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In vitro effects of monolaurin compounds on enveloped RNA and DNA viruses

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Abstract

Monolaurin alone and monolaurin with tert-butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), methylparaben, or sorbic acid were tested for in vitro virucidal activity against 14 human RNA and DNA enveloped viruses in cell culture. At concentrations of 1% additive in the reaction mixture for 1 h at 23°C, all viruses were reduced in infectivity by >99.9%. Monolaurin with BHA was the most effective virucidal agent in that it removed all measurable infectivity from all of the viruses tested. The compounds acted similarly on all the viruses and reduced infectivity by disintegrating the virus envelope.

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... The high potentials of coconut oil as medicine were ascertained by Kabara in the 1970s, who found coconut oil"s antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities were exerted by its MCFAs [41]. The recognition of coconut oil antimicrobial activities was also reported by Hierholzer and Kabara [42] which focused on virucidal effects of monolaurin RNA and DNA viruses. Recently, experimental outcomes from many studies discovered that monolaurin had not only antimicrobial activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells [1,3,43] but also antifungal and antiviral properties [44,45,46,47,48]. ...
... The antiviral activity of monolaurin was tested against many enveloped human RNA and DNA viruses and the results concluded that all viruses were reduced in infectivity at 1% concentration of the monolaurin additive [42]. In the presence of LA, Hornung et al. [45] indicated that the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was inhibited by several orders of magnitude where the inhibitory effect was reversible. ...
... Although largely unknown, some disruption of the lipid membranes of the susceptible organisms by VCO or its metabolites cannot be entirely overruled [58]. Hierholzer and Kabara [42] suggested that a key factor in the virucidal activity of monolaurin was associated with a generalised disintegration of the cell envelope signifying that solubilisation of the lipids and phospholipids in the cell envelope had occurred. The viral envelope was found to be affected by fatty acids, causing leakage and at even higher concentrations, a complete disintegration of the envelope and the viral particles occurred [65]. ...
... The high potentials of coconut oil as medicine were ascertained by Kabara in the 1970s, who found coconut oil"s antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities were exerted by its MCFAs [41]. The recognition of coconut oil antimicrobial activities was also reported by Hierholzer and Kabara [42] which focused on virucidal effects of monolaurin RNA and DNA viruses. Recently, experimental outcomes from many studies discovered that monolaurin had not only antimicrobial activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells [1,3,43] but also antifungal and antiviral properties [44,45,46,47,48]. ...
... The antiviral activity of monolaurin was tested against many enveloped human RNA and DNA viruses and the results concluded that all viruses were reduced in infectivity at 1% concentration of the monolaurin additive [42]. In the presence of LA, Hornung et al. [45] indicated that the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was inhibited by several orders of magnitude where the inhibitory effect was reversible. ...
... Although largely unknown, some disruption of the lipid membranes of the susceptible organisms by VCO or its metabolites cannot be entirely overruled [58]. Hierholzer and Kabara [42] suggested that a key factor in the virucidal activity of monolaurin was associated with a generalised disintegration of the cell envelope signifying that solubilisation of the lipids and phospholipids in the cell envelope had occurred. The viral envelope was found to be affected by fatty acids, causing leakage and at even higher concentrations, a complete disintegration of the envelope and the viral particles occurred [65]. ...
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VCO potential as antimicrobial agent in combating dental caries
... Human body is a multifaceted ecosystem comprising approximately 10 13 human cells and 10 14 bacterial, fungal and protozoan cells which sets up the natural flora eliciting tribulation only when the immune system is weakened. At the same time as, the pathogens are typically definite from these microbiota and are capable of triggering malady even without the immune system being compromised or injured. ...
... Monolaurin (product of esterification in human body which combines lauric acid and glycerol) which is obtainable from coconut could lessen infectivity of RNA and DNA enclosed viruses by >99.9% by disintegrating the virus envelope in vitro (Hierholzer and Kabara, 1982) [14] . Thormar et al. (1987) [35] validated the capability of lauric acid and monolaurin to inactivate viruses by collapsing the cell membrane. ...
... Monolaurin (product of esterification in human body which combines lauric acid and glycerol) which is obtainable from coconut could lessen infectivity of RNA and DNA enclosed viruses by >99.9% by disintegrating the virus envelope in vitro (Hierholzer and Kabara, 1982) [14] . Thormar et al. (1987) [35] validated the capability of lauric acid and monolaurin to inactivate viruses by collapsing the cell membrane. ...
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Synthetic antiviral medicines expounded for treating viral diseases posed a range of undesirable consequences on human beings necessitating the contribution of natural drugs and medicines of plant origin. Horticultural crops implementing the intent of protective foods have the competence to contend bacterial, fungal and viral diseases debilitating human health. Plantation crops have been well-utilized by our ancestors for formulating medicines to cure several health ailments thus assuring its ability to fight the frightful viral diseases. This manuscript exclusively congregates the phyo-pharmaceuticals acquired in plantation crops imparting protection against retrovirus, enterovirus, influenza, dengue, chikungunya, zika, etc which can be exposed to further analysis in medical milieu to confront the latest life-threatening COVID-19 as well as impending frailties down to budding viruses.
... Purified and human milk-derived monoglycerides provide antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and visna virus, but are ineffective against nonenveloped picornaviruses, including poliovirus and rhinovirus (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23). Previous studies showed that monoglycerides that are similar to GML inactivate enveloped RNA and DNA viruses (18)(19)(20)(21)(22). ...
... Purified and human milk-derived monoglycerides provide antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and visna virus, but are ineffective against nonenveloped picornaviruses, including poliovirus and rhinovirus (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23). Previous studies showed that monoglycerides that are similar to GML inactivate enveloped RNA and DNA viruses (18)(19)(20)(21)(22). Although the mechanism of action is not well characterized, electron microscopy (EM) of VSV treated with linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, revealed disruption of the viral envelope and of particle integrity (19,20). ...
... Although the mechanism of action is not well characterized, electron microscopy (EM) of VSV treated with linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, revealed disruption of the viral envelope and of particle integrity (19,20). Similar EM results were obtained from treatment of influenza A virus and coronavirus (CoV) infections with a monolaurin mixture (22). Other studies showed that phage treated with a monoglyceride had altered sedimentation in sucrose gradient centrifugation experiments (21). ...
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A total of 340 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired each year. Antimicrobial agents that target multiple infectious pathogens are ideal candidates to reduce the number of newly acquired STIs. The antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties of GML make it an excellent candidate to fit this critical need. Previous studies established the safety profile and antibacterial activity of GML against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GML protected against high-dose SIV infection and reduced inflammation, which can exacerbate disease, during infection. We found that GML inhibits HIV-1 and other human-pathogenic viruses (yellow fever virus, mumps virus, and Zika virus), broadening its antimicrobial range. Because GML targets diverse infectious pathogens, GML may be an effective agent against the broad range of sexually transmitted pathogens. Further, our data show that reutericyclin, a GML analog expressed by some lactobacillus species, also inhibits HIV-1 replication and thus may contribute to the protective effect of Lactobacillus in HIV-1 transmission.
... Along with Lf, it is a component of HM, which was demonstrated to inhibit rhinovirus and cytomegalovirus in vitro [149]. Interestingly, the anti-viral properties of GML appear to only extend to enveloped viruses, including HIV and SIV [150][151][152][153][154] specifically at mucosal surfaces [155] as well as coronavirus [150]. This inhibition is likely through limiting viral adhesion, as demonstrated in a study in which GML hindered co-receptor CXCR4 binding of HIV [154]. ...
... Along with Lf, it is a component of HM, which was demonstrated to inhibit rhinovirus and cytomegalovirus in vitro [149]. Interestingly, the anti-viral properties of GML appear to only extend to enveloped viruses, including HIV and SIV [150][151][152][153][154] specifically at mucosal surfaces [155] as well as coronavirus [150]. This inhibition is likely through limiting viral adhesion, as demonstrated in a study in which GML hindered co-receptor CXCR4 binding of HIV [154]. ...
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In 2020, with the advent of a pandemic touching all aspects of global life, there is a renewed interest in nutrition solutions to support the immune system. Infants are vulnerable to infection and breastfeeding has been demonstrated to provide protection. As such, human milk is a great model for sources of functional nutrition ingredients, which may play direct roles in protection against viral diseases. This review aims to summarize the literature around human milk (lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, osteopontin, glycerol monolaurate and human milk oligosaccharides) and infant nutrition (polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics and postbiotics) inspired ingredients for support against viral infections and the immune system more broadly. We believe that the application of these ingredients can span across all life stages and thus apply to both pediatric and adult nutrition. We highlight the opportunities for further research in this field to help provide tangible nutrition solutions to support one’s immune system and fight against infections.
... The antimicrobial effect of coconut oil was first reported by Hierholzer and Kabara. [6] Recent studies show that coconut oil has antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of organisms such as Escherichia vulneris, Enterococcus spp, Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and other strains due to the presence of monolaurin, a monosaccharide in coconut oil. [5] Oral cavity is a natural habitat for various microorganisms causing dental caries, periodontal diseases, halitosis, etc., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and C. albicans are the microorganisms predominantly found in dental plaque associated with a caries lesion. ...
... The study confirms that enzyme-modified coconut oil strongly inhibited the growth of most strains of streptococcus bacteria including S. mutans. [8] The effect of oil pulling using coconut oil, corn oil, rice bran oil, palm oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, and soya bean oil was studied by Thaweboon et al. [6] on the biofilm models formed by S. mutans, C. albicans, and Lactobacillus casei. It was found that coconut oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and C. albicans. ...
Article
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Oral health is considered to be of prime importance to all individuals in maintaining good health, and the accepted method of oral hygiene maintenance is mechanical method of tooth cleaning. At present, chemotherapeutic agents are also used as adjutants to reduce plaque formation, but they have their own disadvantage. This has paved the way for the use of natural and plant derivatives as alternatives for chemotherapeutics in dentistry. Coconut oil is considered as a tree of life in ancient literature and is used for any ailments. Coconut oil is edible and is consumed as a part of the staple diet in many countries. It also has medicinal and cosmetic properties. Coconut oil differs from most other dietary oils because of the high content of medium chain fatty acid (MCF), whereas in the majority of other oils, the basic building blocks are almost entirely long chain fatty acids. The MCF in coconut oil such as lauric, caproic, caprylic, myristic, and stearic acid influences the physical and chemical properties. Lauric acid, which is predominant in coconut oil, has proved to have antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory action.Of late, few studies have been onducted by researchers regarding the action of coconut oil on oral health. The review of literature shows excellent results on the use of coconut oil on oral health. This short review discusses the studies conducted on coconut oil on oral microorganisms and anti-inflammatory actions.
... Although the exact mechanism of action of Coconut oil is still debatable and unclear, it was suggested that coconut oil is a medium chain fatty acid which contains 92% saturated acids, about 50% of them is Lauric acid (30) with its metabolite monolurine (monoglyceride of Lauric acid). This in turns has an antimicrobial effect against various types of gram +ve and gram -ve microorganisms. ...
... This in turns has an antimicrobial effect against various types of gram +ve and gram -ve microorganisms. These products were proved to protect against infection caused by bacteria, viruses, yeast and parasites (30)(31)(32)(33)(34) . ...
... A series of studies reported in the 1970s that MCFAs with 6-12 carbons are responsible for potent activity towards Gram-positive bacteria, lipid-coated viruses as well as fungi and protozoa. 16,[102][103] The presence of 12-carbon lauric acid makes the oil potent towards microbes. 13 According to multiple reports, particularly lauric acid (C12:0) in its monoglyceride form (monolaurin or ML) was found to be responsible for antimicrobial properties. ...
... 14,[104][105] According to studies reported so far, CNO was identified as an effective source against lipid-coated microorganisms such as visna virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, leukemia virus, pneumono virus and hepatitis C virus. 102 Moreover, the presence of ML has broadened the antimicrobial spectrum to some fungal species such as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp. and Candida albicans. A study by Ríháková et al. 106 using CNO as a monoglycerol source for antifungal activity showed that CNO could be used as a preservative with antifungal activity. ...
... The antiviral activities of lauric acid and monolaurin were first noted by Sands et al. [15] and later by Hierholzer and Kabara. [16] In particular, Hierholzer and Kabara [16] showed that monolaurin was able to reduce infectivity of 14 human RNA and DNA enveloped viruses in cell culture by >99.9%, and that monolaurin acted by disintegrating the virus envelope. Thormar et al. [17] confirmed the ability of lauric acid and monolaurin to inactivate viruses by disintegration of the cell membrane. ...
... The antiviral activities of lauric acid and monolaurin were first noted by Sands et al. [15] and later by Hierholzer and Kabara. [16] In particular, Hierholzer and Kabara [16] showed that monolaurin was able to reduce infectivity of 14 human RNA and DNA enveloped viruses in cell culture by >99.9%, and that monolaurin acted by disintegrating the virus envelope. Thormar et al. [17] confirmed the ability of lauric acid and monolaurin to inactivate viruses by disintegration of the cell membrane. ...
... A series of studies reported in the 1970s that MCFAs with 6-12 carbons are responsible for potent activity towards Gram-positive bacteria, lipid-coated viruses as well as fungi and protozoa. 16,[102][103] The presence of 12-carbon lauric acid makes the oil potent towards microbes. 13 According to multiple reports, particularly lauric acid (C12:0) in its monoglyceride form (monolaurin or ML) was found to be responsible for antimicrobial properties. ...
... 14,[104][105] According to studies reported so far, CNO was identified as an effective source against lipid-coated microorganisms such as visna virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, leukemia virus, pneumono virus and hepatitis C virus. 102 Moreover, the presence of ML has broadened the antimicrobial spectrum to some fungal species such as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp. and Candida albicans. A study by Ríháková et al. 106 using CNO as a monoglycerol source for antifungal activity showed that CNO could be used as a preservative with antifungal activity. ...
Article
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Coconut oil is an integral part of Sri Lankan and many South Asian diets. Initially, coconut oil was classified along with saturated fatty acid food items and criticized for its negative impact on health. However, research studies have shown that coconut oil is a rich source of medium-chain fatty acids. Thus, this has opened new prospects for its use in many fields. Beyond its usage in cooking, coconut oil has attracted attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antihepatosteatotic, antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin moisturizing properties. Despite all the health benefits, consumption of coconut oil is still underrated due to a lack of supportive scientific evidence. Even though studies done in Asian countries claim a favorable impact on cardiac health and serum lipid profile, the limitations in the number of studies conducted among Western countries impede the endorsement of the real value of coconut oil. Hence, long-term extensive studies with proper methodol-ogies are suggested to clear all the controversies and misconceptions of coconut oil consumption. This review discusses the composition and functional properties of coconut oils extracted using various processing methods.
... Along with Lf, it is a component of HM, which was demonstrated to inhibit rhinovirus and cytomegalovirus in vitro [149]. Interestingly, the anti-viral properties of GML appear to only extend to enveloped viruses, including HIV and SIV [150][151][152][153][154] specifically at mucosal surfaces [155] as well as coronavirus [150]. This inhibition is likely through limiting viral adhesion, as demonstrated in a study in which GML hindered co-receptor CXCR4 binding of HIV [154]. ...
... Along with Lf, it is a component of HM, which was demonstrated to inhibit rhinovirus and cytomegalovirus in vitro [149]. Interestingly, the anti-viral properties of GML appear to only extend to enveloped viruses, including HIV and SIV [150][151][152][153][154] specifically at mucosal surfaces [155] as well as coronavirus [150]. This inhibition is likely through limiting viral adhesion, as demonstrated in a study in which GML hindered co-receptor CXCR4 binding of HIV [154]. ...
... The role played by vegetable oils and the various fractions in atherosclerosis is not clear. It has also been reported that palm oil was atherogenic in rabbits [7]. Furthermore, the important physiological role played by the minor components present in palm oil is becoming apparent [8]. ...
Article
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Edible vegetable oils which include red palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, sesame oil (Beniseed oil), soybean oil, palm kernel oil, etc. are derived from seeds or fruits of different plants. These oils are consumed not only for their supply of lipids in the diets but for their distinct aromas, colours, palatability and availability. Vegetable oils are rich in essential nutrients such as vitamins and anti-oxidant compounds. The type of diet and in particular the nature of dietary fats has been found to raise or lower the blood cholesterol in man. This study was therefore necessary as it will assess and ascertain the physiochemical and fatty acid characteristics of the various vegetable oils available in the Nigerian markets. The various physiochemical and fatty acid parameters were estimated using standard procedure. Results indicate that red palm oil had high levels of palmitic and oleic acids as well as peroxide and iodine values, with high fire and boiling points. Coconut oil had high peroxide, saponification and acid values, high concentrations of capric, lauric, palmitic, myristic, stearic and linoleic acids with high smoke point. Palm kernel oil had high iodine, saponification and acid values, high contents of capric, lauric and myristic acids with high flash, fire and boiling points. Oleic and stearic acids were in turn very high in soybean, sesame. In conclusion, results indicate that red palm oil, soybean and sesame oil would be safer for consumption since there are less atherogenic compared with the other vegetable oils.
... Studi tentang antimikroba, yang mencakup antivirus dan antibakteri dari monolaurin telah dilakukan oleh Prof. Kabara, sejak tahun 1966(Kabara, 1978. Monolaurin diketahui mempunyai bioaktivitas antivirus terhadap virus RNA dan DNA pada manusia (Kabara, 1982). Antibakteri dari monolaurin hanya berpangaruh terhadap bakteri patogen, seperti Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Hemophilus influenzae, dan Helicobacter pylory. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the laboratory scale, the effect of the concentration of H 2 SO 4 catalyst (1.25-6.25) (% w/w) and the equivalent mol ratio between lauric acid and glycerol (1:1; 1:2.5; 2.5:1) on the synthesis of α-monolaurin has been studied. The α-monolaurin compound has been synthesized from lauric acid and glycerol was done by batch esterification on the free solvent system. The esterification by using 5% H 2 SO 4 catalyst and equivalent mol ratio between lauric acid and glycerol 1:2.5 produced most monolaurin, and dilaurin in amount of 31.14 and 4.42%, respectively. The monolaurin and dilaurin are identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer. The spectral data of monolaurin was compared to spectral data of standard α-monolaurin.
... Therefore, the selection of processing technique is essential as it would affect the triacylglycerol profile of coconut oil, which is indirectly influencing the application of the oil. Triacylglycerols have significant benefit in antiviral, antibacterial, anticaries, antiplaque, and antiprotozoal functions (German and Dillard 2004;Kabara 1978;Hierholzer and Kabara 1982). ...
... It was reported that MCFA,such as lauric acid have adverse effects on other pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast and fungi. These fatty acids and their derivate actually disrupt the lipid membranes of the organisms andthus inactivate them (Issacs and Thomar 1991 ; Issacs et al. 1992 ; Hierholzer and Kabara, 1982). As shown on Tabel 3, the VCO was produced with isolate of Latobacillus plantarum showed the highest of laurat acid (48,76%) followed by Candida rugosa(47,86%) and Aspergillus oryzae (41.56%).Table 4 showed analysis of triglyceride content in VCO were produced by the method was mentioned above. ...
Research
This paper explained about enzymatic process for coconut oil extraction and quality of the final product.
... It was reported that MCFA,such as lauric acid have adverse effects on other pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast and fungi. These fatty acids and their derivate actually disrupt the lipid membranes of the organisms andthus inactivate them (Issacs and Thomar 1991 ;Issacs et al. 1992 ;Hierholzer and Kabara, 1982). ...
... Table 1 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Three Types of Coconut Oil Previous studies showed that lauric acid (the major fatty acid of coconut oil) and (especially) its monoglyceride monolaurin (Lauricidin, Med-Chem Laboratories, Inc., Galena, IL) have antiseptic properties. [7][8][9][10][11] In two skin studies, Lauricidin eradicated Serratia marcescens applied to volunteers' hands12 and also eradicated bacteria cultured from the hands of health personnel going off duty., 13 Another preliminary study showed that this monoglyceride and the coconut oil itself show antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)., 14 Verallo-Rowell, the senior author, recognized the value of an oil that has a long tradition of safe use and that is now shown to apparently have broad-spectrum antiseptic action. At her general dermatology and psoriasis day care clinic, VCO and EVCO have been prescribed for patients with moderate to severe xerosis from chronic psoriasis, atopic contact dermatitis, and miscellaneous other causes since 2000. ...
Article
Coconut oil, a traditional moisturizer used for centuries by people in the tropics, does not have any clinical studies documenting its effectivity and safety. This study aims to determine effectivity and safety of coconut oil compared to mineral oil as moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis. A review board-approved randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in 34 patients after negative patch-testing. Patients applied either coconut or mineral oil twice a day for two weeks. Quantitative outcomes for effectivity, measured at baseline and each weekly visit, were skin hydration (Corneometer CM825®) and skin lipids (Sebumeter SM810®); for safety, transepidermal water loss [TEWL](Tewameter TM210®) and skin surface pH (Skin pH meter PH900®). Patients and investigator evaluated symptoms of dryness, scaling, roughness, and pruritus using visual analogue scales (VAS) and grading of xerosis. Both groups showed significant improvement in skin hydration and increased skin surface lipid levels. TEWL and Skin pH were not affected. Objective instrumental determinations showed no significant difference between both groups. Patient and investigator subjective grading of xerosis and VAS showed general trend toward better, though not statistically evident, with coconut over mineral oil. Coconut oil is as effective and safe as mineral oil as a moisturizer.
... It can also be found in cow, goat and human breast milk [103]. Inside the body, lauric acid gets converted to the biologically active compound Monolaurin which is known for exerting antimicrobial activity [104], has been recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are available as capsules. Particularly medium chain fatty acids are known to exert antiviral action in high doses by disrupting viral envelope and making the virus susceptible to immune attack. ...
Article
COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has already claimed millions of lives worldwide due to the absence of a suitable anti-viral therapy. The CoV envelope (E) protein, which has not received much attention so far, is a 75 amino acid long integral membrane protein involved in assembly and release of the virus inside the host. Here we have used artificial intelligence (AI) and pattern recognition techniques for initial screening of FDA approved pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals to target this E protein. Subsequently, molecular docking simulations have been performed between the ligands and target protein to screen a set of 9 ligand molecules. Finally, we have provided detailed insight into their mechanisms of action related to the varied symptoms of infected patients.
... The antimicrobial effect of coconut oil was first reported by Hierholzer and Kabara. [22] Recent studies have shown that coconut oil has antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and gram negative organisms such as Escherichia vulneris, Enterococcer spp, Helicobater pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candia albicans. [23][24][25] Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), particularly, lauric acid, capric acid, caprylic acid, and caprioic acid [ Table 7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods A total of fifty female children aged 8–12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2–3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans. counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. Results The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans. count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans.
... The proposed anti microbial properties of Virgin coconut oil are due to the monoglyceride monolaurin (Hierholzer and Kabara, 1982). These are small-medium chain (C-6 to C-12) produced on hydrolysis of Virgin coconut oil by lipases. ...
Article
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Background: Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease which effects bone and the supporting structures of teeth. The treatment for periodontal diseases has moved towards an antimicrobial model of disease management. With the threat of wide spread antibiotic resistance rendering many antibiotics useless against many diseases, there is an increased necessity to develop a novel antimicrobial based treatment for effective disease prevention. In this regard an invitro study was conducted comparing virgin coconut oil with standard chlorhexidine mouth wash (0.2%) on five periodontal pathogens. Methods: An invitro study on the five putative pathogens of periodontal disease was conducted using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), maximum bacterial count (MBC) and time kill curve methods. The culture media used was Brain heart infusion broth. Results: The results showed that all the organisms were resistant to virgin coconut oil, while there was varying degree of sensitivity to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that virgin coconut oil has no therapeutic effect in the treatment of active periodontal disease, while chlorhexidine was found to have bacteriocidal effect on against Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tenerella forsythia and bacteriostatic effect on against Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetum commitans.
... [13] Hierholzer and Kabara first documented the antimicrobial effects of coconut oil. [14] Evidence from recent studies has shown that coconut oil, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida stellatoidea, and Candida kruseii, has important antimicrobial activity against Escherichia vulneris, Enterobacter spp., Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. [15] Seasame oil (S. ...
Article
To systematically review the published literature with the purpose of knowing the oral health effects of oil pulling. A systematic review of the literature was conducted across PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, Campbell systematic review, and Cochrane. All papers published from January 2010 to March 2020 that focused on oil pulling as a study intervention were included in this review. Randomized control trials comparing oil pulling using conventional cooking oil with any controls such as chlorhexidine (CHX), placebo or routine dental hygiene practice were included. Eighty fulltext articles were analyzed initially. Among these 80 articles, only 14 articles fulfilled the research question and were included for review. A maximum of 600 participants were present across the reviewed studies, with study duration ranged between 1 and 45 days. With a high risk of bias in multiple aspects and unclear reporting of others, the methodological quality of the included studies was questionable. Among 14 studies included studies in this systematic review, nine studies compared oil pulling with CHX in the control group in which statistically significant reduction of scores was found in six studies, two studies showed a nonsignificant reduction, and one study did not report about significant difference. The quality of evidence appears to be low to recommend oil pulling as a suitable adjunct to other conventional oral hygiene methods, as most of the included studies had high or unclear risk of bias.
... Monolaurin is a monoglyceride of lauric acid and a naturally occurring fatty acid ester with antibacterial and antifungal activity 17 . In addition, several studies have shown that monolaurin possesses virucidal effects against enveloped RNA and DNA viruses [18][19][20][21][22][23] . Medium-chain saturated fatty acids are highly active against enveloped viruses such as coronaviruses 24 , causing the disintegration of the viral particles 25 . ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging in most countries. Although the recent mass vaccination campaign has opened a new chapter in the battle against SARS-CoV-2, the world is still far from herd immunity. There is an urgent need to identify healthy people at high risk of contracting COVID-19, as well as supplements and nutraceuticals that can reduce the risk of infection or mitigate symptoms. In the present study, a metabolic phenotype that could protect individuals from SARS-CoV-2 infection or predispose them to developing COVID-19 was investigated. Untargeted metabolomics was performed on serum samples collected from 51 healthcare workers who were in good health at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, and who were later exposed to the same risk of developing COVID-19. Half of them developed COVID-19 within three weeks of the blood collection. Our results demonstrate the presence of a specific signature associated with protection from SARS-CoV-2. Circulating monolaurin, which has well-known antiviral and antibacterial properties, was higher in protected subjects, suggesting a potential defensive role against SARS-CoV-2 infection; thus, dietary supplements could boost the immune system against this infection. In addition, our data demonstrate that people with higher levels of cholesterol are at higher risk of developing COVID-19. The present study demonstrates that metabolomics can be of great help for developing personalized medicine and for supporting public healthcare strategies. Studies with larger cohorts of subjects are necessary to confirm our findings.
... Monolaurin worked at all viruses and decreased ineffectiveness by breaking the virus envelope. Lipid structure determined the work of antiineffective lipid dealt with its structure (Hierholzer and Kabara, 2007). Glicerolmonolaurat of low concentration could modulate lymphocyte proliferation which later caused lymphoproliferation and toxin inhibition. ...
Article
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This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI) disease in broiler chicken by increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surface by antigen presenting cell (APC). Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intact during specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO) was potential as immunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyte T and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was Completely Randomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AI vaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed. Day Old Chick (DOC) were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and water were given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 in chickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCO without AI vaccine.
... The ability to kill the virus mainly derived from lauric acid, caprylic acid (C-8), capric acid (C-10) and myristic acid (C-14). The ability to kill the virus began popularized through Hierholzer and Kabara (1982) (Enig, 1998;Macallan et al., 1993). Even hydrogel (a type of jelly ointment) contains monokaprin able to inactivate through in vitro experiment sexually transmitted disease Herpes Simplex Virius-2 (HSV-2), HIV, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae . ...
... Lauric acid and its biochemical derivative monolaurin (ML also known as glycerol monolaurate), are naturally released by lipase upon ingestion. The antiviral activity of VCO is attributed to both lauric acid and monolaurin and were found to cause disintegration of the virus envelope (Sands, Landin, Auperin, & Reinhardt, 1979;Hierholzer, & Kabara, 1982;Thormar, Isaacs, Brown, Barshatzky, & Pessolano, 1987), inhibit the late maturation stage in the virus replicative cycle (Bartolotta, García, Candurra, & Damonte, 2001), and prevent the binding of viral proteins to the host cell membrane (Hornung, Amtmann, & Sauer, 1994). Other components of the VCO such as capric acid (C10) and monocaprin also showed promising antiviral properties, particularly against HIV-1 infection (Kristmundsdóttir, Arnadóttir, Bergsson, G.;Thormar, 1999), and other infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) and influenza-A virus (Hilmarsson, Traustason, Kristmundsdóttir, & Thormar, 2007). ...
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Understanding the complex pathogenesis of COVID-19 continues to evolve. With observation and quarantine as the prevailing standard of care, this study evaluated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in the biochemical markers of suspect and probable cases of COVID-19. A 28-day randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention was conducted among 63 adults in two isolation facilities in Santa Rosa City, Laguna, Philippines. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either a standardized meal (control) or a standardized meal mixed with a predefined dosage of VCO. Changes in clinical markers were measured at three time points (day 0, 14, and 28), with daily monitoring of COVID-19 symptoms. Participants in the intervention group showed a significant decline in the C-reactive protein level, with the mean CRP level normalized to ≤5 mg/dL on the 14th day of the intervention. As an adjunct therapy, meals mixed with VCO is effective fostering faster recovery from COVID-19.
... Listeria monocytogenes [10] Monolaurin and monocaprin Helicobacter pylori [11] Coconut oil Streptococcus mutans [12] Lauric acid and monolaurin Bacillus cereus [13] Monolaurin Staphylococcus aureus [14] Antifungal Lauric acid Staphylococcus aureus [15] Virgin coconut oil Pseudomonas aeruginosa [16] MCFAs Staphylococcus aureus [17] MCFAs Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis [18] Lauric acid and capric acid Candida albicans [19] Coconut oil Candida sp.; C. albicans, C.tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea, and C. krusei [20] Virgin coconut oil Candida sp. [21] Coconut oil Candida albicans [12] Virgin coconut oil Candida albicans [22] Antiviral Monolaurin human RNA and DNA viruses [23] Lauric acid Vesicular stomatitis virus [24] Lauric acid and monolaurin HIV virus [25] Monolaurin Avian Influenza virus [26] Monolaurin Simean immunodeficiency virus [27] Mother's milk is considered to be one of the most potent and effective immune potion that helps a new born baby with under-developed immune system to fight off fatal bacterial invasion. When analyzed, 50% of breast milk is saturated fat, out of which 20% is Lauric acid -12 carbon medium chain length fatty acid (MCFA). ...
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Coconut oil as health oil was recognized in Ayurvedic medicine almost 4000 years ago. The same health effects were also attributed to the mother's milk in ancient literature. Modern research has now found a common link between these two natural health products - their lipid content. The medium chain fatty acids and monoglycerides found primarily in coconut oil have miraculous healing power which act as natural antibiotic and also help modulate immunity. The information discussed in this review explains that coconut oil, either topically applied or ingested, gets broken down to release Lauric Acid and Monolaurin - known anti-microbial agents. The studies reported in literature are discussed to evaluate the antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal benefits of coconut oil. Not only does coconut oil metabolites have antimicrobial activity but also these remarkable derivatives have been shown not to cause resistance organisms to appear. The anti-microbial mechanistic action also helps activate the antiinflammatory nature of the immune response in human body. In vitro, animal, and human studies support the potential of coconut oil as effective and safe immune-nutritive active. New and exciting health and industrial uses of coconut oil and its derivative are possible. Never before in recent times has the recognition of the positive health effects of coconut oil been stronger. And never before in the history of man is it so important to emphasize both need and efficacy of natural products known for their safety proposition. Immunity has been a buzzword in the current scenario and the demand for modulating immunity with natural means has been so unprecedented and so ubiquitous. Coconut oil and its value added forms can contribute to a more vigorous and healthy future.
... The antiviral activity of LA and monolaurin can be achieved through 3 distinct mechanisms. First, LA and monolaurin inactivate viruses by disintegrating the viral envelope, thus reducing the infectivity of RNA and DNA enveloped viruses [32]. Second, LA inhibits the late maturation stage in the virus replication cycle as demonstrated in a study investigating the LA-mediated inhibition of the Junin virus, which possesses a similar structure to SARS-CoV-2 [33,34]. ...
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Background: COVID-19 pandemic, a global threat, adversely affects all daily lives, altered governmental plans around the world, and urges the development of therapeutics and prophylactics to avoid the expansion of the viral infection. With the recent gradual opening after long lockdown, several recommendations have been placed, with dietary modification as one of the most important approaches that have been appraised. Summary: Here, we are reviewing how changing the host metabolism, particularly changing the host metabolic state from the carbohydrate-dependent glycolytic state to a fat-dependent ketogenic state, may affect viral replication. Furthermore, the impact of intermittent fasting (IF) in triggering metabolic switch along with the impact of supplementation with medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) such as lauric acid in repressing the envelope formation and viral replication is also addressed. The amalgamation of IF and a ketogenic diet rich in MCTs is thought to work as a prophylactic measure for normal people and adjunct therapy for infected persons. Key Message: A diet regimen of ketogenic breakfast along with supplementation with two doses of lauric acid-rich MCTs at breakfast and lunch times, followed by 8-12-h IF and a dinner rich with fruits and vegetables, could be a potential prophylactic strategy and adjuvant therapy to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections.
... Thus, if the movement of GML gel in the nares functions similarly, it would be expected to provide extensive coverage of the nose. (iii) The 5% GML gel is potently virucidal for all tested enveloped viruses, including influenza viruses and coronaviruses (13,14,32,33). This makes 5% GML gel a possible preventative for viral transmission and nasal carriage. ...
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In this microflora study, we show that a 5% glycerol monolaurate nonaqueous gel is safe for use in the anterior nares. The gel was effective in reducing Staphylococcus aureus nasally, a highly significant hospital-associated pathogen. The gel may be a useful alternative or additive to mupirocin ointment for nasal use prior to surgery, noting that 80% of hospital-associated S. aureus infections are due to the same organism found in the nose. This gel also kills all enveloped viruses tested and should be considered for studies to reduce infection and transmission of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.
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Lauric oils and their derivatives have many applications both in the food and chemical industries. The major sources and some alternative raw materials for this multi-billon dollar business are discussed in the light of their ability to supply future market needs. There should be ample supply of lauric oils-except when drought and possibly disease affect large areas of coconut plantations-because of the rapid increase in palm kernel oil production expected from the African oil palm during the next decade. Most other sources are unlikely to be important in the short term because of the generally adequate supply of lauric oils and the considerable amount of research still needed to convert the best options into viable crops. However, a dramatic effect on supply can be expected if it becomes possible to manipulate the appropriate genes from lauric oil producing species of Cuphea into a conventional oil crop like rape. Future demand for lauric oils will be affected by the relative price of other vegetable oils and petroleum feedstocks that can be used to replace them in the manufacture of an increasing number of end products in both the food and chemical industries.
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The authors present proposed hypothetical protocols addressing both the prevention and treatment of acute anthrax and smallpox, as may occur in relation to bio-terrorism events or incidents. The potential benefit of additional or 'integrative' modalities with conventional allopathic approaches is discussed, with specific emphasis on applied medical nutrition and homeopathy. An in-depth discussion of the pathophysiology of inhalation anthrax and a unique approach to intervention based on seminal research by Hanna et al . is presented; the treatment protocol includes aggressive parenteral administration of N-acetyl cysteine and other nutriceutical antioxidants, as well as inhalation therapy with L-glutathione.
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Melanoma incidence and mortality have risen dramatically in recent years. No effective treatment for metastatic melanoma exists; hence currently, an intense effort for new drug evaluation is being carried out. In this study, we investigated the effects of a palm oil-derived nanopolymer called Bio-12 against human malignant melanoma. The nanopolymers of Bio-12 are lipid esters derived from a range of fatty acids of palm oil. Our study aims to identify the anti-proliferative properties of Bio-12 against human malignant melanoma cell line (MeWo) and to elucidate the mode of actions whereby Bio-12 brings about cell death. Bio-12 significantly inhibited the growth of MeWo cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner with a median inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 1/25 dilution after 72 h but was ineffective on human normal skin fibroblasts (CCD-1059sk). We further investigated the mode of actions of Bio-12 on MeWo cells. Cell cycle flow cytometry demonstrated that MeWo cells treated with increasing concentrations of Bio-12 resulted in S-phase arrest, accompanied by the detection of sub-G1 content, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Induction of apoptosis was further confirmed via caspase (substrate) cleavage assay which showed induction of early apoptosis in MeWo cells. In addition, DNA strand breaks which are terminal event in apoptosis were evident through increase of TUNEL positive cells and formation of a characteristic DNA ladder on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, treatment of MeWo cells with Bio-12 induced significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. These results show that Bio-12 possesses the ability to suppress proliferation of human malignant melanoma MeWo cells and this suppression is at least partly attributed to the initiation of the S-phase arrest, apoptosis and necrosis, suggesting that it is indeed worth for further investigations.
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Virus sterilization of blood plasma derivatives by addition of several naturally occurring fatty acids was evaluated using vesicular stomatitis virus and Sindbis virus as markers for lipid-enveloped virus inactivation and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Inactivation of greater than or equal to 10(4) tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of marker viruses added to antihemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates, with 60-100% retention of AHF activity, was achieved with oleic, 11-eicosenoic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitoleic and arachidonic acids. Elaidic, gamma-linolenic, palmitic, and arachidic acids and another fat-soluble compound previously reported to inactivate virus, butylated hydroxytoluene, were less effective. A long chain mono- but not a di- or triglyceride also displayed virucidal properties. Evaluation of the inactivation of HIV added to an immune globulin solution on exposure to 0.033% sodium oleate for 20 min indicated inactivation of greater than or equal to 10(3.4) TCID50. The degree of virus inactivation depended on the sample composition. A favorable balance was achieved between degree of virus inactivation and retention of protein function for AHF concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate, antithrombin III concentrate, and immune globulin solution on incubation with 0.033% (w/v) sodium oleate at 24 degrees C for 4-6 h. Virus inactivation in whole plasma and plasma cryoprecipitate was not complete despite use of higher concentrations of sodium oleate and/or incubation at 37 degrees C. Reduced virus kill in these less purified derivatives probably is a consequence of their endogenous lipid and/or albumin.
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The AIDS virus is an opportunistic organism which requires a previously immunocompromised host for successful replication. We propose that the primary and as yet unlocalized lesion caused by the AIDS virus involves disruption of physiologically balanced responses to stressors, effectively creating a state of chronic relative cortisol excess. Such a state inhibits successful anti-pathogen strategies including those directed against the AIDS virus itself and leads to a self-sustaining downhill clinical course. Therapies based on this model are discussed.
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The effects of carbonation treatment (1 to 5 MPa, 30 min) plus heat treatment (30 to 80°C, 30 min) in the presence of various fatty acid esters (FAEs; 0.05 and 0.1%, wt/vol) on counts of viable Bacillus subtilis spores were investigated. FAEs or carbonation alone had no inactivation or growth inhibition effects on B. subtilis spores. However, carbonation plus heat (CH; 80°C, 5 MPa, 30 min) in the presence of mono- and diglycerol fatty acid esters markedly decreased counts of viable spores, and the spore counts did not change during storage for 30 days. The greatest decrease in viable spore counts occurred in the presence of monoglycerol fatty acid esters. Under CH conditions, inactivation and/or growth inhibition occurred at only 80°C and increased with increasing pressure. The greatest decrease in spore counts (more than 4 log units) occurred with CH (80°C, 5 MPa, 30 min) in the presence of monoglycerol fatty acid esters. However, this treatment was less effective against Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.
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A study was initiated to examine chemically processed patellar tendon allografts in sheep anterior cruciate ligament repairs, both mechanically and histologically. One group of animals received frozen, untreated allografts, one group received frozen grafts that were processed with a chloroform-methanol solvent extraction technique, and one group received frozen tendons treated with a permeation-enhanced extraction technique. All animals were operated on unilaterally, with the contralateral knee acting as a normal, intact control. Histologic analysis after 2 months of implantation revealed similar enhanced cellular repopulation in both chemically treated ligament allografts compared with the more hypocellular, untreated grafts. At 6 months the chloroform-methanol group demonstrated a more aggressive chronic cellular response with numerous thick-walled vessels relative to the untreated and permeation-enhanced grafts. Mechanical testing after 6 months of implantation showed statistically similar anterior drawer resistance in all grafted knees, yet the two chemically extracted grafts had significantly less stiffness than untreated anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Both treatment groups also tended to be weaker than the untreated allografts. All anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions showed excessive anterior drawer laxity and, regardless of treatment, had lower strength and less stiffness than normal anterior cruciate ligament tissue at the 6-month period.
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Various antimicrobial factors present in human milk were tested for in-vitro antiviral activity against three rhinoviruses (two clinical isolates and rhinovirus 2) and an isolate of cytomegalovirus (CMV) from human milk. These factors included the gangliosides GM1, 2 and 3, sialyl-lactose, chondroitin sulphates A, B and C, prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha, monolaurin, vitamin A and the protein lactoferrin. All were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the viruses in cell culture. Human milk was also tested for antiviral activity against these viruses. Only vitamin A, monolaurin and lactoferrin inhibited the growth of CMV, whereas both prostaglandins enhanced the growth of this virus at least four-fold. CMV infects infants from milk but, nevertheless, the milk-borne CMV isolate showed no special resistance to any of the antiviral factors tested. None of the compounds inhibited or enhanced the growth of the rhinoviruses. However, human milk decreased the growth of some of the rhinoviruses and specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) neutralised the virus.
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Objectives: Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva. Materials and methods: A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A: Study group: Oil pulling, Group B: Study group: Chlorhexidine, and Group C: Control group: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water. Results: Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group. Conclusion: Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Clinical significance: Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.
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Monoacylglycerol is a typical of lipid compound, which plays a very significant role in food and cosmetic production as well as pharmaceutical industries. It is also categorised as a non-ionic surfactant as it contains a long hydrophobic acyl group and two hydrophilic hydroxyl groups. As a non-ionic surfactant, this compound plays a very essential role as an emulsifier in food industries and as an antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic in pharmaceutical industries. It is generally produced through a conventional process known as glycerolysis of oils or fats using inorganic alkaline catalyst at 220-260°C. Numerous approaches have been made to improve this reaction through several process including the enzymatic glycerolysis reaction of oils and fats, transesterification reaction of glycerol with fatty acid esters, alcoholysis reaction of oils and fats, esterification of free fatty acids and glycerol, transesterification reaction of fatty acid ester and esterification of free fatty acids with a protected glycerol compounds such as 1,2-O-isopropylidene glycerol and followed by its deprotection reaction using an acid resin such as Amberlyst-15. Monoacylglycerol with highest yield and purity can be produced using 1,2-O-isopropylidene glycerol. It is also possible to use specific lipase enzyme (sn-1,3) through ethanolysis reaction of oils, fats and pure triacylglycerols to produce 2-monoacylglycerol.
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Synthesis of glucose laurate (GLC12), fructose laurate (FRU12), and galactose laurate (GAL12) as antibacterial and antifungal agents has been carried out. The synthesis of GLC12, FRU12, and GAL12was conducted by reacting lauroyl chloride with glucose, fructose, and galactose in the presence of pyridine in 36.1; 77.8; and 72,2% yields respectively for GLC12, FRU12 and GAL12.Antibacterial and antifungal activity test was done using well diffusion method towards Gram-negative bacteria ( Salmonella thypimurium and Escherechia coli ), Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillussubtilis) , Candida albicans fungus, DMSO as a negative control, and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol 1% as a positive control. The best antibacterial activity was shown by FRU12at 12.5% of concentration against S.aureus and B.subtilis bacteria.
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Breastfeeding positively influences infant growth while providing protection against many diseases. Breast milk provides the ideal balance of nutrients for the infant and contains countless bioactive ingredients such as immunoglobulins (antibodies), fatty acids, oligosaccharides and others which function to protect against infection. Many of the anti-infective properties ascribed to breast-milk are not yet available to formula-fed infants. Infant milk formulas are predominantly based on bovine milk, which in some cases contain much lower concentrations of bioactives. However, bovine milk does contain a number of components which share homology with human milk bioactives which could imply common functionalities. Therefore, value may lie in extracting and concentrating select bovine milk components with a view to supplementing infant formula. This review will discuss the mechanisms of action of anti-infective milk components and their ability to decrease the risk of infection through their interactions with both bacteria and viruses.
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Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and their monoesters were tested for their antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila . The antimicrobial effect was evaluated at two temperatures (4 °C and 37 °C) using a standardized microdilution method in a 96-well microtitration plate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected MCFAs were determined as the lowest concentration limiting the growth of A. hydrophila in wells compared to a positive control of ≥ 80%. The results indicated that the most effective compound against A. hydrophila was sucrose monocaprate after incubation at 37 °C (0.625 mg ml ⁻¹ ), whereas monocaprylin was the most effective compound after incubation at 4 °C (1.25 mg ml ⁻¹ ). Free MCFAs showed no antibacterial effects towards this bacterium. Low solubility and sensory properties could limit the use of fatty acids in aquatic environment, which should be the subject of further studies.
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The novel Coronavirus (nCoV-19) pandemic that originated in Wuhan, China, has become a major public health challenge all around the world. Due to the inherent transmission characteristics of the virus, i.e., through droplet infection or airborne, dental professionals are at a higher risk of exposure. This review gives a preliminary insight into the disease spread and highlights the crucial elements to be considered in terms of recommendations, guidelines, preventive measures, patient management protocol, current medications, and pipeline drugs.
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Coconut oil is an integral part of Sri Lanka and many South Asian diets. Initially, coconut oil was classified along with saturated fatty acid food items and criticized for its negative impact on health. However, research studies showed that coconut oil is a rich source of medium‐chain fatty acids. Thus, this has opened new prospects for its use in many fields. Beyond its usage in cooking, coconut oil grabs attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, anti‐hepatosteatotic,anti‐diabetic,antioxidant,anti‐inflammatory,anti‐microbial and skin moisturizing properties. Despite all the health benefits, consumption of coconut oil is still underrated due to a lack of supportive scientific evidence. Even though studies done in Asian countries acclaim for the favorable impact on cardiac health and serum lipid profile, the limitations in the number of studies conducted among western countries impede the endorsement of the real value of coconut oil. Hence, long term extensive studies with proper methodologies are suggested to clear all the controversies and misconceptions of coconut oil consumption. This review discusses the composition and functional properties of coconut oils extracted by different processing methods
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Sucrose laurates, sucrose palmitate, sucrose stearates, and monolaurin (Lauricidin) were evaluated for inhibitory effects against spores of Bacillus sp., Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, and Alicyclobacillus sp. in a model agar system. The combined treatment of sucrose laurate, high hydrostatic pressure, and mild heat was evaluated on spores of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus in foods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sucrose esters were higher than that of Lauricidin for all spores tested in the model agar system, but Lauricidin was not the most readily suspended in the test media. The sucrose laurates and sucrose palmitate were more effective and more readily suspended than the sucrose stearates. A combined treatment of sucrose laurate (<1.0%), 392 megaPascals (MPa) at 45 degrees C for 10 to 15 min provided 3- to 5.5-log10 CFU/ml reductions from initial populations of 10(6) CFU/ml for Bacillus subtilis 168 in milk, Bacillus cereus 14579 in beef, Bacillus coagulans 7050 in tomato juice (pH 4.5), Alicyclobacillus sp. N1089 in tomato juice (pH 4.5), and Alicyclobacillus sp. N1098 in apple juice. The most notable change in the appearance of the products was temporary foaming during mixing of the sucrose laurate in the foods. The effect of sucrose laurate appeared to be inhibitory rather than lethal to the spores. The inhibitory effects observed on Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus spores by the combined treatment of pressure, mild heat, and sucrose laurate appear promising for food applications where alternatives to high heat processing are desired.
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An antigenically distinct adenovirus is described which was isolated in March 1972 from the urine of a 17-year-old Caucasian male who was experiencing fever after receiving a kidney transplant from a cadaver in February. The adenovirus could not be isolated in April from a pharyngeal swab which yielded cytomegalovirus. Complement-fixation, hemagglutination-inhibition, and/or serum-neutralization tests on sequential serum specimens from the patient confirmed that the adenovirus infection occurred during March and showed that infections with cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus also occurred during late March and April. The patient's persistent fever, for which other causes could not be found, may have been associated with one or more of these infections. Upper respiratory symptoms and lung involvement were not found during this period. Mild liver dysfunction during this time could not be clearly related to adenovirus infection because of the presence of multiple other causes. The adenovirus may have been latent in the donor kidney and become active in the new host as a consequence of immunological impairment. The adenovirus, purified by terminal dilution and plaque procedures, has antigenic, morphological, biophysical, host susceptibility, and hemagglutinating properties characteristic of adenovirus group IA. Buoyant densities in CsCl are 1.340 g/ml for the virion, 1.304 g/ml for the group CF antigen (hexon), 1.295 g/ml for the major soluble complete hemagglutinin (dodecon), and 1.206 g/ml for the minor soluble complete hemagglutinin (tentatively, fiber dimer). The virus does not cross-react in reciprocal hemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralization tests with antisera to adenovirus types 1 to 33. We propose this virus as candidate adenovirus type 34 (Compton).
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Unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols of chain lengths of 16 or 18 carbons were found to be extremely potent inactivators of two enveloped viruses, herpes simplex virus type 2 and bacteriophage φ6. The lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2 was also inactivated by some of these amphiphilic molecules. Treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 with these compounds at concentrations as low as 0.2 μM reduced virus survival to 50% in 30 min, making these agents the most potent inactivators of herpes simplex viruses discovered that are not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Detailed characterizations of the effects of unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols on bacteriophages φ6 and PM2 showed that the inactivated φ6 virion remained nearly intact but that PM2 was almost completely disrupted by the inactivating treatment. Some of the compounds inactivate the viruses even at low temperature (0°C). Excess amounts of diglycerides and phospholipids interfere with the inactivating abilities of some of the unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols against φ6 and PM2. Our findings suggest that the unsaturated monoglycerides and some of the unsaturated alcohols should be further studied as potential antiviral agents, particularly for application to herpesvirus-infected areas of the skin and accessible epithelium.
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The enveloped bacteriophage φ6 has been shown to be a valuable model system for the preliminary screening of compounds that might be expected to inactivate herpes simplex virus and other enveloped mammalian viruses. A variety of fatty acid derivatives that form fluid micelles in aqueous media have been found to be potent inactivators of φ6. The chemical nature of the polar head group, the length of the alkyl chain(s), and the extent and geometry of unsaturation are all important parameters in determining the antiviral effectiveness of this class of compounds.
Article
Unsaturated free fatty acids such as oleic, arachidonic or linoleic at concentrations of 5-25 microgram/ml inactivate enveloped viruses such as herpes, influenza, Sendai, Sindbis within minutes of contact. At these concentrations the fatty acids are inocuous to animal host cells in vitro. Naked viruses, such as polio, SV40 or EMC are not affected by these acids. Saturated stearic acid does not inactivate any viruses at concentrations tested. Though the mode of action of unsaturated fatty acids is not understood, electronmicrographs of enveloped viruses treated by them indicate that the inactivation is associated with disintegration of the virus envelope.
Antiviral effects of fatty acids and derivatives: Lipidcontaining bacteriophages as a model system
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