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Ethnic Residential Segregation by Nativity in Great Britain and the United States(*)

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Abstract

This study examines patterns of ethnic residential integration in Great Britain and the United States. Using data from 2000/2001 censuses from these two countries, we compute segregation indexes for comparably defined ethnic groups by nativity and for specific foreign-born groups. We find that blacks are much less segregated in Great Britain than in the United States, and black segregation patterns by nativity tend to be consistent with spatial assimilation in the former country (the foreign-born are more segregated than the native-born) but not in the latter. Among Asian groups, however, segregation tends to be lower in the United States, and segregation patterns by nativity are more consistent with spatial assimilation in the United States but not in Great Britain. These findings suggest that intergenerational minority disadvantage persists among blacks in the United States and among Asians in Great Britain. We caution, however, that there are important differences in levels of segregation among specific foreign-born Asian groups, suggesting that assimilation trajectories likely differ by country of origin. Finally, the fact that segregation levels are considerably higher in the United States for a majority of groups, including white foreign-born groups, suggests that factors not solely related to race or physical appearance drive higher levels of ethnic residential segregation in the United States.

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... Although most of the literature on racial/ethnic health inequalities focuses on adults, a large body of research has also documented marked racial/ethnic inequalities in the patterning of early childhood health and developmental outcomes such as birthweight (Kelly et al. 2009;Teitler et al. 2007), breastfeeding (Kelly et al. 2006b), developmental milestones (Kelly et al. 2006a), socioemotional difficulties (Zilanawala et al. 2015b), obesity (Zilanawala et al. 2015a), cognitive scores , and asthma (Nelson et al. 1997;Weitzman et al. 1990). For both children and adult populations, racial/ethnic inequalities in health are largely explained by reduced socioeconomic status of racial/ethnic minority groups (Nazroo 2000;Williams 1999;Zhang and Wang 2004), including at the area-level (Iceland et al. 2011;Omi and Winant 2014). ...
... A common feature of modern residential environments is the spatial concentration of families by race, ethnicity, immigration status, and class. Racial/ethnic minorities in both the US and England are more likely than Whites to live in the most deprived neighbourhoods in terms of economic and physical resources (Iceland et al. 2011;Omi and Winant 2014). Particularly in the US, the concentration of racial/ethnic minority people in specific neighbourhoods is generally thought about in relation to segregation, highlighting the deleterious health effects and reduced opportunities of spatial stratification (Williams and Collins 2001). ...
... A MSOA has a minimum population of 5000, with a mean of 7200, and a ZCTA's has a median population of 2800 (interquartile range 734-12,945). English MSOAs and US ZCTAs are area definitions commonly used in prior research and have been shown to be comparable geographical units in terms of population size (Iceland et al. 2011). ...
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... Alternatively, non-marriage might be a more feasible economic and normative possibility for those South Asian women who have been able to enter the UK without the support of established migration networks and those (perhaps through higher education) who have had more exposure to the family models of the White middle class. In contrast, Black Africans have tended to settle in areas that are economically deprived (Goisis and Sigle-Rushton 2014) and more ethnically diverse (Iceland and Mateos 2011). Compared with South Asian migrants, they might have more interaction with other disadvantaged White and minority ethnic groups. ...
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Article
Over the past several decades, researchers have investigated segregation, differentiating between central cities and suburbs. However, suburbs have become more differentiated. Using Census 2000, Census 2010, and American Community Survey (ACS) data for 2007–2011, this article analyzes segregation in the 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, differentiating between central cities, mature suburbs, and developing suburbs. For each subgeography, we consider the racial and ethnic proportions, the dissimilarity index for each combination of racial and ethnic groups, and the isolation index for each racial and ethnic group. We find that Black–White and Latino–White dissimilarity levels in mature suburbs are closer to the corresponding levels in central cities. From 2000 to 2010, Black–White segregation indices decreased for all subgeographies in all regions and Latino–White segregation indices increased for all subgeographies in Census Region South. The findings for the dissimilarity indices suggest that finer-grained analyses of segregation could yield insights on local-level processes that may influence segregation in the 3 types of places and could suggest policy interventions to address segregation’s persistence.
... These stark disparities underscore fundamental differences in medical, social, economic, and environmental circumstances that predate the current pandemic. One fundamental cause is residential segregation, which reinforces physical isolation of groups from each other and has been deemed a significant contributor to racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, perhaps more so in the United States (US) than in the United Kingdom (UK) [2]. This is especially important in the context of COVID-19, as person-to-person transmission within a community is the primary mode of infection. ...
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Background: There is limited prior investigation of the combined influence of personal and community-level socioeconomic factors on racial/ethnic disparities in individual risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis nested within a prospective cohort of 2,102,364 participants from March 29, 2020 in the United States (US) and March 24, 2020 in the United Kingdom (UK) through December 02, 2020 via the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application. We examined the contribution of community-level deprivation using the Neighborhood Deprivation Index (NDI) and the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) to observe racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04331509. Findings: Compared with non-Hispanic White participants, the risk for a positive COVID-19 test was increased in the US for non-Hispanic Black (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.47) and Hispanic participants (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.33-1.52) and in the UK for Black (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34), South Asian (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49), and Middle Eastern participants (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61). This elevated risk was associated with living in more deprived communities according to the NDI/IMD. After accounting for downstream mediators of COVID-19 risk, community-level deprivation still mediated 16.6% and 7.7% of the excess risk in Black compared to White participants in the US and the UK, respectively. Interpretation: Our results illustrate the critical role of social determinants of health in the disproportionate COVID-19 risk experienced by racial and ethnic minorities.
... have challenged related popular myths about ethnicity and migration, warning that statistics are used in misleading ways to support political arguments.Iceland and Mateos (2011) have compared ethnic residential segregation between Great Britain and the United States and found that black communities in Britain were less segregated than in the United States, while the opposite held for some Asian communities.Catney (2015) has explored national-level changes in ethnic segregation over the 2001-11 intercensal perio ...
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... The definition of geographical units used to examine neighbourhood effects can be a determining element in cross-national comparisons, so measures of neighbourhood need to be analogous across countries. English MSOAs and US Census tracts are area definitions commonly used in prior research (see for example Mason, Messer, Laraia, & Mendola, 2009;Wilkinson, 2010 in the US, andBécares et al., 2009; in the UK), and have been shown to be comparable geographical units in terms of population size (Iceland, Mateos, & Sharp, 2011). ...
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... Closely allied with these explanatory considerations is the theory of segmented assimilation, a response to the earlier standard assimilation theory which reasoned that through the process of assimilation, successive generations of immigrants would become upwardly mobile as they gradually integrated into mainstream American society (Alba & Nee, 2003;Gordon, 1964). In contrast, segmented assimilation takes into account both the pre-migration characteristics of immigrants as well as the post-migration context, acknowledging the uneven possibilities offered by a host society; different immigrant groups assimilate into segments of an already stratified society based on the social and economic assets they bring with them (Fernández-Kelly, 2008;Portes & Zhou, 1993;Zhou & Xiong, 2005), and on the context they find upon arrival with respect to government policies, societal reception, and existing co-ethnic communities (Iceland, Mateos, & Sharp, 2011;Pong & Landale, 2012;Portes & Fernández-Kelly, 2008;Zhou & Xiong, 2005). Immigrant outcomes, therefore, may depend as much on the social capital of established co-ethnic communities that offer new immigrants economic resources, social support, employment in established businesses, a strong community presence, and the con-tinuance of cultural traditions, as on the human capital of migrants ( Zhou, 1997). ...
... Although a few studies have examined attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking in South Asian populations, and even fewer have examined the role of stigma, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the potential moderating effect of gender on the impact of both perceived stigma by close others and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking. Furthermore, the majority of studies on professional psychological help seeking in South Asian populations have included participants from populations outside the United States (e.g., Britain); although there are some global similarities in the cultural experiences of South Asians, several studies have pointed to the unique experiences of South Asians in the United States, including experiences of immigration and racism (Finney & Simpson, 2009;Iceland, Mateos, & Sharp, 2011). We acknowledge the heterogeneity that exists within cultural delineations even among an Asian subgroup; however, in the absence of the ability to study each person individually, the focus of this study is on the cultural similarities that exist within this subpopulation and the commonalities that may affect attitudes toward seeking mental health services. ...
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This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the association between personal and perceived stigma and attitudes across genders was found. These findings have implications for the engagement of South Asians in mental health services in the United States. Este estudio examinó (a) los roles de estigmas percibidos y personales en las actitudes hacia la búsqueda de ayuda psicológica profesional y (b) los efectos de estos constructos en indiviuos sudasiáticos según su sexo. El estigma personal y la identidad masculina se asociaron negativamente con las actitudes hacia la búsqueda de ayuda psicológica profesional; no se halló diferencia en la asociación entre estigmas personales y percibidos y las actitudes de los distintos sexos. Estos hallazgos tienen implicaciones para la participación de los individuos sudasiáticos en los servicios de salud mental en Estados Unidos.
... According to Chicago School three-stage model of ethnic segregation and assimilation, ethnical groups could integrate into the mainstream society gradually after generations, however, African-Americans turn out this theory with a grain of salt. In 1930s, black-white segregation rate in Chicago was 76% (Taeuber & Taeuber, 1965, p. 54), it increased to 80% in 1980s (Massey & Denton, 1993) and remained in the 80% level in 2000s (Iceland et al. 2002). Unlike other foreign whites or foreigners who assimilated into American society gradually, African-American are isolated, constrained and discriminated because of the racism. ...
... Although a few studies have examined attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking in South Asian populations, and even fewer have examined the role of stigma, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the potential moderating effect of gender on the impact of both perceived stigma by close others and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking. Furthermore, the majority of studies on professional psychological help seeking in South Asian populations have included participants from populations outside the United States (e.g., Britain); although there are some global similarities in the cultural experiences of South Asians, several studies have pointed to the unique experiences of South Asians in the United States, including experiences of immigration and racism (Finney & Simpson, 2009;Iceland, Mateos, & Sharp, 2011). We acknowledge the heterogeneity that exists within cultural delineations even among an Asian subgroup; however, in the absence of the ability to study each person individually, the focus of this study is on the cultural similarities that exist within this subpopulation and the commonalities that may affect attitudes toward seeking mental health services. ...
... This is hardly surprising since such indices provide a way to describe and compare the distribution of population groups-defined by age, ethnic origin, country of birth, or income-across a metropolitan area, as well as compare the segregation levels of population groups in several metropolitan areas (Apparicio, Petkevitch, & Charron, 2008). As a result, they are widely used in urban studies (see in particular Allen & Turner, 2012;Iceland, Mateos, & Sharp, 2011;Lloyd & Shuttleworth, 2012;Martori & Apparicio, 2011;Peach, 2009;Poulsen, Johnson, & Forrest, 2010;Scopilliti & Iceland, 2008). For example, using the classic dissimilarity index (Duncan & Duncan, 1955a, 1955b, Peach (2009) found that ethnic segregation in main English cities declined from 1991 to 2001 and the level of segregation was high only for one ethnic group-the Bangladeshis. ...
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Post-1965 immigration to the United States has given rise to a vigorous literature focused on adult newcomers. There is, however, a growing new second generation whose prospects of adaptation cannot be gleaned from the experience of their parents or from that of children of European immigrants arriving at the turn of the century. We present data on the contemporary second generation and review the challenges that it confronts in seeking adaptation to American society. The concept of segmented assimilation is introduced to describe the diverse possible outcomes of this process of adaptation. The concept of modes of incorporation is used for developing a typology of vulnerability and resources affecting such outcomes. Empirical case studies illustrate the theory and highlight consequences of the different contextual situations facing today's second generation.
Article
Los Angeles is a city of delicate racial and ethnic balance. As evidenced by the 1965 Watts violence, the 1992 Rodney King riots, and this year's award-winning film Crash, the city's myriad racial groups coexist uneasily together, often on the brink of confrontation. In fact, Los Angeles is highly segregated, with racial and ethnic groups clustered in homogeneous neighborhoods. These residential groupings have profound effects on the economic well-being and quality of life of residents, dictating which jobs they can access, which social networks they can tap in to, and which schools they attend. In Won't You Be My Neighbor? sociologist Camille Zubrinsky Charles explores how modern racial attitudes shape and are shaped by the places in which people live. Using in-depth survey data and information from focus groups with members of L.A.'s largest racial and ethnic groups, Won't You Be My Neighbor? explores why Los Angeles remains a segregated city. Charles finds that people of all backgrounds prefer both racial integration and a critical mass of same-race neighbors. When asked to reveal their preferred level of racial integration, people of all races show a clear and consistent order of preference, with whites considered the most highly desired neighbors and blacks the least desirable. This is even true among recent immigrants who have little experience with American race relations. Charles finds that these preferences, which are driven primarily by racial prejudice and minority-group fears of white hostility, taken together with financial considerations, strongly affect people's decisions about where they live. Still, Charles offers reasons for optimism: over time and with increased exposure to other racial and ethnic groups, people show an increased willingness to live with neighbors of other races. In a racially and ethnically diverse city, segregated neighborhoods can foster distrust, reinforce stereotypes, and agitate inter-group tensions. Won't You Be My Neighbor? zeroes in on segregated neighborhoods to provide a compelling examination of the way contemporary racial attitudes shape, and are shaped by, the places where we live.
Article
Background This analysis compares the educational attainments of the “new” second generation in Britain, Canada, and the United States using three nationally representative datasets. Objective To assess how the second generation has fared within Western educational systems. The study examines the achievements of seven minority ethnic groups: Africans, Caribbeans, Chinese, Filipinos, Indians, Irish, and Pakistanis. Setting Britain, Canada, and the United States. Research Design Secondary data analysis Conclusions The study suggests that there is a strong association between the educational level of the parental generation and that of the second generation. There is substantial inter-generational progress (measured relative to the majority population in the country of destination), especially among women. Most groups perform as well as or better than members of the majority population of the same age and similar parental background. Chinese of both sexes are notable for their high performance. Indians also tend to make strong intergenerational progress; for Caribbeans, Africans, and Filipinos, this is more muted. The performance of the second generation in Britain is slightly poorer than that in the other countries. This is probably explained by the lower selectivity of the first generation in Britain rather than by institutional features.
Book
The United States holds the dubious distinction of having the most unequal income distribution of any advanced industrialized nation. While other developed countries face similar challenges from globalization and technological change, none rivals America’s singularly poor record for equitably distributing the benefits and burdens of recent economic shifts. In Categorically Unequal, Douglas Massey weaves together history, political economy, and even neuropsychology to provide a comprehensive explanation of how America’s culture and political system perpetuates inequalities between different segments of the population. Categorically Unequal is striking both for its theoretical originality and for the breadth of topics it covers. Massey argues that social inequalities arise from the universal human tendency to place others into social categories. In America, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor have consistently been the targets of stereotyping, and as a result, they have been exploited and discriminated against throughout the nation’s history. African-Americans continue to face discrimination in markets for jobs, housing, and credit. Meanwhile, the militarization of the U.S.-Mexican border has discouraged Mexican migrants from leaving the United States, creating a pool of exploitable workers who lack the legal rights of citizens. Massey also shows that women’s advances in the labor market have been concentrated among the affluent and well-educated, while low-skilled female workers have been relegated to occupations that offer few chances for earnings mobility. At the same time, as the wages of low-income men have fallen, more working-class women are remaining unmarried and raising children on their own. Even as minorities and women continue to face these obstacles, the progressive legacy of the New Deal has come under frontal assault. The government has passed anti-union legislation, made taxes more regressive, allowed the real value of the federal minimum wage to decline, and drastically cut social welfare spending. As a result, the income gap between the richest and poorest has dramatically widened since 1980. Massey attributes these anti-poor policies in part to the increasing segregation of neighborhoods by income, which has insulated the affluent from the social consequences of poverty, and to the disenfranchisement of the poor, as the population of immigrants, prisoners, and ex-felons swells. America’s unrivaled disparities are not simply the inevitable result of globalization and technological change. As Massey shows, privileged groups have systematically exploited and excluded many of their fellow Americans. By delving into the root causes of inequality in America, Categorically Unequal provides a compelling argument for the creation of a more equitable society.
Book
In the context of renewed debates about diversity and cohesion, this book interrogates contemporary claims about race and migration. It demonstrates that many of the claims are myths, presenting evidence in support of and in opposition to them in an accessible yet academically rigorous manner. The book combines an easy-to-read overview of the subject with innovative new research. It tackles head-on questions about levels of immigration, the contribution of immigrants, minority self-segregation, ghettoisation and the future diversity of the population. The authors argue that the myths of race and migration are the real threat to an integrated society and recommend that focus should return to problems of inequality and prejudice.
Article
This paper conceives of residential segregation as a multidimensional phenomenon varying along five distinct axes of measurement: evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering. Twenty indices of segregation are surveyed and related conceptually to one of the five dimensions. Using data from a large set of U.S. metropolitan areas, the indices are intercorrelated and factor analyzed. Orthogonal and oblique rotations produce pattern matrices consistent with the postulated dimensional structure. Based on the factor analyses and other information, one index was chosen to represent each of the five dimensions, and these selections were confirmed with a principal components analysis. The paper recommends adopting these indices as standard indicators in future studies of segregation.
Article
The census tract—based residential segregation literature rests on problematic assumptions about geographic scale and proximity. We pursue a new tract-free approach that combines explicitly spatial concepts and methods to examine racial segregation across egocentric local environments of varying size. Using 2000 Census data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas, we compute a spatially modified version of the information theory index H to describe patterns of Black—White, Hispanic-White, Asian-White, and multigroup segregation at different scales. We identify the metropolitan structural characteristics that best distinguish micro-segregation from macro-segregation for each group combination, and we decompose their effects into portions due to racial variation occurring over short and long distances. A comparison of our results with those from tract-based analyses confirms the value of the new approach.
Article
This article examines Europeans' preference to reside in neighborhoods without ethnic minorities. The analysis is based on data from 20 countries obtained from the 2003 European Social Survey (Jowell and the Central Coordinating Team 2003). The data show that in most countries very few Europeans report living in areas with some or with many ethnic minorities, and that in most countries a substantial number of respondents consider their ideal neighborhood one that does not have residents who are ethnic minorities. Multilevel regression analysis reveals that preference for place of residence as a response to its ethnic composition is significantly affected by both individual-level and country-level characteristics. At the individual level, preference for ethnically homogeneous residence tends to be more pronounced among socioeconomically weak and vulnerable populations, conservative populations, and individuals who reside in communities without ethnic minorities. The country-level analysis demonstrates that preference to live in neighborhoods without ethnic minorities tends to increase with the relative size of the non-European ethnic population and to decrease with economic prosperity. Further analysis reveals that in Europe, preference for residing in ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods is influenced by three major social psychological factors: social distance, perceptions of the negative impact of foreigners, and preference for cultural homogeneity. The findings are discussed and evaluated in light of the general literature on structural sources of threat, prejudice, and choice of community, and are compared to findings revealed by research in the United States.
Article
African Americans and Hispanics traditionally have faced many barriers that limit their access to and choice of housing. During summer and fall 2000, local fair housing organizations conducted 4,600 paired tests across 20 major metropolitan areas nationwide. These surveys directly compared real estate or rental offices' treatment of African Americans and Hispanics to that of whites. The 2000 study replicates a 1989 national paired testing study, providing the most complete information available about the persistence of housing market discrimination against African American and Hispanic home seekers. The study finds that disparate treatment discrimination in rental and owner-occupied housing markets persists, but has declined substantially in magnitude over the last decade. Key exceptions to this general decline are discrimination against Hispanics in access to rental housing, racial steering of African Americans, and less assistance to Hispanics in obtaining financing provided. © 2005 by Society for the Study of Social Problems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Although the spatial assimilation of immigrants to the United States has important implications for social theory and social policy, few studies have explored the atterns and determinants of interneighborhood geographic mobility that lead to immigrants’residential proximity to the white, non-Hispanic majority. We explore this issue by merging data from three different sources - the Latino National Political Survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and tract-level census data - to begin unraveling causal relationships among indicators of socioeconomic, social, cultural, segmented, and spatial assimilation. Our longitudinal analysis of 700 Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban immigrants followed from 1990 to 1995 finds broad support for hypotheses derived from the classical account of minority assimilation. High income, English language use, and embeddedness in Anglo social contexts increase Latino immigrants’geographic mobility into Anglo neighborhoods. U. S. citizenship and years spent in the United Stares are ppsidvely associated with geographic mobility into more Anglo neighbor oods, and coethnic contact is inversely associated with this form of mobility, but these associations operate largely through other redictors. Prior experiences of ethnic discrimination increase and residence in public housing decreases the likelihood that Latino immigrants will move from their origin neighborhoods, while residing in metropolitan areas with large Latino populations leads to geographic moves into “less Anglo” census tracts.
Article
Racial residential segregation remains a topic of interest due to its impact on broader racial stratification. However, scholarly inquiry into the subject often ignores metropolitan racial diversity and the hierarchical nature of urban space. This paper proposes a multigroup, multilevel framework to assess the shifting racial and geographical structure of segregation in US metropolitan areas. It is found that overall declines in segregation are due almost entirely to the erosion of White/non-White bifurcation within large cities. The divide between the urban core and suburban ring remains a substantial if not defining component of segregation and racial distinctions between suburban communities are increasing. There is less evidence that Black, Latino and Asian metropolitan residents are fragmenting into homogeneous enclaves and segregation among these groups generally accounts for less overall segregation than would be expected given their relative population size. All told, urban and suburban municipalities are replacing neighbourhoods as the central organising units of metropolitan segregation.
Article
London and New York differ dramatically in the social geographies of their ethnic minority populations. London is a city with immigrants and minorities, while New York is a city of immigrants and minorities. In London they are recent, while in New York they are the lifeblood of its history. The contrasts in social geography stem also from the differing origins of the ethnic minority populations and the constitutional differences between the countries within which they are set. In New York, the fundamental divide is racial; in London it is cultural. London and New York have roughly the same population and are both global cities, acting in similar ways in the world economy. Both cities have been showing long-term population losses, but whereas in New York this has been identified as ‘white flight’, in London's case it is seen in less emotive terms as ‘counterurbanisation’. In particular, population decrease in the major UK conurbations preceded non-European ethnic immigration by at least ten years. Thus, whereas in New York, immigrant and minority growth is represented as displacing white Americans, in London the causation seems reversed. The discussion concentrates on comparisons of the racialised minorities in London with African-Americans and Hispanics in New York. The main thrust of the argument is that London's Afro-Caribbean population is, against expectations, following a ‘melting pot’ trajectory while South Asian groups are following a more structural pluralistic path. However, in New York, African-Americans continue to experience the hyper-segregated existence that sets the American model apart from the urban forms of the Western world, while the Latino population edges towards the ‘melting pot’. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In this article the authors replicate and extend the methodological analysis of Massey and Denton (1988), which conceptualized residential segregation as a multidimensional construct with five axes of spatial variation: evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering. To reproduce their work, the authors of this article factor analyzed 20 indexes of segregation computed in 1990 for three groups in 58 metropolitan areas. They extended Massey and Denton's analysis by expanding the set of metropolitan areas to include all 318 defined for 1990, and they broadened it by carrying out systematic comparisons across ethnic groups. This study's analyses reconfirm the multidimensional nature of residential segregation; however the authors also find that the indexes recommended by Massey and Denton to measure concentration and clustering do not function quire as well in 1990 as in 1980. Alternative indexes are considered as possibilities, but in the end, using the same indexes is recommended to maintain continuity.
Article
This third edition of the widely acclaimed classic has been thoroughly expanded and updated to reflect current demographic, economic, and political realities. Drawing on recent census data and other primary sources, Portes and Rumbaut have infused the entire text with new information and added a vivid array of new vignettes and illustrations. Recognized for its superb portrayal of immigration and immigrant lives in the United States, this book probes the dynamics of immigrant politics, examining questions of identity and loyalty among newcomers, and explores the psychological consequences of varying modes of migration and acculturation. The authors look at patterns of settlement in urban America, discuss the problems of English-language acquisition and bilingual education, explain how immigrants incorporate themselves into the American economy, and examine the trajectories of their children from adolescence to early adulthood. With a vital new chapter on religion-and fresh analyses of topics ranging from patterns of incarceration to the mobility of the second generation and the unintended consequences of public policies-this updated edition is indispensable for framing and informing issues that promise to be even more hotly and urgently contested as the subject moves to the center of national debate.
Article
The British 1991 Census included a question on ethnic identity for the first time. This allows us to measure the extent of ethnic segregation in British cities on a much more reliable basis than has hitherto been available. It also allows us to compare British levels of segregation with those experienced by African Americans in the United States. British levels of segregation are much lower than those found in the USA and, for the Black Caribbean population, they are falling. South Asian levels of segregation are higher than for the Caribbean population but show considerable internal variation. Bangladeshis, the most recently arrived of the groups, show the highest levels of encapsulation, followed by the Pakistanis, while Indian rates are relatively modest. Indirect standardization indicates that the contribution of economic factors to the observed levels of segregation is not substantial. © Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) 1996.
Article
This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to the score equations for niultivariate Gaussian outcomes. Asymptotic theory is presented for the general class of estimators. Specific cases in which we assume independence, m-dependence and exchangeable correlation structures from each subject are discussed. Efficiency of the pioposecl estimators in two simple situations is considered. The approach is closely related to quasi-likelihood.
Article
This paper builds on an emerging literature that focuses on processes of population change as a means of understanding geographies of ethnicity. It argues that persistent assumptions of segregation being the result of divisive separation of ethnic groups are mistaken. The paper takes a demographic approach, presenting analyses of original estimates of natural change and net migration for eight ethnic groups in Britain over the period 1991-2001, at national and district levels. Major results are the greater significance of natural change than migration for minority ethnic population change, and the accordance of population dynamics with theories of counter- urbanisation and dispersal from areas of minority ethnic concentration. The importance of natural change is illustrated through the presentation of its effects on the index of isolation. The paper concludes that ethnic group population change in Britain can to a large extent be explained by benign and unexceptional demographic processes and ethnically undifferentiated migration patterns.
Article
Subsequent to riots in UK northern cities, claims of self-segregation and polarised communities are examined with data unique to the city of Bradford and first results from the UK population census. Statistics relating to race often reinforce misleading stereotypes that are unhelpful to the development of appropriate social policy. Previous studies of indices of segre- gation are shown to be inadequate through lack of consideration of change over time and the confounding of population change with migration. The separation of natural change and migration supports survey evidence that dispersal of South Asian populations has taken place at the same time as absolute and relative growth. Social policy will do well to take on board these demographic facts in a positive inclusive approach to all residents in all areas.
Article
The residential segregation of ethnic groups in urban areas remains an issue of importance for policy-making in multicultural societies, such as England's, with levels of segregation frequently linked to questions of social exclusion and equal treatment. But how segregated are ethnic groups in England? Most studies answer this question using single indices which address one aspect only of a multidimensional concept. In this paper, an alternative approach is used which identifies residential area types according to the degree of ethnic mixing; we evaluate their relative importance in 18 English cities in the light of Boal and Peach's arguments regarding the processes and patterns involved in segregation. We find little evidence of significant segregation of Black ethnic groups, but more with regard to Asian groups-especially outside London.
Article
1 Segregation, Polarisation and Social Exclusion in Metropolitan Areas Sako Musterd and Tim Ostendorf 2 Social Polarisation, Economic Restructuring and Welfare State Regimes Chris Hamnett 3 Assimilation and Exclusion in US Cities: The treatment of African-Americans and Immigrants Susan S. Fainstein 4 Chicago: Segregation and the New Urban Poverty Jerome L.Kaufman 5 The Wefare State, Economic Restructuring and Immigrant Flows: Impacts on Socio-Spatial Segregation in Greater Toronto Robert A. Murdie 6 Exclusion and Inclusion: Segregation and Deprivation in Belfast Fredrick W. Boal 7 Segregation, Exclusion and Housing in the Divided City Alan Murie 8 The Geography of Deprivation in Brussels and Local Development Strategies Christian Kesteloot 9 Ideologies, Social Exclusion and Spatial Segregation in Paris Paul White 10 Social Inequality, Segregation, and Urban Conflict: The Case of Hamburg Jurgen Friedrichs 11 Segregation and Social Participation in a Welfare State: The Case of Amsterdam Sako Musterd and Wim Ostendorf 12 The Divided City? Socio-Economic Changes in Stockholm Metropolitan Area 1970-94 Lars-Erik Borgegard, Eva Andersson and Susanne Hjort 13 (De)Segregation and (Des)Integration in South African Metropoles Anthony J. Christopher 14 Welfare State Effects on Inequality and Segregation: Concluding Remarks Herman van der Wusten and Sako Musterd
Article
This article investigates patterns of spatial assimilation of Hispanics in U.S. metropolitan areas. Using restricted-use data from the 2000 Census, we calculate Hispanics' levels of residential segregation by race and nativity and then estimate multivariate models to examine the association of group characteristics with these patterns. To obtain a more nuanced view of spatial assimilation, we use alternative reference groups in the segregation calculations-Anglos, African Americans, and Hispanics not of the same race. We find that Hispanics experience multiple and concurrent forms of spatial assimilation across generations: U.S.-born White, Black, and other-race Hispanics tend to be less segregated from Anglos, African Americans, and U.S.-born Hispanics not of the same race than are the foreign-born of the respective groups. We find some exceptions, suggesting that race continues to influence segregation despite the general strength of assimilation-related factors: Black Hispanics display high levels of segregation from Anglos, and U.S.-born Black Hispanics are no less segregated from other Hispanic groups than are their foreign-born counterparts.
Book
The attacks of September 11, 2001, facilitated by easy entry and lax immigration controls, cast into bold relief the importance and contradictions of U.S. immigration policy. Will we have to restrict immigration for fear of future terrorist attacks? On a broader scale, can the country's sense of national identity be maintained in the face of the cultural diversity that today's immigrants bring? How will the resulting demographic, social, and economic changes affect U.S. residents? As the debate about immigration policy heats up, it has become more critical than ever to examine immigration's role in our society. With a comprehensive social scientific assessment of immigration over the past thirty years, America's Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity provides the clearest picture to date of how immigration has actually affected the United States, while refuting common misconceptions and predicting how it might affect us in the future. Frank Bean and Gillian Stevens show how, on the whole, immigration has been beneficial for the United States. Although about one million immigrants arrive each year, the job market has expanded sufficiently to absorb them without driving down wages significantly or preventing the native-born population from finding jobs. Immigration has not led to welfare dependency among immigrants, nor does evidence indicate that welfare is a magnet for immigrants. With the exception of unauthorized Mexican and Central American immigrants, studies show that most other immigrant groups have attained sufficient earnings and job mobility to move into the economic mainstream. Many Asian and Latino immigrants have established ethnic networks while maintaining their native cultural practices in the pursuit of that goal. While this phenomenon has led many people to believe that today's immigrants are slow to enter mainstream society, Bean and Stevens show that intermarriage and English language proficiency among these groups are just as high-if not higher-as among prior waves of European immigrants. America's Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity concludes by showing that the increased racial and ethnic diversity caused by immigration may be helping to blur the racial divide in the United States, transforming the country from a biracial to multi-ethnic and multi-racial society. Replacing myth with fact, America's Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity contains a wealth of information and belongs on the bookshelves of policymakers, pundits, scholars, students, and anyone who is concerned about the changing face of the United States.
Article
Research into European minority ethnic groups has produced a large body of knowledge on the segregation and concentration patterns of these groups and their housing conditions. Most of these studies have shown that housing conditions and housing market options in many European countries differ for native-born households and minority ethnic groups. Also that minority ethnic groups generally live concentrated in a few urban areas, in most cases in those areas that do not have the best quality of housing and environment. In only a few studies is the internal heterogeneity of minority ethnic groups stressed, and only occasionally have the dynamic aspects of concentration patterns and housing conditions been researched. In introducing this special issue on diverse and dynamic aspects of housing and segregation, we focus firstly on what we have learned from previous studies of segregation in the European context and on the questions that have yet to be answered. We then discuss the information provided by studies on the housing conditions and housing careers of minority ethnic groups, again in the European context. Here we also try to identify some major open questions. In the third part, we focus on an explanation of patterns and possible dynamics in this area.
Article
Controversy exploded in 2005 over a paper at the Annual Conference of the Royal Geographical Society and the Institute of British Geographers which claimed that ethnic segregation in Britain was increasing, ghettos had formed and some British cities were more segregated than Chicago. The paper asserted that indexes failed to measure segregation and should be abandoned in favour of a threshold schema of concentrations using raw data. These assertions were repeated by Trevor Phillips, Director the Commission for Racial Equality, in an inflammatory speech claiming that Britain was sleepwalking into American-style segregation. The argument of this paper is that the index approach is indeed necessary, that ethnic segregation in Britain is decreasing, that the threshold criteria for the claim that British ghettos exist has manufactured ghettos rather than discovered them. A Pakistani ghetto under the schema could be 40 per cent Pakistani, 30 per cent White, 20 per cent Indian and 10 per cent Caribbean. In 2000, 60 per cent of Chicago's Blacks lived in a true ghetto of tracts that were 90–100 per cent Black.
Article
The paper examines the relative strengths of the cross-cutting variables of religion and ethnicity. British Muslims are often referred to as if they were a single community. The 2001 Censuses of England and Wales and Scotland demonstrate that Muslims are ethnically heterogeneous. Ethno-religious ward-level data for London from the 2001 census are used to test whether Islam binds together peoples of different ethnicity or whether ethnicity links groups despite religious differences. London Muslims, as a whole, are much less segregated than Sikhs, Jews or Hindus. Paradoxically this low level of overall segregation is produced by high intra-Muslim ethnic segregation. Intra South-Asian mixing irrespective of religion is greater than intra-Muslim mixing, irrespective of ethnicity. Intra-Black mixing is high irrespective of religion, while religion over-rides race and ethnicity for Christian groups.
Article
In this paper we derive and evaluate measures of multigroup segregation. After describing four ways to conceptualize the measurement of multigroup segregation—as the disproportionality in group (e.g., race) proportions across organizational units (e.g., schools or census tracts), as the strength of association between nominal variables indexing group and organizational unit membership, as the ratio of between–unit diversity to total diversity, and as the weighted average of two–group segregation indices—we derive six multigroup segregation indices: a dissimilarity index (D), a Gini index (G), an information theory index (H), a squared coefficient of variation index (C), a relative diversity index (R), and a normalized exposure index (P). We evaluate these six indices against a set of seven desirable properties of segregation indices. We conclude that the information theory index H is the most conceptually and mathematically satisfactory index, since it alone obeys the principle of transfers in the multigroup case. Moreover, H is the only multigroup index that can be decomposed into a sum of between– and within–group components.
Article
The paper considers the scale – the measure, extent, and dimension – of uneven distributions in space for a wide range of census variables. While the traditional ‘index of dissimilarity’ is affected by random as well as social factors, a solution presented here allows the index to be calculated even for very small populations. Small areas across England and Wales tend to be fairly similar demographically but quite diverse on ethnic and socio-economic measures. Differences between areas become more noticeable as we move from districts, to wards, to enumeration districts, but the rate of differentiation depends heavily on the variables considered.
Article
We examine the comparative residential segregation of Asian-origin groups in the United States and Canada. For over 100 years immigrants have made their way from Asia to North America. This stream of immigrants has varied in composition by nationality and demographic structure. Moreover, the two host countries have varied in the composition of arriving immigrants and in the policies afforded various ethnic minorities. We use 1990 (and 1991) census data from the two countries to examine the determinants of metropolitan segregation for several Asian-origin groups. We employ regression analysis on pooled group-specific data, and in so doing, help identify the structural, national, and ethnic predictors of segregation. Our results show that the process of segregation differs in the two nations, although we do find that in both counties, Asian-origin persons are more segregated in larger cities with older demographic and industrial structure. We find moderate differences (versus a reference group of blacks) across Asian groups, although these differences are more pronounced in Canada than the United States. At the same time, overall segregation is somewhat lower in Canada. Notably, recent housing construction and relative incomes are less important in predicting segregation in Canada. The results suggest caution in extrapolating US-based models to other settings.
Article
Whether greater racial and ethnic diversity in the United States is being accompanied by greater integration remains unclear. This analysis examines segregation in the multi-ethnic context over the 1980–2000 period by using the multi-race information theory index (H), which simultaneously takes the presence of many groups into account, and by also looking at the segregation of each group separately. Results indicate that segregation has been decreasing, mainly due to declines in African American segregation and White segregation with little change or slight increases in Asian and Hispanic segregation. Growing diversity was associated with increases in overall segregation, White segregation, Hispanic segregation, and Asian segregation, though strongly associated with declines in Black segregation. For Hispanics and Asians, it was the growth in Hispanic and Asian and Pacific Islander populations, respectively, that were associated with increases in segregation, suggesting that this population growth likely buttressed ethnic enclaves.
Article
According to the majority-minority paradigm, racial and ethnic minorities have lower socioeconomic characteristics than whites owing to discrimination. Asian Americans defy this conventional view, however, at least on average. Asian Americans tend to have higher mean levels of educational achievements, and several recent studies indicate approximate parity with whites in most arenas of the labor market for those Asian Americans who were schooled in the United States. Their favorable socioeconomic outcomes stand in contrast to the widespread discrimination and labor market disadvantages that Asian Americans encountered during the earlier part of the twentieth century. The improved opportunities for Asian Americans suggest increasingly successful interrelations with whites in the post–Civil Rights era, with its more multicultural ethos. Less encouragingly, the favorable average socioeconomic profile of Asian Americans in the post–Civil Rights era in part reflects the rising significance of class resources and associated inequalities. The latter trend is evident in the notable socioeconomic variability within the racial category of Asian Americans.
Article
 The measurement of segregation, the understanding of its drivers, and the effects of segregation are three interrelated issues that receive ample attention on both sides of the Atlantic. The comparative study of these subjects in Europe is not an easy task because the continent is highly fragmented and diversified. This regards the types of welfare state, but also the multitude of urban histories. Consequently, there is a lack of uniform information. Nevertheless, this paper makes an attempt to sketch the variety of ethnic and social segregation within Europe, using a large number of sources. It is shown that generally segregation levels in Europe are more moderate compared to what we can find in American cities, but these differences are not absolute. The paper also links the levels of segregation with a range of potential explanations and provides a window on European research focusing on effects of segregation.
Article
Few studies have undertaken rigorous comparative analyses of levels of ethnic residential segregation across two or more countries. Using data for the latest available censuses (2000–2001) and a bespoke methodology for such comparative work, this article analyzes levels of segregation across the urban systems of five major immigrant-receiving, English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. After describing the levels of segregation in each, the article tests a model based on generic factors that should influence segregation levels in all five countries and then evaluates—for the urban population as a whole, for the “charter group” in each society, and for various ethnic minority groups—whether there are also significant country-specific variations in segregation levels. The findings show common factors influencing segregation levels in all five countries: notably the size of the group being considered as a percentage of the urban total, but also urban size and urban ethnic diversity, plus country-specific variations that cannot be attributed to these generic factors. In general there is less segregation in Australia and New Zealand than in the other three countries.
Article
As an introduction to this special issue on ethnic segregation in cities, we offer the readers an overview of the explanatory factors of ethnic segregation and spatial concentration in modern welfare states. After a discussion of the disadvantages and advantages of segregation and concentration, which can be seen as the impetus behind the widespread interest in this topic, we will briefly review some 'traditional' theories. That review will be followed by a closer look at behavioural theories and explanations in which constraints are central. The next section will elaborate on restructuring processes, giving special attention to economic change and its effects on cities, groups and spatial arrangements. We will conclude this introduction with a few remarks on the future of ethnic segregation and concentration and outline some possible directions for future research in this field.
Article
Over the last 20 years there has been a vigorous discussion of evidence related to new and more intense social and spatial divisions within European cities. These contributions have identified social and spatial polarisation associated with globalisation, deindustrialisation and the increasing income inequalities arising from these. However, various 'moderating' factors were identified to explain why different outcomes were emerging in European cities than in their American counterparts. In this context much of the literature has focused on types of national welfare state and as these arrangements have come under pressure across Europe it may be expected that differences from the USA may decline. However there are other literatures that, rather than emphasising the importance of national welfare states, refer to the stronger interventionist traditions of European governments and the distinctive characteristics of European cities. Differences in these dimensions within Europe - including those related to urban planning and decommodified housing - do not correlate with typologies of national welfare states and suggest continuing divergence within Europe and between Europe and the USA. Working within this framework, this introduction to a special issue argues that although European welfare states have weakened, other factors continue to sustain differences between European and American cities. When looking at newly emerging spatial patterns, the major economic and political changes experienced in countries in Central and Eastern Europe are important in explaining why these countries often show causes and effects that differ from their counterparts in Western Europe. Copyright (c) 2009 by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG.
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In this age of multicultural democracy, the idea of assimilation--that the social distance separating immigrants and their children from the mainstream of American society closes over time--seems outdated and, in some forms, even offensive. But as Richard Alba and Victor Nee show in the first systematic treatment of assimilation since the mid-1960s, it continues to shape the immigrant experience, even though the geography of immigration has shifted from Europe to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Institutional changes, from civil rights legislation to immigration law, have provided a more favorable environment for nonwhite immigrants and their children than in the past. Assimilation is still driven, in claim, by the decisions of immigrants and the second generation to improve their social and material circumstances in America. But they also show that immigrants, historically and today, have profoundly changed our mainstream society and culture in the process of becoming Americans. Surveying a variety of domains--language, socioeconomic attachments, residential patterns, and intermarriage--they demonstrate the continuing importance of assimilation in American life. And they predict that it will blur the boundaries among the major, racially defined populations, as nonwhites and Hispanics are increasingly incorporated into the mainstream. Table of Contents: Preface 1. Rethinking Assimilation 2. Assimilation Theory, New and Old 3. Assimilation in Practice: The Europeans and East Asians 4. Was Assimilation Contingent on Specific Historical Conditions? 5. The Background to Contemporary Immigration 6. Evidence of Contemporary Assimilation 7. Conclusion: Remaking the Mainstream Notes Index Reviews of this book: Sociologists Alba and Nee provide a superb, comprehensive analysis of theory, data, and history to revise past and contemporary understandings of immigration and assimilation in the U.S. Their goal is to respond to skeptics' pessimism about new immigrants' assimilability, question misconception about the assimilation experiences of previous and current immigrant groups, reject normative baggage attached to notions of assimilation, and answer the question, 'What can assimilation look like in such a diverse and ethnically dynamic society?' --S. M. Green, Choice Alba and Nee have written a carefully theorized, thoughtfully argued, and empirically well-grounded book. They demonstrate persuasively that the so-called "new" immigration is not terribly different from previous ones, and that most of the descendants of today's Hispanic, Asian, and other newcomers are assimilating in much the same way as the children and grandchildren of the European immigration. Their contribution to our understanding of immigration, ethnicity and race should be read far beyond the worlds of social science scholarship. --Herbert J. Gans, Author of Democracy and the News Assimilation is dead, long live assimilation! Alba and Nee are fully aware of the flaws and biases in the old model of the "melting pot," but they rehabilitate it with elegant theory, persuasive facts, and careful attention to its continued racial and class-based failings. The idea of assimilation may be unfashionable, but it has the singular virtue of fitting the case--for many Americans, at any rate--more than other trendier theories do. Remaking the American Mainstream shows us how, why, and to what end. --Jennifer L. Hochschild, co-Author, The American Dream and the Public Schools Alba and Nee have accomplished a tour de force . They have an important story to tell and they've told it with great verve and skill, using prose that will allow this book to be widely read. Remaking the American Mainstream is an outstanding work that is truly worthy of the important topic it addresses. --Roger Waldinger, author of Still the Promised City?: African-Americans and New Immigrants in Postindustrial New York No phenomenon is more central to the future shape of American life than assimilation - its contested meanings, the demand for it by established Americans, the powerful but mixed incentives for it by immigrants, its social history, and its future trajectory. Alba and Nee elucidate these crucial questions and supply provocative answers. Their book is a valuable Baedeker for anyone who visits the subject. --Peter Schuck, author of Diversity in America: Keeping Government at a Safe Distance