive strategies for controlling implicit stereotyping. Proactive strategies rely on the individual having a goal in place that would eliminate the need to recruit the cultural stereotype as part of their implicit cognition. ...
... First, students can learn to activate and act upon their egalitarian goals to provide fair and equitable treatment to all patients. The activation of egalitarian goals can inhibit the incompatible negative stereotypes and trigger instead responses that promote fairness (Moskowitz, 2010). Research suggests that most medical students already hold strong egalitarian values and goals (Burgess et al., 2007). ...
Article
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The present research tested if having first year medical students complete active learning workshops would reduce their implicit stereotyping of Hispanics as medically noncompliant. The workshops were tested with 78-majority (White) group, 16-target minority (Hispanic, African-American and American-Indian) group, and 42-non-target minority (Asian-American and foreign born students from East Asia and Southeast Asia) group students in the 2018 and 2021 classes in the American Southwest. Prior to the workshops, students completed an implicit association test (IAT), and then participated in two workshops that covered the psychology of intergroup bias, the role of implicit bias in patient care, and activities for learning six strategies for controlling the implicit stereotyping of patients. The results showed that before the workshops, the level of implicit stereotyping of Hispanics was significant for the majority and non-target minority group students, but it was not significant for the target minority group students. After the workshops, target minority students again showed no bias, and implicit stereotyping was significantly lower for the majority group students, but not for the non-target minority students. The results suggest that the workshops may have been effective for majority group and target minority group students, but that more cultural tailoring of the materials and activities may be necessary to address implicit bias among some minority group medical students.
... The hypothesized processes through which mindfulness could contribute to reduce people's stereotypes and prejudice toward stigmatized groups are several: (a) it might reduce the likelihood that stereotypes might be activated in the mind (Tang et al. 2015); (b) once stereotypes are activated, mindfulness may enhance people's ability to become aware of those biases and to undertake self-regulatory processes (Teper et al. 2013); (c) mindfulness could decrease stress and internal sources of cognitive load that concur to the activation and application of stereotypes (Moskowitz 2010); (d) mindfulness might promote empathy and compassion, which reduce the activation and application of stereotypes, and promote willingness to engage with members of stigmatized groups (Jazaieri et al. 2014;Todd et al. 2012); (e) it could facilitate the individuation process, a mode of cognitive processing in which attention is focused on the person's individual characteristics, rather than his or her group membership (Beach et al. 2007). ...
... Being able to observe inner experiences consciously would contribute to interrupt or prevent the automatized emotional and cognitive activation of stereotypes and sexual prejudice (Djikic et al. 2008;Kang et al. 2013;Lueke and Gibson 2015;Tang et al. 2015). Such a mindful disposition would promote a metacognitive insight, by leading people to be aware of bias (Teper et al. 2013), and would promote a reduction of stress and internal sources of cognitive load concurring to the activation and application of stereotypes about gay and bisexual men (Moskowitz 2010). ...
Article
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Objectives A recently growing literature explored the effect of mindfulness on the reduction of stereotypes and prejudice. However, studies exploring the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and prejudice are very limited and contradictory. The current work focused on the associations of dispositional mindfulness with internalized sexual stigma and sexual prejudice in gay/bisexual men and heterosexual men, respectively. Methods Participants were 180 Italian men, both heterosexual (N = 91, 50.6%) and gay/bisexual (N = 89, 49.4%), ranging between 18 and 40 years old (M = 28.23, SD = 5.59) that completed a questionnaire which contained demographic information and measures of mindfulness, need for cognitive closure, and adherence to traditional and stereotypical gender roles. In order to test the predictive power of mindfulness’ dimensions on internalized sexual stigma and on sexual prejudice over and above the other predictors, we used dominance analysis. Results Analyses revealed that only the FFMQ-Nonjudging of inner experience explained a proportion of variance of internalized sexual stigma significantly larger than zero, whereas the variance of the score on the sexual prejudice was mostly accounted for by right-wing political orientation and FFMQ-Observing. Conclusions Having a mindful nonjudging attitude toward one’s inner experience would associate to less internalized sexual stigma in gay and bisexual men, whereas having a mindful observing disposition would help heterosexual men to have less sexual prejudice against gay men. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
... These negation processes, in turn, dampen total effects of implicit stereotypes in higher dose conditions (Arendt, 2013). Scholarship contends that stereotype activation can be controlled by distinct and separable processes and is thus dependent upon both situational and chronic variables (e.g., Glaser & Knowles, 2008;Kunda & Spencer, 2003;Moskowitz, 2010). Arguably, in this study, stereotype primes in the high-level condition might have been consciously perceived as (excessively) stereotypical, signaling contrasts between blatant media depictions and individual egalitarian norms and self-concepts (see Moskowitz, 2010;Moskowitz & Li, 2011), resulting in conscious efforts to resist, negate, and inhibit activation processes. ...
... Scholarship contends that stereotype activation can be controlled by distinct and separable processes and is thus dependent upon both situational and chronic variables (e.g., Glaser & Knowles, 2008;Kunda & Spencer, 2003;Moskowitz, 2010). Arguably, in this study, stereotype primes in the high-level condition might have been consciously perceived as (excessively) stereotypical, signaling contrasts between blatant media depictions and individual egalitarian norms and self-concepts (see Moskowitz, 2010;Moskowitz & Li, 2011), resulting in conscious efforts to resist, negate, and inhibit activation processes. Nevertheless, in a real-world setting, subtle forms of media bias are likely more prevalent while at the same time resistant to conscious identification, making them especially concerning (Weisbuch et al., 2009). ...
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This study moves beyond previous research by demonstrating how prior exposure to stereotypical content can reinforce the selection of comparable biased news content and by clarifying its intergroup and interpersonal consequences. With two experiments ( N = 236, N = 270), we show that media effects and selectivity of biased media content about Arabic migrant workers are connected by automatic (i.e., implicit) stereotypes. The findings reveal that exposure to moderate doses of stereotypic news primes affects the selection of biased news via implicit stereotypes and subsequently shifts intergroup and interpersonal outcomes in the direction of the activated biased beliefs. These effects did not surface for high doses of stereotypic news primes, suggesting that individuals resist and inhibit activation processes when exposure is perceived to be too extreme. As subtle forms of bias are omnipresent in news environments and implicit stereotypes operate partly under the radar of conscious awareness, they may affect selection without individuals being aware of it. The findings imply that audiences’ biased selectivity should not be seen in isolation from prior media exposure.
... Instead, different races and genders would likely be represented across scenarios to convey the organization's diversity. Research on multiple categorization suggests that when forming impressions, perceivers may tend to attend to one category and dampen the activation of others (Bodenhausen and Macrae 1998) and that the relative number and visibility of cues may affect which category dominates the impression 9 Additional exploratory analyses examined whether test taker-IP gender similarity affected SJT item scores, item response times, or perceived fit with the organization and whether test taker gender interacted with test taker race, test taker-IP racial similarity, or level of diversity represented in the SJT videos. There were no statistically significant effects in Study 1. formation process (Kulik et al. 2007). ...
... While we cannot rule out the potential that findings are due to somewhat underpowered tests of interactions when dealing with minority samples, 14 we think the design difference-varying interaction partner gender between subjects in Study 1 but within subjects in Study 2-was a key contributor. Research suggests that for ease of information processing, individuals may attend to one category when forming impressions, and context helps to determine which category will be dominant (Bodenhausen and Macrae 1998;Kulik et al. 2007). In Study 1, with interaction partners' gender held constant within condition, their race may have been more salient; in Study 2, varying interaction partners' gender within condition may have made their race less salient. ...
Article
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Individuals are known to categorize others into social groups based on cues like race and gender and to experience relative discomfort when interacting with “outgroup” members. Two experimental studies were used to examine whether actor demographic cues in situational judgment assessment items completed by test takers in a simulated employee selection context may lead to differences in their performance and reactions to the hiring organization. In both studies, test takers assumed the perspective of actors shown in video-based scenarios and indicated how they would respond to interaction partners (IPs) to whom they were racially similar or dissimilar. In Study 1, a given test taker responded to IPs of a constant gender; in Study 2, IPs’ gender varied across scenarios within each condition. In Study 1, Black test takers spent more time and scored better on two of the four scenarios when responding to racially similar IPs. These effects were not found in Study 2, but demographic cues showed new interactive effects on performance and reactions. We discuss the implications of different findings across the two studies.
... 12 Madva (2017: 157) is explicit about this. Also see Liebow &Glazer 2019 andMoskowitz 2010. these motivational challenges is possible, we're likely to only see limited improvements. ...
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A growing body of work argues that we should reform problematic emotions like anxiety, anger, and shame: doing this will allow us to better harness the contributions that these emotions can make to our agency and wellbeing. But feminist philosophers worry that prescriptions to correct these inappropriate emotions will only further marginalize women, minorities, and other members of subordinated groups. While much in these debates turns on empirical questions about how we can change problematic emotions for the better, to date, little has been done by either side to assess how we might correct problematic emotions, much less in ways that are responsive to the feminists’ worries. Drawing on research in cognitive science, this paper argues that though the feminists’ worries are real, the leading proposals for remedying them are inadequate. It then develops an alternative strategy for reshaping problematic emotions—one that’s sensitive to the feminists’ concerns.
... Contrary to this, social psychologists observe that stereotypes need to be actively triggered, that they are conditional and regulated, and that they depend on context and circumstances (Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1998;Devine, 1989). Assuming that gender stereotypes are conditional phenomena, it is necessary to clarify how the activation and application occurs. ...
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How are gender stereotype cues used to target women in power in contemporary politics? There are commonalities across cases where the female politicians’ image and reputation are being targeted by political rivals. For instance, stereotypes are often invoked, as products of shared cultural knowledge. Various forms of political communication, e.g., in election campaigns, often with the aim of character assassination (CA from hereon), may deploy stereotypical cues to achieve impact in this regard. Online micro-targeting creates a new platform for political strategists to practice CA and stereotype activation. Female candidates do participate in elections, raise campaign funds, and win elections; yet women remain underrepresented at all levels of elected office. It is interesting to observe the role of gender stereotypes in this process and the current challenges female candidates face. The research presented in this paper illustrates the stereotypical cues used to target women in politics, and highlights various gender-specific political obstacles to the success of female candidates.
... In so doing, racism incapacitates minds, attacks independent thought and individual evaluation, so that there is no benefit to nuanced assessment of people. Instead, individuals are reduced to snap-judgement-based categorizations and stereotypes dependent on visible, physical characteristics used to determine a person's race (Byrne & Tanesini, 2015;Moskowitz, 2010). As such, racism involves a two-step, relational process to divide and conquer that requires first, division into binary categories: us and them (e.g., White and non-White); and, second, differential treatment based on group membership (Jones, 1997). ...
Article
The United States is a divided nation on many fronts; but, race seems to be particularly divisive. This is not surprising since race was created to divide the masses to be conquered by the few. This conquest allowed the foundation of the nation’s social, political, and economic structures to be rooted in the institution of a unique form of slavery based on the fabricated characteristic of race. Racism (i.e., racial oppression and white racial privilege) is a dehumanizing force. When one is dehumanized, all are dehumanized. To restore the promise of life, liberty and justice for all, racial reconciliation efforts must restore humanity by addressing the harm in racial disharmony. In considering the issue of racial reconciliation in the US and focusing on social work responses within a Christian context, this paper: 1) explores foundational concepts pertinent to developing a rigorous and coherent definition of racial reconciliation; 2) develops the steps for the process of racial reconciliation efforts grounded in the conceptual model of anti-racism critical transformative potential (TP), and framed by restorative justice principles; and 3) examines how Christian and/or social work practitioners can participate in racial reconciliation efforts.
... A final limitation is that we did not explore the extent to which teacher burnout and efficacy may be related to disproportionate discipline practices. It is possible that when teachers are emotionally exhausted and feel less efficacious, they may be more likely to act based on negative stereotypes of their students (Moskowitz, 2010). Though we were unable to examine this question in the present study, we suggest this as an area for future research. ...
Article
Teacher emotional factors influence the classroom environment. The purpose of the study was to examine the association of teacher emotional exhaustion and teacher efficacy with student office discipline referrals (ODRs), in-school suspensions (ISSs), and out-of-school suspensions (OSSs) using multilevel logistic regression models. The sample included 105 teachers and 1,663 students from nine elementary schools in the United States. Higher teacher emotional exhaustion was associated with increased use of ODR and ISS but not OSS. For students with teachers experiencing burnout, the odds of receiving an ISS increased by a factor of 1.74 (d = .31). Greater teacher efficacy was also associated with lower use of OSS but not ODR or ISS. The results suggest that improving teacher efficacy and reducing teacher emotional exhaustion may support the reduced use of exclusionary discipline practices.
... Como constructo axiológico operativo, las metas, tanto si son inducidas situacionalmente como si ya se encuentran adecuadamente interiorizadas en los individuos, poseen un amplio potencial de inhibición de la activación de estereotipos y prejuicios, contribuyendo de un modo robusto a la competencia general autorreguladora. El programa de investigación de Gordon Moskowitz (véanse revisiones en Moskowitz, 2010;y Moskowitz y Li, 2010; y su último trabajo en Moskowitz y Li, 2011) y nuestra propia evidencia (Álvarez, 2005) así lo indican. En definitiva, resulta coherente que los valores afiliativos queden reforzados cuando el yo se acerca al otro e intenta comprenderlo, e incluso pensar y sentir como él o ella lo hace. ...
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... One approach studied in the lab that may be effective (and compatible with embracing fairness as implemented by is allowing negative feedback to arrive through self-discovery. Moskowitz (2010) and colleagues (Moskowitz et al., 2000;Moskowitz & Stone, 2012) ask participants to write personal essays about a time in which they had behaved in a manner that violated their egalitarian ideals. The negative feedback, while prompted, is self-generated. ...
... Secondly, even if stereotypes are activated, mindful individuals may be more aware of these biases than non-mindful persons, and consequently put in place a series of self-regulatory processes (Teper, Segal, & Inzlicht, 2013). Thirdly, mindful persons could feel less stress and cognitive load, which are implicated in the activation and application of stereotypes, compared to less mindful individuals (Moskowitz, 2010). In addition, mindful individuals might be more inclined to empathy and compassion than less mindful individuals, thus reducing the application of stereotypes and fostering the engagement with stigmatized individuals (Jazaieri et al., 2014;Todd, Galinsky, & Bodenhausen, 2012). ...
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... This may, in turn, activate an unconscious goal to correct for this bias [103] (for review, see [104]), resulting in slowed responses on congruent trials. Considering the difference on P2 found on LW-LC groups, P2 might also be an indicator of unconscious activation of egalitarian goal or unconscious activation of motivation to correct bias [104][105][106][107]. However, this possibility needs further empirical support. ...
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The research examines an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes based on the evaluations that are automatically activated from memory on the presentation of Black versus White faces. Study 1, which concerned the technique's validity, obtained different attitude estimates for Black and White participants and also revealed that the variability among White participants was predictive of other race-related judgments and behavior. Study 2 concerned the lack of correspondence between the unobtrusive estimates and Modern Racism Scale (MRS) scores. The reactivity of the MRS was demonstrated in Study 3. Study 4 observed an interaction between the unobtrusive estimates and an individual difference in motivation to control prejudiced reactions when predicting MRS scores. The theoretical implications of the findings for consideration of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice are discussed, as is the status of the MRS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The theory outlined in the present chapter adopts a cognitive approach to motivation. In the pages that follow we describe a research program premised on the notion that the cognitive treatment affords conceptual and methodological advantages enabling new insights into problems of motivated action, self-regulation and self-control. We begin by placing our work in the broader historical context of social psychological theorizing about motivation and cognition. We then present our theoretical notions and trace their implications for a variety of psychological issues including activity-experience, goal-commitment, choice, and substitution. The gist of the chapter that follows describes our empirical research concerning a broad range of phenomena informed by the goal-systemic analysis. Motivation Versus Cognition, or Motivation as Cognition Motivation versus cognition: the “separatist program. ” Social psychological theories have often treated motivation as separate from cognition, and have often approached it in a somewhat static manner. The separatism of the “motivation versus cognition ” approach was manifest in several major formulations and debates. Thus, for example, the dissonance versus self-perception debate (Bem, 1972) pitted against each other motivational (i.e., dissonance) versus cognitive (i.e., self-perception) explanations of attitude change phenomena. A similar subsequent controversy pertained to the question of whether a motivational explanation of biased causal attributions in terms of ego-defensive tendencies (cf. Kelley, 1972) is valid, given the alternative possibility of a purely cognitive explanation (Miller & Ross, 1975). The separatism of the “motivation versus cognition ” approach assigned distinct functions to motivational and cognitive variables. This is apparent in major social psychological notions of persuasion, judgment or impression formation. For instance, in the popular dual-mode theories of
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The role of Implicit Motivation to Control Prejudice (IMCP) in moderating the effect of resource depletion on spontaneous discriminatory behavior was examined. Cognitive resource depletion was manipulated by having participants solve either difficult or easy anagrams. A "Shooter Task" measuring unintended racial discriminatory behavior followed. Participants then reported their subjective experiences in the task. Finally, IMCP and an implicit race-weapons stereotype were measured, both using Go/No-go Association Tasks (GNATs). IMCP moderated the effect of depletion on discriminatory behavior: Depletion resulted in more racial bias in the Shooter Task only for those who scored low in our measure of IMCP, while high IMCP participants performed comparably in both the low and high depletion conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
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Goals are mental representations that vary in accessibility and operate within goal systems. The implicit nature of goal activation and pursuit is shown here to make goals effective not merely at overturning the influence of an activated stereotype on how people respond to members of stereotyped groups, but effective at implicitly controlling the activation of stereotypes in the first place. In a set of experiments examining chronic egalitarian goals, faces and names of members of stereotyped groups presented as target stimuli led to the inhibition of stereotypes, as well as to the heightened accessibility of egalitarian goals. A separate set of experiments illustrate a similar ability of individuals to control stereotype activation when egalitarian goals are temporarily triggered within a context, rather than being chronically held. Goals that require one to inhibit stereotypic associations to a target can lead to the intended, yet implicit, control of stereotype activation, even when one is not aware the goal is active or being pursued or being regulated.
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A model suggesting that prejudiced-related discrepancy experiences facilitate prejudice reduction efforts is proposed and tested. Prejudice-related discrepancies concerning gays were activated among low and high prejudiced Ss in 2 experiments. Results indicated that low-prejudiced (LP) Ss' violations of their LP and well-internalized attitudes produced compunction, self- and discrepancy-focused thoughts, attention to discrepancy-relevant information (Exp 1), and a slowing of responses (Exp 2). These findings indicated that LP Ss' discrepancies instigated a self-regulatory cycle that, theoretically, should help in achieving control over subsequent prejudiced responses. Evidence of effective self-regulation was found in a task following discrepancy activation. Specifically, LP Ss effectively inhibited prejudiced responses to jokes about gays as a consequence of discrepancy activation (Exp 2). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The author provides a conceptual framework for understanding differences among prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations. Whereas traditional models conceptualize prosocial orientation in terms of enhancing joint outcomes, the author proposes an integrative model of social value orientation in which prosocial orientation is understood in terms of enhancing both joint outcomes and equality in outcomes. Consistent with this integrative model, prosocial orientation (vs. individualistic and competitive orientations) was associated with greater tendencies to enhance both joint outcomes and equality in outcomes; in addition, both goals were positively associated (Study 1). Consistent with interaction-relevant implications of this model, prosocial orientation was strongly related to reciprocity. Relative to individualists and competitors, prosocials were more likely to engage in the same level of cooperation as the interdependent other did (Study 2) and the same level of cooperation as they anticipated from the interdependent other (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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For a variety of reasons, social perceivers may often attempt to actively inhibit stereotypic thoughts before their effects impinge on judgment and behavior. However, research on the psychology of mental control raises doubts about the efficacy of this strategy. Indeed, this work suggests that when people attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts, these thoughts are likely to subsequently reappear with even greater insistence than if they had never been suppressed (i.e., a "rebound" effect). The present research comprised an investigation of the extent to which this kind of rebound effect extends to unwanted stereotypic thoughts about others. The results provide strong support for the existence of this effect. Relative to control Ss (i.e., stereotype users), stereotype suppressors responded more pejoratively to a stereotyped target on a range of dependent measures. We discuss our findings in the wider context of models of mind, thought suppression, and social stereotyping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The accessibility of suppressed thoughts was compared with the accessibility of thoughts on which Ss were consciously trying to concentrate. In Exp 1, Ss made associations to word prompts as they tried to suppress thinking about a target word (e.g., house) or tried to concentrate on that word. Under the cognitive load imposed by time pressure, they gave the target word in response to target-related prompts (e.g., home) more often during suppression than during concentration. In Exp 2, reaction times (RTs) for naming colors of words were found to be greater under conditions of cognitive load when Ss were asked to suppress thinking of the word than under conditions of no cognitive load or when Ss were asked to concentrate on the word. The results support the idea that an automatic search for the suppression target increases the accessibility of the target during suppression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Empirical evidence is presented from 7 samples regarding the factor structure; reliability; and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of separate measures of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. The scales reliably measure largely independent constructs and have good convergent and discriminant validity. Examination of the qualitatively distinct affective reactions to violations of own- and other-based standards as a function of the source of motivation to respond without prejudice provides evidence for the predictive validity of the scales. The final study demonstrated that reported stereotype endorsement varies as a function of motivation and whether reports are made in private or publicly. Results are discussed in terms of their support for the internal–external distinction and the significance of this distinction for identifying factors that may either promote or thwart prejudice reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies investigated the effects of processing goals (semantic vs presemantic) on stereotype activation. It was posited that spontaneous stereotype activation would only occur when Ss process targets (i.e., people) in a semantic manner. In Exp 1, 48 undergraduates were asked either to determine the presence or absence of a white dot on a photograph, to judge whether a photo depicted an animate or inanimate object, or to report the detection of a stimulus. Following the presentation of the stimuli, Ss completed a letter string and lexical decision task. In line with the prediction, Ss who 1st processed a target face in a semantic fashion were subsequently faster to verify words that were stereotypic of the target person's gender group compared to Ss who had processed the face in presemantic ways. Face recognition, however, did not differ across processing goals. In Exp 2, these findings were replicated with 48 female undergraduates using a much shorter stimulus presentation time, verifying that conscious or intentional processes did not underlie the differential stereotype activation. Findings are considered in the context of contemporary issues in stereotyping and automaticity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies tested the conditions under which social environments can undermine automatic gender stereotypic beliefs expressed by women. Study 1, a laboratory experiment, manipulated exposure to biographical information about famous female leaders. Study 2, a year-long field study, took advantage of pre-existing differences in the proportion of women occupying leadership positions (e.g., female professors) in two naturally occurring environments—a women’s college and a coeducational college. Together, these studies investigated: (a) whether exposure to women in leadership positions can temporarily undermine women’s automatic gender stereotypic beliefs, and (b) whether this effect is mediated by the frequency with which female leaders are encountered. Results revealed first that when women were in social contexts that exposed them to female leaders, they were less likely to express automatic stereotypic beliefs about their ingroup (Studies 1 and 2). Second, Study 2 showed that the long-term effect of social environments (women’s college vs. coed college) on automatic gender stereotyping was mediated by the frequency of exposure to women leaders (i.e., female faculty). Third, some academic environments (e.g., classes in male-dominated disciplines like science and math) produced an increase in automatic stereotypic beliefs among students at the coed college but not at the women’s college—importantly, this effect was mediated by the sex of the course instructors. Together, these findings underscore the power of local environments in shaping women’s nonconscious beliefs about their ingroup.
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Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotype group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the efforts of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes. (86 ref)
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Within the United States, declines in the overt expression of racial prejudice over several decades have given way to near universal endorsement of the principles of racial equality as a core cultural value. Yet, evidence of persistent and substantial disparities between Blacks and Whites remain. Here, we review research that demonstrates how the actions of even well-intentioned and ostensibly non-prejudiced individuals can inadvertently contribute to these disparities through subtle biases in decision making and social interactions. We argue that current racial attitudes of Whites toward Blacks in the United States are fundamentally ambivalent, characterized by a widespread contemporary form of racial prejudice, aversive racism, that is manifested in subtle and indirect ways, and illustrate its operation across a wide range of settings, from employment and legal decisions, to group problem-solving and everyday helping behavior. We conclude by describing research aimed at combating these biases and identify new avenues for future research.
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Three broad themes that emerge from the social psychological research on unconscious or implicit prejudice and stereotypes are highlighted in this article. First, individuals who belong to socially advantaged groups typically exhibit more implicit preference for their ingroups and bias against outgroups than do members of socially disadvantaged groups. This research suggests that intergroup preferences and prejudices are influenced by two different psychological forces—people's tendency to prefer groups associated with themselves as a confirmation of their high self-exteem versus their tendency to prefer groups valued by the mainstream culture as a confirmation of the sociopolitical order in society. Second, these inplicit prejudices and stereotypes often influence people's judgements, decisions, and behaviors in subtle but pernicious ways. However, the path from implicit bias to discriminatory action is not inevitable. People's awareness of potential bias, their motivation and opportunity to control it, and sometimes their consciously held beliefs can determine whether biases in the mind will manifest in action. Finally, a new line of research suggests that implicit biases exhibited by individuals who belong to socially disadvantaged groups towards their own group may have unintended behavioral consequences that are harmful to their ingroup and themselves.
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This research shows stereotype activation is controlled by chronic egalitarian goals. In the first 2 studies it was found that the stereotype of women is equally available to individuals with and without chronic goals, and the discriminant validity of the concept of egalitarian goals was established. In the next 2 experiments, differences in stereotype activation as a function of this individual difference were found. In Study 3, participants read attributes following stereotypical primes. Facilitated response times to stereotypical attributes were found for nonchronics but not for chronics. This lack of facilitation occurred at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) where effortful correction processes could not operate, demonstrating preconscious control of stereotype activation due to chronic goals. In Study 4, inhibition of the stereotype was found at an SOA where effortful processes of stereotype suppression could not operate. The data reveal that goals are activated and used preconsciously to prevent stereotype activation, demonstrating both the controllability of stereotype activation and the implicit role of goals in cognitive control.
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Three studies examined the moderating role of motivations to respond without prejudice (e.g., internal and external) in expressions of explicit and implicit race bias. In all studies, participants reported their explicit attitudes toward Blacks. Implicit measures consisted of a sequential priming task (Study 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 used a cognitive busyness manipulation to preclude effects of controlled processing on implicit responses. In each study, explicit race bias was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice, whereas implicit race bias was moderated by the interaction of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Specifically, high internal, low external participants exhibited lower levels of implicit race bias than did all other participants. Implications for the development of effective self-regulation of race bias are discussed.
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Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes.
Article
Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
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A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
Article
Immediately before a visually presented target, a string of letters that was to be quickly classified as a word or nonword, the subject saw a prime, a word either semantically related (R) or unrelated (U) to the target. Before this prime, the subject had received visual satiation (V) or both visual and verbal satiation (B) on a word either identical (I) to the prime itself or related to neither (N) the prime or target. Decision times to word targets were faster under condition R than U, but equally so under conditions VI, VN, BI, and BN. Averaged across conditions R and U, decision times to word targets were slower under condition BI than under conditions VI, VN, and BN; decision times to nonword targets under the same four conditions were equal. The results are discussed in terms of the semantic-satiation hypothesis, which they fail to support.
Article
Three experiments demonstrated implicit gender stereotyping. A target's social category determined the use of previously primed stereotyped information, without Ss' awareness of such influence. After unscrambling sentences describing neutral or stereotyped behaviors about dependence or aggression, Ss evaluated a female or male target. Although ratings of female and male targets did not differ after exposure to neutral primes, Ss exposed to dependence primes rated a female target as more dependent than a male target who performed identical behaviors (Exp 1A). Likewise, Ss rated a male, but not a female, target as more aggressive after exposure to aggression primes compared with neutral primes (Exp 1B). Exp 2 replicated the implicit stereotyping effect and additionally showed no relationship between explicit memory for primes and judgment of target's dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter focuses on preconscious triggering and pursuit of temporarily adopted goals. It introduces seeming paradoxes of preconscious control, such as the notions of unintended intentions and uncontrolled control, and examines the theory and evidence that provides the rationale and support for the preconscious regulation of temporary goals. There are three theoretical points that provide the basis for implicit volition model: goals are knowledge structures that can be triggered by relevant cues in the environment without the person's awareness that any given knowledge structure has attained a state of heightened fluency or accessibility; goal can come to be automatically activated through frequent and habitual pairing of specific goals with specific features of the environment; and an aversive state is experienced when a goal has not been met. The chapter determines that a goal can be consciously selected but trigger implicit processes regulating movement toward successfully attaining the goal. The goal itself can be implicitly triggered and lead to both explicit and implicit operations aimed at goal attainment.
Article
An experiment was conducted to assess whether the effects of inadmissible information in a simulated criminal trial is moderated by race. The significant interaction between information admissibility and defendant's race indicated that the effect of inadmissible information was stronger when the defendant was Black. More specifically, perceptions of the appropriate verdict did not vary as a function of race in the admissible or control condition. On the other hand, in the inadmissible condition, perceptions of the appropriate verdict were higher for the Black defendant than for the White defendant. Interestingly, subjects in the Black-defendant-inadmissible condition felt that they were less affected by the inadmissible information than subjects in the White-defendant-inadmissible condition.
Article
In a modified 4 * 4 factorial design with race (Black-White) of the harm-doer and race (Black-White) of the victim as the major factors, the phenomenon of differential social perception of intergroup violence was established. In the study, which used a modification of Interaction Process Analysis, 96 White paid undergraduates, observing a videotape of purported ongoing interaction occurring in another room, labeled an act (ambiguous shove) as more violent when it was performed by a Black than when the same act was perpetrated by a White, indicating that the concept of violence was more accessible when viewing a Black, as compared to a White, committing the same act. Causal attributions were also divergent. Situation attributions were preferred when the harm-doer was White, and person (dispositional) attributions were preferred in the Black-protagonist conditions. Results are discussed in terms of perceptual threshold, stereotypy, and attributional biases. (21 ref)
Article
The present work investigated whether an approach used previously to eliminate racial bias in decisions to shoot criminal suspects could eliminate racial bias in the identification of sporting equipment and whether people's motivation to respond without prejudice influences the elimination of bias on a computer simulation program. Participants were exposed to multiple decision trials on a simulation that asked them to decide whether an object presented with a Black or White face was related to sports. The simulation was designed so that the race of the face was nondiagnostic of the presence of sporting equipment. Although participants tended to misidentify neutral objects as sports-related when paired with Black faces, after training, this bias was eliminated. In addition, those high in internal motivation to respond without prejudice were particularly proficient at eliminating the bias. These findings indicate that repeatedly exposing people to social stimuli where race is nondiagnostic can eliminate racial biases resulting from positive as well as negative racial stereotypes, particularly for those personally motivated to eliminate bias.
Article
Automatic stereotype activation can be overcome intentionally and after an extensive training. However, intentions have to be tailored to a certain social category. It is hypothesized that activating the mindset “think different” by priming creativity prevents stereotypes and associations in general from becoming automatically activated. In two experiments a creative, a thoughtful or no mindset was activated. Afterwards, the activation of associations was measured using a lexical decision task with semantic priming. As predicted, the automatic activation of stereotypes (Study 1) and other associations (Study 2) was found in the control conditions but not in a creative mindset. These results suggest that people possess a mindset that allows for overcoming automatic stereotype activation without being tailored to a specific category.
Article
impression formation processes are assumed to be bottom-up, or data-driven, with an integrated representation of the individual person as the final product / challenges this prevailing view of the person perception process by proposing an alternative model of social cognition that incorporates top down processing as well as data-driven constructions differences between these two modes of impression formation are elaborated implications for how and when social cognition differs from object perception are discussed comparison of processing stages identification / automatic processing typing / structure and format of person categories person types / words or images impression formation as category matching individuation / intracategory differentiation personalization / formation of person-based impressions (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments tested the hypothesis that people high and low in prejudice respond similarly to direct stereotype activation but differently to category activation. Study I ( N = 40) showed that high- and low-prejudice people share the same knowledge of the stereotype of Black people. In Study 2, ( N = 51) high-prejudice participants formed a more negative and less positive impression of the target person after subliminal priming of the category Blacks than did participants in the no-prime condition. Low-prejudice people tended in the opposite direction. In Study 3 ( N = 45), both high- and low-prejudice people increased negative ratings when valenced stereotype content was also primed. These findings support a distinction between automatic stereotype activation resulting from direct priming and that consequent upon category activation, implying that the relations among categorization, stereotyping, and prejudice are more flexible than it is often assumed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The experiments in this article were conducted to observe the automatic activation of gender stereotypes and to assess theoretically specified conditions under which such stereotype priming may be moderated. Across 4 experiments, 3 patterns of data were observed: (1) evidence of stereotype priming under baseline conditions of intention and high cognitive constraints; (2) significant reduction of stereotype priming when a counterstereotype intention was formed even though cognitive constraints were high; and (3) complete reversal of stereotype priming when a counterstereotype intention was formed and cognitive constraints were low. These data support proposals that stereotypes may be automatically activated, as well as proposals that perceivers can control and even eliminate such effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies with 182 White female college students investigated the effects of cognitive busyness on the activation and application of stereotypes. In Exp 1, not-busy Ss who were exposed to an Asian target showed evidence of stereotype activation, but busy Ss (who rehearsed an 8-digit number during their exposure) did not. In Exp 2, cognitive busyness once again inhibited the activation of stereotypes about Asians. However, when stereotype activation was allowed to occur, busy Ss (who performed a visual search task during their exposure) were more likely to apply these activated stereotypes than were not-busy Ss. Together, these findings suggest that cognitive busyness may decrease the likelihood that a particular stereotype will be activated but increase the likelihood that an activated stereotype will be applied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors argue that self-image maintenance processes play an important role in stereotyping and prejudice. Three studies demonstrated that when individuals evaluated a member of a stereotyped group, they were less likely to evaluate that person negatively if their self-images had been bolstered through a self-affirmation procedure, and they were more likely to evaluate that person stereotypically if their self-images had been threatened by negative feedback. Moreover, among those individuals whose self-image had been threatened, derogating a stereotyped target mediated an increase in their self-esteem. The authors suggest that stereotyping and prejudice may be a common means to maintain one's self-image, and they discuss the role of self-image-maintenance processes in the context of motivational, sociocultural, and cognitive approaches to stereotyping and prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It is the thesis of this paper that the principles involved in processes of organization in the perceptual field can be applied profitably to the perception of other persons and their behavior and "that one of the features of the organization of the social field is the attribution of a change to a perceptual unit." Thus a change in the environment gains its meaning from the source to which it is attributed. This causal integration, of major importance in the organization of the social field, is responsible for the formation of units which consist of persons and acts and which follow the laws of perceptual unit formation. "Tensions within the person can influence this social causal integration." 64-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
presents an overview of the cognitive analysis of stereotypes and stereotyping / view stereotypes as cognitive categories that are used by the social perceiver in processing information about people address, from a cognitive perspective, the questions of why people develop stereotypes, the role of cognitive mechanisms in their development, and how cognitive processes can contribute to the perpetuation of stereotypic beliefs the categorization process in social perception / cognitive origins of social categories (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the process leading to the confirmation of a perceiver's expectancies about another when the social label that created the expectancy provides poor or tentative evidence about another's true dispositions or capabilities. Ss were 67 undergraduates. One group was led to believe that a child came from a high SES background; the other group, that the child came from a low SES background. Nothing in the SES data conveyed information directly relevant to the child's ability level, and when asked, both groups reluctantly rated the child's ability level to be approximately at grade level. Two other groups received the SES information and then witnessed a videotape of the child taking an academic test. Although the videotaped series was identical for all Ss, those who had information that the child came from a high SES rated her abilities well above grade level, whereas those for whom the child was identified as coming from a lower-class background rated her abilities as below grade level. Both groups cited evidence from the ability test to support their conclusions. Findings are interpreted as suggesting that some "stereotype" information creates not certainties but hypotheses about the stereotyped individual. However, these hypotheses are often tested in a biased fashion that leads to their false confirmation. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This research examines whether spontaneous, unintentional discriminatory behavior can be moderated by an implicit (nonconscious) motivation to control prejudice. We operationalize implicit motivation to control prejudice (IMCP) in terms of an implicit negative attitude toward prejudice (NAP) and an implicit belief that oneself is prejudiced (BOP). In the present experiment, an implicit stereotypic association of Blacks (vs. Whites) with weapons was positively correlated with the tendency to “shoot” armed Black men faster than armed White men (the “Shooter Bias”) in a computer simulation. However, participants relatively high in implicit negative attitude toward prejudice showed no relation between the race-weapons stereotype and the shooter bias. Implicit belief that oneself is prejudiced had no direct effect on this relation, but the interaction of NAP and BOP did. Participants who had a strong association between self and prejudice (high BOP) but a weak association between prejudice and bad (low NAP) showed the strongest relation between the implicit race-weapons stereotype and the Shooter Bias, suggesting that these individuals freely employed their stereotypes in their behavior.
Article
Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring all represent “epistemic freezing” in which the lay-knower becomes less aware of plausible alternative hypotheses and/or inconsistent bits of evidence competing with a given judgment. It was hypothesized that epistemic freezing would increase with an increase in time pressure on the lay-knower to make a judgment and decrease with the layknower's fear that his/her judgment will be evaluated and possibly be in error. Accordingly, it was predicted that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and anchoring phenomena would increase in magnitude with an increase in time pressure and decrease in magnitude with an increase in evaluation apprehension. Finally, the time-pressure variations were expected to have greater impact upon “freezing” when the evaluation apprehension is high as opposed to low. All hypotheses were supported in each of the presently executed studies.
Article
Past research has shown that people who are motivated primarily by their internalized beliefs to respond without prejudice are less likely to show implicit forms of racial bias (e.g., Devine, P. G., Plant, E. A., Amodio, D. M., Harmon-Jones, E., & Vance, S. L. (2002). The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: The role of motivations to respond without prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 835–848). We tested the idea that such individuals inhibit implicit race bias by automatically activating egalitarian goals. Study 1 showed that participants high in internal motivation but low in external motivation (i.e., primary internal) displayed more egalitarianism, but only after they had been subliminally exposed to African American faces. Study 2 showed that primary internal motivation was associated with lower levels of automatic stereotype activation and this effect was mediated by egalitarian goal activation. These results provide converging evidence that the relationship between primary internal motivation and low levels of implicit bias stems from the activation of egalitarian goals. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to reduce cognitive and affective forms of implicit racial bias.
Article
This research investigated the nature of contemporary racial stereotypes and their role in social cognition. A priming experiment was conducted in which racial categories (black, white) were presented as primes, and positive and negative black and white stereotypic words were presented as test stimuli. Subjects were asked to indicate (by pressing a response key) whether the test word characteristic could “ever be true” of the prime category or was “always false,” and reaction time was recorded. As predicted, primes of black and white most facilitated response to traits stereotypically attributed to these social groups. Thus, there appear to be important similarities between the information processing of object categories and the representation and use of stereotypes in social categorization. In addition, responses to the positive and negative evaluative words suggest that positive traits are more strongly associated with whites than with blacks, and negative characteristics are more strongly associated with blacks than with whites. Implications of these findings for social cognition, racial attitudes, and nonreactive measurement are discussed.
Article
Recent research demonstrates that goal pursuit can be instigated without conscious interventions when the mental accessibility of goal representations is enhanced by environmental cues. However, the mechanisms producing this non-conscious, motivational, goal-directed activity are not clearly addressed in the literature. In this chapter we present a framework within which the non-conscious activation of goal-directed behaviour can be understood. The framework departs from the idea that a goal is represented as a desired state and identifies three characteristics of this representation that render non-conscious goal pursuit more likely to occur: its mental accessibility, the discrepancy of the represented state with the actual state, and its association with positive affect. We present findings, largely established in our own labs, that demonstrate the crucial role of these three factors. We will close the chapter by showing how the framework can help to address some of the pressing issues in the research on non-conscious goal pursuit.
Article
Does self-image threatening feedback make perceivers more likely to activate stereotypes when confronted by members of a minority group? Participants in Study 1 saw an Asian American or European American woman for several minutes, and participants in Studies 2 and 3 were exposed to drawings of an African American or European American male face for fractions of a second. These experiments found no evidence of automatic stereotype activation when perceivers were cognitively busy and when they had not received negative feedback. When perceivers had received negative feedback, however, evidence of stereotype activation emerged even when perceivers were cognitively busy. The theoretical implications of these results for stereotype activation and the relationship of motivation, affect, and cognition are discussed. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68770/2/10.1177_01461672982411001.pdf