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Using concept mapping to locate the tacit dimension of clinical expertise: Towards a theoretical framework to support critical reflection on teaching

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Abstract

The tacit dimension of expertise is given considerable prominence in the literature on clinical education. However, the concept of knowing more than you can tell is one that cannot be used explicitly to support student learning. In this paper, the authors contend that much professional knowledge that has been described as tacit can be surfaced for examination through application of concept mapping techniques. This allows the articulation of expert practice in a way that can be modelled for students. It also provides a new model of expertise that is based on connections between chains of practice (characterized by sequences of observable actions) and the underlying network of understanding from which they are extracted. These connections, often overlooked and automated in daily practice, represent the location of the tacit dimension.Localizing the tacit dimension in this way allows the teacher and student to focus on the connections of tacit knowledge with formal knowledge and with practice in such a way that intuitive actions can be verified and connected to underlying knowledge frameworks. The act of concept mapping also slows reflection on actions that are normally automated and often overlooked. The resulting model includes an additional dimension that is missing from the traditional stage models of expertise. As such, it provides a conceptual framework upon which it would be possible to develop protocols to support the continuing development of clinical teachers through peer observation and/or guided self-reflection.

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... The "chain" type of maps have many different levels and since they rely on a specific sequence the maps are hard to modify and change as the student's knowledge base grows. As Kinchin, Cabot and Hay (2008) indicated, "Chains are indicative of procedural sequences that characterize observable clinical practice" (p. 94). ...
... Finally, the "network" type maps tend to be indicative of an advanced level of understanding that is more integrated and holistic. Kinchin, et al. (2008) believe that the hallmark of expertise may be the ability to move back and forth between a networked understanding of concepts and chain type of understanding and implementation in clinical practice. Tanner's (2006) model of clinical judgment in nursing also informed this study. ...
... Third, two researchers independently reviewed the concept maps students created prior to the simulation and the changes they made to the maps following the simulation. The maps in this study were coded as either chains, spokes or networks according to Kinchin, Cabot and Hay (2008). The changes in the concept maps following simulation were also viewed in light of the student comments in the debriefing sessions. ...
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In this study, the use of concept mapping as a method to prepare for high fidelity simulated learning experiences was investigated. Fourth year baccalaureate nursing students were taught how to use concept maps as a way to prepare for high fidelity simulated nursing experiences. Students prepared concept maps for two simulated experiences including; 1. caring for patients with diabetes, and, 2. caring for patients with heart failure. Simulated learning experiences were video recorded and debriefing sessions were audio recorded. Following the simulation, three data analysis strategies were employed including analysis of the videos of the simulation, analysis of the audio recordings of the debriefing sessions and analysis of the concept maps. Additionally, videos from previous semesters where students did not create concept maps prior to simulations were reviewed. When comparing student behaviors to Tanner’s Clinical Judgment Model, findings indicated that students who created concept maps prior to simulation demonstrated an increase in noticing behaviors, but that interpreting, responding and reflecting behaviors did not appear to increase. Students also reported a need to have concept maps introduced earlier in their curriculum and that the maps facilitated their learning most in complex, hard to understand clinical cases. This study has implications for simulation, curriculum and the role of concept mapping in the creation of student knowledge structures.
... Medical curricula aim to scaffold this learning (Dahle et al. 2002;Kulasegaram et al. 2013). Making integration of clinical and basic sciences explicit in concept maps enables us to determine the content of an integrated curriculum (Weiss and Levison 2000) and can support student learning (Cutrer et al. 2011;Kinchin et al. 2008;Rendas et al. 2006). Concept mapping helps teachers to achieve consensus about which concepts and interrelations to adopt in an educational programme, and in what order (Harden 2001). ...
... Concept maps constructed by teachers (hereafter referred to as 'preconstructed concept maps') turn out to support student learning: they serve as a road map during the acquisition of new knowledge (Cutrer et al. 2011;Nesbit and Adesope 2006;O'Donnell et al. 2002). Concept maps articulate concepts and their interrelations in a hierarchical way (Novak 2002) and might thus visualize the relations between clinical and basic science concepts that should be understood in order to understand a medical subject (Kinchin et al. 2008;Weiss and Levison 2000). It is for this reason that they are put forward as promising instruments for the articulation of integration (Daley and Torre 2010;Kinchin et al. 2008;Weiss & Levison 2000). ...
... Concept maps articulate concepts and their interrelations in a hierarchical way (Novak 2002) and might thus visualize the relations between clinical and basic science concepts that should be understood in order to understand a medical subject (Kinchin et al. 2008;Weiss and Levison 2000). It is for this reason that they are put forward as promising instruments for the articulation of integration (Daley and Torre 2010;Kinchin et al. 2008;Weiss & Levison 2000). There are not many concept mapping studies focusing on the learning effects on students' integrated use of clinical and basic science knowledge (Cutrer et al. 2011;Gonzalez et al. 2008). ...
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To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and basic scientists-in-training might play in the construction of preconstructed concept maps and the development of integrated curricula.
... A number of authors have suggested that using concept maps to guide qualitative interviews can offer a creative form of engagement with research participants (Kinchin et al., 2010) and enhances the likelihood of obtaining narratives that are spontaneous which potentially improves the credibility of the data (Hathaway and Atkinson, 2003;Wheeldon and Faubert, 2009;Bressington et al., 2011). It has also been proposed that concept mapping can help to slow the reflective process and therefore allow for reflections that are normally automated to be identified and discussed (Kinchin et al., 2008). ...
... The CMHPs engaged well in both the construction of the concept maps and the qualitative interviews. Using the concept maps as a basis for discussion appeared to effectively slow down the reflective process (as suggested by Kinchin et al., 2008). This resulted in CMHPs being able to identify and discuss changes in both understanding and approaches to manage non-adherence with treatment. ...
... The structures of the third maps also suggest that clinical practice became more process-focussed; the majority of participants added chains to their maps which resembled sequences of actions, suggesting that they were developing clinical competence, modifying their understanding and using a more systematic approach. Kinchin et al. (2008) proposed that chains of practice (as evidenced by chain structures in concept maps that resemble sequences of actions) reflect the connection of tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This connection is thought to be important in the process of developing clinical expertise as it enables practitioners to be able to link practice and understanding that is required for intuitive clinical practice. ...
Article
Medication management training programmes for mental health clinicians have been shown to improve clinical outcomes for service users. These studies do not explore from a clinician's perspective how the knowledge and skills learnt during training have been applied in clinical practice and if similarly positive results are observed in differing cultural settings. This study used individual concept mapping series to explore changes in understanding and to aid self-prompted qualitative interviews following a medication management course in Hong Kong. Qualitative interview data shows clinicians developed a systematic but pragmatic approach towards delivering interventions which is in response to perceived implementation barriers. This paper highlights the importance of the cultural and clinical context when using evidence-based medication management interventions; the training may benefit from the addition of specific teaching content and support to help clinicians deal with these issues.
... " In this particular case, the " carer/autoethnographer " also had an alternative professional identity as an academic in higher education who had previously written on the subject of clinical pedagogy. [25, 26] This autoethnography was interrogated (and hence triangulated) by the second author who has a professional role as a consultant orthogeriatrician who has also recently completed an MA in Higher Education. [27] In consequence, the two authors are able to draw on additional voices from personal practice and from the research literature to contextualize and add critique to the autoethnographic case study. ...
... from my time spent as a visitor I was able to reflect on the experiences on the ward and viewed incidents from a particular clinical education standpoint. Rather than being distractions from the smooth operation of wellrehearsed chains of clinical practice [26] I was observing a number of critical incidents as potential teaching moments – for the patient and for the carer. However, it appeared these were not recognized as such by the majority of hospital staff who engaged with Dad as they were not looking at them through the same lens. ...
... [51] This positioning enables the carer and the patient to be active partners in linking the chains of clinical practice with the networks of understanding that relate to the patients wider needs. [25, 26] The key factor within this model is the " care " that includes consultation with the patient and carer that allows them to relate the two halves of their model – something that is required for self-management of chronic or terminal conditions. The outcome of the personal network of understanding is agency and independence to decide how to live or die, and when the link with the treatment needs to be cut. ...
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This paper highlights the role of single case methods in focussing on the learning needs of a marginalised group–family caregivers. It analyses the role of carer agency to help healthcare professionals view key incidents as inclusive learning opportunities for professionals, patients and carers. Through circumstance, one of the authors found himself to be in the position of primary carer for his elderly father whilst simultaneously engaged professionally in dialogue about clinical pedagogy. The paper presents a post hoc research design, using participant observational data of a single-case study, triangulated with reference to professional practice and current research literature. The primary data source for this paper is a carer's autoethnographic narrative that was constructed during, and then reflecting back on a period of extended participant observation. The importance of carer agency in sustaining patient care is discussed as a factor in shared decision-making, facilitating a deliberative model of physician-patient relationships. The paper showcases the high degree of resonance with the research literature that can be generated from a single case study whose teaching value goes beyond its clinical generalizeability.
... Reflection is a cognitive process that is used to make sense of complex and ambiguous problems (Cushion, 2016;Jones & Wallace, 2005;Schon, 1986) and is triggered by the direct perception of information that is perplexing and thus challenging to understand Gilbert & Trudel, 2001;Hong & Choi, 2011;Jay & Johnson, 2002;Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008;Moon, 2004;Rogers, 2001). The presence of a puzzling stimuli presupposes that the individual's existing knowledge and understanding are insufficient to make sense of experience and necessitates a careful and deliberate examination of experience through reflection. ...
... As discussed above, reflection involves cycles of idea expression and re-examination that, if performed persistently, acts to refine a 'working product' of an individual's understanding. Because the process of writing makes internally represented ideas explicit (Black & Plowright, 2010;Kinchin et al., 2008), while enabling immediate or longer-term cycles of re-examination, practitioners are able to take time to integrate ideas that were previously not considered in relation to each other. The resulting insight may provide the necessary coherence to make sense of an experience or idea. ...
Article
Reflection is widely endorsed by professional bodies and practitioners are required to document professional learning to evidence standards of professionalism. Due to the lack of a consensual definition for reflection, there is confusion regarding ‘what reflection is’. Prior to the development of an empirical evidence base that explores reflection, it is important to develop a consensually agreed concept and definition to guide experimental research. The aim of this systematic review is to understand the concept of reflection by performing a synthesis of existing conceptually oriented qualitative studies. Fourteen sources were included in a thematic synthesis that resulted in the construction of four analytical themes: cognitive, integrative, iterative and active. These themes were explored in relation to existing research and a novel definition of reflection was proposed. It is hoped that this review will encourage further enquiry into the concept and process of reflection.
... Tacit knowledge is described as learning gained when there is "no intention to learn and no awareness of learning at the time it takes place" (Eraut, 2000, p. 115). It is acquired as a combination of new knowledge, experiences and emotions that remain implicit to the learner; as a result, tacit knowledge is often difficult to articulate and communicate (Eraut, 2000;Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008;Novak & Canas, 2008). ...
... Further, the use of concept maps in the classroom can support educators in monitoring and correcting knowledge misconceptions, along with the identification of students at risk of resorting to superficial learning. Educators, too, might consider creating their own concept maps to share their expertise with students (Kinchin, Baysan, & Cabot, 2008), a method that makes the expertise of educators transparent and "available for scrutiny by students" (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008). Educators may lack awareness of the tacit knowledge they possess (Polanyi, 1966) that underpins their understanding of more complex concepts and may therefore fail to convey the underlying knowledge that facilitates students in making conceptual leaps. ...
Chapter
This paper describes the process and findings of a study of final year occupational therapy students’ journey through their program. We aimed to pinpoint barriers or thresholds (Kabo & Bailey, 2010) in learning from the perspective of students transitioning to practice in an effort to understand more about threshold concepts for the discipline of occupational therapy. We reasoned that confronting barriers and crossing learning thresholds was critical to successful educational journeys, and that evidence of this may be revealed in students’ learning journey narratives. It was proposed that analysis of narratives would reveal critical information about troublesome knowledge (Perkins, 2006) that could inform curriculum modification.
... Consequently, we have tested concept maps for eliciting mental models of educators (instructors, content providers, etc.), including their domain and didactic understanding for a certain education task (Kinchin et al. 2008), for example, in terms of subject-specific learning paths. Subsequently, we offer learners to use representations of such kind as a means of orientation for navigation and individual learning path development (as part of content individualization). ...
... We start with the open format by giving a certain topic, such as the design of a course. Such a scenario fits well for educators starting to reflect on their experiences and skills from a perspective of their choice, such as domain, institutional, or didactic perspective (Kinchin et al. 2008). It also meets the objective when 'an empty sheet' approach is required to open up for novel ideas. ...
Chapter
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This chapter demonstrates the use of the proposed framework for digital work design and the embedded methods. It shows the mutual interplay of its components for articulating work knowledge, organizational learning, knowledge processing, and preserving design-relevant knowledge. The case studies describe the impact that could be generated through digital design support. The healthcare case demonstrates how meaningful work-model entities evolve in the course of articulation and guide aligned re-structuring of work. It stems from a complex planning process in clinical health treatment requiring the structured elicitation of contextual knowledge from all stakeholders involved to develop working procedures in time-critical situations. The CoMPArE/WP (Collaborative Model Articulation and Elicitation of Work Processes)-case has its focus on alignment when bridging from intuitive or semi-structured models to techno-centric (formal) models that can be executable for some workflow engine. The education case targets educator knowledge involving domain knowledge, didactic competence, and social skills. Finally, the Me2Me2You-case addresses mental model alignment of interaction behavior for executable workflow support from a cascaded interaction perspective.
... Tacit knowledge is described as learning gained when there is "no intention to learn and no awareness of learning at the time it takes place" (Eraut, 2000, p. 115). It is acquired as a combination of new knowledge, experiences and emotions that remain implicit to the learner; as a result, tacit knowledge is often difficult to articulate and communicate (Eraut, 2000;Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008;Novak & Canas, 2008). ...
... Further, the use of concept maps in the classroom can support educators in monitoring and correcting knowledge misconceptions, along with the identification of students at risk of resorting to superficial learning. Educators, too, might consider creating their own concept maps to share their expertise with students (Kinchin, Baysan, & Cabot, 2008), a method that makes the expertise of educators transparent and "available for scrutiny by students" (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008). Educators may lack awareness of the tacit knowledge they possess (Polanyi, 1966) that underpins their understanding of more complex concepts and may therefore fail to convey the underlying knowledge that facilitates students in making conceptual leaps. ...
Article
Introduction: Concept maps help learners identify changes in the quality of their learning. Students in a compulsory volunteering subject were required to construct concept maps prior to the commencement and at the conclusion of a subject.
... , including interactive virtual patients and 3D models (Poulton, Conradi, Kavia, Round, & Hilton, 2009;Savin-Baden, Poulton, Beaumont, & Conradi, 2015;Silen, Wirell, Kvist, Nylander, & Smedby, 2008;Yang, Zhang, & Bridges, 2012) have been introduced to support learner engagement and cognition in PBL curricula. Purpose-designed tools such as concept mapping software (Novak & Cañas, 2008) enable scaffolding of knowledge building processes , Bridges, Dyson, & Corbet, 2009) in PBL and further establish conceptual or epistemological links by interconnecting meaningful knowledge construction and its application to clinical contexts (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008). Creative adaptations of traditional learning management systems (Tedman, Alexander, & Loudon, 2007), embedding online facilitator and curriculum evaluations (Tedman, Loudon, Wallace, & Pountney, 2009) as well as electronic curriculum mapping systems (Willett, 2008;Wong & Roberts, 2007) have also supported the management of complex, integrated PBL curriculum designs. ...
Chapter
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As technological affordances have grown, new opportunities have arisen for technology-enhanced approaches to create face-to-face and virtual spaces for new forms of learning collaborations in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. This ethnographic, comparative study examined the introduction of a blended approach to the PBL inquiry process using a multimodal problem scenario, interactive whiteboards (IWBs), and mobile devices. Two PBL groups (Year 1, Bachelor of Dental Surgery) engaged in the same technology-rich PBL problem scenario over two separate timepoints. The first PBL group (2008–2009) worked with uneven distribution of mobile devices and a standard, nonelectronic whiteboard (printboard) while the second PBL group (2012–2013) all used laptops and a central, wall-mounted IWB linked to the scribe/clerk’s laptop. Interactional analysis of video recordings of both learning discourse and physical activity examined the effects of technology on group dynamics and collaborative learning processes. Findings indicated that integration of an IWB as a mediating tool into face-to-face PBL tutorials can positively reshape the learning dynamic, particularly when using a multimodal PBL scenario to support and stimulate the inquiry process. In terms of group processes, shared IWB visualization controlled by the group scribe was found to support group cohesion during the inquiry process. Strategies for technology-infused PBL were indicated as: (a) gaining students’ joint attention for collaboration and reflection; (b) eliciting articulation of ideas via IWB visualization; and (c) managing the recording of multimodal group notes in digital formats. Analysis indicates that the thoughtful infusion of educational technologies in PBL can support sociocultural theoretical perspectives on collaborative learning.
... Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition, Florida, USA) with updates ensuing accordingly. A sample Year 1 group concept map consolidating learning from a PBL problem and using the CMapTools™ software is provided in Fig. 2. The map indicates a complex network of concepts relevant to clinical learning or what Kinchin, Cabot, and Hay (2008) refer to as "chains of practice" that are "indicative of procedural sequences that characterize observable clinical practice" (p.94). The results as shown in Fig. 3 indicated improved perceived learning outcomes across the desired aspects of 'building new ideas and hypotheses', 'building on past knowledge' and 'identifying' and 'understanding' concepts and their relationships. ...
Article
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While the utility of concept mapping has been widely reported in primary and secondary educational contexts, its application in the health sciences in higher education has been less frequently noted. Two case studies of the application of concept mapping in undergraduate and postgraduate health sciences are detailed in this paper. The case in undergraduate dental education examines the role of concept mapping in supporting problem-based learning and explores how explicit induction into the principles and practices of CM has add-on benefits to learning in an inquiry-based curriculum. The case in postgraduate medical education describes the utility of concept mapping in an online inquiry-based module design. Specific attention is given to applications of CMapTools™ software to support the implementation of Novakian concept mapping in both inquiry-based curricular contexts.
... 1,222). It is important to analyse higher education from a knowledge structures perspective (Kinchin, 2011b;Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008) before considering how concept mapping may actively contribute to students' learning to ensure that we do not promote an inappropriate structure within any mapping activity. This has also been emphasised recently by Gamble (2014), who offers an analysis of the way in which the structure of disciplinary knowledge can determine pedagogy and how "the relation between knowledge structure, curriculum and pedagogy in different disciplinary subject fi elds has crucial consequences for teacher competence" (p. ...
Article
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This article aims to reexamine conclusions drawn by recent analyses of the literature on concept mapping as an educational tool by considering the wider literature on curriculum development. This is with the aim of enhancing the application of concept mapping to higher education. As part of an iterative review process, issues raised by previous analyses are reconsidered with reference to educational research papers that were not considered previously. A greater consideration of the context for learning provides alternatives to some of the assumptions that underpin the discipline-specific concept mapping literature. The methodological shortcomings in the literature on concept mapping revealed by earlier reviews are reevaluated to support reflection on how the tool may be profitably used and also how such reviews may be conducted to better inform practice. This article offers enhanced guidance on the contextualisation of concept mapping and recommendations for its future use in higher education.
... The second problem is lack of a coherent method for evaluating the maps. These two mentioned problems resulted in administration of various and unique methods in each particular study (Kinchin et al., 2008). Iranian scholars recently paid more attention toward conceptual map in the field of nursing education (Ghanbari et al., 2012; Nejat et al., 2011; Sarhangi et al., 2011 ). ...
Article
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the concept mapping as a teaching method in the academic achievement of nursing students. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted using a crossover design among two groups of total 64 nursing students. Participants were asked to create concept maps (group A) or were evaluated with the traditional method of quiz (group B) for eight weeks and then take a cumulative test (no. 1). Consequently, subjects used the alternate method for another eight weeks and then take the second cumulative test (no. 2). Results: The results of this study showed that the mean scores for cumulative tests (both no. 1 and no. 2) was higher in the group that engaged in map construction compared to the group that only take the quizzes. In addition, there was a gradual increase in the mean scores of developed map during the eight sessions of intervention. Conclusion: In conclusion, concept mapping has a positive effect on students' academic achievement. These findings could provide valuable evidence for establishing concept mapping as a continuous teaching strategy for nursing students.
... Second, and related to the way that concept maps make learning process visible (Hay, Kinchin, & Lygo-Baker, 2008), concept mapping methods are research tools allowing teachers to gather qualitative and quantitative data concerning: i) the prior knowledge and experience of students (Hay, Wells, & Kinchin, 2008); ii) the prevalence of student misconceptions in a given field (Kinchin, 2000;2001); the quality of cognitive change through time (Novak & Mussonda, 1991;Hay, 2007); and iv) the trajectories of student cohorts in relation to the targets of curriculum and/or the teachers' more personal knowledge structures (Kinchin, 2001;Kinchin, deLeij, & Hay, 2005). Concept mapping methods have also been used to: i) compare "expert" and "novice" knowledge structures (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008);; ii) juxtapose "teacher" versus "novice" understandings (Kinchin & Hay, 2007); and iii) organise student study-groups (Kinchin, deLeij, & Hay, 2005;. All of these benefits accrue from the close intertwining of the concept mapping method and its underling cognitive model. ...
Article
This paper is concerned with the ways in which undergraduates are first introduced to Law of Contract in a University Law School. Concept mapping is used to document students' changing understanding in the course of one first year undergraduate module. Forty seven students (the members of four tutorial groups) made concept maps of "Law of Contract" at the start and at the finish of a twenty-four week study-programme and their maps were compared with two other concept maps made by their lecturer: 1) a map of the teaching sequence; 2) a map of the practices of Law of Contract. The analysis shows how the teaching sequence inscribes itself upon the students' concept mapping structures even while this temporal pattern has little (or no) genuine accord with the knowledge-shape of legal analysis. The paper explores two different approaches to concept map analysis: First the more traditional perspective of cognition (and cognitive-structure); second the "linguistic-turn". Both of these highlight the "artifice of teaching sequence" but they locate this problem in different arenas. While the cognitive approach suggests that the problem is a general issue of student learning quality, the linguistic approach is more specific, suggesting that the problem is confined to the lesson planning which does not actually involve the students. This paper also concludes that while concept mapping shows the acquisition of a new vocabulary of legal concepts, the method itself is rather less useful for showing whether or not students are developing the skills of making judgement.
... The person undertaking this role may again be called a facilitator and within the relationship they can provide a practical and conceptual support system assisting practitioners to develop skills within their profession and integrate these with theoretical understanding; this is attained through activities aimed at connecting knowledge to practice (Kinchin et al., 2008). Potentially, reflection can be a developmental process for all practitioners, with individuals also having the potential to facilitate the learning of others, given appropriate circumstances. ...
... Creating a networked, organized knowledge base and being able to draw on that knowledge base for making clinical decisions is a hallmark of expert performance. Kinchin, Cabot, and Hay (2008) help us understand how expert performance entails moving elegantly between understanding and action in the clinical arena. As is evident in this work (Hay & Kinchin, 2006) concept maps provide a strategy for navigating these different thought processes. ...
Article
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After defining concept maps, we will present the historical development and theoretical foundations of concept maps derived from disciplines outside of medical education. With this foundation and based on the scoping review conducted, the major focus of this article will shift to the application of concept mapping in medical education. We have selected instructional strategies and sample maps for three contemporary challenges facing medical education to illustrate the portability and broad application of concept maps: 1. linking basic sciences and clinical practice, 2. developing clinical reasoning, and, 3. interprofessional and group learning. Finally, future research studies in concept mapping are suggested. The purpose of this article is to provide an in-depth discussion of concept mapping as a meaningful learning strategy in medical education. Figure 1 presents the major areas addressed in this article, including the theoretical foundations, along with the applications in medical education in the form of a concept map.
... Concept mapping makes administrators construct structures easily and help manage organizations. At the same time, concept mapping may make reflection slower on changed and unnoticed actions (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008). ...
... Bradley, Paul, and Seeman (2006) claim that the expert manages these complex systems of ideas by integrating competing chains of knowledge. In addition, the tacit dimension has been thought to play an important role in the development of expertise (Kinchin, Cabot, and Hay 2008). A further distinction between novice and expert is the category of the experienced non-expert. ...
Article
Experience in the workforce influences teacher educators’ responses to professional development efforts for adapting new practices. This study examines trajectories of novices and experienced teacher educators in a three-year longitudinal professional development community focused on infusing thinking into college teaching. A four-stage trajectory model for development was used to track changes in practice among the teacher educators. The authors’ analysis identified three distinct patterns of professional development among teacher educators: one characterizing novice teacher educators and two distinct patterns for the experienced group. While novices exhibited openness toward learning, the experienced teacher educators were divided into one group that revealed an inquiry stance examining their practice and a second group that claimed expertise and was less willing to consider changing instructional practice. This initial differentiation at the first trajectory stage led to distinctions in development at later stages, resulting in a reclassification of the educators into three groups: novices, experienced experts, and experienced non-experts. These findings emphasize the importance of teacher educators’ years of experience, attitude towards inquiry, and self-perception of expertise as critical determinants of successful educational reform.
... learning processes in the classroom. However, helping students integrate knowledge with the realities of practice continues to challenge educators across professional disciplines (Burnett, Phillips, and Ker, 2008;Kinchin, 2008;Ireland, 2008;Knight, 2001). The process of analyzing and integrating knowledge through reflection processes is a lifelong learning skill for all professional disciplines, including social work (Lay, McGuire, and Grise-Owens, 2006). ...
Article
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Educators in professional programs are challenged to utilize pedagogical approaches that best prepare students with knowledge, values, and skills for professional practice. Providing academic content alone may not provide the problem-solving skills necessary for practice in a complex world in which practitioners must analyze, evaluate, and revise knowledge. Thus, reflective process becomes a core skill for functioning effectively in a diverse and complex practice environment. Analysis of data from focus groups with social work students is presented. Implications for using reflective writing are discussed as a pedagogical tool for preparing students for professional practice.
... Finally, concept maps can support learning activity by clearly linking new and old knowledge and can be used to assess level of knowledge and understanding (Plotnick). In nursing, concept maps have supported the advancement of thinking related to research, assessment, and teaching activities (Higgins & Anthony, 2006; Hsu & Hsieh, 2005; Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008). Included in a tenure and promotion dossier, a concept map gives a name and graphic visualization to the history, proposed future, and current status of the scholarship of a faculty member, providing an overarching, visual overview of work completed toward tenure. ...
Article
Organizing tenure/promotion dossiers can be a daunting task for junior faculty. As an adjunct to a strong program of scholarship, concept mapping can help as a concise and effective tool when applying for tenure and promotion. Concept mapping is explained here as a value-added, graphic method for junior faculty to use in presenting their scholarship accomplishments in the tenure and promotion dossier in a single overview beyond the written narrative. Further, skills in developing concept maps can be used as a mentoring technique, simultaneously helping faculty shape their scholarship as they progress toward tenure. The historically situated picture presented by a concept map is worth a thousand words.
... new information); and conflict with existing knowledge and expectations, thus, requiring closer examination to develop coherence (Hong & Choi, 2011;Schon, 1983). Other reactive triggers for reflection involve changes in routine (Asselin et al., 2013); difficult or critical tasks (Kinchin et al., 2008); professional dilemmas (Cropley et al., 2012;Dewey, 1933); issues of concern (Crathern, 2001;Gilbert & Trudel, 2001;Nelson & Cushion, 2006); or problems for which there were no simple solutions (Chiu, 2006;De Cossart et al., 2012;Dewey, 1933;Neufeldt et al., 1996). Triggers seem to be inter-related with a sense of not knowing, potentially explaining the overlapping nature of these triggers. ...
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Although reflective practice is valued in learning and professional development, there are a wide range of contrasting definitions making it difficult to firstly understand what reflection is and subsequently how to apply this concept in specific working contexts. This study aims to bridge this gap in the literature by enquiring into and seeking an understanding of the factors that enable the process of reflection by synthesising insights from a variety of publications across professional contexts. The analytical process involved initial coding and focussed coding, supplemented by constant comparison and memo writing. Article text was fragmented, sorted, and integrated to develop a thematic structure that was used to organise and integrate the subsequent narrative. Analysis resulted in 3 higher order themes: triggers for reflection, conducive contextual and attitudinal factors, and epistemology. The resulting article represents the product of an enquiry seeking to understanding the factors that enable the process of reflection.
... Concept maps are proposed as a reflective tool to reveal the development of professional knowledge and perspectives, especially in teaching (see for example, Spínola and Amendoeira 2014; Bressington et al. 2011;Schaal 2010;Kinchin et al. 2008;Beyerbach and Smith 1990;Hoz et al. 1990;Beyerbach 1988). Schaal (2010) developed a framework for concept maps to complement lectures in an undergraduate online course on human biology for student teachers. ...
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Preservice teaching is one of the most difficult times in the course of becoming a teacher. Preservice teachers are expected to develop not only their teaching skills but also gain a teacher’s perspective and a solid understanding of what teaching entails. However, they have few opportunities to do so in actual classrooms, and teacher education programs hardly provide the transition from theory to practice. This study presents the results of technology-integrated implementation of a model of preservice teacher education based on drama and reflection. The purpose was to help the participants build on their emerging concepts of teaching and being a teacher, as detected though repetitive use of concept maps, and reflection on their maps. The changes over time in the type and frequency of the concepts used by the participants showed that they became increasingly aligned with a more egalitarian, student centered, and constructive view of teaching. The role of the teacher evolved from more of an implementer to a designer and learner, with a growing amount of teacher knowledge and knowhow. There was a twofold increase in the number of participants who intended to teach when they graduated.
... This method challenges the traditional strategies of rote memorization and passive learning (Long & Carlson, 2011). Students should be instructed to reflect structurally on conceptual maps to strengthen the links of theoretical practice by allowing them to organize, connect, and assimilate knowledge in different ways, which promotes understanding of important issues in a profession (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008). ...
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Undergraduates need to develop critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and deep understanding of concepts. Concept maps are considered an educational tool that promotes meaningful learning and that has demonstrated potential effects in the learning process. Based on studies carried out in adult/higher education, the aim of this review is to identify the effects of concept mapping activities and to discuss their benefits and challenges in pedagogical practices. Findings show that concept maps promote development of critical thinking skills, facilitate integration between theory and practice, develop meaningful learning, promote technology inclusion, promote student collaboration, can lead to better academic scores, and can be used as a tool for the learning progress and assessment. The findings also indicate challenges in integrating concept mapping in academic practices such as students having difficulties in concept and link selection, student resistance, and software difficulties. Despite the limitations, concept maps are well accepted by students.
... reflective journals) in undergraduate nursing students are only supported by a very limited evidence base and have varied success rates (Epp, 2008). An increasing number of researchers have reported that making concept maps the main focus of discussion within tutorials can effectively slow down recall and therefore this may be an effective educational strategy to employ (Kinchin, Cabot, & Hay, 2008;Bressington, Mui & Wells, 2013;Bressington, Wells, & Graham, 2011;Kandiko & Kinchin, 2012). ...
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This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year preregistration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.
... Group concept mapping (Kinchin et al. 2008) creates unique opportunities to engage in collaborative activities and provides considerable insight into active learning and understanding the organization of knowledge. It allows learners to observe the differentiation of knowledge and learn from each other, thus feeling more inclined to collaborate, articulate and elaborate on their learning. ...
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... The spokes and chain concept maps are taken to reflect less complicated knowledge structure (Kinchin, Hay & Adams, 2010;Hay & Kinchin, 2006). On the other, network structures are taken to be the evidence of deep, integrated and holistic understanding of the topic Kinchin, 2008). The network structures are associated with cross-links between concepts. ...
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The pupils' poor performance in science in South African secondary schools is well documented. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to conduct a study that would portray knowledge structures for teaching a science topic. This is an empirical qualitative interpretive multiple case study looking at four physical science teachers teaching Doppler Effect to Grade 12 pupils. The data was collected through classroom observations and teacher interviews. Data analysis was done using concept maps. The results show that teachers' knowledge as portrayed during the teaching lack coherence and to some extent the correctness that is expected of teachers. The weaknesses are considered likely to compromise their pupils' conceptual understanding of the topic.
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Advanced social work practitioners in mental health services daily face the challenges of working alongside the more powerful professions of psychiatry and psychology. Advanced post-qualifying programmes in mental health social work equip practitioners with the knowledge, skills and expertise to confidently work alongside both psychiatrists and clinical psychologists in multi-disciplinary teams. This includes training in empirical research methods, which are used to develop the evidence base for psychiatry and psychology, although social work practitioners find this particularly challenging. This paper explores the importance of research methods teaching in the development of advanced practitioners in mental health social work. Using learning theory to explore possible reasons why practitioners find it so difficult, it offers some solutions which may enhance the learning and teaching of research methodology to experienced social workers.
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This paper explores the developing concept of expertise, taking the Dreyfus and Dreyfus staged model as its starting point. It analyses criticism of the Dreyfus model and considers more recent attempts to resolve the tensions implicit within it. The authors go on to suggest ways some of the later modifications can be improved. The traditional notion of intuition is revisited and thereafter a new and novel way of visualising expertise is presented as a dual-processing relationship between chains of practice and the underlying networks of understanding. These chain and net knowledge structures have been revealed through the analysis of concept maps produced by numerous cohorts of students and teachers. It is argued that a visualisation of the dynamic relationship between the dimensions of expertise provides an emerging theoretical framework for a more general reappraisal of teaching in higher education. This reconsideration of expertise may be the catalyst for dialogue about educational practice within disciplines (between lecturers and between lecturers and students), and between lecturers and educational developers. This dialogue will strengthen disciplinary communities of practice and place the agenda for pedagogic change within the context of the academic disciplines.
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Following collaboration between two chemistry lecturers and an academic developer an attempt was made to enhance the learning of students within a chemistry module through the adaptation of the delivery of content material. This paper reports a piece of action research which considered how effective the approach developed was upon the level of student understanding and the process through which this occurred. The module delivery was altered from an emphasis on the transmission of knowledge through a traditional lecture format, to rotating small group problem based sessions. Student feedback and higher grades achieved appear to demonstrate it was effective.
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Academic coursework on restorative justice is rapidly emerging in professional schools. As members of applied disciplines entrusted to serve the public good, students must be readily able to transfer classroom-based learning into real world application. This paper describes a weekend intensive, multidisciplinary graduate school course and how three ‘real world’ assignments are used to integrate restorative justice values, principles, and practices. The assignments include interviews with criminal justice representatives, group projects that propose restorative justice practices for addressing social issues and legal cases, and participation in community-based programs. The assignments use processes grounded in experiential learning theory to underscore various dimensions of restorative justice. They also convey and deepen the understanding of restorative justice principles and practices while at the same time develop a sense of moral agency in students.
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Concept maps are the tools used to facilitate meaningful conceptual learning. In this study, an augmented reality (AR)-based concept map (AR-ConMAP) application was developed to facilitate the concept map creation process to overcome the challenges that students face when creating concept maps. The study was carried out as a case study. Observations via using video records and worksheets were used to examine the effect of this application on students’ concept map creation skills and their evaluations about their experiences. The results suggested that using AR for creating concept maps provided more accurate results in associating the concept map components and supported students for meaningful conceptual learning. Students evaluated their experiences in using AR also as increasing their sense of enjoyment and curiosity which positively contributed to their motivation to create concept maps. Recommendations for future research and practices were also included
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This Masterclass explores how practitioners may develop clinical expertise. The terms expert and expertise are initially outlined along with the attributes of a practitioner with expertise. This is followed by an exploration of the literature in relation to three key ways to develop expertise: through experience with patients, formal postgraduate education and through direct observation of practice with a mentor. The theoretical basis of these activities is critically reviewed to highlight their underpinning educational value and pedagogy. It is proposed that critical reflection on practice enhanced by direct observation of practice with a mentor and formal postgraduate education each provide a potentially powerful tool for learning and the development of clinical expertise.
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The explication of relations between clinical and basic sciences can help vertical integration in medical curricula. Concept mapping might be a useful technique for this explication. Little is known about teachers' ability regarding the articulation of integration. We examined therefore which factors affect the learning of groups of clinicians and basic scientists on different expertise levels who learn to articulate the integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps. After a pilot for fine-tuning group size and instructions, seven groups of expert clinicians and basic scientists and seven groups of residents with a similar disciplinary composition constructed concept maps about a clinical problem that fit their specializations. Draft and final concepts maps were compared on elaborateness and articulated integration by means of t-tests. Participants completed a questionnaire on motivation and their evaluation of the instructions. ANOVA's were run to compare experts' and residents' views. Data from video tapes and notes were qualitatively analyzed. Finally, the three data sources were interpreted in coherence by using Pearson's correlations and qualitative interpretation. Residents outshone experts as regards learning to articulate integration as comparison of the draft and final versions showed. Experts were more motivated and positive about the concept mapping procedure and instructions, but this did not correlate with the extent of integration fond in the concept maps. The groups differed as to communication: residents interacted from the start (asking each other for clarification), whereas overall experts only started interaction when they had to make joint decisions. Our results suggest that articulation of integration can be learned, but this learning is not related to participants' motivation or their views on the instructions. Decision making and interaction, however, do relate to the articulation of integration and this suggests that teacher learning programs for designing integrated educational programmes should incorporate co-construction tasks. Expertise level turned out to be decisive for both the level of articulation of integration, the ability to improve the articulated integration and the cooperation pattern.
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E-Learning and Knowledge Management environments are increasingly becoming highly interactive and content-rich. They encapsulate social, cognitive, and technological aspects. Concept maps are effective means to generate and organize multiple grounded knowledge for sharing content and trigger behavior along learning and development processes. Since the basic concept map structure and procedure can easily be explained, the various stakeholders engaged in learning processes and knowledge management activities can benefit from these capabilities. Concept maps allow encoding not only relevant information but also elaborating different perspectives on information elements. In this way, meaningful content and features for interaction can effectively be conveyed. We demonstrate the non-intrusive and non-disruptive use of concept maps for user- and usage-centered design of learning environments. The approach spans from articulating educational designs and tagging didactic content to purposeful navigation and traceable design spaces. We use metadata to encode educational intention for learning support. They also allow using content elements in different educational contexts. Their handling can be aligned with existing features of learning support systems including social media. By understanding such application development as a learning process itself, concept mapping enforces systemic understanding and thus, accelerates further developments in context-sensitive design, as our findings from the field reveal.
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Background: Development of practical skills in the field of nursing education has remained a serious and considerable challenge in nursing education. Moreover, newly graduated nurses may have weak practical skills, which can be a threat to patients' safety. Objectives: The present study was conducted to compare the effect of concept mapping and conventional methods on nursing students' practical skills. Patients and methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 nursing students randomly assigned into two groups of 35 people. The intervention group was taught through concept mapping method, while the control group was taught using conventional method. A two-part instrument was used including a demographic information form and a checklist for direct observation of procedural skills. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent samples t-tests and paired t-test were used to analyze data. Results: Before education, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in the three skills of cleaning (P = 0.251), injection (P = 0.185) and sterilizing (P = 0.568). The students mean scores were significantly increased after the education and the difference between pre and post intervention of students mean scores were significant in the both groups (P < 0.001). However, after education, in all three skills the mean scores of the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Concept mapping was superior to conventional skill teaching methods. It is suggested to use concept mapping in teaching practical courses such as fundamentals of nursing.
Article
In this article, we clarify and describe the nature of nursing expertise and provide a framework to guide its identification and further development. To have utility and rigour, concept-driven research and theories of practice require underlying concepts that are robust, valid and reliable. Advancing understanding of a concept requires careful attention to explicating its knowledge, metaphors and conceptual meaning. Examining the concepts and metaphors of nursing expertise, and how they have been interpreted into the nursing discourse, we aimed to synthesise definitions and similarities between concepts and elicit the defining characteristics and properties of nursing expertise. In clarifying the concept, we sought to move beyond the ambiguity that currently surrounds expertise in nursing and unravel it to make explicit the characteristics of nursing expertise from published peer-reviewed studies and structured literature synthesis. Findings indicate a lack of clarity surrounding the use of the term expertise. Traditional reliance upon intuition as a way of explaining expert performance is slowly evolving. Emerging from the analysis is a picture of expertise as the relationship between networks of contextual reasoning, understanding and practice. Striking absences in the discourse include limited explication of ethical reasoning and theorising a broader interpretation of expertise reflective of contemporary forms of nursing.
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The concept of the ‘expert student’ has been considered for some time (e.g. Sternberg, 1998, 2003). Here I am considering the expert student in the context of knowledge creation and the ways in which learning approaches can utilize disciplinary knowledge structures in order to develop authentic understanding and practice.
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Background: Although concept mapping was created in the early 1980s, research in nursing education first appeared in 1992. This literature review analyzes the impact of concept mapping in nursing education. Method: A total of 221 articles, books, and book chapters were reviewed on the topic of concept mapping in nursing education. Results: Results indicate that concept-mapping research progressed from the emergence state, to an expansion and adaptation stage, to an established stage. Conclusion: Nursing education could benefit from further research on applying concept map scoring formulas, using concept maps with simulation, developing knowledge models, and creating concept map-centered learning environments. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):631-639.].
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Aim: To gain insight into community nurses' experiences and how they make sense of the expertise they offer in their role BACKGROUND: Globally, the spotlight is currently on community nursing expertise because of the movement of hospital-based to community- based care. Caring for people at home is no longer solely concerned with prevention, but delivering complex care to patients who are acutely unwell or at the end of their life. Little is known about the distinct expertise of community nurses, or their contribution to patient outcomes. There is a need to examine expertise in this group in order to inform current and future care provision within community settings. Design: A hermeneutic, phenomenological study. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight community nurses in Scotland, UK, who hold an additional post-registration, professional qualification. Participants also kept audio-journals. Data were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Findings: Participants described their expertise in three themes; negotiating a 'way in' to care, managing complexity, and 'thinking on your feet'. They did not refer to themselves as specialist practitioners, nor did they perceive that they were viewed as specialist by colleagues or management. They appeared to dismiss their range of expertise which included forming trusting relationships, anticipating care needs and problem-solving, enabling them to undertake complex care management. Conclusions: Expertise of community nurses in this study is dynamic, contextualised and action-oriented enabling them to be creative problem-solvers. It reflects engagement with patients and families and all aspects of the setting where care is provided, rather than being solely an identifiable set of specialist skills, RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: It is vital to recognize community-based expertise internationally, especially if current WHO aims for community-based health care are to be achieved. Highlighting this expertise contributes to current discourse and may be considered in education and practice reviews. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Objectives Student nurses are provided with a great deal of knowledge within university, but they can find it difficult to relate theory to nursing practice. This study aimed to test the appropriateness and feasibility of assessing Novak's concept mapping as an educational strategy to strengthen the theory-practice link, encourage meaningful learning and enhance learning self-efficacy in nursing students. Design This pilot study utilised a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design. Setting The study was conducted in a University school of Nursing in Hong Kong. Participants A total of 40 third-year pre-registration Asian mental health nursing students completed the study; 12 in the concept mapping (CM) group and 28 in the usual teaching methods (UTM) group. Methods The impact of concept mapping was evaluated thorough analysis of quantitative changes in students' learning self-efficacy, analysis of the structure and contents of the concept maps (CM group), a quantitative measure of students' opinions about their reflective learning activities and content analysis of qualitative data from reflective written accounts (CM group). Results There were no significant differences in self-reported learning self-efficacy between the two groups (p = 0.38). The concept mapping helped students identify their current level of understanding, but the increased awareness may cause an initial drop in learning self-efficacy. The results highlight that most CM students were able to demonstrate meaningful learning and perceived that concept mapping was a useful reflective learning strategy to help them to link theory and practice. Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that the concept mapping approach can be useful to help mental health nursing students visualise their learning progress and encourage the integration of theoretical knowledge with clinical knowledge. Combining concept mapping data with quantitative measures and qualitative reflective journal data appears to be a useful way of assessing and understanding the effectiveness of concept mapping. Future studies should utilise a larger sample size and consider using the approach as a targeted intervention immediately before and during clinical learning placements.
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Specialist Community Public Health Nurses known as health visitors lead and deliver the U.K. government’s Healthy Child Programme aimed at promoting and protecting the healthy development of children from conception up to age 5 years. Health visitors work with families to influence the development of positive parent–infant relationships from the beginning of a child’s life. It is essential that health visitors are educated about the importance of promoting positive parent–infant relationships; however, research reveals health visitors report a lack of initial theoretical education surrounding the parent–infant dyad. Therefore, as a newly appointed public health nurse lecturer teaching student health visitors undertaking an academic diploma at master’s level within a university, a teaching workshop was developed to meet this need and facilitate the learning of registered professional nurses and midwives studying to become health visitors. This article takes a reflective approach to critically explore the evidence base underpinning teaching and learning strategies applied to educate 21 student health visitors about the importance of supporting the development of positive parent–infant relationships. The effects of andragogy as a combination of constructivist and humanistic learning theories applied to plan and deliver the teaching workshop is critically discussed with a focus on incorporating group work to facilitate active learning. Recommendations are made to promote professional development and quality learning opportunities for future student health visitors.
Chapter
Effective, expert practice requires the activation of complementary knowledge structures. The visible, linear chains of practice that characterise a professional’s activity are underpinned by elaborate networks of understanding that are less visible to the casual observer or to the student in the discipline. The application of concept mapping makes these knowledge structures explicit and also provides a mechanism to visualise the trajectories of learning that are required to achieve expertise and enable the interaction of theory and practice to develop powerful knowledge. The knowledge structures that are made visible can be contextualised using established theoretical frameworks to support the professional development of teachers, and also to evaluate the progression of students through the curriculum. Theoretical aspects of professional learning (such as adaptive expertise, pedagogic frailty, threshold concepts and semantic gravity) become more tangible and applicable when practical examples are visualised using concept maps so that educational theory can be embedded in the articulation of practice. These ideas have profound implications for the evaluation of teaching and for curriculum design in professional education settings.
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This research study explores the relationship between the socio-cognitive concept of mindfulness and university educators’ learning design conceptualisations. The multi-method research strategy utilises a concept-mapping exercise to reveal learning designer mental models for comparison with Langer Mindfulness Scale scores and critical event interviews to further illuminate the conceptualisations and factors that impact educators’ thinking when designing online units. Research participants were asked to create a concept map of their learning design and to be mindful of concepts incorporated into a Graduate Certificate of Tertiary Education. The analysis highlights some congruence between educators’ mindfulness dimensions and their learning design conceptual frameworks. The mindfulness scores appear to indicate a propensity to be more mindful in designing curriculum, as indicated by participant concept maps, yet not necessarily towards the adaptive use of technology or learner/activity-based pedagogies. The authors suggest metacognitive strategies to encourage learning design reconceptualisation.
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Työelämän ajankohtaisia asioita ovat eläkkeelle jääminen ja työkierto. Molempiin liittyy hiljainen tieto, jota siirtyy aina työntekijän mukana. Perehdytyksessä hiljaista tietoa voidaan siirtää työntekijältä toiselle ja hiljaisen tiedon siirtämistä tapahtuu myös uusiin tehtäviin siirryttäessä. Kehittämisprojektin tavoitteena oli tuottaa malli, jolla varmistetaan hiljaisen tiedon siirtäminen kahden työntekijän välillä. Projektin tarkoituksena oli perehdytysohjelman kehittäminen. Kehittämisprojektin kohderyhmäksi valittiin terveyskeskuksen yksi ammattiryhmä, koska kyseessä olevasta ammattiryhmässä oli tapahtumassa eläkkeelle jäämistä. Kehittämisprojekti toteutettiin tekemällä ensin ryhmähaastattelu, jonka tavoitteena oli saada tietoa hiljaisen tiedon siirtämisestä nykyhetkellä ja työntekijöiden toiveita siirtämisen mallista. Ryhmähaastattelun tulosten perusteella suunniteltiin pilottimalli tiedon siirtämiseen. Projektiryhmä, jonka jäseniä kutsuttiin myös tutoreiksi, testasi pilottimallin ja siitä saatiin palautteita. Saatujen palautteiden perusteella suunniteltiin lopullinen malli. Lopulliseksi hiljaisen tiedon siirtämisen malliksi tuli kahden työntekijän tunnin pituinen tapaaminen. Tapaamisia kutsutaan tutortapaamiksi. Näissä hetkissä käydään läpi tutorin vastuualueen työn sisältöä.
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Ensuring the competence of healthcare professionals' is core to undergraduate and post-graduate education. Undergraduate pharmacy students and pre-registration graduates are required to demonstrate competence at dispensing and accuracy checking medicines. However, competence differs from understanding. This study determined the competence and understanding of undergraduate students and pharmacists at accuracy checking dispensed medicines. Third year undergraduate pharmacy students and first year post-graduate diploma pharmacists participated in the study, which involved an accuracy checking task and concept mapping exercise. Participants accuracy checked eight medicines which contained 13 dispensing errors and then constructed a concept map illustrating their understanding of the accuracy checking process. The error detection rates and types of dispensing errors detected by undergraduates and pharmacists were compared using Mann-Whitney and chi-square, respectively. Statistical significance was p ≤ 0.05. Concept maps were qualitatively analysed to identify structural typologies. Forty-one undergraduates and 78 pharmacists participated in the study. Pharmacists detected significantly more dispensing errors (85%) compared to the undergraduates (77%, p ≤ 0.001). Only one undergraduate and seven pharmacists detected all dispensing errors. The majority of concept maps were chains (undergraduates = 46%, n = 19; pharmacists = 45%, n = 35) and spokes (undergraduates = 54%, n = 22; pharmacists = 54%, n = 42) indicating surface learning. One pharmacist, who detected all dispensing errors in the accuracy checking exercise, created a networked map characteristic of deep learning. Undergraduate students and pharmacists demonstrated a degree of operational competence at detecting dispensing errors without fully understanding the accuracy checking process. Accuracy checking training should be improved at undergraduate and post-graduate level so that pharmacists are equipped with the knowledge and understanding to accurately check medicines and detect dispensing errors, thereby safeguarding patient safety.
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This article develops the concept-mapping method as a tool for enhancing teaching quality in higher education. In particular, it describes how concept mapping can be used to transform abstract knowledge and understanding into concrete visual representations that are amenable to comparison and measurement. The article describes four important uses of the method: the identification of prior knowledge (and prior-knowledge structure) among students; the presentation of new material in ways that facilitate meaningful learning; the sharing of 'expert' knowledge and understanding among teachers and learners; and the documentation of knowledge change to show integration of student prior knowledge and teaching. The authors discuss the implications of their approach in the broader context of university level teaching. It is not suggested that university teachers should abandon any of their tried and tested methods of teaching, but it is shown how the quality of what they do can be significantly enhanced by the use of concept mapping.
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How much has educational development changed in five years? What is its standing in UK higher education? This paper provides an overview of the current state of educational development in the UK and attempts to identify the changes that have occurred over the last five years. It reports on the responses of 53 heads of educational development units to a questionnaire which was based on a similar survey undertaken in 1995 and reported in this journal. The paper considers some of the major contextual factors which have influenced educational development over this five-year period, and provides an encouraging assessment of the growth in the number of units or departments being established with an educational development role. There is evidence of a steady growth in interest in learning and teaching in higher education in the UK, which has enabled educational development practitioners to achieve a new level of maturity and confidence. It is argued that educational development is fast becoming both an established field of study and a recognized professional role in most institutions of higher education in the UK.
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There has been a significant increase in the number of educational development units (EDUs) created since 1992 in HEIs in the UK. This paper provides a survey of information on the roles and functions of 23 universities and colleges that have EDUs (or similar departments) and discusses their impact on developing institutional policies to support staff and students in improving teaching, learning and assessment practices.
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This paper describes a qualitative approach to analysing students' concept maps. The classification highlights three major patterns which are referred to as 'spoke', 'chain' and 'net' structures. Examples are given from Year 8 science classes. The patterns are interpreted as being indicators of progressive levels of understanding. It is proposed that identification of these differences may help the classroom teacher to focus teaching for more effective learning and may be used as a basis for structuring groups in collaborative settings. This approach to analysing concept maps is of value because it suggests teaching approaches that help students integrate new knowledge and build upon their existing naive concepts. We also refer to the teacher's scheme of work and to the National Curriculum for science in order to consider their influence in the construction of understanding. These ideas have been deliberately offered for early publication to encourage debate and generate feedback. Further work is in progress to better understand how students with different conceptual structures can be most appropriately helped to achieve learning development.
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It has been claimed that one of the overriding purposes of the scholarship of teaching movement is to make more visible what teachers do to make learning happen. The authors of this article are critical of the literature on the scholarship of teaching for not having made more progress towards this aim. They support these assertions through analysis of recent literature and consultation with academics teaching in a variety of disciplines. The weakness in the prior literature is addressed by a proposal to augment a model of scholarship of teaching by providing a tool that can be used by teachers to make explicit the central concept of pedagogic resonance – the bridge between teacher knowledge and student learning. This bridge, spanning the divide between teacher and student, can be made visible through the application of mapping techniques. However, the application of the concept mapping methodology reveals a strategic learning cycle in which teachers and students appear to be complicit in the avoidance of engagement with the discourse of the discipline. The perceived utility of this strategic cycle may subvert any attempt to develop scholarship in university teaching, and may lead consistently to a non‐learning outcome for students and teachers – a phenomenon that has previously been largely ignored.
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Outlines a theory that assumes the development of expertise in medicine is based on cognitive structures that describe the features of prototypical or actual patients and that are referred to as "illness scripts." Evidence is reviewed supporting the theory. Five phenomena extensively documented in the clinical-reasoning literature are discussed: (1) content specificity in diagnostic performance, (2) typical differences in data-gathering techniques between medical students and physicians, (3) difficulties involved in setting standards, (4) a decline in performance on certain measures of clinical reasoning with increasing expertise, and (5) a paradoxical association between errors and longer response times in visual diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Students in general and science-oriented curriculum courses used concept mapping as the basis for developing lesson plans, having first learned the technique through a “fast-track” approach developed by the author. Resulting lesson plans were high in quality with few, if any sequencing errors. Student attitude data showed general enthusiasm for using concept mapping as a lesson planning base, and mixed indications of likelihood of using concept mapping for lesson plan development in actual teaching situations.
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In research across professions, the development of professional skill traditionally was seen as a process of accumulation of knowledge and skills, promoted by practical experience. More recently, this view has been modified to incorporate skillful know-how that is progressively acquired by passing through developmental stages, such as novice, competent, and expert. The authors of this article critically review contemporary stage models that are typically applied across professions. Their principal critique is that a focus on stages veils or conceals more fundamental aspects of professional skill development. On the basis of their critique, the authors propose an alternative model that builds on the strengths of previous models while seeking to overcome their main limitations. Finally, the authors outline the implications of their alternative model for professional education, workplace practices, and research on professional development.
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During preparation for professional practice, the professional skill being developed is typically measured in the form of specific knowledge and skills. This study proposes an alternative to such measures, drawing upon research which demonstrates that our understanding of professional practice is central to how we both perform and develop that practice. The study investigates understanding of medical practice prior to and following a pre-medical programme. On commencing the programme, students showed substantial variation in their understanding of medical practice. At the end of the programme much of this variation remained, indicating the students had developed varying forms of professional skill. The study calls into question the adequacy of a focus on detailed knowledge and skills as a base for professional practice. In line with previous research, an important implication of the study is that developing skilful practice requires focusing on understanding of that practice in and through its performance.
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This fully revised and updated edition of Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge recognizes that the future of economic well being in today's knowledge and information society rests upon the effectiveness of schools and corporations to empower their people to be more effective learners and knowledge creators. Novak's pioneering theory of education presented in the first edition remains viable and useful. This new edition updates his theory for meaningful learning and autonomous knowledge building along with tools to make it operational - that is, concept maps, created with the use of CMapTools and the V diagram. The theory is easy to put into practice, since it includes resources to facilitate the process, especially concept maps, now optimised by CMapTools software. CMapTools software is highly intuitive and easy to use. People who have until now been reluctant to use the new technologies in their professional lives are will find this book particularly helpful. Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge is essential reading for educators at all levels and corporate managers who seek to enhance worker productivity.
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Katz examines physicians' reluctance to admit to uncertainty or to discuss it with patients. He sees this disregard or denial of uncertainty as one of the ways in which physicians impose order on complex and inexact situations. Professional pressures to conform to orthodox practice may also be responsible for an unwillingness or inability to discuss alternative therapies with patients. Fear that their effectiveness as healers will be compromised if a more open approach is attempted could explain why doctors continue in their authoritarian role. Katz concludes by urging physicians to consider the impact their attitude toward uncertainty has on the physician patient relationship.
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Recent changes in nurse education have led to a desire in nurse educators to promote meaningful learning rather than rote learning of facts. A major metacognitive learning strategy that appears to promote this is concept mapping. However, many nurse educators appear to be unaware of this strategy's existence, or of the research evidence available that supports the claim of promoting meaningful learning. This paper sets out to address these issues. It explores the nature of a concept map, the research on concept mapping and meaningful learning and possible reasons why its use has not been noticeable in nurse education. By addressing these issues it is hoped that more nurse educators will attempt to use concept mapping in the promotion of meaningful learning.
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This paper discusses a project undertaken to explore the effectiveness of concept mapping in assisting students to develop positive concepts of health. Positive concepts of health are central to the notion of health promotion. While strategies for health promotion are included in all nursing education programmes in Australia, to date there have been few strategies that are oriented towards promoting the development of positive concepts of health discussed in the literature. If student nurses are to become health-promoting practitioners, health teaching in nursing education must employ teaching strategies which clarify for students the differences between positive and negative concepts of health. One such strategy is concept mapping, which was developed as an educational tool to foster meaningful learning. Concept maps work to identify misconceptions in relation to a topic by clarifying the essential points, thus opening the way for concept change. This paper discusses the results of using concept mapping within the context of an abstract subject such as health, identifies difficulties in evaluating the strategy and makes recommendations about how these might be overcome.
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The purpose of this article is to describe a study that implemented concept maps as a methodology to teach and evaluate critical thinking. Students in six senior clinical groups were taught to use concept maps. Students created three concept maps over the course of the semester. Data analysis demonstrated a group mean score of 40.38 on the first concept map and 135.55 on the final concept map, for a difference of 98.16. The paired t value comparing the first concept map to the final concept map was -5.69. The data indicated a statistically significant difference between the first and final maps. This difference is indicative of the students' increase in conceptual and critical thinking.
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Background: This paper explores the conceptual and methodological problems arising from several empirical investigations of professional education and learning in the workplace. Aims: 1. To clarify the multiple meanings accorded to terms such as 'non-formal learning', 'implicit learning' and 'tacit knowledge', their theoretical assumptions and the range of phenomena to which they refer. 2. To discuss their implications for professional practice. Method: A largely theoretical analysis of issues and phenomena arising from empirical investigations. Analysis: The author's typology of non-formal learning distinguishes between implicit learning, reactive on-the-spot learning and deliberative learning. The significance of the last is commonly overemphasized. The problematic nature of tacit knowledge is discussed with respect to both detecting it and representing it. Three types of tacit knowledge are discussed: tacit understanding of people and situations, routinized actions and the tacit rules that underpin intuitive decision-making. They come together when professional performance involves sequences of routinized action punctuated by rapid intuitive decisions based on tacit understanding of the situation. Four types of process are involved--reading the situation, making decisions, overt activity and metacognition--and three modes of cognition--intuitive, analytic and deliberative. The balance between these modes depends on time, experience and complexity. Where rapid action dominates, periods of deliberation are needed to maintain critical control. Finally the role of both formal and informal social knowledge is discussed; and it is argued that situated learning often leads not to local conformity but to greater individual variation as people's careers take them through a series of different contexts. This abstract necessarily simplifies a more complex analysis in the paper itself.
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• This paper identifies current UK policy for exploring both competence and expertise. • It is argued that the purpose of assessing competence and expertise is relevant in deciding the approaches used. • Different perspectives about competence, specifically those that have arisen in the United States and the United Kingdom, are considered in relation to how competencies may be developed and assessed. The different terms used in discussion about competency are also discussed. • From the literature, criteria for selecting experts in nursing, the attributes of expertise and enabling factors are presented in relation to how expertise in practice may be judged. • The pilot recognition process and development of evidence for the Royal College of Nursing’s Expert Practice Project, together with its facilitation through critical companionship, are described. • It is concluded that the processes necessary for demonstrating expertise in practice are consistent with the recognition that the attributes of expertise are interdependent, complex and situational. Critical companionship provides a mechanism which is primarily developmental and supportive, but focuses on practice development and practitioners’ effectiveness and can result in the development of evidence for a range of different purposes such as demonstrating expertise, as well as practice development, service development and career progression.
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Previous research on the role of tacit knowledge is ambiguous. Some studies show the superiority of expertise, while other studies found experts would not be better than laymen. This paper aims at clarifying the contribution of tacit knowledge to expertise in the domain of nursing. Two important concepts for dealing with critical situations are outlined - tacit knowledge and experience-guided working. The framework of tacit knowledge and experience-guided working can contribute to an explanation of the ambiguous results. Tacit knowledge is acquired implicitly in the course of working and is therefore not subject to reflection. For this reason it can contain erroneous or problematic contents. A method for the explication of tacit knowledge was developed and a laboratory study with 16 experienced nurses conducted. In the laboratory study the nurses had to deal with a critical nursing situation that was developed in co-operation with nursing experts. The explicit knowledge of the nurses was tested before the laboratory study. No systematic differences in explicit knowledge could be observed, i.e. differences in performance could not be attributed to this knowledge mode. Results from multidimensional scaling procedures illustrate differences in the tacit knowledge of nurses who successfully accomplished the critical situation and those who did not. The findings are in line with the assumption that experience-guided working is of the utmost importance for dealing with critical situations. Consequences of these results for nursing and person-related services in general are discussed and the aim of future research is outlined.
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This paper provides empirical evidence that challenges the view that methods of clinical assessment and decision making should not rely solely on logical positivist approaches. Whilst the National Health Service (NHS) Executive currently takes a hard positivist line on what constitutes evidence-based practice, data reveal that it is not always appropriate to disregard the tacit knowledge and intuition of experienced practitioners when making assessment decisions in mental health nursing practice. Data support the case for a holistic approach which may draw on intuition and tacit knowledge, as well as traditional approaches, to meet the requirements of clients with complex mental health problems. A model based on Schon's notion of reflection in and reflection on practice is proposed which demonstrates the value of intuition and tacit knowledge. This model allows the generation of insights which may ultimately be demonstrated to be acceptable and empirically testable. It is accepted that an element of risk taking is inevitable, but the inclusion of a formal analytical process into the model reduces the likelihood of inappropriate care interventions. The cognitive processes which experienced nurses use to make clinical decisions and their implications for practice will be explored.
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The complexity of teaching, learning and assessment strategies remains a problem in nurse education especially with the changes in new curricula. This article explains one solution, which was considered and explored prior to implementation for the assessment of an inquiry-based module in nurse education. The overall aim for selecting this method of assessment was to provide consolidation of prior learning from the core content of the module and to give the students an opportunity to gain further, wide and varied knowledge on a number of concepts in a short period. Concept mapping has proved to be one of the most challenging learning experiences for nursing students. It has been identified as a stimulating learning and assessing tool as predominantly acknowledged over the last year, by nursing students on the Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) BSc and Dip HE nursing education programmes, and also nurse educators who have the responsibility of facilitating the learners.
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This paper reports a study examining the effects of adopting concept mapping in problem-based learning scenario discussions on the improvement of students' learning outcomes in a nursing course. Students in Taiwan usually have a high degree of anxiety about whether or not they have learned enough. Problem-based learning is a method of teaching that uses a patient situation or scenario to stimulate students to acquire and apply information to solve problems. Concept mapping can promote problem-solving and critical thinking to help students organi