Article

Rethinking Crowd Violence: Self‐Categorization Theory and the Woodstock 1999 Riot

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Abstract

According to self-categorization theory (SCT), incidents of crowd violence can be understood as discrete forms of social action, limited by the crowd's social identity. Through an analysis of the riot at Woodstock 1999, this paper explores the uses and limitations of SCT in order to reach a more complex psychology of crowd behavior, particularly those instances that appear unmotivated, irrational, and destructive. Psychological and sociological literature are synthesized to explore the role of communication in establishing social norms within the crowd. Several modifications to current crowd psychology are proposed, including a false consensus effect of motivation and the mediation of personal and social identities.

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... Stephen Vider"s analysis of the Woodstock riot of 1999, suggests how the event could be understood according to the value-added model. Vider initially argued that the Woodstock riot of 1999 could be understood in reference to Steve Reicher"s model of social identity (Vider, 2004). Reicher"s model draws heavily on Emergent Norm Theory and argues that one"s sense of self is reliant on both personal identity and several social identities (1984). ...
... Reicher"s model draws heavily on Emergent Norm Theory and argues that one"s sense of self is reliant on both personal identity and several social identities (1984). Thus the crowd"s behaviour is defined by a collective sense of purpose, constructed through discussion and rumour, and reliant on the beliefs of the social group (Vider, 2004). However, Vider"s findings are consistent with the value-added model. ...
... Participants justified their violence as a result of overpriced water and food, lack of clean facilities, large distances between stages and overall extortion on behalf of the Woodstock organizers (Vider, 2004). Using the social identity model, one would explain the crowd violence as a result of intergroup encounters in which the group identifies the out-group"s behaviour as illegitimate and cohesively acts against the out-group (Reicher, 1984). ...
... However Fruin (1993:4) Crowds are also categorised according to the cohesion and organisation within. Generally, patrons attending music events are a collection of individuals sharing a common location and are generally without leadership or focus (Tatrai, 2001a:4;Vider, 2004). Tatrai (2001a:4) described this type of crowd as a "collective group". ...
... appearances), and shared interests or cooperative interaction (eg. love of punk music) (Turner, 1995in Vider, 2004. Extreme reactions from crowds at OMFs are possible but rare. ...
... Step 4 Roses, had on a heavy metal audience after two people died and many more were injured during their set (Upton, 1995a:7-9 Ambrose (2001) and Vider (2004) identified the trail of destruction and mayhem caused by this band in America was well known and documented. ...
Article
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Background Information: Outdoor music festivals (OMFs) are complex events to organise with many exceeding the population of a small city. Minimising public health impacts at these events is important with improved event planning and management seen as the best method to achieve this. Key players in improving public health outcomes include the environmental health practitioners (EHPs) working within local government authorities (LGAs) that regulate OMFs and volunteer organisations with an investment in volunteer staff working at events. In order to have a positive impact there is a need for more evidence and to date there has been limited research undertaken in this area. The research aim: The aim of this research program was to enhance event planning and management at OMFs and add to the body of knowledge on volunteers, crowd safety and quality event planning for OMFs. This aim was formulated by the following objectives. 1.To investigate the capacity of volunteers working at OMFs to successfully contribute to public health and emergency management; 2.To identify the key factors that can be used to improve public health management at OMFs; and 3.To identify priority concerns and influential factors that are most likely to have an impact on crowd behaviour and safety for patrons attending OMFs. Methods: This research program has involved a series of five exploratory research studies exploring two main themes within public health management for OMFs, event planning capacity and volunteer capacity. Four studies used a cross-sectional design and survey methodology to collect self-report data from each cohort while the remaining study utilised case methods. The study participants were recruited from Australian and European OMFs. For volunteer capacity, data have been collected from volunteers at two internationally recognised OMFs. One had formal training for their volunteers and the other did not. For planning capacity, data have been collected on consumer concerns regarding OMFs, priority factors that influence crowd behaviour and safety and leadership in event planning. Results (volunteer capacity): The first studies assessed the public health and emergency management capacity of volunteers working at two OMFs. Volunteer training was provided at one event but not at the other. Comparatively, the participants from the OMF where training was provided reported noticeably better awareness of and involvement in public health and emergency management at that event. Additionally, this awareness was improved with experience volunteering at the study festivals. These studies highlighted the benefits of volunteer training and retention. Results (event planning capacity): The next three studies focused on event planning capacity with the first being a case study on event planning leadership. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the event licensing programs managed by LGAs could improve health outcomes for OMFs. A European OMF, the Glastonbury Festival, was chosen for this study. After problems in 2000, it was highly likely that the event would never be held again unless public health and safety was improved. This study documents the progression from that 2000 event through to the 2004 event that was considered the safest event yet. The LGA EHPs working through the event licensing programs had engineered these changes. The next study focused on consumer priority concerns associated with attending OMFs. A wide range of public health issues were identified as high concern including access to drinking water, toilets, safe food and personal protection issues such as females being grabbed or losing valuables. Safety in the mosh pit was a particular concern for almost half of the participants in the study. Also mosh pit safety was identified with other concerns such as females being grabbed, needing first aid, being struck by thrown items, crowd sizes, losing valuables and alcohol-related behaviour. Making safety in the mosh pit the most important public health issue for these study participants. The final study focused on identifying the main influences on crowd behaviour and safety at OMFs, particularly mosh pits. This study follows on from the consumer study. The study participants were skilled event security guards, specialising in OMFs and considered the performers, the music and group mentality as the most common motivators for changes in mosh pit behaviour. They also considered that generally (1) crowd composition, (2) drugs and particularly alcohol, (3) the type of performance, (4) venue configuration, and (5) activities of security staff were highly influential on crowd behaviour and safety at OMFs. Conclusion: Results from this research program have added to the body of evidence on public health management for OMFs. Findings support capacity building and retention for volunteer staff working at OMFs. Also this research has provided evidence on quality event planning, crowd behaviour and safety that can support EHPs working with OMFs. All of these studies have been published in peer-reviewed journals in order to communicate these findings to volunteer organisations and EHPs involved with OMFs. Where to from here? There remains considerable opportunity for research on a variety of topics related to public health management for OMFs. Some specific areas where further work is recommended are: othe development and evaluation of a pilot training program (web-based) for Australian volunteers working at OMFs (this training package is currently under development); othe development of a national code of practice for the event management industry; oresearch into festival patrons' risk perceptions and the impacts of those choices; oevaluation of the planning and management approaches used by specific OMFs; and oadditional detailed investigations of event characteristics such as crowd mood and its impacts on public health safety at OMFs.
... Early theorizing on collective behavior suggested this stemmed from people losing their capacity for individual reason, finding themselves transformed through some type of collective consciousness (Freud, 1960;LeBon, 1960LeBon, [1895). Evidence shows, however, that people retain reasoned cognitive processes when in group situations even when acting in criminal and violent ways (Berk, 1974;Short and Strotdbeck, 1965;Turner and Killian, 1957;Vider, 2004). Perhaps not surprisingly, then, the bulk of progress gained thus far in understanding the decision to engage in group crime has embraced the notion that it is a rational choice aimed at maximizing one's utility (McCarthy, Hagan, and Cohen, 1998;Weerman, 2003). ...
... If a situation prompts individuals to identify as part of an in-group that shares a social identity, this may prime them to behave in a manner consistent with the goals or shared interests of the group-including group deviance. For example, Vider (2004) evaluated the 1999 Woodstock riots and concluded that most rioters developed an in-group/outgroup mentality toward the organizers of the event whom they believed were profiting in excess off of the event. By assuming an in-group identity of "concertgoer," individuals who would not normally have engaged in deviant action were primed to participate in the looting and destruction of property because of the shared "in-group bias" (Dion, 1973). ...
Article
The group nature of offending has been recognized as an inherent characteristic of criminal behavior, yet our insight on the decision to engage in group crime is limited. This article argues that a threshold model offers broad appeal to understand this decision. After discussing the basis of this model and its applicability to collective crime, we offer one example of the kind of research that could stem from this model. Specifically, by using survey data from 583 university students, this study asked respondents to self-report thresholds for group theft and destruction of property. By experimentally manipulating characteristics of the hypothetical scenario used to measure thresholds, we investigated both the individual- and situational-level correlates of these self-reported thresholds. The discussion considers the results that emerge from a Tobit regression model and offers suggestions for future research that would provide further refinement of the threshold model.
... Collective behavior approaches span a range of subject including the spread of "fads" (Aguirre, Quarantelli, and Mendozza 1988), violent crowd behavior (Vider, 2004), rioting (Rosenfeld, 1997), rumors (Milgram and Toch, 1969), and fashion (Sproles, 1985) through examination of how the spread of ideas or practices remains determined by individual cognitive understanding coupled with emergent group behavior. In addition to rational choice approaches to collective behavior (Granovetter, 1978), interactionist-based diffusion studies draw upon a dramaturgical approach to reveal the theatrical staging that occurs between performers and audiences shaping the structure of interactions within crowds. ...
... In addition, the formation of a crowd identity based on present and historical contexts also helps explain the emergence of new norms of collective behavior. While not entirely spontaneous given several preceding days of rumbling undercurrents, looting and mayhem erupted in large-scale violence by crowd members on the final day of the 1999 Woodstock concert (Vider, 2004). By then, concert goers were absorbed into the rituals and identity of crowd membership based on specific social conditions of the concert: the spread of rumors of violence, the collective memory of the Woodstock event 30 years prior and sometimes even the music and musicians themselves moving would-be looters towards the use of burning tents, throwing water bottles, and looting nearby campgrounds. ...
... Moreover, besides all negative effects of the SIP such as prejudice, discrimination, and crowd violence (e.g. Hodson, Dovidio & Esses, 2003;Klein, Licata, Azzi & Durala, 2003;Stott & Drury, 2016;Stott, Hutchison & Drury, 2001;Vider, 2004) on the positive side, in-group favoritism enables social influence and solidarity (e.g. Drury et al., 2016;Hogg & Reid, 2006;Reicher et al., 2006). ...
Thesis
Professional social networking sites (SNS) have become a vital part of modern days professional lives. They are a convenient way to receive information about job offers, work-related content, and to connect with other professionals independent of time and space. Research in the field of social capital has shown that a network of people can give access to information, influence, and solidarity which positively affect both subjective and objective career outcomes. Moreover, research has shown that a diverse network is most beneficial as it gives access to non-redundant information, new perspectives, and new ideas. Yet, most professional SNS users are mainly connected with others from their direct work environments such as colleagues and university friends. For one thing, this is because of the homophily principle which states that people tend to surround themselves with others who are similar to them. On the other hand, contact recommender systems of professional SNS support connecting with similar others as contact recommendations are usually based on similarity. The cumulative dissertation, therefore, was set out to investigate the technological and the human side of professional online networking to gain evidence on how to encourage professional SNS users to build more diverse business networks. The dissertation consists of four research articles answering the following four research questions: 1. Is there a difference between offline and online professional networking in terms of intensity and in terms of influence factors? 2. How do basic technological features and functions (e.g. diverse contact recommendations) influence professional online networking? 3. How do different information designs of contact recommendations influence professional online networking? 4. How does diverse online networking influence people’s social identification with their online business networks? In summary, the four research articles show that people’s online networking is mainly driven by cognitive factors, more specifically, people’s knowledge about the benefits of (diverse) networking. When people know about the benefits of networking and the benefits of diverse networking, they network more and more diverse. This can be addressed in the design of contact recommendations by displaying an explanation why someone is recommended thereby hinting at the benefits of networking in general and at the benefits of diversity. Moreover, this can be addressed by presenting contact recommendations emphasizing dissimilarity information in contrast to similarity information. Both different types of explanations and different types of information weaken the homophily principle and encourage people to network more diverse. Besides, basic technological functions influence online networking. When people are presented with a more diverse set of contact recommendations to choose from, they do not network less but consequently, end up with a more diverse business network. Furthermore, the negative affective influence of anxiety towards unknown people is different for offline than for online networking. In line with the social compensation hypothesis, in online settings, the negative influence is weaker than it is in offline settings. When only looking at online settings we see that higher levels of anxiety still reduce the number of people connected with but not the diversity of the resulting networks. Hence, people do not feel less anxiety when connecting with similar others than when connecting with dissimilar others. Finally, returning to the side of the user we see that more diverse online networking leads to a reduction of social identification with people’s online business networks. Diverse online networking reduces social identification with the network and as a result the willingness to support the network. Hence, diverse online networking compromises the benefits a network provides. Yet, in the absence of similarity, there is also evidence that people attribute others in their online networks with characteristics of their own to perceive them as similar. Shared characteristics function as a reason to identify and compensate for the lack of formal similarity when business networks become more diverse. Moreover, the specific features and functions of professional SNS besides contact recommendations can compensate for the lack of identification.
... Thus we find references to such actions as composting at such events, increasing inclination by festival organizers to recycle, and attempts at becoming carbon neutral (Leverentz, 1999; Virtual Festivals, 2006; Lang, 2007; Live Earth, 2007; van Shagan, 2007;). References to the social effects of music festivals in society generally tend to be limited to references to crowd behaviour or violence, and the economic results of hosting music festivals (Timo 2005; Vider, 2004). That said, there is an ample body of literature indicating the need for sustainability. ...
Article
Recreational events gather large numbers of people in concentrated areas for brief periods of time. Effects of these events extend far beyond their spatial and temporal boundaries; a music festival is one such event. This paper asks, "What are some measures that can move music festivals strategically toward sustainability?" A framework for strategic sustainable development based on backcasting from sustainability principles is applied. Research draws on pertinent literature, interviews with festival organizers and an in-depth case study with International Music Concepts. Results indicate that critical flows and management routines upon which music festivals depend contribute to systematic undermining of social and ecological systems. Festival organizers sit at the centre of these flows, and are crucial to changing them. Education to inspire behavioural change of festival organizers and other stakeholders, notably suppliers, audience and artists, appears critical to shifting music festivals toward sustainability. This can be underpinned by building in-house 'sustainability capacity' of festival organisations; creating strategic alliances between festival organizers; and scaling up organisational efforts to include lobbying governments for financial and other support to authenticate a high-level commitment to true sustainable development. Music festivals may then leverage their role in society to move society itself toward sustainability. A template and guidebook are presented to facilitate this shift.
... At the end of the night, although police officers had made more arrests than they had during the 2005 Homecoming event, many people argued that this year's attempts to deter another riot were ultimately successful (Armstrong 2006a contagion, normative and rational-choice theories, the event was likely to attract young people, especially those "vulnerable to influence" (Klapp 1969:41) who would then act on a combination of motives rooted in the crowd's degree of unification (McPhail 1969;Turner and Killian 1972;Vider 2004), pressure to conform to visible norms (Fox 1987;Turner and Killian 1972), and personal cost-benefit analyses (Berk 1974;Dollard and Miller 1980;Lang and Lang 1970;Raiffa 1982). ...
... 26 The phenomena of empowerment experienced by individuals and sub-groups within the crowd also was identified as having a significant influence on crowd mood and behavior. 14 ' 17 In a thematic analysis of a range of data, including 29 interviews of protesters at the town hall, antipoll tax demonstrations, it was suggested that feelings of power increased among crowd members due to more inclusive categorization among them, that resulted from their perceived illegitimate exclusion from the town hall. 17 The empowered action of crowd members was limited by their shared definitions of "proper practice" (the social norm). ...
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Gaining an understanding of crowd behavior is important in supporting timely and appropriate crowd management principles in the planning and provision of emergency services at mass gatherings. This paper provides a review of the current understanding of the psychological factors of a crowd within the psychosocial domain as they apply to mass-gathering settings. It can be concluded from this review that there is a large theory-practice gap in relation to crowd psychology and the mass-gathering setting. The literature has highlighted two important elements of crowd behavior—there must be a “seed” and people must engage. Understanding these behaviors may provide opportunities to change crowd behavior outcomes.
... Sociologists and psychologists started to investigate crowd violence as protests and riots became more frequent. Examples of crowd violence include, a riot at the Thai embassy in Cambodia in 2003, where people were injured and died; 90 spectators were arrested for disorderly conduct after the Oakland Raiders vanished the Super bowl in 2003; about 290 persons were arrested for riots at an anti-war protest in New York City in 2003 [1]. The study on crowd psychology attempts to investigate a psychological theory that can be applied for these incidents. ...
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Irrational crowds tend to adapt herd mentality, having group behaviour and high suggestion through interaction. It is important to see how an irrational crowd can be controlled to prevent undesirable crowd attitude. This paper reviews existing models and the controllers to provide a comprehensive study for crowd control. It focuses on a comprehensive analysis of the control of psychological crowd, modelled using LeBon’s theory; which defines the crowd behaviour in terms of crowd attitude. The crowd attitude is defined in terms of suggestibility and prestige and the crowd interaction is defined in terms of the interaction of prestige and suggestibility, which is naturally unstable. A controller is required to achieve stability. In this paper several control approaches are described and the best control approach is highlighted. The results conclude, the best control approach is using multiple control agents, since the control effort is reduced and the stabilizing time is improved.
... Music festivals are not only capable of directly promoting environmentally responsible behaviours, but also by prohibiting drugs of indirectly promoting care for the environment, which includes respect and love for life and human beings (One planet living, 2012). It is well known that drug and alcohol abuse can lead to unruly and destructive behaviours, evidenced in historical tragedies such as riots and fires at Woodstock, NY, USA, 1999 (Vider, 2004), Black Sabbath concert, Wisconsin, USA, 1980, Leeds Festival, West Yorkshire, England, 2002, Station Night Club, Rhode Island, USA, 2003, Hard Summer Inglewood, California, USA, 2009, as well as drug abuse scandals at the Altamount Free Concert, Northern California, USA, 1969, The Electric Daisy Carnival, Los Angeles Coliseum, California, USA, 2010, Rainbow Serpent Festival, NSW, Australia, 2012, Electric Zoo Festival, NY, USA 2013, Defqon. 1 Festival, NSW, Australia, 2013, The Veld Music Festival, Toronto, Canada 2014, Got Milk Music Festival, VIC, Australia 2014, and Harbourlife Festival, NSW, Australia 2014. ...
Research
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The study of on-site environmentally responsible behaviours at outdoor events is important because of the negative environmental degradation that may be caused when hosting these events. Studying these behaviours is especially important at music festivals that are held in protected areas, and/or for festival managers who have an interest in controlling the events’ negative environmental impacts. Despite recent interest by event managers in developing strategies to encourage attendees’ environmentally responsible behaviours, this task is still a challenge because attendees may be disinterested in behaving pro-environmentally in the music festival context. Given this, event managers need to find novel ways to encourage attendees to participate more in on-site environmentally responsible behaviours. To contribute toward finding alternative ways to encourage more participation, this research investigated the major psychographic factors that influence attendees’ engagement in on-site environmentally responsible behaviours at music festivals. To identify these factors, the following research activities were carried out: phone interviews with music festival managers (10 participants); two online questionnaires (pre-visit and post-visit to festivals) across multiple music festivals (1,313 and 420 participants, respectively); and on-site interviews with attendees at a three-day music festival located near an Australian national park (81 participants). The findings of this study reveal that event managers consider it important to build a pro-environmental culture into their event communities in order to capitalise on attendees’ sense of community that may support environmentally responsible behaviours. The analysis also provides evidence of discrepancies between attendees’ intentions to behave in an environmentally responsible way at the music festivals and their actual behaviours. Psychographic factors such as pro-environmental predisposition, self-identity as eco-friendly, festival attachment, place attachment, on-site management strategies, perceived benefits and barriers are all important contributors to attendees’ on-site behaviours. Further, the study finds that some attendees exceed their intentions to behave responsibly towards the environment and that this is linked with their perceptions of the music festival’s green status. Attendees also consider it important to behave in an environmentally responsible way on-site because of the benefits they perceive for the well-being of both the festival community and the environment. In terms of barriers to engaging in on-site environmentally responsible behaviours, the findings reveal that the main obstacle for attendees is the belief that their actions will not make a difference. These results are of great significance to event management settings and can contribute to the design of management strategies to encourage attendees’ on-site eco-friendly behaviours. Such strategies are important in assisting event managers to minimise their negative environmental impact, gain credibility in labelling their events as environmentally responsible, minimise their costs in waste collection, and improve the environmental reputation of the events industry.
... Performative Ansätze wie der "dramaturgical approach to crowd behavior" (Benford und Hunt 1992; Snow et al. 1981;Vider 2004) konzentrieren sich speziell auf die Rolle des Protestrepertoires sozialer Bewegungen. Diese Repertoires sind eine Abfolge von "performances", die kollektive Akteure nutzen, um ihre sozialen oder politischen Forderungen öffentlich zu machen. ...
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... Sociologists and psychologists started to investigate crowd violence as protests and riots became more frequent. Examples of crowd violence include, a riot at the Thai embassy in Cambodia in 2003, where people were injured and died; 90 spectators were arrested for disorderly conduct after the Oakland Raiders vanished the Super bowl in 2003; about 290 persons were arrested for riots at an anti-war protest in New York City in 2003 [1]. The study on crowd psychology attempts to investigate a psychological theory that can be applied for these incidents. ...
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Full-text available
Irrational crowds tend to adapt herd mentality, having group behaviour and high suggestion through interaction. It is important to see how an irrational crowd can be controlled to prevent undesirable crowd attitude. This paper reviews existing models and the controllers to provide a comprehensive study for crowd control. It focuses on a comprehensive analysis of the control of psychological crowd, modelled using LeBon's theory; which defines the crowd behaviour in terms of crowd attitude. The crowd attitude is defined in terms of suggestibility and prestige and the crowd interaction is defined in terms of the interaction of prestige and suggestibility, which is naturally unstable. A controller is required to achieve stability. In this paper several control approaches are described and the best control approach is highlighted. The results conclude, the best control approach is using multiple control agents, since the control effort is reduced and the stabilizing time is improved.
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What More Is to Be Done after the Nairobi Review Conference in December 2004: Inventing the Wheel Twice? - Volume 20 Issue S2 - B. Schneider, M. Mader, T. Kees, H. Woltering, B. Domres
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This ground-breaking book takes a new approach to the assessment of behaviour in children and adolescents. Written by an expert author team, combining one (JW) with higher qualifications in general practice, child neuropsychiatry, and child and adolescent psychiatry, with one (PH) with higher qualifications in medicine, paediatrics and child and adolescent psychiatry, the book draws on many thousands of multidisciplinary case discussions, at Great Ormond Street Hospital, in the Children's Multispecialty Assessment Clinic in North London, and in private practice. The book is ideal for the busy mental health professional working in a small team. Organised to allow rapid look-up of behaviours with comprehensive lists of their possible causes, it synthesizes research evidence and clinical experience. The authors interpret behaviour broadly, including not just voluntary actions, but also actions whose voluntary nature is questionable (such as drop attacks, personal preferences, and pseudobehaviours). They also include problems that lead to referral through their behavioural manifestations (e.g. aggression, anxiety, or a poor relationship with mother). Overall, the book spans the behavioural, cognitive, social and emotional problems of children and adolescents. With the child and family in the room, and with detailed school reports and psychometric results available, it is usually possible to identify causes of symptoms that are specific to the child and his environment, and which can guide behavioural, cognitive, social, and family interventions. Purchasers of the book will also be entitled to a Wiley Desktop Edition—an interactive digital version featuring downloadable text and images, highlighting and note taking facilities, in-text searching, and linking to references and glossary terms.
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Purpose – Prison violence generates much public interest with concerns for the financial costs, staff safety and public safety. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experience of riotous behaviour from the perspective of prisoners in a maximum secure adult prison. It also seeks gather information and to generate discussion on areas for future research. Design/methodology/approach – A purposive sampling method and in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out. Interpretative phenomenological analysis identified super ordinate themes and related sub-themes within the participants’ narratives. Emergent themes were then considered in relation to the theories and concepts that underpinned and connected them. Findings – Super ordinate themes emerged centred around the subject of social processing and relationships. Prisoners emphasised the role of prisoner-staff relationships in feeling valued as part of the social structure and considered riotous behaviour the best method of communication at that time. Social comparison highlighted the value they placed in being part of the prisoner culture and the nostalgic nature of the riotous behaviour for them. It lends support to earlier theory on prison adjustment and social psychological explanations for rioting. Research limitations/implications – It is not assumed that the findings of this study can be universally applied given the sample size and the idiosyncratic nature of participants’ experiences. This research may provide greater insight into the motivational factors related to individuals involved in riotous behaviour. With such insight prison staff may be more able to consider whether prisoners’ needs are being sufficiently met to help prevent such behaviour in the future. Practical implications – This research may help inform training on the identification and management of potential riots. With insight into the individual motivational factors prison staff may be more able to consider whether prisoners’ needs are being sufficiently met to help prevent such behaviour in the future. Originality/value – This paper reports on the prisoners’ individual experience of being involved in riotous behaviour. Due to the paucity of literature on this behaviour, this exploratory study is intended to add to existing knowledge.
Article
Research has demonstrated that the presence of others shifts decision-making about risky/deviant behavior. One reason for this shift could be changes in the anticipated experience of formal sanctions, informal costs, and rewards. To investigate this possibility, this study conducted two randomized controlled trials with hypothetical vignettes, in which a range of how many other people were also involved in the criminal act defined the treatment conditions. Across two samples of university students (Ns = 396 and 263), the results revealed that as the size of the involved group increased, the anticipated experience of sanction risk and several informal social costs associated with engaging in the act decreased, and the anticipated experience of two rewards increased. Additional analyses suggest that, with one exception in each data set, these changes are not only tied to the solo/group distinction.
Article
Many criminologists have considered the role of groups in the commission of crime to gain insight into offender decision-making. Additional research is needed, however, that examines the likelihood of arrest as a function of whether an offense is committed by a group of offenders (two or more offenders in a criminal incident) or a lone offender, as well as the number of offenders in the group. Using 3 years of data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System for robbery incidents, assault incidents, and sexual offenses, the study finds that the relative likelihood of arrest for group-offender incidents, compared with lone-offender incidents, varies by incident type. For robbery incidents, the likelihood of arrest increases when committed by a group of offenders. Yet, for assault incidents and sexual offenses, the likelihood of arrest decreases when committed by a group of offenders. Further analysis looks more closely at incidents committed by a group of offenders and how the number of offenders in the group affects the likelihood of arrest. A consistent finding is that for each incident type, the likelihood that all offenders in a group will be arrested is lower as the number of offenders increases, which may justify offenders’ perceptions of “safety in larger numbers.”
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This chapter integrates both structural and symbolic interactionist perspectives used in the study of collective behavior to provide a thorough examination of the campus culture and student-police interactions that precipitated a riot near James Madison University (JMU). While the analysis is anchored by Smelser's (1971 [1962]) "value-added" model, it also accounts for cultural conditions common on college campuses. Importantly, the dynamics associated with this case may be similar to other riots - at sporting events, at religious processionals, etc. - occurring when authorities disrupt gatherings that have strong cultural resonance among participants. In these cases, attempts at disruption may be seen as an assault on norms strongly associated with a group's identity. The study also used a unique data source - 39 YouTube videos posted of the riot event - that made it possible to capture the interactive and emergent quality of rioting behavior in real time from multiple vantage points.
Article
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Lack of food security is a recognised issue at global, national, state and local community levels. In 1995, the Australian National Nutrition Survey was conducted and concluded that 5% of all persons aged 16 years and over had experienced lack of food security during the previous 12 months. The City of Greater Dandenong was identified as a municipality having higher risk markers for lack of food security than other Melbourne metropolitan areas. These markers include low income, high unemployment and low education levels. This study examines food security within a sub-group of this population, consisting of permanent residents of four caravan parks in the municipality. The goals of this study were to determine the food security status of this population and to identify sustainable strategies for Greater Dandenong City Council and local service providers to consider implementing in order to address issues impacting on this group. The study included short interviews of key informants in the lead agency to determine their understanding of factors that contribute to food security and identify possible strategies to address these issues. Analysis of these data identified key themes from the interviews. Results concluded that factors such as financial status, disability, transport, accommodation, education, and social and cultural factors contributed to lack of food security within the City of Greater Dandenong, in particular for permanent residents of caravan parks. A 26-question survey of permanent residents of caravan parks was also conducted to assess food security and gather basic demographic data. Results demonstrated that 15% of the study population experienced instances of food insecurity. Key contributing factors identified were social isolation, financial status, disability, and concern for personal safety. A number of recommendations are made to improve food security for the study population
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Reicher has recently developed the social identity model of crowd behaviour based on self-categorization theory (SCT). This model begins to tackle the thorny theoretical problems posed by the dynamic nature of crowd action (Reicher, 1996b). The present paper describes an ethnographic study of a crowd event in which there were changes in the inter-group relationships over time. It is suggested that the laboratory evidence in support of SCT is complemented by ethnographic research of this type. By exploring situations in which definitions of context and/or categories are not purposefully manipulated, we can demonstrate the explanatory power of a dynamic and interactive approach to social categorization.
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This article examines the related but distinct roles of two kinds of technologies—the cell phone, on the one hand, and crowds, on the other,—in the articulation of popular politics surrounding People Power II. It asks about the contrasting ways by which these telecommunicative technologies alternately promoted and contained expectations for radical change, and reflects on the messianic understanding of justice and freedom in the contemporary Philippines.
Article
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During the 1998 Football World Cup Finals in France, English supporters were, once again, involved in major incidents of collective 'disorder'. Explanations for these incidents concentrated on the conflictual norms held by 'hooligans'. In contrast, Scottish supporters attending the tournament displayed norms of non-violence, explained by the popular press in terms of the absence of 'hooligans'. This study challenges this tendency to explain the presence or absence of 'disorder' in the context of football solely in terms of the presence or absence of 'hooligan' fans. Using data obtained from an ethnographic study of both Scottish and English supporters attending the tournament (N = 121), we examine the processes through which ordinarily 'peaceful' supporters would or would not become involved in collective conflict. In line with the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM) of crowd behaviour, the analysis highlights the role of the intergroup context. Where out-group activity was understood as illegitimate in in-group terms, in-group members redefined their identity such that violent action toward out-group members came to be understood as legitimate. By contrast, where there was no out-group hostility, in-group members defined themselves through an explicit contrast with the 'hooligan' supporters of rival teams. This analysis represents an advance on previous studies of crowd behaviour by demonstrating how the ESIM can account for not only the presence, but also the absence, of collective 'disorder'.
Article
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This study investigates how in-group identification develops during group interaction and forms a dynamic input and output that changes over time. Phase 1 of the study shows how initial level of identification in combination with anticipated changes in the intergroup status hierarchy, predicts subsequent levels of identification. Whereas low identifiers only express solidarity with their group to the extent that the improvement of group status constitutes a likely prospect, high identifiers maintain commitment even if their group faces an uncertain or bleak future. During Phase 2 of the study, it is shown how low and high identifiers respond differently to actual changes in the intergroup status structure. Overall, low identifiers seem more instrumental than high identifiers, in the sense that the former are only prepared to affirm identification with a low status group when status improvement is imminent, or has actually been realized. These results are discussed with reference to social identity theory.
Article
Despite the controversy surrounding heavy metal music and ifs effects on listeners' levels of arousal and anger. a methodologically sound experimental study has not tested this relationship. This study incorporated an experimental design in order to utilize individual differences of subjects as a moderating variable in determining the effect of heavy metal music on listeners' self-reported levels of arousal and anger. It was found that heavy metal music aroused all subjects but that increases in subjects' anger levels were due to an interaction of heavy metal music and the listener's musical preference. Overall, subjects who identified themselves as heavy metal fans did not show higher levels of anger than subjects who were not heavy metal fans. It is suggested that the effects of heavy metal music are mediated by subjects' individual differences and that examination of the effects of heavy metal music should take individual factors of the listeners into account.
Article
Male spectators (N = 178) attending hockey games in Finland and Canada provided ratings of the strength of their motives for attendance. Of six plausible reasons, liking to watch player fights was rated least important by the Finns whereas it was third in importance for Canadians. Subjects also provided information with regard to their age, fight history, the number of accompanying persons and completed a measure of sensation seeking. With the exception of the number of accompanying persons, all variables were related in both countries to subjects self-reported likelihood of escalating a crowd disturbance. The results were discussed in the context of previous findings from a series of field studies using the same paradigm.
Article
Four essential themes in a cultural-collective behavior approach to race riots are developed. First is the historical shift in patterns of race rioting. Second is the application of a general collective behavior model accounting for extrainstitutionality, conversion of feelings into overt action, and acting collectively rather than individually. Third is process, stressing contingent developments during a period of testing. Fourth is the nullification of customary meanings of action, with clues to understanding drawn from anthropological study of “rituals of rebellion” and psychological studies of “obedience to authority.”
Article
Traditional crowd theory decontextualizes crowd incidents and explains behaviour entirely in terms of processes internal to the crowd itself. This ignores the fact that such incidents are characteristically intergroup encounters and draws attention away from the role of groups such as the police in the development of events. This paper begins to rectify this omission through an analysis of interviews with 26 Public Order trained police concerning crowds in general and the Poll Tax ‘riot’ of 31 March 1990 in particular. The analysis shows that, despite a perception of crowd composition as heterogeneous, officers perceive crowd dynamics as involving an anti-social minority seeking to exploit the mindlessness of ordinary people in the mass. Consequently, all crowds are seen as potentially dangerous and, in situations of actual conflict, all crowd members are seen as equally dangerous. In addition, police tactics for dealing with disorder make it very difficult to distinguish between individuals or subgroups in the crowd. This convergence of ideological and practical factors leads to the police treating crowds in disorder as an homogeneous whole. It is argued that such action can often play an important role in escalating (if not initiating) collective conflict and is also a key component of social change in crowd contexts. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Evidence from 4 studies with 584 undergraduates demonstrates that social observers tend to perceive a "false consensus" with respect to the relative commonness of their own responses. A related bias was shown to exist in the observers' social inferences. Thus, raters estimated particular responses to be relatively common and relatively unrevealing concerning the actors' distinguishing personal dispositions when the responses in question were similar to the raters' own responses; responses differing from those of the rater, by contrast, were perceived to be relatively uncommon and revealing of the actor. These results were obtained both in questionnaire studies presenting Ss with hypothetical situations and choices and in authentic conflict situations. The implications of these findings for the understanding of social perception phenomena and for the analysis of the divergent perceptions of actors and observers are discussed. Cognitive and perceptual mechanisms are proposed which might account for distortions in perceived consensus and for corresponding biases in social inference and attributional processes. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Male ice hockey fans (N = 78) completed a battery of biographical, social, cognitive, and individual differences measures that had previously been administered piecemeal to spectators found in attendance at games. Participants' self-reported likelihood of joining in a crowd disturbance served as the dependent measure. The individual differences measures included physical aggression, anger, impulsivity, psychopathy, sensation seeking, and public self-consciousness. All but public self-consciousness was positively related to subjects' likelihood of escalating a disturbance. Participants' age, number of accompanying males, the false consensus effect, number and recency of fights, and attending in anticipation of watching player fights were also related to the dependent measure. A multiple regression analysis yielded a multiple R = .807, accounting for 65% of the variance. The time since the participant was last in a fight and liking to watch player fights emerged as significant predictors. Aggr. Behav. 24:219–226, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
We report on the results of a study in which 19 new mobile telephone users were closely tracked for the first six weeks after service acquisition. Results show that novices tend to rapidly modify their perceptions of social appropriateness around mobile phone use, that actual nature of use frequently differs from initial predictions, and that comprehension of service-based technologies can be problematic. We also describe instances and features of mobile telephony practice. When in use, mobile phones occupy multiple social spaces simultaneously, spaces with norms that sometimes conflict: the physical space of the mobile phone user and the virtual space of the conversation.
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Alabama, 1999. Reference list: leaves 42-45. Abstract: leaf vi. Vita: leaf 47. Thesis approved: 1999. Chair of Thesis Committee: Elise Labbe', Ph. D. Typescript (photocopy)
Article
Male sports fans (N = 74) were asked to estimate the likelihood that they would intervene in a crowd disturbance in an attempt to stop the fighting. They also completed a battery of measures that included their attitude toward law and order, fight history, the false consensus effect, impulsivity, psychopathy, sensation seeking, anger, physical aggression and identification with their favorite team. Law and order, body mass, anger and the false consensus effect were positively related to peacemaking whereas sensation seeking was negatively related. A multiple regression analysis yielded a solution that accounted for 32.3% of the variance with anger and attitude toward law and order emerging as the best predictors.
Article
The effects of listening to different types of music on perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation were evaluated. Fifty-six undergraduate students, 24 males and 32 females, mean age of 21, were randomly assigned to listen to classical, hard rock, self-selected relaxing music, or no music. Participants' relaxation level, skin temperature, muscle tension and heart rate were evaluated before and after exposure to a music condition. Analyses of variance using baseline measures as covariates indicated that skin temperature decreased for all conditions (p = 0.001) and the classical, self-selected relaxing music and no music groups reported significant increases in feelings of relaxation (p = 0.004). These results partially support the hypothesis that classical and self-selected relaxing music can increase perceptions of relaxation to a greater degree than listening to hard rock music. However, no differences were found between different types of music on physiological indicators of arousal. Implications for using music to reduce stress were discussed.
Article
This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model.
Article
The effects of different types of music on perceived and physiological measures of stress were evaluated. Sixty undergraduate psychology students, 31 males and 29 females, rated their level of relaxation and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) after they were told that they would be taking a stressful, mental test. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to different types of music or silence while skin temperature, frontalis muscle activity, and heart rate were recorded. Participants rated their relaxation and anxiety levels after listening to music or silence and completed the Mental Rotations Task Test. MANOVA's resulted in significant differences between groups for trait anxiety, F(57, 3) = 3.058, p =.036, and postmusic phase heart rate, F(57, 3) = 3.522, p =.021. Significant differences were also found between groups on state anxiety when trait anxiety was used as a covariate, F(57, 3) = 3.95, p =.024. The results of the research suggest that music may have an effect on the cognitive component of the stress response.
Tales from Satan's playground Cleanup begins in Oakland after violence on team's loss. The New York Times Greedstock 99: The night the music died. Personal Website Delinquency and drift
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On night music died, many to blame for mayhem. The New York Times The spirit of Woodstock '99: Music, TV, and More TV. The New York Times Introducing the problem: individual and group
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Rage against the latrines A Critique of Sociological Reasoning
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S, R. (1999, September 2). Rage against the latrines. Rolling Stone, 820, 52. S, C.W. (1979). A Critique of Sociological Reasoning: An Essay in Philosophical Sociology.
From New York to Melbourne, protest against war on Iraq. The New York Times Collective behavior: Crowds and social movements Handbook of social psychology
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MF, R.D. (2003, February 16). From New York to Melbourne, protest against war on Iraq. The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2003 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/ 02/16/international/16RALL.html?ex=1050724800&en=c1fcdf8a0717d562&ei=5070 M, S. (1969). Collective behavior: Crowds and social movements. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, second edition, 4, 507– 610.
Ohio State, Columbus create riot task force Discovery and integration of mobile communications in everyday life
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NBC4Columbus. (2002, December 18). Ohio State, Columbus create riot task force. Retrieved March 10, 2003 from http://www.nbc4columbus.com/news/1845368/detail.html O S U T F  P C R (2003). Final Report. Retrieved February 8, 2004 from http://hec.osu.edu/taskforce/FinalReport.pdf P, L., S, M., & Y, E. (2001). Discovery and integration of mobile communications in everyday life. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing Jrnl., 5, 109 –122.
Woodstock '99 goes up in smoke Whatever Magazine
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Festival goers couldn't get much higher Rolling Stone Retrieved February 8 Woodstock '99: A sign of the times? CMCstudents.com Sonicnet Music News. Retrieved February 25, 2003 via email from B. Hiatt at brian_hiatt@ew.com. Originally retrieved Social influence III: crowds and collective violence
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E, J. (1999, July 27). Festival goers couldn't get much higher. Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 8, 2004 from http://www.rollingstone.com/news/newsarti-cle.asp?nid=8608&cf=2640 E, D. (1999, July 28). Woodstock '99: A sign of the times? CMCstudents.com. Retreived April 15, 2003 from http://www.cmcstudents.com/classic/woodstock.html Fans lit the fires but organizers supplied the kindling. (2000). Sonicnet Music News. Retrieved February 25, 2003 via email from B. Hiatt at brian_hiatt@ew.com. Originally retrieved December 13, 2001 at http://www.sonicnet.com but recently removed. F, D. (1991). Social influence III: crowds and collective violence. In D. Foster & J. Louw-Potgieter (Eds.), Social psychology of South Africa. Johannesburg: Lexicon.
The New York Times America in pictures: chaos at Woodstock. Retrieved May 18, 2003 from http://news.bbc.co Woodstock '99: Mega MSW management. Waste Age Greedstock 99: Why we rioted. Personal website Among the thugs Perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation
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A  P . (2003, January 31). Cambodia apologizes to Thailand over riot. The New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 2003 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/31/ international/asia/31CAMB.html?tntemail0 BBC N  (1999, July 26). America in pictures: chaos at Woodstock. Retrieved May 18, 2003 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/403889.stm B , J.V. (2000, April 1). Woodstock '99: Mega MSW management. Waste Age. Retrieved January 13, 2004 from http://www.wasteage.com/ar/waste_woodstock_mega_msw/ B, T.A. (1999, July 27). Greedstock 99: Why we rioted. Personal website. Retrieved April 15, 2003 from http://www.angelfire.com/vt/acidBath/index4.html B, B. (1991). Among the thugs. London: Secker & Warburg. B, J.L., L, E., W, K., & MC, J. (1999). Perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation: As different as Mozart and Alice in Chains. Applied Psychophysio-logy and Biofeedback, 24, 197–202.
Peace Love and Fear at Woodstock '99. Retrieved February 8 The Madness of Crowds Predictors of sports spectators' proclivity for riotous behaviour in Finland and Canada
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M, J. (1999). Peace Love and Fear at Woodstock '99. Retrieved February 8, 2004 from http://www.junemorrow.com/Blog/Woodstock.htm M, L. (1999, August 9). The Madness of Crowds. Time, 82. M, A., A, R.L., & R, G.W. (1996). Predictors of sports spectators' proclivity for riotous behaviour in Finland and Canada. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 519 –525.
Collective dynamics: Process and form Human behavior and social processes: An interactionist approach The crowd. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. (Original work published 1895) Self-categorisation and bystander intervention: two experimental studies
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AP, police at odds over Woodstock photos online Woodstock '99: Three days of peace, love, greed and violence. Personal website Social identity as both cause and effect: The development of group identification in response to anticipated and actual changes in the intergroup status hierarchy
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