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Urbanization and Migration in Brazil

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Abstract

Brazil's rural to urban migration has been dramatic. In 1940 only 15 percent of the country's population lived in urbanized areas. By 1970 more than 50 percent were so classified. This trend in population concentration continues. Studies of the causes and the consequences of population shifts in Brazil when based upon “choice models” of decision making are inconclusive. The current trend in urban migration reflects the impact of structural changes in Brazil's economy including industrialization, agricultural automation, and the accompanying modifications of programs and policies of Brazil's changing governmental elite. Governmental policies designed to stem the flow of population to the cities will require structural changes in the economy comparable to those which precipitated the migration.

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... Under such conditions, migration is considered a common strategy to escape droughts in semi-arid and arid environments worldwide (IIED, 2008). In Brazil, forms of migration have been described since the country's colonization, starting with enslavement of indigenous population and the import of slaves from Africa followed by the recruitment of European peasants and refugees (Wagner and Ward, 1980). Consequently, migration to urban centers was one of the main livelihood strategies of the rural population in the semi-arid region (Brooks, 1971;Finan and Nelson, 2001;Fischlowitz and Engel, 1969;Kenny, 2010). ...
... Migration is a commonly used livelihood strategy of rural population in drylands (IIED, 2008). The history of migration in Brazil dates back until its colonization as summarized by Wagner and Ward (1980). Fischlowitz and Engel (1969) explain the continuous internal migration with periodic droughts in the country's semi-arid Northeast and several booms in agricultural production and mining. ...
... Internal urban migration began with the crash of coffee prices in 1929 and continued with the economic depression in the 1930's. In the following decades, rapid industrialization accelerated this process (Wagner and Ward, 1980). Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s finally led to a rural exodus, mainly affecting the semi-arid Northeast (Perz, 2000). ...
Thesis
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Written records about severe droughts in Brazil’s semi-arid northeast reach back until the country’s colonization in the early 17th century. Since the late 19th century, irrigated agriculture was implemented to reduce the effects of droughts on the livelihood of the rural population. Supported by the construction of large dams and reservoirs for hydropower generation in the 1960s, irrigated agriculture was promoted on larger scales. In this context several irrigation schemes were implemented along the lower-middle São Francisco River. Despite economic growth and poverty reduction in the region, large parts of the rural population who strongly depend on agricultural income suffer from precarious living conditions. This dissertation aimed at a) a detailed analysis of the current production systems and the socio-economic situation of irrigated family farming along the lower-middle São Francisco River, b) identifying the natural, economic, and social constraints as well as benefits and potentials of irrigated agriculture, c) modeling and evaluating optimized resource allocation including alternative crops, and d) estimating the impact of changing the production conditions on agricultural production and its profitability. In the framework of this dissertation, a total of 60 expert interviews were held and a random sample of 193 farm household interviews was conducted to gather detailed information on crop and livestock production. Time series of secondary data were analyzed by regression analysis, qualitative data by content analysis, and socio-economic household data by regression analysis and analysis of variance. Farm optimization models were developed using Linear Programming. Results showed a high vulnerability of irrigated family farming to changing climate and infrastructural production conditions. Nearly half of the interviewed farmers had a farm income below the Brazilian minimum salary. Insufficient infrastructure, limited market access, volatile producer prices, lack of cooperation, overuse of irriga-tion water and agrochemicals, and insufficient knowledge about irrigated fruit and vegetable production aggravated by lack of agricultural consultancy turned out to be the main limitations of irrigated family farming in the region. Availability of irrigable land and proper crop choice were most relevant for the agricultural income. Innovative and efficiently managing farmers underlined the potential of irrigated family farming to counteract rural poverty. Integrated agricultural consultancy considering the development of human capital may provide the required inputs to support economic and social sustainability of agricultural production. Technical assistance combined with volumetric water pricing may help to reduce the excessive use of agrochemicals and water.
... Under such conditions, migration is considered a common strategy to escape droughts in semi-arid and arid environments worldwide (IIED, 2008). In Brazil, forms of migration have been described since the country's colonization, starting with enslavement of indigenous population and the import of slaves from Africa followed by the recruitment of European peasants and refugees (Wagner and Ward, 1980). Consequently, migration to urban centers was one of the main livelihood strategies of the rural population in the semi-arid region (Brooks, 1971;Finan and Nelson, 2001;Fischlowitz and Engel, 1969;Kenny, 2010). ...
... Migration is a commonly used livelihood strategy of rural population in drylands (IIED, 2008). The history of migration in Brazil dates back until its colonization as summarized by Wagner and Ward (1980). Fischlowitz and Engel (1969) explain the continuous internal migration with periodic droughts in the country's semi-arid Northeast and several booms in agricultural production and mining. ...
... Internal urban migration began with the crash of coffee prices in 1929 and continued with the economic depression in the 1930's. In the following decades, rapid industrialization accelerated this process (Wagner and Ward, 1980). Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s finally led to a rural exodus, mainly affecting the semi-arid Northeast (Perz, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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Since the 1960s, Brazil's government promoted irrigated agriculture in the country's semi-arid Northeast to decrease poverty and reduce rural exodus. Especially in the last two decades, irrigated agriculture within big irrigation schemes along the lower-middle São Francisco river basin increased rapidly. Irrigated fruit production using modern irrigation techniques played an important role in the economic growth of this region. Although favourable climate conditions, constant water availability, and efficient production techniques provide the fundamentals required for prosperity and economic independence of smallholders, many smallholders are facing poverty, despite similar initial situations to prosperous farmers. An analysis of socio-economic key factors was conducted to assess their impact on farm income. Sixteen experts were interviewed to gain an overview on irrigated fruit production in the regions Petrolina and Itaparica at the lower-middle São Francisco. Additionally a random sample of 132 farmers within the main irrigation schemes in those regions was interviewed to identify driving forces of economically successful crop production. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis and quantitative data by multiple regression analyses. Inhibiting forces affecting farm income were insufficient infrastructure and therewith bad access to markets, low market power, and low availability of credits for means of production. Lack of knowledge about the new production methods increased these negative effects. Smallholders with less available capital had fewer chances to invest in perennial fruit plantations and modern irrigation infrastructure. However, these measures are crucial to generate higher and more secure income in the long term, thereby providing an escape from the poverty gap. Prospective water shortages, due to expansion of irrigated areas and climate change will increase the importance of water efficient production methods and consequently the requirement for capital and knowledge for their implementation.
... Under such conditions, migration is considered a common strategy to escape droughts in semi-arid and arid environments worldwide (IIED, 2008). In Brazil, forms of migration have been described since the country's colonization, starting with enslavement of indigenous population and the import of slaves from Africa followed by the recruitment of European peasants and refugees (Wagner and Ward, 1980). Consequently, migration to urban centers was one of the main livelihood strategies of the rural population in the semi-arid region (Brooks, 1971;Finan and Nelson, 2001;Fischlowitz and Engel, 1969;Kenny, 2010). ...
... Migration is a commonly used livelihood strategy of rural population in drylands (IIED, 2008). The history of migration in Brazil dates back until its colonization as summarized by Wagner and Ward (1980). Fischlowitz and Engel (1969) explain the continuous internal migration with periodic droughts in the country's semi-arid Northeast and several booms in agricultural production and mining. ...
... Internal urban migration began with the crash of coffee prices in 1929 and continued with the economic depression in the 1930's. In the following decades, rapid industrialization accelerated this process (Wagner and Ward, 1980). Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s finally led to a rural exodus, mainly affecting the semi-arid Northeast (Perz, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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In the course of the Itaparica dam and reservoir construction at the São Francisco River extensive agriculture in the river flood plains was replaced by intensive irrigated fruit and vegetable production. Resettled smallholders received areas equipped with sprinkler systems and free irrigation water as compensation for flooded land. Farmers are still facing problems with the new production methods, lack of extension service, and low market power. Inappropriate farming practices in irrigation persist. Linear Programming farm optimization models were applied to determine site-adapted farm structures and more efficient resource use considering land, labor, capital, and especially water constraints. The models were adjusted to regional characteristics in cooperation with local extension service and by following farmers' preferences investigated by twenty semi-structured on-farm interviews. Data for the models were collected from smallholders in a random sample of 191 structured on-farm interviews. Analyses indicate low farm returns on investment still relying on the availability of free water. Improved market access and therewith higher producer prices are crucial to provide secure farm income. Still, provided agricultural extension, moderate water pricing can lead to an implementation of more efficient irrigation technologies and water saving techniques and therewith contribute to sustainable reservoir use. In addition it may raise the awareness of water scarcity in the region.
... Between the 1950s and 1980s there were profound governmental interventions in the Brazilian economy through different public policies, a period that Buainain (1999) called the ''Planned Intervention''; this time period was associated with rapid industrialization (Baer and Kerstenetzky 1964), the modernization of agriculture, a rural exodus, and unbridled urbanization (Wagner and Ward 1980;Camarano and Abramovay 1999). For the agricultural sector, the Planned Intervention included economic incentives for land occupation, heavily subsidized agricultural credits, creation of the National Agricultural Research and Rural Extension System, and a complex set of administrative acts and reforms in all spheres of governmental power with the aim of promoting the expansion, diversification, and competitiveness of Brazilian agriculture (Buainain 1999). ...
... The National Rural Credit System (NRCS), which was enacted by the Federal Government in 1965 (Almeida and Zylbersztajn 2008), was the most important policy for Brazilian agricultural development, particularly in the Cerrado, and the corresponding activities were supported by a broad program of agricultural research and extension services (Galleti 1974). The NRCS loans were highly advantageous for farmers and involved low or even negative interest rates as a result of the accumulated inflation of 6000% between 1965and 1980(Banco Central do Brasil 2015. However, less than 20% of Brazilian farmers (Sayad 1978) had access to NRCS loans; most loans were given to large farmers because the governmental policies aimed to stimulate large scale production and input use in order to increase productivity, thus generating a surplus of agricultural goods such as beef, soybean, rice, and cotton that could either be exported or used to support the internal market (Defante et al. 1999;Souza et al. 2015). ...
Article
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This paper aims to test the hypothesis that a single driving force from the local, national, or global level is capable of triggering land use changes, including large scale deforestation, within a historical context. To reach this goal we describe and explain the driving forces from the global to farm level that have shaped agricultural land uses, as a case study, over 180 years in the municipalities of Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia in the Brazilian Cerrado. Through secondary data, field surveys, and interviews with farmers and other stakeholders involved with agricultural production, we identified four distinct periods in which drastic or little land use occurred. The evidence found supports our hypothesis. Two drastic land use changes occurred in Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia. The first one was the replacement of about 400,000 ha of original vegetation by pastures and crops between 1965 and 1985 triggered by the availability of abundant subsidized rural credits for farmers; the second one was initiated in 2005 with the replacement of 100,000 ha of pastures and cropping area by sugarcane, which was driven by the sudden domestic and world demand for sugar and ethanol.
... Population-based surveys have shown that communities that have experienced westernization and urbanization associated with lifestyle change are at an even higher risk for diabetes, diabetes is twice as prevalent in urban settings compared to rural settings [14]. Brazil is a developing country that is rapidly urbanizing [15,16]. Between 2017 and 2045 the Brazilian population with diabetes is expected to increase by 74% [14]. ...
... In Brazil, reader users performed an average of 14 scans per day, with a median (IQR) of 11 (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16) daily glucose scans (Fig. 1). Around the world, reader users performed an average of 12 scans per day, with a median (IQR) of 10 (7-13) daily glucose scans (Fig. 1). ...
Article
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Background: New technologies are changing diabetes treatment and contributing better outcomes in developed countries. To our knowledge, no previous studies have investigated the comparative effect of sensor-based monitoring on glycemic markers in developing countries like Brazil. The present study aims to evaluate the use of intermittent Continuous Glucose Measurements (iCGM) in a developing country, Brazil, regarding (i) frequency of glucose scans, (ii) its association with glycemic markers and (iii) comparison with these findings to those observed in global population data. Methods: Glucose results were de-identified and uploaded to a dedicated database when Freestyle Libre™ readers were connected to an internet-ready computer. Data between September 2014 and Dec 2018, comprising 688,640 readers and 7,329,052 sensors worldwide, were analysed (including 17,691 readers and 147,166 sensors from Brazil). Scan rate per reader was determined and each reader was sorted into 20 equally-sized rank ordered groups, categorised by scan frequency. Glucose parameters were calculated for each group, including estimated A1c, time above, below and within range identified as 70-180 mg/dL. Results: In Brazil, reader users performed an average of 14 scans per day, while around the world, reader users performed an average of 12 scans per day (p < 0.01). In Brazil dataset, those in the lowest and in the highest groups scanned on average 3.6 and 43.1 times per day had an estimated A1c of 7.56% (59 mmol/mol) and 6.71% (50 mmol/mol), respectively (p < 0.01). Worldwide, the lowest group and the highest groups scanned 3.4 times/day and 37.8 times/day and had an eA1c of 8.14% (65 mmol/mol) and 6.70% (50 mmol/mol), respectively (p < 0.01). For the scan groups in both populations, the time spent above 180 mg/dL decreased as the scan frequency increased. In both Brazil and around the world, as scan frequency increased, time in range (TIR) increased. In Brazil, TIR increased from 14.15 to 16.62 h/day (p < 0.01). Worldwide, TIR increased from 12.06 to 16.97 h/day (p < 0.01). Conclusions: We conclude that Brazilian users have a high frequency of scans, more frequent than global data. Similarly to the world findings, increased scan frequency is associated with better glycemic control.
... In India, which has the largest rural population in the World (approximately 800 million), it is estimated that rural-to-urban migration accounts for about 30% of urbanization ( Mitra and Murayama, 2008). In Brazil, rapid migration from rural areas increased the share of the population in urban areas from 15% in 1940 to 56% in 1970, and to more than 80% in 2000 (Wagner and Ward, 1980;Brazilian Demographic Census 2000). ...
... more than fifty percent of the Brazilian population had emigrated from rural areas to urbanized centers (Wagner & Ward, 1980Despite the massive regional transition and the consequential decline of the rural patriarchal family, the cordial man, in opposition to what Holanda had predicted, has been able to find shelter within an industrialized society (Barbosa, 1992; Rocha, 2004). " While constituting his codes and imposing his gestures, the cordial man created conditions to 'survive' in the urban universe, due to his indiscrete attachment to the power structures generated in the bosom of the patriarchal family. ...
Thesis
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Cultures, subcultures, and individuals occupy different positions in the low-context/individualistic and the high-context/collectivistic spectrum, and they shift due to factors such as urbanization, economic development and cultural globalization. In this study, I examine Sérgio Buarque de Holanda’s theory of the cordial man and how it illustrates qualities of the high-context Brazilian culture. Within the framework of grounded theory, these qualities are evaluated from the perspective of intergenerational dyads—fathers and sons—that have been exposed to an urbanized and globalized environment in order to determine whether and how a shift from high-context to low-context is occurring. The participants were interviewed to explore perception of self, upbringing, decision-making process within the family, father and son relationships, intrafamilial communication, ways to influence and be influenced, history of conflict, and urbanization and globalization. Their responses revealed the extent to which their values were individualistic or group-oriented and if the cordial man behavior was also present in the intimacy of their homes. In sum, I reach three conclusions: technological and cultural globalization propagates low-context values and behaviors; sons are in a transitional state, in which individual goals are relevant enough to challenge parental expectations, but still cause guilt when pursued; and, the cordial man still exists in the urban and globalized world. Implications for families, family therapists, counselors and mediators are discussed.
... One of the most dramatic transformations occurring in the developing countries of the global South in recent decades has been the shift in the population from rural to urban areas and the mass migration of labor from rural to urban areas. Literature on developing world migration and urbanization is vast, and much work has been published on these proc esses in developing countries such as Brazil (Wagner & Ward 1980), the Philippines (Hiday 1978), and Peru (Skeldon 1977). Those studies consider rural-urban migration as a key driving force behind urbanization in develop ing countries. ...
Chapter
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Urbanization is the process of a greater proportion of human activities – economic, social, cultural – taking place in urbanized areas. It is characterized by a rise in the urban proportion of the total population (Ledent 1982). It is a process that almost all countries have experienced or are currently experiencing, and is particularly evident in those nations that are undergoing a social and economic transition from an agrarian society to an industrial one. The 20th century witnessed a remarkable urbanization: the global proportion of urban population increased from 13 per cent in 1900 to 29 per cent in 1950. According to a report by the UN, the world reached a significant milestone in 2008: for the first time in history, more than half of the human population, 3.3 billion people, were living in urban areas. It is expected that by 2030 this number will reach as much as five billion, or 60 percent of the total population. This phenomenon will be particularly remarkable in Africa and Asia where the urban population is projected to double between the years 2000 and 2030.
... Brazil had an honorary consul in Rīga from 1922 to 1927, Alfrēds Dinbergs, a public servant (he worked for Latvian Railways) and politician (he was elected to the 4 th Saeima). Development Commission, 1954;Wagner, Ward: 1980;Madison, 2003;Gómez-León, 2015;Darbiņš, Vītiņš: 1947. 4 For detailed examination of one such more or less successful Latvian colony -Varpa, see Augelli, 1958: 365-387. 5 Krasnais, 1938: 451. ...
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This article provides an overview of Latvian-Brazilian economic relations in the interwar period. In the interwar period, economic relations between Latvia and Brazil were mainly confined to foreign trade. Latvia declared its independence in 1918, however Latvians had been emigrating to Brazil from 1890 and establishing farming colonies. By the end of the 1930s some 8000 Latvians had settled in Brazil. Latvia’s foreign trade in relation to Brazil was regulated by the 1932 Commercial Agreement. Latvia’s main imports from Brazil in the interwar period were coffee, cocoa, hides and furs, tobacco, raw rubber, and cotton, whilst Latvia’s main exports to Brazil were fish conserves, paper, and rubber goods. In general, trade and thus economic relations were of marginal significance to both countries in the interwar period due partly to some similarities in their economic structures, but mainly because of geographical distance.
... In Brazil, the internal urban migration process started after the Wall Street crash of 1929 [45]. The demand for Brazilian agricultural products dropped sharply. ...
Article
The energy transition is forcing power systems to face exceptional transformations, with the rise of the distributed generation systems, and the urge of prosumers. This paper aims to investigate the influence of settlement patterns on residential photovoltaic adoption in Brazil, under a cross-section structure, using the Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood estimator. Other key drivers are also included as control variables in the analysis. I benefit from a rich dataset of economic, social, housing, and environmental variables for 310,120 census sectors. Variables such as rural/urban dummies or population/housing density, used in previous papers to test for association between settlement patterns and residential PV adoption poorly represent the real relationship between these dimensions. The results of this paper ratify a U-shape relationship between urbanization degree and household solar power uptake. Satellite areas in the surroundings of great urban centers are more likely to present households equipped with photovoltaic systems in Brazil. Besides, the number of housing units, average income, solar resource potential, gender, education, ethnicity, age, housing type, and housing size play an important role in the explanation of the dynamics of household photovoltaic adoption. Policy design must take into consideration these effects in order to democratize photovoltaic home uptake.
... Baeninger 2000Baeninger , 2012Lima and Braga 2013;Nunes, Silva, and Queiroz 2017) or, more specifically, on the movements' (possible) impact on the process of urbanization and economic development in Brazil (cf. Alves, Souza, and Marra 2011;Amaral, Rios-Neto, and Potter 2016;Cunha 2005;Perz 2000;Wagner and Ward 1980). The general perception in Brazil about this classical Northeast-Southeast population movement is that people from the Northeast always migrate to major cities in the Southeast with the intention of settling there permanently. ...
Article
This article provides an ethnographic analysis of domestic labor mobility among Brazilian construction workers in the context of the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. We start from the premise that mobile laborers are crucial for the physical development and expansion of cities. However, the importance of domestic migrants in this process is insufficiently addressed in mobility studies. Building on existing research on domestic population movements in Brazil, we argue that the current generation of mobile construction workers draws on the intangible and material infrastructure generated by previous generations of migrants to enable novel kinds of (permanent) labor mobilities.
... Entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980 ocorreram intervenções governamentais profundas na economia brasileira através de diferentes políticas públicas, um período que Buainain (1999) chamou de "Intervenção Planejada". Neste período, ocorreu um rápido processo de industrialização do país (BAER e KERSTENETZKY, 1964), modernização da agricultura, forte êxodo rural e urbanização desenfreada da população (WAGNER e WARD, 1980; CAMARANO e ABRAMOVAY, 1999). No setor primário, a Intervenção Planejada incluía grandes incentivos econômicos para ocupação das terras do Cerrado e Amazônia, como o crédito agrícola abundante e fortemente subsidiado, a criação do Sistema Nacional de Pesquisa Agrícola e Extensão Rural, e um conjunto complexo de atos administrativos e reformas em todas as áreas e esferas de governo com o objetivo de promover a expansão, diversificação e competitividade da agropecuária brasileira (BUAINAIN, 1999). ...
... The Landless Workers Movement (MST) is the largest and most mobilized social justice and agrarian reform movement representing small-scale stakeholders effected by multiple agricultural stressors [92,93,[281][282][283][284][285][286][287][288]. MST is mostly composed of farmers, working people, Indigenous peoples, those living on quilombos and local communities who rely on small-scale and subsistence farming and fishing [289]. ...
Article
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This paper summarizes the critical importance of the Cerrado savannah biome in Brazil and examines key ways in which large-scale agriculture, in particular large-scale soy farming, threatens water security and increases socio-ecological stress. It connects agribusiness expansion to the globalized meat industry by defining how complex economic relationships result in deforestation on a massive scale. It describes how this radical change in land cover has led to changes in rainfall patterns that are associated with extended drought periods and analyzes how these critical water shortages jeopardize socio-economic health beyond the immediate region. Further, it explicates how intensified transgenic soy farming and other pesticide-heavy crop production contributes to rising public health crises associated with carcinogen-contaminated water and food sources. Lastly, it identifies emerging trends that suggest how agribusiness corporations and governments may be legally ascribed moral responsibilities for maintaining socio-ecological health of the biome. The paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the human dimensions of environmental issues and their impacts and reframe conservation social science discourse in regard to protection of land and water resources in the region.
... As the unbridled development and verticalization of urban areas that lead to soil waterproofing and increased runoff. In the same way, the incomplete implementation of basic sanitation in these urban centers causes the inadequate disposal of solid wastes and the undersize of the drainage network (Wagner and Ward, 1980;Barbieri et al., 2010). Finally, landslides, a phenomenon of geological order, also impose strong damages on urban dynamics. ...
Article
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The northeast of Brazil is characterized by a semiarid climate, in which there is a considerable temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of rainfall. In this region, the occurrence of intense rainfall events (IREs) causes severe damage to the population, given that the rampant urbanization and land use processes make cities more susceptible to harmful consequences. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate the period and the level of return of IREs in the capital cities of the northeast Brazil. For that end, observed data from weather stations of the National Institute of Meteorology for the period from 1988 to 2017 were used. We defined thresholds based on the excesses above the mean and inserted the data in the generalized Pareto distribution in order to obtain diagnostics of future estimates. Results showed that return periods were surpassed in seven of the nine capital cities in 2018. Furthermore, the estimates for IREs with a return period of 5, 10, and 100 years were higher if compared to the return period of 1 year. The results found in this study are extremely relevant for the understanding of the occurrence of these events and also serve as a tool for decision‐making and the elaboration of policies aimed at minimizing the impacts of such events. Capital cities of the Northeast Brazil.
... Migration is a commonly used livelihood strategy of rural population in drylands (IIED, 2008). The history of migration in Brazil dates back until its colonisation as summarised by Wagner & Ward (1980). Most recently, economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s led to a rural exodus in the country's semi-arid Northeast (Perz, 2000). ...
Article
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Along the lower-middle São Francisco River, in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil, irrigated agriculture contributes to reduce rural poverty. In the framework of the Itaparica Reservoir construction, three irrigation schemes were implemented in the Pernambuco state to compensate the local population for flooded land. Despite favourable production conditions for irrigated agriculture, many smallholders in the irrigation schemes are facing poverty. To identify socioeconomic key indicators on farm income, expert interviews (n=16) and a household survey (n=120) were conducted. The effect of socioeconomic factors and crop choice on farm income was investigated by analysis of variance. Insufficient infrastructure, limited market access and low market power, volatility of producer prices, lack of credit availability, unequal distribution of irrigable land, and insufficient social capital and knowledge about irrigated fruit production threatened the smallholders' livelihoods. Crop choice and availability of irrigable areas were the main characteristics of prosperous smallholders, whereas knowledge intensive and capital intensive perennials as well as high value annual cash crops with high risks of yield losses were the most profitable crops. Thus, wealthier farmers were more likely to generate high farm income. Agricultural extension, investments in infrastructure, especially in improved market access and value-adding facilities, and off-farm income alternatives are recommended to provide adequate income to the local population and prevent rural exodus.
... Their original objective was to secure the purchasing power of popular classes without changing the agrarian structure that guaranteed the food production (Linhares and Silva 1979). The urban to rural demographic transition of the 1940s onwards created new challenges for public food policies (Wagner and Ward 1980), which in part led to the creation of government supply centers (CEASAs) in the 1970s, which continue to operate today. Foz do Iguaçu hosts a CEASA, which mainly acts as a wholesale source for the vast majority of minimarkets, neighborhood bodegas, restaurants, and the hotel industry sector. ...
Article
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The food system in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, experienced changes that reflected the uncertainties and restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study describes urban and periurban family farmers’ ongoing strategies to adapt to changes in the local food supply chains (FSCs) after the temporary suspension of farmers’ markets and government programs directed to small-scale agriculture. Their disruption proved problematic for the farmers and the vulnerable populations served by them. As a result, some farmers redirected their products’ commercialization to delivery or pickup services. Based on observations and conversations with producers and retail intermediaries, we show that farmers’ delivery and pickup-based sales increased dramatically with the pandemic. The sustainability of these practices is unknown, although they have strengthened forms of cooperation and commercialization amongst farmers, mainly through online marketing. Based on the results, the study provides a series of research questions to explore food systems and FSCs under severe social disruption
... In India, which has the largest rural population in the World (approximately 800 million), it is estimated that rural-to-urban migration accounts for about 30 percent of urbanization ( Mitra and Murayama, 2008). In Brazil, rapid migration from rural areas increased the share of the population in urban areas from 15 percent in 1940 to 56 percent in 1970, and to more than 80 percent in 2000 (Wagner and Ward, 1980;Brazilian Demographic Census 2000). The agglomeration of human activity with economic development may be inevitable, but the specific character of urbanisation is not. ...
Article
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This paper proposes a strategic framework for policies to assist smallholders in developing countries. It describes the inevitable features of structural change in the agricultural and rural economy, the associated pressures that these changes place on smallholders, and the consequent need for policies to facilitate rather than impede adjustment. A key premise of the framework is that, for the majority of smallholders, the long term (i.e. inter-generational)future lies outside the sector. Hence, long-term policies need to make a distinction between those who potentially have a competitive future in the sector and those who do not. In either case, many of the necessary policies will not be agriculture-specific, so it is important that agricultural policies are framed in a broader economy-wide framework. In addition, a clear distinction needs to be made between short-term policies to reduce poverty and food insecurity and long-term policies to stimulate development. This is because there are intertemporal trade-offs (as well as complementarities) between policies that are likely to be effective in the short-run, and those promising most impact over the long-term. The paper discusses the role of different agricultural and non-agricultural policies in providing the appropriate policy mix in countries at different stages of development.
Thesis
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In this thesis, I look at the mobilization of the domestic workers in Brazil as a social movement. In Brazil, the domestic workers have managed to organize continuously for over eight decades using both informal and formal mechanisms to connect workers all over the country in unique ways. By viewing these women and the ways in which they have organized in the framework of a social movement, we can begin to identify their repertoires of contention and how those repertoires have contributed to the successes of the movement. In order to guide this investigation, I ask, how has the doméstica movement in Brazil been successful in reducing the vulnerability of domestic workers? Throughout the development of the domestic workers movement in Brazil, the participants have shaped their repertoires of contention to embody their intersectional narrative and conceptualized it to reduce the vulnerability of domestic work. I argue throughout this work that, as the movement became more successful and better organized, the vulnerability of domestic workers declined. I consider this vulnerability to be a combination of informality associated with the profession for domestic work and the lack of legal protections which apply to domestic workers. This work is a single unit case study analyzing solely the doméstica movement in Brazil from the mid-1930s to the present. I gauge success primarily using two types of within-case observations: 1.) process-tracing through the historical trajectory of the movement to understand the development of the repertoires of contention within four distinct waves of organizing; and, 2.) comparative analysis of official statistics on indicators of the level of informality associated with domestic work.
Chapter
This chapter aims to ground the juridical aspects of this work in the context of historical and social factors, which have impacted migration in Brazil and in Germany, including the developments derived from the structure of MERCOSUL and the EU, respectively. Even though an extensive analysis of all migration movements that occurred in Brazil is not intended, this chapter presents a summary of the history in Brazilian territory, also considering the context of MERCOSUL’s growth, as well as recent events, which have placed immigration high on Brazil’s legal and political agenda once again.
Book
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What does happen, when “history” and “heritage” is nowhere to be found or claimed and granted? Drawing in his own mestiço heritage, the author tells the story of Geraldo in relation to his own one. Who was Geraldo? The intention is to challenge categories of knowledge that also relay in “knowledges” and social constructions, created by mechanisms of colonization even when they are created for the empowerment of the oppressed in many circumstances. The author offers visceral knowledge of growing up as and working with the poor in Brazil, to advance decolonizing discourse that may lead to more inclusive notions of social justice questioning the uncontrolled desire to categorize and control the Other. Through a layered text with a blurred aesthetic format, which mixes life stories and academic scholarship, the author asks: Can these borders, legacies, and injustices be transgressed? Can my body be transgressive as a form of scholarship?
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In the late 1980s more than 1 million Brazilians left Brazil without returning. Today an estimated 2 million Brazilians live abroad, 1.2 million of them in the United States. In this article I show that Brazilians migrate for a variety of reasons, including the geographical imagination. Why are so many Brazilians leaving for the United States? What are their geographical imaginations, and how are they described in their migration process? Using primary and secondary data and multiple methods, I address these questions by providing insights into Brazilian migrants' place perceptions, experiences, and reasons for migrating, focusing on the geographical imagination. Those migrants who end up returning to Brazil are more likely to cite financial and curiosity reasons for having migrated. A web of transnational religious and social networks sustains those immigrants who remain in the United States. Reasons for migrating are not economic alone; rather, they are based on interrelated and complex factors that range from adventure to curiosity, the cultural influence of the United States, family members, education, and escape.
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During the last decade Brazil has seen an astonishing reversal in the original north-east-to-south-east direction of migration. Within a framework of human capital and self-selection theory we try to identify the individual characteristics and motivations linked to the migration pattern. The overall results of this procedure suggest that there is a key difference between NE Þ{\Rightarrow } SE movers and SE Þ{\Rightarrow } NE movers. (1) SE Þ{\Rightarrow } NE movers were adverse self-selected in terms of observable education characteristics. (2) No self-selection could be observed among migrants in the NE Þ{\Rightarrow } SE direction. In general the North-East seems less attractive to highly skilled people. (3) Labor market segmentation with respect to sector occupation is likely. (4) There are clear differences in income determinants between movers and non movers. The majority of migrants except for migrants with higher education cannot expect to realize a return to education comparable to the average in the region of departure or destination. However, in the context of the Borjas selection model the returns to education analysis would predict a different pattern of migrant selectivity than the one observed in Brazil. Apart from soft characteristics connected to the regions we believe, that the large share of the non formal labor market is likely to indicate a surplus labor leading to a migration pattern different than expected from selection theory. JEL ClassificationR23–J61
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