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A current overview of consumer neuroscience

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Abstract

The emerging discipline of neuroeconomics employs methods originally used in brain research for investigating economic problems, and furthers the advance of integrating neuroscientific findings into the economic sciences. Neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience is a sub-area of neuroeconomics that addresses marketing relevant problems with methods and insights from brain research. With the help of advanced techniques of neurology, which are applied in the field of consumer neuroscience, a more direct view into the “black box” of the organism should be feasible. Consumer neuroscience, still in its infancy, should not be seen as a challenge to traditional consumer research, but constitutes a complementing advancement for further investigation of specific decision-making behavior. The key contribution of this paper is to suggest a distinct definition of consumer neuroscience as the scientific proceeding, and neuromarketing as the application of these findings within the scope of managerial practice. Furthermore, we aim to develop a foundational understanding of the field, moving away from the derisory assumption that consumer neuroscience is about locating the “buy button” in the brain. Against this background the goal of this paper is to present specific results of selected studies from this emerging discipline, classified according to traditional marketing-mix instruments such as product, price, communication, and distribution policies, as well as brand research. The paper is completed by an overview of the most prominent brain structures relevant for consumer neuroscience, and a discussion of possible implications of these insights for economic theory and practice. Copyright

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... So, it means that neuromarketing is an interdisciplinary field that incorporates knowledge from neuroscience and its methodology to understand and predict consumer behavior [17]. Some authors consider neuromarketing as a subarea within another discipline with the prefix neuro -neuroeconomics [13]. Plassmann and colleagues [28] suggest that neuromarketing can be distinguished from consumer neuroscience by restricting the former to industry applications and the latter to academia. ...
... Plassmann and colleagues [28] suggest that neuromarketing can be distinguished from consumer neuroscience by restricting the former to industry applications and the latter to academia. At first glance, it may seem that authors such as Huber and Kenning [13] are using terms such as neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience interchangeably, but they make clear distinctions between them. Similar to Plassmann et al. [28], Huber and Kenning [13] define neuroscience as a research approach and place it within boundaries of academic discourse, while neuromarketing "designates the application of the findings from consumer neuroscience within the scope of managerial practice" [13, p. 274]. ...
... At first glance, it may seem that authors such as Huber and Kenning [13] are using terms such as neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience interchangeably, but they make clear distinctions between them. Similar to Plassmann et al. [28], Huber and Kenning [13] define neuroscience as a research approach and place it within boundaries of academic discourse, while neuromarketing "designates the application of the findings from consumer neuroscience within the scope of managerial practice" [13, p. 274]. ...
Article
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Neuromarketing showed up as a new interdisciplinary field that bridges neuroscience and marketing. A relatively young field that was born within the "neuroculture" matrix is covered with a veil of mystery and often misrepresented in the media as a powerful tool used by corporations to manipulate consumers' preferences, purchasing behavior, etc. In this paper, we have done an extensive literature review in order to put light on some dilemmas and take off the veil of mystery that surrounds neuromarketing. Firstly, (i) we discussed the definition and context in which neuromarketing emerged, (ii) important brain areas in consumer neuroscience which find their application in neuromarketing research, (iii) techniques used in neuromarketing (neuroimaging and non-neuroimaging), (iv) ethical issues in the field of neuromarketing (a part of neuroethics), and (v) limitations and recommendations for future development of neuromarketing.
... Note that there is a slight but crucial difference between the concepts of neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience, despite these have been interchangeably used. Neuromarketing is a fashionable concept more related to the practical and industry application of theory and knowledge obtained from consumer neuroscience (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). The current research precisely aims to answer the MSI's questions and become a guide for marketing researchers interested in neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience to learn about the origin and definition of this discipline, its main tools, and the use that can be made Advances in neuroscience and marketing of neurophysiological techniques to advance marketing research. ...
... This was the birth of neuroeconomics (Camerer et al., 2005). While the standard economic literature forecasts behavioral responses by means of theory-based constructs (namely, preferences or utility), cognitive neuroscience is based on the physiological responses that affect economic decision-making (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). Along this line, some authors have been interested in understanding the theoretical foundations of the dual process theory, an economic perspective that suggests that human cognition can be seen as the result of a "higher" controlled mental process (called System 2) and a "lower" heuristic one (called System 1) (Camerer et al., 2005). ...
... Consumer behavior and marketing scholars were the next social science academics to use cognitive and affective neuroscience theories and tools to inform marketing. This resulted in the birth of consumer neuroscience, which uses neurophysiological tools to understand events of crucial importance to marketing theory, such as predictable and unpredictable purchases, rewards, trust, willingness to pay (WTP), self-relevance, self-interest, memory or emotional engagement (Hubert and Kenning, 2008;S anchez-Fern andez et al., 2021). Section 4 of the current research develops the most remarkable and outstanding research questions and domains that could greatly benefit from the application of neurophysiological tools and theories. ...
Article
Purpose-This study aims to illuminate the contribution of neurophysiological techniques in the field of marketing and consumer decision-making and to highlight avenues and research questions that marketing researchers can take advantage of from neuroscience and psychology to inform marketing phenomena. Methodology-The authors first reviewed the roots and definition of consumer neuroscience. Then, the authors outlined the main characteristics of the most commonly used neurophysiological tools (namely, skin conductance, facial electromyography, electrocardiogram, eye-tracking, electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation) with a special emphasis on their advantages and weaknesses. Finally, the authors propose the development ofresearch lines that could be implemented by marketing researchers with an appropriate application and understanding of tools and theories of neuroscience and psychology. Findings – The authors propose research questions to be addressed within four thematic areas: opportunities in product decisions (predicting product purchasing decisions, consumer responses to branding efforts and packaging), pricing, communication and retailing scenarios. The authors also incorporate insights into the complementarity of neurophysiological tools to traditional ones and situations in which these tools are useful for enhancing marketing theory. The authors finally shed light on the moral–ethical criticisms of this new branch of marketing. Value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research constitutes the first study in identifying the research opportunities that marketing researchers could take advantage from neuroimaging and physiological tools to inform marketing theory and practice.
... With respect to definitions of neuromarketing, we mostly are interested in those seing it as a research tool on consumers' behaviour, or the measurement of emotions and psychological processes, since the vast majority of studies define neuromarketing basically as the link between marketing and neuroscience (Ohme, Matukin, 2012;Vecchiato et al., 2012;Page, 2012) The former, are well represented in the description of neuromarketing as: a research tool that provides direct observation of brain reactions during marketing stimuli (Hubert, Kenning, 2008). ...
... The possibility to obtain insight form consumers' brain processes, opens the path to better understand and also predict consumers' behaviour (Fischer et al., 2010;Hubert, Kenning, 2008), the application of neuroscience methods offers the potential to understand individuals' behaviour in relation to marketing. ...
... More in a strictly marketing purpose, it makes it possible to select and enhance marketing elements that arise consumers' positive reaction, and avoid those who trigger feelings of unease or aversion, with respect to visual and sound effects implied by the marketing message Bialkova et al., 2014;Bialkova et al., 2011) . It is extremely useful, however, examining the role of marketing in branding and the way branding or label information affect consumers' response (Hubert, Kenning, 2008). Especially, neuromarkenting allows the acces and assessment of information that goes beyond human consciousness, that is relevant since purchasing processes happen on a subconscious basis, more than on a rational one (Garcia, Saad, 2008, Butler, 2008, Fugate, 2008. ...
Article
It is well recognized that decisions are taken by consumers on a wider basis than the rational itself. Neuromarketing is a field of studies that merges brain science with marketing knowledge. Methods based on neuroscience and technology can be used to better understand the way consumers react and process information from marketing stimuli. Mostly, neuromarketing techniques are used by agri-food firms in order to encourage specific types of food consumption, not always on the purpose of enhancing consumers' well being, healthy eating habits and public health. Among various kind of neuroscience techniques, neuroimaging has been used in order to reveal information about consumer preferences, since they pro-vide knowledge about the way consumers process marketing stimulus, and the consequent decision making. The number of studies dealing with neuromarketing is constantly growing althought it suffers for some limits that many researchers identify with sustainable ethical issues. For the purpose of the present study, we are interested mainly in the way specific marketing messages can generate an emo-tional response, and consequent consumer choice, respecting the parameters of ethical sustainability.
... This can help with visual and audio feature selection and timing for a successful commercial [11]. This will undoubtedly aid in the design of brands, brand research, and the impact on the customer's decision-making process [13]. Neuromarketing provides new avenues for studying and identifying the causes of hedonic shopping disorders, as well as the potential for its application in successful advertising. ...
... As a result, customer preferences and purchase decisions will be influenced. Advertisements that elicit comforting and soothing feelings elicit a sense of identity and activate reward regions in the customer's brain [13]. Advertising businesses can use neuromarketing to detect subsets of commercials, such as graphics, sound effects, and slogans to create more successful ads. ...
... Neuromarketing has served lot of benefits to the marketers as it helps in creating a better knowledge of the brain of the potential consumer's and positively influences their decision-making process [5][10] [13] [37]. Most of the consumer groups and allies are using this concept. ...
Article
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Purpose: The concept of neuro-marketing is explored as an emerging economic approach that originated from human brain research and traditional marketing facts. The core idea of the paper is to understand the concept of Neuromarketing and its influence on customers’ decision-making process. Design: The benefits of various neuromarketing tactics on various market input devices are studied in the paper. From available literature and research studies, the influence of neuromarketing’s various techniques and procedures on verifiable marketing success is been highlighted. Findings: Neuromarketing concept has gain lot of importance in recent years. It has contributed in the various fields of marketing such as framing marketing strategies, selection of brand, consumer behaviour, advertising, ethical concerns and decision-making. The study highlights the importance of neuromarketing principles and concepts for engaging neuroscience in the field of marketing and understanding consumer behaviour which could help in planning new marketing strategies based on neuroscience. Originality: The impact of sensory aspects on a customer’s perception and conscious or subconscious purchasing choice is highlighted in this study. It also addresses the ethical problems that have been raised concerning neuromarketing. In this study, the benefits, limitations, ethical difficulties, and future potential of neuromarketing are discussed. Value: A neuromarketing study will help the companies compete for market leadership, increase customer base and convert them into loyal consumers. It will help to determine what the customer wants, what services he likes, and how to draw the consumer's attention. Marketers can understand customer behaviour, including how it reacts to a company's advertising, brand, and product quality. Neuro-marketing can help a marketer to increase their turnover. Type of Paper: Conceptual Paper.
... It is about -neuromarketing. The relationship between marketing and psychology is already present in marketing research (Grbac & Lončarić, 2010) and is now being upgraded with links to neuroscience, so neuromarketing can be defined as a sub-area of neuroeconomics that implies the use of methods originally applied in brain research aiming to analyze problems relevant to marketing (Hubert & Kenning, 2008). As Camerer, Loewenstein, and Prelec (2004) described literally, the basis of neuroeconomics (including neuromarketing) can be explained by the phraseme "ask the brain, not the person." ...
... A more detailed analysis explains two close terms: "neuromarketing" and "consumer neuroscience" (Ramsøy, 2014;Hubert & Kenning, 2008). "Consumer neuroscience" implies scientific proceedings and ascertaining of neurophysiological responses of an individual during the decision-making process concerning market transactions. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to determine the way functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as a research tool in neuromarketing, is used and to analyze important elements of conducting such research, as well as defining all relevant terms regarding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Design/Methodology/Approach – The research study focused on conducting an fMRI experiment, using the observation method, survey, and interview methods. Findings and implications – By analyzing all steps in the fMRI experiment procedure and determining how to conduct fMRI research, obstacles in this kind of research were identified to establish what needs to be overcome for proceeding with further studies. Limitations – Numerous limitations included lack of adequate equipment and software, huge administrative barriers, and finding experts capable of conducting this kind of research. Originality – This research study combined the topics of sensory marketing, neuromarketing, and social marketing. Furthermore, it contributes to clearing the path for this kind of research approach in the future, representing a new trend that is here to stay.
... 21. Yüzyılın başında Daniel Kahneman'ın aldığı ekonomi Nobel ödülüyle ve sonrasında yazdığı Hızlı ve Yavaş Düşün (Kahneman, 2011) isimli kitabıyla önemi daha da anlaşılan tüketici nörobilimi, kişilerin algısal reaksiyonlarını anlamak için onlara sorular sormaktansa nörolojik aktivasyonları ölçmeye yönelmektedir (Shahriari vd., 2020: 261). Bu çabanın en önemli sebebi beynin limbik sisteminde şekillenen duygusal yönelimlerin ortaya çıkarılmasında beyanla veri alma yöntemini beyin görüntüleme sistemiyle desteklenme çabasıdır (Hubert & Kenning, 2008). ...
... Tüketici nörobilmi, beyin görüntüleme tekniklerinin yaygınlaşmasıyla iş dünyasında çok daha sık kullanılmaya başlanmıştır (Hubert & Kenning, 2008). Sözü geçen beyin görüntüleme teknikleri arasında en çok kullanılan yöntemler EEG, fMRI ve fNIRs olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır (Plassmann, 647 Venkatraman, Huettel, & Yoon;2015). ...
... Therefore, "neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience can be understood as a subarea of neuroeconomics that addresses marketing-relevant problems with methods and insights from brain research. With the help of advanced techniques of neurology, which are applied in the field of consumer neuroscience, a more direct view into the "black box" of the organism should be feasible" [26]. However, consumer neuroscience should not be seen as a challenge to traditional consumer research; instead, it constitutes a beneficial complementary advancement for further investigation of specific decision-making behavior [26]. ...
... With the help of advanced techniques of neurology, which are applied in the field of consumer neuroscience, a more direct view into the "black box" of the organism should be feasible" [26]. However, consumer neuroscience should not be seen as a challenge to traditional consumer research; instead, it constitutes a beneficial complementary advancement for further investigation of specific decision-making behavior [26]. ...
Article
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In the current era of a strongly competitive business environment, it is more difficult for companies to attract customers. Consumer neuroscience has growing potential here, as it reveals internal consumer preferences by using innovative methods and tools, which can effectively examine consumer behavior and attract new customers. In particular, smell has a great ability to subconsciously influence customers and, thus, support profitability. This paper examines the importance of consumer neuroscience and its modern technologies used for exploring human perceptions to influence customers and benefit from the aromatization of business spaces. We focused our analysis on various service sectors. Despite the potential of the examined issue, there are a limited number of studies in the field of service providers that use neuroscience tools to examine the effect of aromas on human emotions. Most studies took place in laboratory conditions, and the used methodological procedures varied widely. Our analysis showed that, in spite of the positive impact of aromatization in the majority of aromatized spaces, service companies still do not use the potential of consumer neuroscience and aroma marketing to a sufficient degree. Innovative methods and tools, in particular, are still very underused.
... Finally, let's get down to business with the word "neuromarketing." Even though there are several exceptional meanings, here is the summaryof the most important ones: -Neuromarketing can be thought of as a sub-discipline of neuroeconomics, and thus of neurosciences, that deals with problems in advertising and marketing by employing strategies from brain research in managerial practice‖ (Hubert, 2010;Gang et al., 2012;Hubert, and Kenning, 2008;Dapkevičius, and Melnikas, 2011;. ...
... Therefore, brand strategy and well-known brands are important aspects of marketing, advertising, and marketing techniques and must be respected by marketers' resources. The significant difference in psychological interest between conventional producers and preference producers (Kenning and Linzmay, 2011;Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Depp et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
For more than a decade, academics and policymakers have debated the emergence of neuroeconomics, which applies brain science methods and procedures to economics. Neuromarketing is one subset of neuroeconomics. "Neuromarketing" is the method of using neuroscientific data to solve marketing-related problems. Neuromarketing is the measurement of physiological and neural impulses to understand customer's motivations, preferences, and choices. This paper aims to scrutinize neuromarketing managerial applications in marketing and figure out how to deal with them. A critical literature review is used to perform this study. Following a summary of the context of neuromarketing, its terms and methods, conclusions, and implications for consumer research, the study concludes with an overview of the key ethical implications, followed by a discussion of countermeasures. The literature review will be completed by determining if it can be found, the research questions that have been addressed, the need for additional research, and the emergence of new questions. However assumptions revealed that there are significant variations in the audience for visual attention, with strong brands receiving more attention. The findings will aid in the development of more successful marketing strategies and goods, resulting in a better customer experience. In addition, results show that neuromarketing has a high prospective for consumer research that makes the collection of information and new insights for business to develop ideas based around customer-centric. The research proposal is both practical and theoretical about the research subject. It raises awareness of the consequences for the protection of the consumer and privacy.Therefore, this paper confirms which is important for organisations, the public and marketers to better understand the requirements for using neuroscientific methods in all marketing areas.
... Finally, let's get down to business with the word "neuromarketing." Even though there are several exceptional meanings, here is the summaryof the most important ones: -Neuromarketing can be thought of as a sub-discipline of neuroeconomics, and thus of neurosciences, that deals with problems in advertising and marketing by employing strategies from brain research in managerial practice‖ (Hubert, 2010;Gang et al., 2012;Hubert, and Kenning, 2008;Dapkevičius, and Melnikas, 2011;. ...
... Therefore, brand strategy and well-known brands are important aspects of marketing, advertising, and marketing techniques and must be respected by marketers' resources. The significant difference in psychological interest between conventional producers and preference producers (Kenning and Linzmay, 2011;Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Depp et al., 2005). ...
... Attention can be defined as the ability to focus on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other information (Venkatraman et al., 2015). In particular, attention in the market field is the degree to which consumers focus on a stimulus, a prerequisite for information processing and, therefore, a key step in the consumer's decision-making process (Varela et al., 2014;Krucien 1 In the literature, we find different classifications of Neuromarketing and Consumer Neuroscience research (Lee et al., 2006;Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Plassmann et al., 2010;Ramsøy, 2014). Consumer neuroscience research can be defined as the study of neuropsychological mechanisms that support and lead consumer decision making and behaviour (Alvino et al., 2020), while Neuromarketing is the application of neuroscientific methods for conducting company-specific market research (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). ...
... In particular, attention in the market field is the degree to which consumers focus on a stimulus, a prerequisite for information processing and, therefore, a key step in the consumer's decision-making process (Varela et al., 2014;Krucien 1 In the literature, we find different classifications of Neuromarketing and Consumer Neuroscience research (Lee et al., 2006;Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Plassmann et al., 2010;Ramsøy, 2014). Consumer neuroscience research can be defined as the study of neuropsychological mechanisms that support and lead consumer decision making and behaviour (Alvino et al., 2020), while Neuromarketing is the application of neuroscientific methods for conducting company-specific market research (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). Thus, Consumer Neuroscience is considered as a scientific approach, while Neuromarketing is the application of Neuroscience methods to sell products. ...
Article
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During the decision-making process, consumers notice, inspect, and visually scan different products. External characteristics of a product, such as design, packaging, label, and logo, have been shown to strongly influence how customers perceive, assess, and select a product. Marketers have put a lot of effort into determining the factors that trigger consumers’ visual attention toward products, using traditional research methods, self-reports, or observations. The use of neuroscientific tools to study consumer behavior may improve our understanding of how external characteristics influence consumers’ visual attention. Consumer neuroscience research shows that preferences for a product may already be reflected in brain activity before customers make a final decision. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether the design of different wine labeling influences individual preferences, reflected in the neural activity related to visual attention. More specifically, we examined whether the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) can be used to assess and predict consumers’ preferences for a specific product based on its external characteristics. The PCN is commonly used to estimate attentional selection by focusing on stimulus-side dependent EEG lateralization above parieto-occipital areas. We computed the PCN to assess whether a certain wine label caught participants’ visual attention and additionally by comparing the PCN with behavioral data (wine preferences and reaction times) to determine whether early effects of visual attention could predict participants’ final preferences for a specific label. Our findings indicate that the PCN provides relevant information on visual attention mechanisms for external characteristics, as the view of the four labels modulated PCN amplitude. We hope this study can help researchers and practitioners in examining the effects of external product characteristics on consumer choice by estimating the changes in the EEG that are related to visual attention.
... The combination of techniques from marketing, neuroscience, and psychology has fostered the creation of a new field of marketing called consumer neuroscience, which overcomes most of the limitations of traditional tools [5,6]. This interdisciplinary arena is defined as "… the study of the neural conditions and processes that underlie consumption, their psychological meaning, and their behavioral consequences" [7]. In practice, a consumer neuroscientific experiment consists of indirectly measuring the subject's neural activation in reaction to a particular marketing feature (e.g., visual advertising) using neuroimaging techniques and/or other types of psychophysiological methods to identify the brain mechanisms experienced during consumer decision-making [7]. ...
... This interdisciplinary arena is defined as "… the study of the neural conditions and processes that underlie consumption, their psychological meaning, and their behavioral consequences" [7]. In practice, a consumer neuroscientific experiment consists of indirectly measuring the subject's neural activation in reaction to a particular marketing feature (e.g., visual advertising) using neuroimaging techniques and/or other types of psychophysiological methods to identify the brain mechanisms experienced during consumer decision-making [7]. ...
Article
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The limitations of self-report techniques (i.e., questionnaires or surveys) in measuring consumer response to advertising stimuli have necessitated more objective and accurate tools from the fields of neuroscience and psychology for the study of consumer behavior, resulting in the creation of consumer neuroscience. This recent marketing sub-field stems from a wide range of disciplines and applies multiple types of techniques to diverse advertising subdomains (e.g., advertising constructs , media elements, or prediction strategies). Due to its complex nature and continuous growth, this area of research calls for a clear understanding of its evolution, current scope, and potential domains in the field of advertising. Thus, this current research is among the first to apply a biblio-metric approach to clarify the main research streams analyzing advertising persuasion using neu-roimaging. Particularly, this paper combines a comprehensive review with performance analysis tools of 203 papers published between 1986 and 2019 in outlets indexed by the ISI Web of Science database. Our findings describe the research tools, journals, and themes that are worth considering in future research. The current study also provides an agenda for future research and therefore constitutes a starting point for advertising academics and professionals intending to use neuroim-aging techniques.
... This author concludes that the use of neuroscience techniques such as neural activity imaging can support conventional marketing techniques and improve their effectiveness. Hubert and Kenning (2008) agree with the views discussed by Fugate, however, they state a difference between consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing; for these authors the former is a scientific procedure, but the latter is the application of the findings of neuroscience to management practices. They conclude that consumer neuroscience is an emerging field of study that can meaningfully complement consumer studies. ...
... A current overview of consumer neuroscience (Hubert & Kenning, 2008) 336 Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness 1112 Neuroethics of neuromarketing (Murphy et al., 2008) 258 Changes in Brain Activity During the Observation of TV Commercials by Using EEG, GSR and HR Measurements (Vecchiato et al., 2010) 163 ...
Article
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This document aims to conduct a literature review in order to identify evolution and research trends in the area of neuromarketing. To achieve this objective, a science mapping approach was adopted. Science mapping is an innovative and appropriate tool used in systematic literature reviews by integrating bibliometrics and network analyses. In the case of this paper, an exploration of the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases was carried out. The records obtained enabled the construction of the network of the most relevant documents in the field, which were categorized into “classical”, “structural”, and “recent”. This process allowed for the identification of three perspectives or research correlates. Additionally, it became evident that neuromarketing is still an immature and incipient area with a low degree of theoretical consensus.
... In this regard, the growing and emerging branch of consumer neuroscience (Karmarkar & Plassmann, 2019) aims to achieve a better understanding of the neurophysiological aspects that determine consumer choice processes. This is done by integrating neuroscientific methods, findings, and theories into marketing research (Camerer, Loewenstein, & Prelec, 2005;Hubert & Kenning, 2008;Karmarkar, Shiv, & Knutson, 2015;Plassmann, Yoon, Feinberg, & Shiv 2010;Venkatraman, Clithero, Fitzsimons, & Huettel, 2012). Neuroscience measurements may have an advantage over surveys and self-reports about potential biases (Camerer & Yoon, 2015;Kenning & Plassmann, 2005;Plassmann, Huettel, & Yoon, 2015;Plassmann et al. 2010). ...
Article
This research examines the neurophysiological correlates of consumers’ price memory processes. We focus on the explicit and implicit dimensions of consumers’ price knowledge and use an experimental functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study to assess how the encoding of task-dependent price memory affects the choice process and neural activation. The findings of our study add to the field of consumer neuroscience by demonstrating how neural correlates of explicit and implicit task-dependent price memory can shed light on processes that guide consumer decision-making. Over the course of our experiment we found that consumers did not always make consistent decisions, but that their decisions were influenced by explicit components of price memory. Implicit price memory components seem to have a more supportive role in the decision-making process. In summary, we found that price memory is a dynamic construct that is influenced by unconscious and neurophysiological processes, and we conclude that a neurophysiological perspective can add value for consumer and marketing research.
... A second, related challenge, which has long spoiled CN research, is that of reverse inference (Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Breiter et al., 2015;Plassmann et al., 2015). The inductive reasoning employed in associative studies has led many researchers to interpret their findings in such a way that the engagement of a psychological process X during an experimental task A is inferred by the observation of neural activation within a specific region Z, which is suggested to be associated to that mental process by other studies (Poldrack, 2006). ...
... Uno de los aspectos inciertos es la catalogación de la disciplina como ciencia, ya que al analizar los artículos se observa una división de opiniones en la que algunos la encasillan como una parte del marketing (Fisher et al., 2010), otros como parte de la neuroeconomía (Hubert y Kenning, 2008), y otros como una faceta investigadora del comercio (Green y Holbert, 2012). García y Saad (2008) lo entienden como disciplina independiente, Baptista, León y Mora (2010) como un estudio de la percepción y del sistema nervioso, y otros como una forma para adquirir conocimiento científico. ...
Article
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Neuromarketing is an emerging and increasingly influential area of research into consumer behaviour and the advertising and marketing of products and services. Neuroscience provides access to valuable information that cannot be obtained by traditional techniques, helping marketers to understand consumer behaviour and motivation in order to influence their mind through the senses and persuade them to choose a particular product or service when evaluating different possible options. This article presents a brief theoretical review of the origin of the discipline and the most common neuroscientific techniques used to market products and services to customers based on how their brains work.
... Thus, from the previous research, there is potential to discover consumers' subconscious processes which determine the decision-making process, and it will reveal hidden information about consumers behavior which was not obtainable by the traditional marketing methods (Hubert, & Kenning, 2008;Senior, & Lee, 2008;and Roth, 2013). As Bechara & Damasio (2005), mentioned that consumers are no longer considered as completely rational, because emotions, subconscious and automatic processes, play a central role in generating behavior since consumers behavior is a root, driven by perceptions of a brand (Cobb-Walgren, Ruble, & Donthu, 1995). ...
Conference Paper
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Marketing is the core of a business and the primary goal of marketing is to bring the products to the target market. However, one of the main reasons some marketing strategies fail is because of the inability to understand the decision-making process that takes place in consumers' subconscious minds. This is because when consumers made a decision making, their conscious mind pays attention to the familiar item, but they did not know why they spend. Thus, marketers waste most of their budget by attracting only 10% of the brain that drives consumers' decisions. The objectives of this paper are to review the available literature on neuromarketing study on consumer behavior. This paper provides a review of studies based on neuromarketing principles focusing on customer behavior. For that reason, a suitable method is therefore essential for marketers to understand the underlying responses when consumers make a decision. Neuromarketing is a new method to examine consumers' subconscious minds towards the main component of marketing during the decision-making process. Neuromarketing will reveal hidden information about consumers' behavior which was not obtainable by the traditional marketing methods. Thus, neuromarketing can confirm, reconfigure, and improve consumer behavior and decision making.
... Importantly, consumers are usually not aware of the steps of simplifying the decision processes by eliminating (ignoring) some information and paying attention (giving more time) to certain, considered options. Hence, technological advances that enable to isolate key processes, which underlay individuals' preferences and reactions (e.g., buying behavior), attain increasing attention of the media, user analysts and researchers (Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Chynal et al., 2016;Oliveira et al., 2016;Gidlöf et al., 2017;Touchette and Lee, 2017;Spence, 2019). ...
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In the field of psychology, the merge of decision-theory and neuroscientific methods produces an array of scientifically recognized paradigms. For example, by exploring consumer’s eye-movement behavior, researchers aim to deepen the understanding of how patterns of retinal activation are being meaningfully transformed into visual experiences and connected with specific reactions (e.g., purchase). Notably, eye-movements provide knowledge of one’s homeostatic balance and gatekeep information that shape decisions. Hence, vision science investigates the quality of observed environments determined under various experimental conditions. Moreover, it answers questions on how human process visual stimuli and use gained information for a successful strategy to achieve certain goals. While capturing cognitive states with the support of the eye-trackers progresses at a relatively fast pace in decision-making research, measuring the visual performance of real-life tasks, which require complex cognitive skills, is tentatively translated into clinical experiments. Nevertheless, the potential of the human eye as a highly valuable source of biomarkers has been underlined. In this article, we aim to draw readers attention to decision-making experimental paradigms supported with eye-tracking technology among clinical populations. Such interdisciplinary approach may become an important component that will (i) help in objectively illustrating patient’s models of beliefs and values, (ii) support clinical interventions, and (iii) contribute to health services. It is possible that shortly, eye-movement data from decision-making experiments will grant the scientific community a greater understanding of mechanisms underlining mental states and consumption practices that medical professionals consider as obsessions, disorders or addiction.
... The highest samples of the studies examined are found in the field of eye-tracking, the lowest in the field of fMRI. A possible reason could be the costs associated with the fMRI experiments (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). Therefore, it should be mentioned in advance that the studies disclosed so far do not attain general validity and an interpretation of conclusions is only permissible within the context of the individual experiment (Weber, 2016). ...
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Research into consumer behavior is confronted with a multitude of challenges and special features. These become apparent in economic decision-making situations in which actual behavior deviates massively from rational explanatory models, such as the model of homo economicus, or when discrepancies are observed between statements made by individuals and their actions. As a common intersection between the economic and the neurosciences, neuroeconomics investigates human decision-making behavior from a neuroscientific perspective. The focus is particularly on explaining these antagonisms of human behavior and deriving motives. With the help of this potentially expandable knowledge, it is possible to subtly influence individual purchasing decisions at the neural level and to predict consumer behavior at the market level. In agricultural economics, for example in the field of food marketing, neuroeconomics could contribute to more reflective purchasing decisions and thus counteract global health challenges such as obesity. To date, no research has been conducted into the extent to which neuroeconomics has already been applied in agricultural scientific research. The objectives of the article are to provide an aggregated basic knowledge in the field of neuroeconomics, taking into account the applied methods as well as a literary overview of previous research in the context of agricultural economics. The article addresses all those interested in getting an overview of what neuroeconomics entails and how it is already being applied in agricultural research without any prior neuroscience background.
... Young has used the EEG to detect putative "branding moments" within TV commercials (Young, 2002). Other neuromarketing studies have been conducted for the assessment of the efficacy of TV advertising stimuli (Astolfi et al., 2008(Astolfi et al., , 2009Cherubino et al., 2016;Dimpfel, 2015;Ohme et al., 2009Ohme et al., , 2010Vecchiato et al., 2010Vecchiato et al., , 2011Vecchiato et al., , 2014Vecchiato et al., 2013), to investigate the consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials ( In 2008, Hubert and Kenning reported more than 800,000 Google hits for the term 'Neuromarketing' (Hubert & Kenning, 2008). In 2018, the same search yielded over 3 million hits underlining the rising interest in this topic, and there was an evolution of academic interest in neuromarketing. ...
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Advertising for non-profit organizations through television commercials is a valuable means of communication to raise awareness and receive donations. When it comes to social aspects, personal attitudes such as empathy are significant for reinforcing the intention to donate; and the study of eliciting emotions has critical attention in the literature, especially some types of emotion, such as guilt which mediates empathy. Different methodologies have been used to measure consumer emotions when faced with TV ads stimuli: mainly traditional techniques such as interviews or questionnaires after the ads viewing. In the last ten years, there has also been a great interest in new neuroscience techniques applied to measure emotional and cognitive reactions by physiological signals, frame by frame. Our research has applied neuromarketing technologies during the observation of a UNHCR commercial promoting legacy calls. The objective was to study cognitive and emotional reactions in order to increase the effectiveness whilst having the possibility to verify the results by measuring the benefits in terms of calls from contributors. The purpose of this research is to empirically prove the impact in calls thanks to changes in the message framing strategy in non-profit advertising suggested and measured by neuromarketing techniques. Particularly we measured the cerebral activity through an electroencephalogram to obtain an Approach-Withdrawal Index (AW); the heart rate and galvanic skin response through different sensors in the palm of one hand, to obtain an Emotional Index (EI), and finally, eye fixations through an eye tracker device to obtain the visual attention on key visual areas of the ads. After these indicators’ recordings on a sample of subjects, some suggestions to modify the advertising were made to create a more effective campaign. The results compared, those elicited by the first version of the spot (LVE) and those by the second version (HVE), confirmed that (1) the number of sellable and legacy calls increased with the message framing strategy modified in the second spot (HVE), (2) a lower cognitive and emotional reactions have been obtained in the final section of HVE, (3) the visual attention on the key information of the phone number to call, in the final call to action frames(CTA), was higher in HVE than in the first version of the spot (LVE), (4) the cognitive approach increased during the same CTA frames in HVE.
... In fact, many researchers concluded that the brain-based approach, known today as Neuromarketing, appears to have the potential of directly revealing much about consumer behaviour. In particular, Neuromarketing contributes to a better understanding of consumer decision making, brand preferences, shopping behaviour, and interpersonal in°uences in buying situations (for example, Plassmann et al., 2007;Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Agarwal and Dutta, 2015;Harris et al., 2018). Unlike traditional measures, Neuromarketing provides an opportunity to access data beyond what people consciously say (Bozoklu and Alkibay, 2016). ...
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Over the past three decades, there has been a growing interest in studying consumer behaviour directly through non-traditional, brain-based, approach using the basic knowledge of human neuroscience. This multidisciplinary approach has evolved into a new marketing branch, known as Neuromarketing, which goes inside the human brain to improve our knowledge of consumer behaviour. Neuromarketing traces neural circuit activities inside the brain using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology. This paper explores the existing literature on Neuromarketing to provide insights into the potential for improving our understanding of consumer behaviour. The paper concludes that Neuromarketing can offer a valuable opportunity to increase precision and validity of measuring consumer reactions to marketing activities, thus improve marketing knowledge of consumer choice behaviour. The paper also addresses the main ethical issues raised by critiques on the unprecedented access to consumers’ mind, and how advocates looked at such criticisms.
... One possible answer to the above issues involves Consumer Neuroscience, which focuses mainly on consumer behavior using methodological and conceptual approaches from neuroscience (Hubert and Kenning, 2008;Plassmann et al., 2010;Smidts et al., 2014). In the last two decades, in general, scientific research has increasingly turned to assessing the brain as one part of a multidisciplinary research program in order to better answer existing questions involving a number of psychological topics. ...
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Consumer neuroscience—as a valuable complement to traditional, largely behavioral, research methods—is attracting increasing interest from researchers of marketing and consumer behavior. Although this field has made very important contributions, most consumer neuroscience studies to date have mainly focused on individuals' brain responses to simple marketing stimuli in solitary, lab‐based, albeit well‐controlled, experimental settings. Thus, previous studies may not yet have tapped other promising approaches involving more ecologically valid, “real,” or social consumption experiences, which could add key extensions to past methods and results. This paper summarizes current findings of consumer neuroscience, including a brief overview of past approaches and topics of focus, and then more expansively targeting these emerging approaches, and proposes a methodological structure for future research emphasizing a movement from a single‐brain frame, in which single individuals passively observe and respond to marketing stimuli, to also multibrain perspectives, where group of consumers actively engage in consumption activities. Accordingly, a three‐layer approach to analysis is suggested, emphasizing not only (1) activation patterns and brain regions but also directed (2) intra‐ and inter‐brain networks with (3) dynamic processing. This review provides an important next step in the understanding of neural cognitive mechanisms underlying consumer behavior.
... The physical and emotional attachment to the products and attraction in advertisements influence the customers' preferences and decision making [143]. Advertisements generate comforting emotions which create a sense of empathy and affinity in customers [187]. Another challenge in study is the absence of integrity and reliability of the information provided by researchers. ...
Article
Neuromarketing is the application of neuroscience to the understanding of consumer preferences towards products and services. As such, it studies the neural activity associated with preference and purchase intent. Neuromarketing is considered an emerging area of research, driven in part by the approximately 400 billion dollars spent annually on advertisement and promotion. Given the size of this market, even a slight improvement in performance can have an immense impact. Traditional approaches to marketing consider a posteriori user feedback in the form of questionnaires, product ratings, or review comments, but these approaches do not fully capture or explain the real-time decision making process of consumers. Various physiological measurement techniques have been proposed to facilitate the recording of this crucial aspect of the decision making process, including brain imaging techniques (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Electroencephalography (EEG), Steady State Topography (SST)) and various biometric sensors. The use of EEG in neuromarketing is especially promising. EEG detects the sequential changes of brain activity, without appreciable time delay, needed to assess both the unconscious reaction and sensory reaction of the customer. Several types of EEG devices are now available in the market, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Researchers have conducted experiments using many of these devices, across different age groups and different categories of products. Because of the deep insights that can be gained, the field of neuromarketing research is carefully monitored by consumer and research protection groups to ensure that subjects are properly protected. This paper surveys a range of considerations for EEG-based neuromarketing strategies including, the types of information that can be gathered, how marketing stimuli are presented to consumers, how such strategies may affect the consumer in terms of appeal and memory, machine learning techniques applied in the field, and the variety of challenges faced, including ethics, in this emerging field.
... Butler (2008), suggests that neuromarketing tries to understand the biology of human behavior. Hubert and Kenning (2008), used the description "just a simple work tool" for neuromarketing. Georges et al., (2013), describe the neuro-marketing as knowledge of the human brain information process of ideas production mechanisms in order to influence the decisions of the mass with which businesses cooperate. ...
... First, "neuromarketing" is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years and has become a recommended, important, and revolutionary form of marketing research [25,39]. Recently, interests have increased in applying neuroscientific findings and methodologies to other disciplines [37,40]. For example, Nielsen, the market research firm, founded Nielsen NeuroFocus to provide consumer neuroscience explanations in marketing practices, adding the measurement of the subconscious mind to the company's knowledge base of the consumer. ...
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It is now common to apply functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore which areas of the human brain are activated during the decision-making process. In the study of consumer behaviors, product brand has been identified as a major factor affecting consumer purchase decisions. Prior studies indicate that the brand had a significant impact on brain activation. However, it is unsure if consumers’ brain activation is also significant when purchasing brand-name second-hand products (SHPs). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to verify the areas of brain neuron activation in the context of online auctions among consumers whose purchasing decisions are affected by an SHP’s brand. The results show that a brain region (i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex) activates significantly when comparing the purchasing decision-making process between new items and SHPs. The activation of the insula is also found when an SHP purchasing decision is made. In addition, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is activated significantly when purchasing brand-name SHPs. However, due to consumers’ preferences for different brands, there is no significant activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
... Ideally, advertising should be able to attack several senses [46]. Attractive or famous people influence customer preferences, which influences the purchase decision [52]. However, it is recommended to consider the purpose of advertising campaigns carefully. ...
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If a company wants to succeed in a tough competitive environment, it must consider all the options to be more visible. One of these possibilities is advertising, which exists in a considerable variety of forms. Therefore, our goal was to conduct a survey on the attitude of customers in Slovakia to several modern and traditional forms of advertising, which are used by companies for their visibility. Data were obtained from the questionnaires filled in by 244 respondents. We were interested in opinions on advertising oversaturation, the influence of advertising, annoyance by advertising, and credibility of advertising. In each of four topics, we investigated opinions on 21 different types of advertising, using non-parametric tests to determine the significance of differences, which means we used inductive statistics. According to respondents, the advertising on social networks has a higher influence than most other types of advertising. At the same time, it is not one of the most trusted forms, nor one of the most bothering forms. The right marketing strategy choice concerning time, money, form, and efficiency is a key factor to companies. Therefore, it is important for companies to use the right form or combination of forms of advertising to make themselves known depending on the type of product and its target group. To increase the sustainability of a company in the market, it is important to use the right form or combination of forms of advertising considering the product and the target group.
... Indeed, Camerer et al. (2005) discuss how simple rational choice models are useful for understanding the Bayesian integration of sensorimotor information, while Cohen (2005) discusses applications to game theory. Finally, other studies have suggested neuromarketing as an application for managerial practice (Hubert and Kenning, 2008). ...
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Purpose This study focuses on the role of individuals in the innovation management process, by concentrating on leaders and associated behaviors. Specifically, Entrepreneurial Leadership (EL) represent one of the most important fields of innovation management that has become increasingly multifaceted and interdisciplinary with its evolution. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine a newly emerging research trend with a new lens that is “neuroscience”. Design/methodology/approach This paper finds an evidence-based roadmap by reviewing the literature with a quantitative Bibliometric Analysis (BA) employing Co-Citation (Co-C) and bibliographic coupling analysis (BcA) to find linkages between the leadership and entrepreneurship literature and the neuroscience literature. Findings This study identifies five promising groups of research areas such as the organizational approach, the biological approach, the cognitive approach, the emotional approach and it identify five future research topics such as dynamic skills in innovation exploitation process, the human aspect of leadership, the building process of leadership, the biological perspective of leadership and the application of neuroscience in the ecosystem. Moreover, we find an evidence-based roadmap for stimulating focused EL within the broad topic of innovation management research, to move the field forward. Originality/value Although the past few years have observed the necessity of review studies on the subsets of biological factors, no reviews have sought to bring those different subsets together into a broader biological perspective. This study provides important indications on the interdisciplinary developments between the neuroscience aspects and EL, as a new emerging paradigm within the broad field of innovation management.
... One of the main limitations in the analysis of studies on consumer neuroscience relied on a jargon barrier. Neuroeconomics, neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience are terms often confused in the common speech, and even among scholars of adjacent fields (e.g., Hubert and Kenning, 2008). Their boundaries remain undefined, since the field is so recent. ...
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Background: In the past decade, marketing studies have greatly benefited from the adoption of neuroscience techniques to explore conscious and unconscious drivers of consumer behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the most frequently applied neuroscientific techniques for marketing studies, thanks to its low cost and high temporal resolution. Objective: We present an overview of EEG applications in consumer neuroscience. The aim of this review is to facilitate future research and to highlight reliable approaches for deriving research and managerial implications. Method: We conducted a systematic review by querying five databases for the titles of articles published up to June 2020 with the terms [EEG] AND [neuromarketing] OR [consumer neuroscience]. Results: We screened 264 abstracts and analyzed 113 articles, classified based on research topics (e.g., product characteristics, pricing, advertising attention and memorization, rational, and emotional messages) and characteristics of the experimental design (tasks, stimuli, participants, additional techniques). Conclusions: This review highlights the main applications of EEG to consumer neuroscience research and suggests several ways EEG technique can complement traditional experimental paradigms. Further research areas, including consumer profiling and social consumer neuroscience, have not been sufficiently explored yet and would benefit from EEG techniques to address unanswered questions.
... La deuxième question concerne l'effet de l'information sur cette construction, avec l'interrogation sur l'éventualité d'un effet négatif. Pour répondre à cela les neurosciences proposent des travaux sur les « cheminements cérébraux » (Fugate, 2008 ;Garcia & Saad, 2008 ;Hubert & Kenning, 2008). Les fameux neurones miroirs vont aussi expliquer les comportements et attitudes, le noyau accumbens permet de comprendre la satisfaction, et enfin, le cortex préfrontal révélera les goûts sociaux. ...
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This work is part of a global communication model , which uses the reflexive latent concept of relevance from Smith and MacKenzie's advertising model. We use a latent variable model based on the concepts of heritage relevance, perceived creativity of a communication, and perceived authenticity of the territory. We use an importance/performance matrix (IPMA) to understand the causalities of the latent model. We show that the tourist judgement of relevance, in evaluating his or her heritage and tourism experience, is not stable over time. Each tourist accepts, consciously, to play the experien-tial game. At the slightest perceived dissonance, they can oppose their distrust and rebuild, or not, the heritage and territorial imagination. The link between relevance, authenticity and creativity is clearly positive. We also show that the perceived complexity of a communication has a negative impact on the perceived authenticity of the territory. The problems of discontinuity of territorial meaning are hereby confirmed. RÉSUMÉ Ce travail s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un modèle de communication globale, qui utilise le concept latent réflexif de pertinence du modèle de publicité de Smith et Mac Kenzy. Nous utilisons un modèle à variables latentes sur la base des concepts de pertinence du patrimoine, de créativité perçue d'une communication, et authenticité perçue du territoire. Une matrice importance / performance (IPMA) est utilisée pour comprendre les causalités du modèle latent. Nous montrons que le jugement de pertinence du touriste, pour évaluer son expérience patrimoniale et touristique, n'est pas stable dans le temps. Chaque touriste accepte, consciemment, de jouer le jeu expérientiel. À la moindre dissonance perçue, il peut opposer sa défiance et reconstruire, ou pas, un imaginaire patrimonial et territorial. Le lien pertinence sur authenticité et créativité est nettement positif. On montre également que la complexité
... Analysis of eye movements is one of the neuromarketing techniques used in advertising research (Wang & Minor, 2008). Neuromarketing, a marketing sub-division that tries to understand the human brain's response to marketing stimuli using neuroscience techniques, refers to the inclusion of data from neuroscience (Senior et al., 2007) and psychophysiology practices in marketing processes (Hubert & Kenning, 2008). One of the most commonly used biometric measurement techniques in neuromarketing is the examination of pupil movements (Shiv & Yoon, 2012). ...
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Celebrity endorsement is a widely used method to gather customer visual attention to the advertised product. Viewers' visual attention to the products is clinical for advertisers. This is why advertisers keep their eyes on consumers to know where they're looking. The study was aimed to explore the visual attention of young sports consumers by gender with the help of an eye-tracking system. An experiment was conducted with twenty-eight university students by using Tobii Pro Glasses-2 eye tracker. Fixation durations, counts, and areas were measured to assess the effects of sports celebrity endorsement on visual attention. In major findings, although in the ad where a female sports celebrity was featured, men and women respondents were fixed in similar areas, the men respondents put the maximum focus on the female athlete herself, while the women respondents focus maximum on the product. The present study found that the visual attention of the young sports consumers visual attention to the printed advertisements with sports contents varied by gender. Young consumers can have different connections and associations with celebrities than older consumers. The study gives important information to understand the young sports consumers’ visual attention to the printed advertisements which use sport celebrity endorsements.
... Another advantage of neuromarketing is the quickness and simultaneous collection of information. Several neuromarketing techniques, like electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography, can record customers' responses while being exposed to marketing stimuli (Fugate, 2007;Hubert & Kenning, 2008;Lee et al., 2007;Ohme & Matukin, 2012). With this aspect, the marketers can ascertain exactly which elements of the marketing strategy should be reinforced or rejected (Akynova, 2018;Fortunato et al., 2014). ...
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The main objectives of this research are to identify the neuromarketing concept, to address the importance and advantages of using the neuromarketing approach over conventional marketing methods, to demonstrate the factors that affect tourists’ purchase-decision behavior, to recognize the awareness and knowledge levels of neuromarketing in Egypt, and to investigate factors that can be influenced by applying neuromarketing techniques. Quantitative analysis was carried out on data from 472 tourists, and 82 destination marketing designers. Results revealed that neuromarketing is positively affected tourist behavior, decision-making, tourist preferences, tourist loyalty, product improvement, marketing effectiveness, marketing strategies, and sustainable product marketing. It was concluded that the usage of neuromarketing in the Egyptian destination is in its infancy, despite the level of awareness about neuromarketing being relatively high. The study contributes to providing destination policymakers full insights about neuromarketing, which provides a full picture for tourists, shows the path of tourism products development, and the need of producing new tourists’ products. Destination marketing designers need to integrate neuromarketing in their marketing method, and to create smarter marketing that will increase the effectiveness of their marketing efforts.
... With the massive extension of Neurology, Neuroscientists have been working diligently to extend their field into other fields such as humanities and the arts. They extended it to marketing to research consumer behaviour, but the findings obtained as compared to conventional approaches barely showed any improvement or introduced something new (Fortunato et al., 2014;Hubert & Kenning, 2008). Neuromarketing firms and their researchers have published several studies. ...
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Neuromarketing has made significant strides in recent years. In order to answer questions regarding consumers, Researchers have developed a new field called Neuromarketing (NM), based on the work in neuroscience. This interdisciplinary field combines the study of consumer behavior with neuroscience. Consumers' psychological responses play a major role in decision making, so NM focuses mainly on this. This model uses market performance indicators to determine how effectively marketing stimuli impact people's brains and how they are combined to deliver an overall effectiveness score. The fact that NM is still in its early stages, researchers and practitioners alike perceive NM knowledge differently, thus different viewpoints regarding its application and development, which is primarily concerned with improving marketing tactics and promoting sales, has led to an increasingly detestable public reaction. There is thus a need to study the ethical issues related to NM. In order to ensure both beneficent and non-harmful use of NM techniques, academics and companies should adopt a code of ethics, as we propose here, to ensure that both categories of ethics concerns are considered. As part of this study, an integrated knowledge inquiry approach is used to cover the ethical aspects of NM in a systematic and coherent way by systematically reviewing and explaining the concepts, methods, techniques, issues, and developments in the field. In addition to assessing the literature, the authors provide some recommendations for future research
... The combination of methods from these disciplines and marketing has led to the development of a new subdiscipline identified as consumer neuroscience which applies techniques that overcome most of the limitations of self-reports (Khushaba et al., 2013). This interdisciplinary arena is defined as "… the study of the neural conditions and processes that underlie consumption, their psychological meaning, and their behavioral consequences" (Hubert & Kenning 2008). ...
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The growth of e-commerce and new digital methods of payment has ushered in unexpected repercussions on many companies throughout the world.The hotel chain EHS is an example. An increase in competition resulting from the digitalization of hotel bookings has led to a 5% reduction in its net sales in 2019. To address this situation, EHS’s CEO charged the chain’s marketing department with two tasks in 2020: develop an effective advertising campaign and design a website to foster online bookings. The current case study describes the characteristics of two very different marketing agencies engaged by the marketing department to analyze the hotel’s advertising and web design: (i) Idith, a company basing its findings on self-reported data (questionnaires or surveys), and (ii) Neuronsy, a firm which resorts to neuroimaging and psychology (eye-tracking or functional magnetic resonance imaging). Based on this, students should advise the EHS marketing department as to which marketing agency to engage to assist in the design of the most trustworthy and effective advertising and website strategies. To help students achieve this, the case study discusses the advantages and drawbacks, the price, the utility, the methodology and the nature of data captured by the two methods, which all need to be considered for evaluating and deciding on which option and marketing consulting agency to use.
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In the quest of fostering green consumer behavior, companies are developing green marketing communications. However, do green consumer behaviors gets influenced by such marketing practices or it is result of green consumption values? The research-based chapter answers this question by developing a conceptual model against the background of green consumer behavior theories. The explanatory research design with quantitative research method was employed. Empirical data was collected using self-administered online questionnaire from 234 Singaporean consumers of green products. Collected data was then subjected to a range of analysis techniques using IBM SPSS AMOS 24. The findings suggest that green consumption values have stronger impact on consumer behavior as compared to that of marketing communication. However, impact of both independent variables was found to be positive and significant. In addition, it was identified that no mediating effect of marketing communication exists in relationship between green consumption values and consumer behavior.
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The growing competitiveness in the current market environment urges companies to innovate not only to succeed but also to survive. Nowadays, a popular methodology of innovationInnovation is design thinkingDesign thinking, which is in its early stages in both the academic literature and practice. In the past few decades, several marketingMarketing researches for both academic and commercial purposesCommercial purposes are trying to understand consumers’ responses to marketingMarketingstimuliStimuli through the use of neuroscience toolsNeuroscience tools. Although neuroscience toolsNeuroscience tools have been used to facilitate product developmentProduct development and testing as well as improve innovation processesInnovation process and results, this approach is also in its early stages. This chapter brings together the literature on consumer neuroscienceConsumer neuroscience and design thinkingDesign thinking and suggests that neuroscientific toolsNeuroscientific tools used in neuromarketingNeuromarketing can be applied in the phases of an innovation processInnovation process. Therefore, the chapter reviews some of the most commonly used neuroscientific toolsNeuroscientific tools in marketingMarketing, provides some ideas on how to integrate the use of these tools into the phases of the design thinkingDesign thinking methodology and closes with a discussion on ethical issues associated with the use of these tools for innovationInnovation.
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The past decade has witnessed a burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and design. Recent advancements in tools for measuring brain activity enable design researchers to investigate how brain function supports mental processes, complementing self‐report and behavioral measures in exploring design cognition. With the aim of providing a preliminary understanding of how design researchers have approached neuroscience to date, we examined (1) previously explored neural research topics, (2) available tools and their contributions and limitations, and (3) the challenges of conducting design research using neuroscience tools. We start with a brief overview of major neuroscience tools measuring brain activation including electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), near‐infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and positron emission tomography (PET). We then present a review of design research specifically on neural processes involved in design thinking and creativity. Consistencies of brain activity across studies are identified. Distinct patterns of brain activation associated with specific comparisons (e.g., design thinking vs. problem‐solving) observed in previous studies are also summarized. An introductory review of design research using neuroscience tools on design evaluation and aesthetics is then provided. In addition to the promises of the fast‐growing interdisciplinary collaboration of design and neuroscience, we outline technical, practical, and experimental difficulties caused by the limits of neuroscience tools for design research studies.
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This chapter presents insights into carbon labelling practice from a perspective of stakeholders’ interactions, followed by future work. The implication regards the consumers and their motivation, as well as the use of new business models and technologies. It is necessary to define strategies to motivate green consumers towards decreasing of carbon emissions, facilitate the knowledge of the labels meanings. Besides, the adoption of carbon labeling scheme may lead to a sustainable business, reinforcement of the corporate social responsibility, attraction of new markets. Future study will center on neuroscience to evaluate public’s emotional engagement in bringing carbon labeling scheme into practice.
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ÖZET İnsanoğlunun “olaylar ve durumlar karşısında nasıl karar verdiği” bugün hala tam olarak çözülemeyen bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Davranışların nedeni ve kökeni birçok bilim dalının sorunu olmuş ve geliştirilen kuramlar ile davranışların nedenleri açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Böylelikle son zamanlarda oldukça popüler hale gelen, yeni bir pazarlama eğilimi “nöropazarlama” araştırmaları karşımıza çıkmıştır. Türkiye’de gerçekleştirilen akademik çalışmaların (lisansüstü tezler ve makaleler) nöropazarlama alanını nasıl değerlendirdiğini ortaya koyabilmeyi amaçlayan bu çalışmada veri toplama yöntemi olarak meta/döküman analizine başvurulmuştur. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre bu alanda; 28lisansüstü (dört doktora ve yirmi dört yüksek lisans) tezin ve 15 makalenin ülkemizdeki araştırmacılar tarafından kaleme alındığı ve bu araştırmaların daha çok; pazarlama, işletme ve reklamcılık alanında yapıldığı görülmektedir. Maliyet yüksekliği, teknik cihazları kullanacak kalifiye çalışanların olmaması nedeniyle araştırmalarda daha çok teori üzerinde durulmuş ve yapılan uygulamalarda büyük çoğunlukla geleneksel araştırma yöntemlerinden faydalanılmıştır. Buna rağmen gelecek için nöropazarlamanın yaygınlaşacağına yönelik görüş hakimdir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Pazarlama, Yeni Eğilimler, Nöropazarlama, Reklamcılık, Tüketici Davranışı ABSTRACT NEUROMARKETING AS A NEW TENDENCY IN MARKETING RESEARCH: A RESEARCH FOR THE ACADEMIC WORK AREA IN NEUROMARKETING TURKEY How human beings make decisions in the face of events and situations is still a problem that cannot be solved. The cause and origin of behaviors have been the problem of many disciplines and they tried to explain the cause of behaviors with theories. In this sense, "thinking, acting and decision making process of the brain" began to draw the curiosity of the researchers in this direction. Thus, a very popular marketing trend “neuromarketing” has emerged. This article aims to explain how the academic studies (thesis and articles) carried out in Turkey how it evaluates the neuromarketing field. In this direction, meta analysis was used as data collection method. Results obtained indicate that 28 post graduate thesis (4 PhD, 24 Master’s thesis) and 15 articles were written by researchers in Turkey. It is seen that these researches are mostly in the fields of marketing, business and advertising. Due to the high cost and the lack of qualified employees to use technical equipment, more theory considered in researches. In addition, traditional research methods were mostly used in the studies. Nevertheless, the opinion that "the neuromarketing will spread in the future" is dominant among the researchers. Key Words: Marketing, New Tendency, Neuromarketing, Advertising, Consumer Behavior
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The brain has a very superior system, and there are some complex structures which are still undiscovered. The subconscious is one of these unclear features. The subconscious unconsciously places the stimuli in the environment into the mind with the help of sensory organs and processes these pieces of information accumulated there. It manages and directs behavior with images and messages. Although they are felt consciously, the center of emotions is actually subconscious. Thus, the individual involuntarily realizes her or his way of life, relationships with other people and many other factors thanks to her or his subconscious. Consumption behaviors are among these involuntary behaviors. Brand preference, brand loyalty, brand awareness, purchase intention and behavior are affected by these subliminal messages. Hence, companies have endeavored to place subliminal messages that are specially designed and coded below the perception limit into the subconscious of their targeted consumers by using five senses. They bring consumers together with the subliminal messages by preparing psychological, sociological and neurological sub-grounds that meet their needs, demands and expectations. With subliminal messages, the awareness level of the consumers is exceeded, and the codes related to the brand are created subconsciously. This enables consumers to choose the brand and develop their buying behavior. However, these messages, sent to the subconscious of consumers, also have things that do not overlap with ethical values. Individuals exposed to the messages of unacceptable products or services are adversely affected. The most important ethical problem is the role of subliminal messages. The ethical dimension has become controversial as it is possible to use the hidden fears and impulses that people have unconsciously by using them for different purposes from commercial areas, advertising and marketing. Therefore, the channels from which the subliminal messages come from and what techniques are used must be determined and precautions should be taken. One of the areas where subliminal messages are mostly used is the sports sector. Stadiums and crowded sport halls bring together millions of people and provide the appropriate ground for the companies to send real-time subliminal messages at the same time. Thus, sports have become a popular means of meeting companies’ subliminal messages with consumers. In this chapter; it is aimed to provide a theoretical contribution to the studies in this field by dealing with the subliminal messages sent to the subconscious of consumers, the methods and techniques used for this aim, the reasons why they are preferred by the companies, the ethical dimension of the subliminal messages and the effects of subliminal messages in the sports arena.
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Traditional techniques of market research and information gathering to meet business needs fail because they cannot always produce the desired results. This has necessitated the use of new techniques and methods for gathering information. Companies frequently resort to advertising activities for the promotion of a new product or to increase sales of an existing product and want to be compensated for the expenses incurred in these activities. It is necessary to measure the effectiveness of advertising in order to know how the response to the advertisement is after its publication. A questionnaire and an eye tracker were applied to 32 participants to investigate the communication effectiveness of 25 outdoor advertisements. As a result, it is obtained that the survey method is not fully sufficient to provide the real data needed by the company. The recognition method reflects the truth: real data can be obtained from the participants with the neuromarketing method and it has been determined that the company can achieve the real data it needs.
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This chapter introduces neuroeconomics, which explans the neuroscientific basis of decision-making phenomena using various theoretical approaches and experimental methods. This chapter firstly explains the relationships of neuroeconomics, neuromarketing and behavioral decision theory, and then introduce the methodology of neuroecomics such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), and lastly explains the research findings of neuroeconomics and implication of the findings on the behavioral decision research.
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Marketing is not merely the advertisement for the consumers; instead, it is a physiological and psychological science that directly deals with the understanding of brain and cognitive decision making. This also raises an important question, How do we make buying decisions? Was that decision made on fact reason, consciousness, or logic? Through the concept of neuromarketing, marketers are able to see that consumers are making decisions unconsciously based on feelings, emotions, and intuitions. In this chapter, the authors intended to study neuromarketing as the science of consumer decisions and to unfold the new marketing markings and new signs of consumer decisions (i.e., to identify the role of emotions and institutions in shaping consumers' buying decisions). The authors would also like to study the gravity of paying attention to consumers' emotions, intuitions, and the unconscious mind. This chapter will add value in decoding the buy button inside the brain and how the future of branding is personal and knowing why you buy.
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This study tries to decipher the role of neuromarketing in the myriad fields of business employing in-depth review of literature. This work thus proposes abundant acumens into important facets of neuromarketing in the business world employing a bibliometric investigation. The chapter presents an assessment of important neuromarketing enablers and their function in several business disciplines aimed superior business performance. The existing literature was classified based on a variety of bibliometric factors such as year, location, author, institution, and source related data. The literature is further classified based on keyword co-occurrence. The observed clusters indicate neuromarketing applications and execution problems in business. The complete overview, which spans the years 2000 to 2021, can help managers keep current on the uses of neuromarketing in many sectors. The chapter also identifies potential topics for neuromarketing research in several industry sectors to support neuromarketing adoption.
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Price knowledge as a construct has been one of the top behavioral pricing themes in the last four decades, especially in the Anglo-American literature. In Germany, scientists have paid relatively little attention to this topic during the last 15 years – with some notable exceptions. Therefore, this study analyzes German consumers' price knowledge and, by doing so, replicates and extends existing international work. After reviewing earlier attempts at assessing the construct, a measure is developed for the price estimation error “PEE”, based on explicit price knowledge stored in long-term memory. Results, including data from about 1,000 consumers on 69 products from a German retail chain, indicate that price knowledge in Germany is relatively low. Based on that observation, implications for the management are discussed.
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Customer loyalty is a major strategic objective and focus in marketing. It has been suggested that brand reputation is a major driver of customer loyalty, and hence companies seek to increase the equity of their brands. Quality affects not only customer satisfaction, but also the reputation of the brand. Thus, both brand reputation and customer satisfaction are important determinants of customer loyalty. The interaction between these two drivers of customer loyalty has, however, been neglected in the literature. Presents a theoretical model which integrates quality, brand reputation, customer satisfaction and loyalty. The model is tested in four industries, covering both business-to-business markets and private customer markets. The findings suggest that companies should monitor and improve both customers satisfaction and brand reputation. In situations where the intrinsic cues of the product or service are ambiguous, brand reputation is the strongest driver of customer loyalty compared with customer satisfaction. In fact, when the intrinsic cues are ambiguous, it is found that customer satisfaction is not driving customer loyalty.
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Even the best advertising campaign may fail if the price of the product is not appropriate, yet retail prices are still determined more by rules of thumb than systematic study.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to briefly cover the origins of neuromarketing, explain the process in layman's terms, enumerate some of the findings in anecdotal form, and suggest future consumer behavior research directions based on these findings. Design/methodology/approach – The discussion of neuromarketing in this paper is based on reports of both a theoretical and applied nature. Their contents have been synthesized and placed into context by showing how they relate to traditional marketing research approaches and assumptions. Findings – While there are no concrete findings, preliminary assessments suggest that traditional, inferential assumptions about consumer behavior might be less powerful and explanatory than once believed. Combining neural activity images with conventional tools may produce more effective marketing practices. Research limitations/implications – Because this is an emerging field and still controversial, some of the key information is proprietary and/or fairly presumptive at this time. Cautions and criticisms have been included to counterbalance that point. Practical implications – Understanding what is happening in this emerging field of inquiry is essential for anyone who believes that marketers can change the probability of a favorable response from consumers. The use of neuromarketing, if proven through use, has the capability of fundamentally changing how we design, promote, price, and package our products. Originality/value – The marriage of cognitive neuroscience and marketing practice is a new field of inquiry. This paper provides a useful, non-technical introduction.
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Despite all best efforts, the design process often leads to the introduction of products that do not meet customer expectations. Although the design team typically applies customer-related information from several sources, the product design somehow fails to satisfy customer requirements. Clearly, we need to develop a better understanding of the process by which designers in large development organizations transform information about customer requirements into the final design specification. To improve our understanding of this process, Antonio J. Bailetti and Paul F. Litva examine design managers' perspectives on the sources of customer requirement information.
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As legal scholarship has come to rely more on economic analysis, the foundational questions of economics have become important questions for legal analysis as well. One of the key foundational elements of modern economics is the assumption of the rational utility maximizing individual. While this assumption has often been questioned, until recently, it was not possible to actually examine the brain mechanisms that individuals use to process the economic problems they face. As a result of the increasing abilities to explore the brain as individuals engage in economic activity, this article calls for a new approach to the study of law which incorporates the findings from the emerging area of neuroeconomics. We call this approach law and neuroeconomics. We argue that this research can help us understand what is occurring in the brains of the individuals and knowledge gained thereby can greatly aid both in understanding the process of creation and development of law as well as its effects on human behavior. The article discusses this research and begins the analysis of applying these findings the study of law.
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This paper considers the pricing decision faced by a producer of a commodity with a short shelf or demand life. A hierarchical model is developed, and the results of the single period inventory model are used to examine possible pricing and return policies. The paper shows that several such policies currently in effect are suboptimal. These include those where the manufacturer offers retailers full credit for all unsold goods or where no returns of unsold goods are permitted. The paper also demonstrates that a policy whereby a manufacturer offers retailers full credit for a partial return of goods may achieve channel coordination, but that the optimal return allowance will be a function of retailer demand. Therefore, such a policy cannot be optimal in a multi-retailer environment. It is proven, however, that a pricing and return policy in which a manufacturer offers retailers a partial credit for all unsold goods can achieve channel coordination in a multi-retailer environment.
Article
This paper considers the pricing decision faced by a producer of a commodity with a short shelf or demand life. A hierarchical model is developed, and the results of the single period inventory model are used to examine possible pricing and return policies. The paper shows that several such policies currently in effect are suboptimal. These include those where the manufacturer offers retailers full credit for all unsold goods or where no returns of unsold goods are permitted. The paper also demonstrates that a policy whereby a manufacturer offers retailers full credit for a partial return of goods may achieve channel coordination, but that the optimal return allowance will be a function of retailer demand. Therefore, such a policy cannot be optimal in a multi-retailer environment. It is proven, however, that a pricing and return policy in which a manufacturer offers retailers a partial credit for all unsold goods can achieve channel coordination in a multi-retailer environment. This article was originally published in , Volume 4, Issue 2, pages 166–176, in 1985.
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In recent studies of channel competition, it has been found that channel intermediaries reduce the intensity of direct competition between manufacturers. The underlying channel structure in most studies consists of two manufacturers and two retailers each of whom sells only manufacturer's product exclusively. This paper adds to this growing literature of channel competition by analyzing a channel structure with two competing manufacturers and one intermediary (a common retailer) that sells manufacturers' products. Unlike some exclusive dealers or retail outlets of a manufacturer, however, a common retailer is often a powerful player in the market. This paper studies three noncooperative games of different power structures between the two manufacturers and the retailer, i.e., two Stackelberg and one Nash games. It is shown that some of the results depend critically on the form of the demand function. With a linear demand function, a manufacturer is better off by maintaining exclusive dealers while a retailer has an incentive to deal with several producers. All channel members as well as consumers are better off when no one dominates the market. The common retailer benefits more than the manufacturers do from a symmetric decrease in the manufacturing cost. As products are less differentiated, all channel members' prices and profits increase: a counterintuitive result. When the demand function is nonlinear, however, an exclusive dealer channel provides higher profits to all than a common retailer channel given a power structure. As products are more differentiated, a manufacturer's profit decreases when a common retailer is used, but increases when an exclusive dealer is used. These results underscore the importance of choosing a correct demand function for a channel decision.
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Price plays two distinct roles in consumers’ evaluations of product alternatives: as a measure of sacrifice and as an informational cue. This article merges two streams of empirical research into the effects of price on consumers’ product evaluations by combining stated preferences, obtained from conjoint measurement, with data on self-reported measures in the form of beliefs or attitudes. It thus offers new, substantive insights into the dual role of price. Specifically, it differentiates between the informational and sacrifice effects of price using a choice-based conjoint approach and differentiates further among different subcomponents of these two main effects by combining choice-based measures with self-reported measures that pertain to potential sources of the dual role of price (price response drivers) and underlying consumer characteristics. Thus, this article presents a general procedure to quantify the impact of the dual role of price on choice shares for product alternatives within a market simulation. This procedure enables managers to simulate the choice share effects of changes in price response drivers, as well as modifications in segmentation and targeting strategies that involve changes in the levels of the price response drivers and thus the levels of the informational and sacrifice components of the price response of demand.
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This paper affords a stylized view of individual consumer choice decision-making appropriate to the study of many marketing decisions. It summarizes issues relating to consideration set effects on consumer judgment and choice. It discusses whether consideration sets really exist and, if so, the factors that affect their composition, structure, and role in decision-making. It examines some new developments in the measurement and modeling of consideration set effects on decision-making. The paper concludes with suggestions for needed research.
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With the growing realization that brands are one of a firm's most valuable intangible assets, branding has emerged as a top management priority in the last decade. Given its highly competitive nature, branding can be especially important in the retailing industry to influence customer perceptions and drive store choice and loyalty. We integrate lessons from branding and retail image research to provide a better understanding of how retailers create their brand images, paying special attention to the role of the manufacturer and private label brand assortment. We also highlight some important areas that deserve further research in the form of three sets of research priorities.
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Despite substantial advances, the question of how we make decisions and judgments continues to pose important challenges for scientific research. Historically, different disciplines have approached this problem using different techniques and assumptions, with few unifying efforts made. However, the field of neuroeconomics has recently emerged as an inter-disciplinary effort to bridge this gap. Research in neuroscience and psychology has begun to investigate neural bases of decision predictability and value, central parameters in the economic theory of expected utility. Economics, in turn, is being increasingly influenced by a multiple-systems approach to decision-making, a perspective strongly rooted in psychology and neuroscience. The integration of these disparate theoretical approaches and methodologies offers exciting potential for the construction of more accurate models of decision-making.
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Consumer research needs broader intellectual peripheral vision. This requires learning to see relevance in seemingly distant fields and taking ignorance as a friend. A particularly challenging but highly relevant topic concerns the (un)conscious mind and the essential unity of body, brain, mind, and society. The two books discussed here are exciting journeys into the biology of the (un)conscious mind and how it is ultimately shaped by society. Copyright 2000 by the University of Chicago.