Effects of three modern insecticides, pyriproxyfen, spinosad and tebufenozide, on survival and reproduction of Chrysoperla carnea adults
Protección de Cultivos, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid, Spain Annals of Applied Biology
(Impact Factor: 2).
03/2005; 142(1):55 - 61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2003.tb00229.x
Three novel insecticides, pyriproxyfen, spinosad and tebufenozide, were evaluated for their effect on survival and reproduction of Chrysoperla carnea adults using two methods of exposure: direct contact and ingestion. Pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide proved to be harmless to adult survival, whereas spinosad 72 h after treatment reduced the number of adults by 39.8% and 87.2% in topical and ingestion treatment at the maximum concentration recommended (800 mg a.i. litre−1). Fecundity was not affected irrespective of the insecticide or time of application (before or after the onset of oviposition). Concerning fertility, only pyriproxyfen exerted a negative effect on hatching when the eggs were deposited by females treated by ingestion in the post-oviposition period at the highest concentration tested (150 mg a.i. litre−1).
Available from: Geraldo Andrade Carvalho
- "In aphid control, the larvae of chrysopids are efficient natural enemies because of their prey searching activity and predatory capacity (Fonseca et al 2000, Medina et al 2003). In the Neotropical region, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is widely found due to "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively.
Available from: Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi
- "In the field, all development stages (eggs, larvae, pupae , and adults) of C. cubana may be exposed to the action of the insecticides (Schuster and Stansly 2000). However, most of the selectivity studies, have focused on lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides to larvae and adults (Medina et al. 2003, Gontijo et al. 2014), but few studies have evaluated these effects on eggs and pupae of lacewings, whose life stages have been considered more tolerant to insecticides (Schuster and Stansly 2000, Giolo et al. 2009). This proposed tolerance is primarily based on the percentages of hatching and emergence observed after the application of pesticides . "
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ABSTRACT: The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator.
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Available from: Elisa Viñuela
- "Because the spread of viruses seems to be correlated with the foraging habits of natural enemies (Smyrnioudis et al., 2001; Belliure et al., 2011), the objective of this study was to determine the dissemination of CMV by A. gossypii in the absence and presence of the following two predators: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae and adult Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). C. carnea larvae are very mobile and voracious polyphagous predators in many agricultural systems (Viñuela et al., 1996; Medina et al., 2003) and one of the indicator species considered for higher testing in the EU for pesticide registration (Candolfi et al., 2001). A. bipunctata adults are generalist aphidophagous predators with a wide range of prey (Omkar & Pervez, 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.
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