Article

Image and Action in Peace Building

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Abstract

That images of the future motivate behavior in the present is a theory with both socio-historical and psychological evidence. Due to the difficulty of generating positive images of the future in the nuclear age, in contrast to the Utopian imagery of earlier ages, an experimental workshop was developed by Boulding and Ziegler to help people imagine positive futures—specifically, to image a future world without weapons. The workshop procedures are described, and three case examples are given of imaging groups with widely different background characteristics. Participants were able to create positive imagery in the workshop setting, and their imagery varied according to the background of the participating group. The paper explores the relationships among the intensity of the imaging experience, its saliency for the imager, and the action readiness of the imager; and it raises questions about the role of imaging workshops in the peace movement and the kinds of research that might make such workshops more effective.

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... The final stage of the argument explores the ways in which a holistic re-orienting of decisions by groups of actors might work to bring about a more just and ecologically sustainable world system. Inspired by the workshops of Boulding (1988), the author indulges an imaginary leap into what such a system might look like. This is supported by intersecting discourse in process philosophy, deep ecology and macro history aimed at moving towards an ecological civilization. ...
... What kind of world system might the efforts of more holistic decision-makers work to create? What would a just and sustainable alternative look like? Figure 3.5 takes inspiration from Boulding's (1988) workshop on "Imaging a World Without Weapons", that considers positive images of the future to be like a magnet, attracting behaviour that toward the vision. In this model the author suspends thoughts on what should be considered 'realistic', and posits a system in which there would no longer be Centre and Periphery nations operating with unequal exchanges. ...
Chapter
What is causing the global ecological crisis? Who has the power to solve it? This chapter explores the global ecological crisis as a form of structural violence. Galtung’s “Structural Theory of Imperialism” (1971) is integrated with Kahn’s “Tyranny of Small Decisions” (1966). The synthesis of theories sheds light on the multi-levelled and multi-directional influence of individuals, nations, institutions and culture. Countless “small decisions”, that appear separate and distant from their collective long-term global consequences, are posited to be a root cause of the crisis. Solving the crisis calls for a holistic re-orienting of decision-making by people across many sectors of society aimed at long-term global interests rather than short-term personal interests. Examples of these decisions are considered. The chapter closes by imagining what a just and sustainable world system operating within planetary boundaries might look like, and consider examples of the type of decision-making it might involve.
... Elise challenged the dominance of the powerful in the writing of history by looking at the underside (Boulding, 1976a(Boulding, , 1992, and combined her sense of the broad sweep of human history and recognition of the importance of a positive view of the future in the now-moment of the 200-year present (Boulding, 1988a:3-7). Elise's workshops on imagining a nonviolent world inspired thousands to renew their commitment to creating the potentials for a more peaceful world (Boulding, 1988b(Boulding, , 2002. Above all, Elise was a consummate networker. ...
... Elise initially developed futures imaging workshops in collaboration with Warren Zeigler (Boulding, 1988b;Ziegler, 1985). The workshops grew out of her desire to make sure that she not only understood the power of a future image in social change, but was able to link this insight to an experiential process within which individuals could learn how to imagine and realize their "imaginaries" in concrete terms (Boulding, 2001(Boulding, , 2002. ...
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This article is a set of tributes about Elise Boulding, one of the great peace scholars and activists of the twentieth century, by four who knew her as a friend, and as mother (Russell), colleague (Kevin), biographer (Mary Lee), and mentor (Andrea). Elise Boulding, the 2000 recipient of the International Association for Conflict Management (IACM) Lifetime Achievement Award Winner, made significant contributions to understanding conflict and peace as a peace activist, peace scholar, futurist, feminist, and family sociologist. She also left a lasting legacy as a networker and builder of communities of scholars and activists. Each tribute offers a different perspective on the impact she had on the personal lives of each contributor and the significance of Elise Boulding's work.
... Boulding's works demonstrate her leading contributions to both peace sfudies and futures studies. She recognized ezLrly the value of learning fi:om both of these emergent, interdisciplinary fields (Boulding 1981(Boulding , 1982(Boulding , 1983(Boulding , 1984(Boulding , 1988(Boulding , 1992a. At the same time, she was conscioul; of the fact that even in fields of academic study that pride themselves for their cross-disciplinary openness to new ideas and approaches, a signiflcant gap bertween the rhetoric and practice may exist. ...
... These examples illustrate much about her lifelong engagement with notions of active global citiienship, futures generation thinking and her willingness to share practical ideas for creative leaming environments. Particular value has been found in her futures workshops adapted from her collaborative rvork with wanen ziegler (Boulding 1984(Boulding , 1988(Boulding , 1989(Boulding , 1 990, 1991ai7-iegter 1989, 1991. ...
Article
Our joint article focuses on Elise Boulding’s creative work and legacy as a feminist peace theorist, peace educator and futures educator. Boulding throughout her life was deeply concerned not only with critiquing the institution of war but of working for better, more peaceable worlds. She was very much a ‘practical futurist’. Various important themes and concepts in her futures-oriented peace education work are examined. The article concludes with reflections on her continuing inspiration.
... While the research on the effect of the arts in conflict transformation is limited, initiatives in this field are proven more successful than many standard conflict resolution tools (Gold, 2006). Examples include the use of mental imaging to imagine a different world in Boulding's and Ziegler's future workshops (see Boulding, 1995), the use of creative writing to heal the traumatic experiences of U.S. soldiers in the Operation Homecoming programme (see Nea.gov, 2012) and the learning of each other's folk dances to re-humanise the enemy in former Yugoslavia (see Burns et al., 2003). In the case of Cyprus, where negotiations on an institutional level seem stagnant, the arts have played an important role in the process of rapprochement on a grassroots level (Ungerleider, 1999;Gold, 2006). ...
... 4. Lastly, the research adjusted a previous workshop model taken from the field of peace-research and applied it to a new conflict case. Specifically, it used Ziegler's and Boulding's future imagining workshops -previously used to envision a world of nuclear disarmament or of acceptance of homosexuality-and applied it through questionnaires and animations to imagine a shared future in Cyprus (see Boulding, 1995). It also expanded the workshop -in this study adjusted in the form of a questionnaire-to incorporate it's results into original animation. ...
Thesis
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This research investigates the potential of animation to act as a tool for peace-building. It specifically takes the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots as case study. It is a cross-disciplinary, value-driven, practice-led inquiry, affiliated with the paradigm of constructivism and the approach of participatory action research. It triangulates the interchangeable qualitative methods of conflict case mapping and assessment, of questionnaires and of reflective animation practice to demonstrate that animation can indeed assist peace-building. The main fields of study that this inquiry deals with are peace research -located within social sciences- and the field of animation, situated within the field of the arts -as opposed to computer science-. Key authors influencing the study include Johan Galtung, Elise and Kenneth Boulding, Carol Rank, Cynthia Cohen, Susan Sontag and Yiannis Papadakis. The values that drive the research derive from the paradigm of positive peace, developed by Galtung. They can be summarised as justice, equality, prosperity, non-violence, cooperation and solidarity. Following exchanges with participants from the two conflicting communities, problems were identified and animation solutions proposed out of which three test-animations were created. These address the themes of inter-communal relationships, language and a shared future . Their impact was then discussed and evaluated by a local audience who suggested amendments. This perpetual, collaborative procedure of action is to be repeated until all needs are met and problems resolved. Primarily my original contribution to knowledge lies in researching a largely neglected area of the arts and peace and in successfully proving that animation can act for the purposes of peacebuilding. The evidence of animation's potential as a peacebuilding tool is threefold: firstly, my Action Research approach leads to the identification of specific animation strategies for any ethnic conflict case. Secondly, animation attributes are enlisted that support this function of the medium. Finally, affirmation was gathered from questionnaires
... This is an empowerment approach that introduces transformational futures processes, and is also identified by other futurists. (Boulding 1988; Hutchinson 1996; Slaughter 1996) This empowerment oriented approach to futures research will be further discussed later. Finally, a fifth and newly emerging futures approach, referred to as 'integral futures' is being developed by Richard Slaughter and others at the Australian Foresight Institute. ...
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There is extensive psychological literature which has linked hopelessness with depression and suicide risk for decades. Although there is a strong research and clinical base for targeting depression, there is a gap in the psychological literature when it comes to targeting hopelessness, specifically. In the absence of such a body of psychological literature, this paper draws on the research from the Futures Studies field which also records a rise in hopelessness, negativity and fear of the future among young people in the West. These phenomena (hopelessness, depression and suicide) will be analysed using Causal Layered Analysis, a methodology from the Futures Studies field, pointing to the long-term psycho-social impact on youth of the materialistic worldview that underpins Western culture. The paper will also explore the question: "how can hope for the future be promoted?" by looking beyond the dominance of materialism to spiritually inspired worldviews and the new metaphors and stories that arise from them.
... The development of society towards sustainability is influenced by many actors' actions and perceptions. If intention plays an important role on human behaviour (Dreborg 1996), a shared intention is essential in organizations (Senge 1990, Collins 1994) or a society (Boulding 1988). For both organizations and society, the importance is not entirely on setting the goal, but also in the social learning process that allows the goal to be perceived as collective and instigate cohesion in acting (van der Heijden 2005). ...
Article
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Human society is currently designed based on linear patterns, without concern for and interactions with the biosphere. The natural world works in cycles, and in order to interact with these systems in a sustainable way, the redesign of human society according to the paradigm of cyclical thinking is required. This paper explores the synthesis and synergies between the cradle-to-cradle concept and a Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development in the context of sustainable development. The research tests whether Backcasting using Sustainability Principles is supportive to the implementation of the cradle-to-cradle concept and draws on relevant literature as well as interviews with experts. Based upon this research a process tool is designed and tested within a case study. Results indicate that, when backcasting using sustainability principles, principles for design and principles for decision-making provide synergistic characteristics in the process of implementation. Inspiring design principles, such as the ones suggested by the cradle-to-cradle concept, provide powerful engagement for a social learning process that works towards sustainable development. A structured decision-making process based on backcasting using sustainability principles provides the constraints and criteria for robust decision-making along the journey.
... Many acknowledged experiencing stress and uncertainty but felt this was to be expected, as their futures were unclear and choice brings with it both excitement and stress. Futures research is plentiful in this regard, Hicks (2002, Chapter 6) and Boulding (1994) have both argued that there are a common set of values and visions young people are carrying, albeit unclearly, into the future. Hutchinson (1996) and Gidley (2002, pp.155-69) concur and have found that gender, education and economic factors impact on the young's ability to contemplate the future and their part in it. ...
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The State of Queensland, Department of Families, April 2003. Copyright protects this publication. Permission is given for the copying of this document for use in the Queensland Government and as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act 1968. Other reproduction by whatever means is prohibited without the prior written permission of the Department of Families. The Department of Families respects the moral rights of authors and in particular will act to protect the integrity of authorship and the right of attribution of authorship in all circumstances except where permitted acts or omissions have been specifically assigned by the author to the Department of Families in writing.
... approach seeks to facilitate empowerment and transformation through engagement and participation. It was initially developed by French and later Swedish futurists and has been emphasized in Australia (Berger, 1964;Bjerstedt, 1982;Boulding, 1988;Hutchinson, 1992;Wildman & Inayatullah, 1996). This could be referred to as 'prospective' or 'participatory futures,' depending on context. ...
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In this paper I articulate a new meta-level field of studies that I call global knowledge futures—a field through which other emerging transdisciplinary fields can be integrated to cohere knowledge at a higher level. I contrast this with the current dominant knowledge paradigm of the global knowledge economy with its fragmentation, commodification and instrumentalism based on neoliberal knowledge capitalism. I take a big-picture, macrohistorical lens to the new thinking and new knowledge patterns that are emerging within the evolution of consciousness discourse. I explore three discourses: postformal studies, integral studies and planetary studies 3 —using a fourth discourse, futures studies, to provide a macro-temporal framing. By extending the meta-fields of postformal, integral and planetary studies into a prospective future dimension, I locate areas of development where these leading-edge discourses can be brought into closer dialogue with each other. In this meeting point of four boundary-spanning discourses I identify the new meta-level field of global knowledge futures, grounded in human thinking capacities, such as creativity, imagination, dialogue and collaboration.
... Another interesting " tradition " is a strand of futures thinking that emphasizes the role of " images of the future " for the intentions and actions of man. Pioneering work by Polak (1973) inspired several others (e.g. Boulding(1988) and Ziegler (1991)) particularly based on the presumed potential of optimistic and utopian images ( " visions " ) of the future to inspire dedicated action. Today, there is a rich variety of futures study approaches, reflecting different aims and interests and the characteristics of different fields of application. ...
... • The prospective-action research approach seeks to facilitate empowerment and transformation through engagement and participation. It was initially developed by French and later Swedish futurists and has been emphasised in Australia (Berger, 1964;Bjerstedt, 1982;Boulding, 1988;Hutchinson, 1992;Wildman and Inayatullah, 1996;Gidley, 1998). This could be referred to as 'prospective' or 'participatory futures', depending on context. ...
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This paper points to the value of broadening the palette of approaches to climate change futures beyond the dominant methods of empiricist predictive trends and expert scenarios. The first half of the paper contextualizes the climate change discourse within the field of futures studies and explores potential points of dialogue between a number of futures approaches and the most prominent of the climate protection work. The second half of the paper introduces a case study of community based participatory approaches involving community scenario writing and community visioning, which enacts a collaborative engagement between futures researchers and climate-vulnerable communities. However, any participatory futures method chosen to facilitate climate change adaptation must be context aware in both its design and implementation if it is to facilitate adaptability and resilience in climate-vulnerable communities. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
... From a futures studies perspective this enables us to envision, and thus potentially create, authentically alternative futures. As futures researchers Fred Polak, Elise Boulding, Francis Hutchinson, Ivana Milojevic and others have shown, the power of image is at the centre of creating positive alternative futures [60][61][62][63]. ...
Article
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This essay is a postformal rejoinder to Ziauddin Sardar's Welcome to Postnormal Times. I have no quarrel with Sardar's conclusion that these times are postnormal, nor do I disagree with many of his observations, but our standpoints regarding implications are somewhat contradictory. Paradoxically, rather than jump into an old paradigm form of debate with Sardar's interpretations of postnormalcy, this rejoinder is a playful postformal response. I celebrate our complementary views as expressions of the complex truths of multiperspectivality. First I question the meaning of normal and postnormal in the context of such notions as “the pathology of normalcy.” Secondly I begin to explore the postnormal circumstances from a postformal perspective. This involves discussion of notions of progress, development, evolution and co-evolution from different points of view as an opener to coming to terms with complexity. I then explore how concepts such as complexity and paradox can be understood as paths to wisdom; how active imagination can be engaged in the service of life; and how engaged imagination can unfold new normative narratives of alternative futures. Such imaginaries of hope are vital for the wellbeing of young people. The essay closes with a call to embrace the richness of complexity and play with—rather than fear—the paradox of planetary pluralism.
... As futurists, and peace educator Elise Boulding, have repeatedly argued [54], it is the lack of imagination about what alternative peace-oriented futures would actually look like that perpetuates conventional thinking about the (individual and collective) futures. By using stories to discuss often controversial, emotionally laden and difficult topics in post-conflict societies, the partnership education approaches used in the project succeeded in opening up new spaces for transformative futures in a non-threatening way. ...
Article
This article focuses on the project Storytelling for Peace, Gender Partnership and Cultural Pluralism, initiated in 2009 in Novi Sad, Serbia, with the primary aim of promoting educational strategies which challenge the continuation of the dominator society's status quo and facilitate the emergence of alternative, progressive and socially inclusive futures. Constructive storytelling was chosen as an educational practice that can bring about change, and was used as a tool for the transfer of alternative worldviews because it is indirect, flexible and inexpensive. The main beneficiaries of the project were the students of the University of Novi Sad and teachers and children of Novi Sad primary schools. The project utilised local knowledge and languages to foster peace and partnership-oriented individual and social narratives through the process of alternative story writing and revision of traditional Serbian and European tales. The participants learned to deconstruct master narratives, to understand deep culture and how its underlying myths shape national identity. Alternative stories became a tool to teach critical thinking and promote a diversity of voices.
... Third, while the alternative scenarios explore possible futuresand in themselves of scholarly value -the strength and power of the workshop was the articulation of desired visions of the future, their supporting drivers and the underlying narratives or deep metaphors. Visions, as Boulding [26] and Polak [27] have argued, pull us forward towards the future, even as there are weights -mindsets, institutional blockages, resource constraints -that challenge the realization of the preferred. The push of the future, drivers, make it more likely that certain visions will occur. ...
Article
Using the Six Pillars foresight workshop process, forty-five Asian political, policy and activist leaders explored the futures of democratic governance. Organized and funded by Oxfam and the Rockefeller Foundation, the organizing hypothesis was that without a change in the nature of governance in Asia, poverty could not truly be uprooted. Changes in governance needed to be imagined and created from the ground up, not just imposed by the past or the elite. Five visions with accompanying causal layered analysis were developed by participants. Generally, these visions focused on more inclusion not just at the level of voting, but in terms of the participatory creation of alternative futures of culture, technology, economy and polity.
... Specifi cally, Wagner (1988) has argued that, in contrast to traditional military means, "positive goals for peace can often be seen as 'vague' or 'utopian' in vision and may seem to rely on plans that are 'ambiguous' and 'intangible' " (Mahoney & de Rivera, 2008, p. 62). Elsewhere, Boulding (1988) has argued that violent means are so engrained in our culture that we struggle even to envision peaceful alternatives. Sherif has shown us that those norms which are nearer to ours may be assimilated into our "ways of seeing. ...
Chapter
Sherif’s empirical research on norm change within groups and across time (Sherif, 1976) can be seen as part of a larger project of understanding the psychological processes underlying the transformation of norms within societies. While Sherif is not widely recognized for his theoretical work outlining social change processes, his contributions provided a foundation for much of the subsequent social psychological literature on social movements, intergroup relations, and power dynamics. Sherif gave considerable attention to social movements, stating that social psychology was only relevant insofar as it helped us to better understand, predict, and even facilitate change in large-scale social problems (see Sherif, 1970). With this background in mind, and in the chapter that follows, we outline the psychological theory of social norms as set forth by Muzafer Sherif. We then move to describe those situations under which social norms may change. Finally, we attempt to apply Sherif’s model of norm formation and change coupled with his ideas about social movements, in particular, to historical movements aimed at creating and maintaining norms which promote social justice.
... Studentsí ëfeared futuresí (Boulding, 1988) were related to political, environmental, social, economic and cultural unsustainability, particularly the lack of sustainable leadership, agency, environmental degradation, exclusion, the predominantly materialistic and consumer culture. ...
Article
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Education is a future-facing activity. Therefore, universities need to engage students in building alternative and preferable future scenarios and reveal features of unsustainability, as well as open spaces for students to participate in discussions and negotiate new meanings. This paper reveals the future visions bachelor’s and master’s degree students from one of the regional universities in eastern Latvia have of education and focuses on a sustainability analysis (sustainable and unsustainable) of societal aspects and education. The authors conclude that thinking about preferred futures make students more aware of the positive changes that could be made and their personal responsibility to contribute to these changes. In this connection, the need to take a broad, integrated and holistic view of the future and its social and personal significance is of utmost importance.
... Students construct "future histories" to move thinking beyond mere extrapolation of current trends to consideration of unexpected events (Hutchinson, 1996, p. 225). Longer activities involve visualization workshops where students "visit" the future virtually (Boulding, 1988;Hicks, 1996) and multi-day field courses at a place that actually exists today, which opens students' minds to future alternatives viewed as improbable (e.g. eco-centers with solar energy, energy-efficient buildings, organic agriculture and constructed wetlands for sewage treatment; Hicks et al., 1999Hicks et al., /2000. ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a classroom assessment aimed at determining the extent to which five key sustainability competencies develop in students during an introductory transdisciplinary sustainability course. University sustainability programs intend to provide integrated education that fosters the key competencies students need to solve real-world sustainability problems. Translating sustainability competencies into effective pedagogical practice in integrated academic programs is not straightforward. This work builds on a previous study by both expanding the competencies evaluated and considering additional demographic characteristics. Design/methodology/approach – The paper summarizes previously identified key sustainability competencies and describes teaching methodologies used to foster these competencies in students. Development of competencies in students during a semester-long course is assessed using a pre-/post-test based on two case studies. The implications of the findings for teaching practice and overall program structure are discussed. Findings – Based on the assessment methods used here, four of the five sustainability competencies evaluated in this study developed differently in students according to gender, disciplinary affiliation and age. Females improved interpersonal competence more than males. Systems thinking competence improved for students associated with the three disciplinary affiliations considered in this study: sustainability major, sustainability minor and business major. Anticipatory competence improved for sustainability and business majors only, but not for students minoring in sustainability and majoring in other disciplines. Finally, normative competence improved for younger students only. Research limitations/implications – Insights for teaching practice and overall program structure are based on assessment of one introductory transdisciplinary sustainability course. Much additional work is needed to draw strong conclusions about general teaching practices and program structure for sustainability education. This study provides a flexible and field-tested rubric for further evaluative work in other sustainability courses or degree programs. Practical implications – Universities incorporate sustainability into their undergraduate curricula in many ways, ranging from certificates to entire degree programs focused on sustainability. The results of this study suggest that educators pay attention to gender diversity, classroom teaching practices, disciplinary perspectives and student attitudes and developmental stages as they figure out how to make sustainability part of undergraduate education. This information may help create more effective sustainability courses and academic programs, which may maintain the viability of current sustainability programs and promote the institutionalization of sustainability in higher education. Originality/value – This research contributes to undergraduate sustainability education by providing insight into how sustainability education might thoughtfully be integrated into academic programs. It also offers an assessment approach for use by other sustainability educators to evaluate effectiveness of teaching practice and overall program structure based on five key sustainability competencies commonly cited in the literature.
... In her presentation on -envisioning for a sustainable world‖ [19], Donella Meadows highlighted the absence of vision as a major source of failure in addressing environmental issues and there is no evidence to suggest that this absence has since been addressed [28]. Possibly drawing on the work of her Dartmouth colleague, Elise Boulding [29], she went on to describe the principles and benefits of envisioning a responsible shared vision. In doing so she inspired our current approach. ...
Article
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We face a global crisis of un-sustainability—we need to change trajectory, but have so far displayed a collective inability to do so. This article suggests that one reason for this is our entrenched approach to change, which has inappropriately applied mechanistic Newtonian assumptions to “living” systems. Applying what has been learned about the behaviour of complex adaptive systems, we develop a pragmatic model for students of sustainability, who want to facilitate profound organizational and community change towards sustainability on the ground. Our model, “one way forward”, does not purport to be the only way but one possibility, grounded in a different understanding of the nature and dynamic of change as seen through the lens of complexity. In this way, it challenges more conventional change management practices. One way forward is a model facilitating evolutionary change in a social ecology—one possible expression of a “culture of community self-design” as expressed by Banathy. Its theoretical foundations and its practical application (it is designed for practice) both have their source in a systemic view and in the principles that reflect the paradigm of complexity. Four central components of this new model—envisioning, core messages (values), indicators of progress, and experimentation—are explored in more detail.
... These were previously developed and are described in detail in Svenfelt et al. (2019) and summarized below. Backcasting, as opposed to forecasting, starts out from the future to understand or enable changes in the present (e.g., Boulding, 1995;Dreborg, 1996;Robinson, 2003). Backcasting often implies describing futures that are considered desirable or fulfilling a set target, as well as analyzing changes needed in the present (e.g., Svenfelt et al., 2011), or developing pathways toward those futures (e.g., Ashina et al., 2010). ...
Article
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This paper builds on four qualitative backcasting scenarios that illustrate sustainable futures in a Swedish setting. The paper complements the originally qualitative scenarios by developing an eight‐step modified and expanded IPAT model—originally describing environmental impact as a product of population, affluence, and technology—that also enables quantitative descriptions of the scenarios. The modified and expanded IPAT model is used to show how the scenarios can stay within the climate aspect of sustainability. The result is quantified descriptions of the development paths of energy‐related carbon dioxide emissions, working hours, man‐made capital stocks, recycled and nonrecycled materials used, and different types of energy used in the four scenarios. The four main findings are (a) the back‐bone instrument in making the energy system fossil‐free will, in all scenarios, substitute fossil energy with renewable energy; (b) however, to succeed with that it is necessary to use different mixes of many complementary climate policy instruments; (c) IPAT models can be modified and expanded in many different ways to act as quantitative descriptions of different technological developments and social changes in scenario exercises; (d) by disregarding gross domestic product as a proxy for affluence, and replacing it with labor and capital, behavioral concepts like sharing and prolonged product lifetimes can more easily be introduced as climate policy options in a modified and expanded IPAT model.
... The main myths and metaphors used are based on women's experiences of giving birth as well as on narrative, 'reconstruction' of history that implies once egalitarian gender relationships. The purpose of this reconstruction is to inspire, because what has existed is seen to be possible (Boulding & Boulding, 1995), can be created again. The final table (Table 5.5) in this section deconstructs the partnership society, answering questions of who speaks, who and what is silenced and what is missing from the discourse. ...
... En el nivel de docencia, es recomendable insertar en la malla curricular talleres de Cultura de Paz, destinados al mejoramiento de imágenes trinacionales Perú-Chile-Bolivia y a l desarrollo de habilidades para la resolución pacífica de conflictos. La metodología a utilizarse debería ser eminentemente práctica, utilizando recursos tales como el análisis de casos, la solución de problemas, el método de estimulación de la creatividad denominado los Seis sombreros para pensar, los proyectos de acción futura y las imágenes-objetivo para un futuro de paz, diseñadas por Elise Boulding (1988). ...
... Specifi cally, Wagner (1988) has argued that, in contrast to traditional military means, "positive goals for peace can often be seen as 'vague' or 'utopian' in vision and may seem to rely on plans that are 'ambiguous' and 'intangible' " (Mahoney & de Rivera, 2008, p. 62). Elsewhere, Boulding (1988) has argued that violent means are so engrained in our culture that we struggle even to envision peaceful alternatives. Sherif has shown us that those norms which are nearer to ours may be assimilated into our "ways of seeing. ...
... 'If there are no more weapons, how is the world functioning?' (Boulding, 1988(Boulding, , 1989. ...
Article
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Feminist scholars and activists have historically been written out of peace research, despite their strong presence in the early stages of the field. In this article, we develop the concept of “wifesization” to illustrate the process through which feminist and feminized interventions have been reduced to appendages of the field, their contributions appropriated for its development but unworthy of mention as independent producers of knowledge. Wifesization has trickle-down effects, not just for knowledge production, but also for peacebuilding practice. We propose new feminist genealogies for peace research that challenge and redefine the narrow boundaries of the field, in the form of a patchwork quilt including early theorists, utopian writing, oral history, and indigenous knowledge production. Reflections draw on the authors’ engagements with several archives rich in cultures and languages of peace, not reducible to a “single story.” Recovering wifesized feminist contributions to peace research, our article offers a new way of constructing peace research canons that gives weight to long-standing, powerful, and plural feminist voices, in order to make peace scholarship more inclusive and ultimately richer.
... En el nivel de docencia, es recomendable insertar en la malla curricular talleres de Cultura de Paz, destinados al mejoramiento de imágenes trinacionales Perú-Chile-Bolivia y a l desarrollo de habilidades para la resolución pacífica de conflictos. La metodología a utilizarse debería ser eminentemente práctica, utilizando recursos tales como el análisis de casos, la solución de problemas, el método de estimulación de la creatividad denominado los Seis sombreros para pensar, los proyectos de acción futura y las imágenes-objetivo para un futuro de paz, diseñadas por Elise Boulding (1988). ...
Chapter
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El Siglo XXI nos impone nuevos retos y desafíos, particularmente a las instituciones de educación superior, circunstancia ante la cual se advierte la necesidad de fortalecer los lazos de integración y emprendimientos conjuntos por parte de las universidades latinoamericanas, especialmente de aquellas que conviven sobre límites fronterizos, como es el caso de las universidades bolivianas y chilenas, las mismas que comparten una historia común, cultura y legítimas aspiraciones de contribuir eficazmente al desarrollo de sus países, fundamentalmente a través de la investigación científica y la formación académica. En ese contexto, el objetivo que compartimos es el de detectar aquellos factores psicosociales que contribuyen al establecimiento de una cultura de paz en la región; por esta razón, creemos que esta meta se adecúa precisamente a los desafíos antes mencionados. Cabe hacer notar que cuando hablamos de una cultura de paz, no nos referimos a una abstracción, menos a una entelequia, sino, por el contrario, a la necesidad de construir un sistema que sea capaz de extinguir los mecanismos que provocan y generan violencia; violencia que se ha tornado cotidiana y sistemática pese a la vigencia de regímenes de gobierno constitucionales.
... But this forecloses other interpretations of what is happening and, thus, limits the scope of the possible when we try to conceive of peace and peacebuilding. Seeing everything always through the perspective of politics serves to under-appreciate the social and social-psychological activities which have been central to much of the 'affective peacebuilding' described by Mitchell (2011), which has been foundational to conflict transformation approaches theorized and developed by scholars such as Allport (1954), Boulding (1988), Lederach (1997), Fisher (2001 or Kelman (2004), and largely outside the realm of IR. However, if we recognize that actions within the realm of 'the everyday' are neither political nor a-political, but pre-political, then we can be open to the possibility of alternative motivations for action on the micro or local scale. ...
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Quite a lot of recent peacebuilding scholarship has deployed the concept of ‘the everyday’. In an extension of the local turn’s emphasis on agency and resistance, much of this scholarship interprets the everyday as inherently a site of politics. It does so either by interpreting every act (no matter how motivated) as an agentic political act, or by equating agentic political acts (at the local level) with the quotidian activities which define the everyday. This article argues, however, that representing the everyday in this way interprets both forms of activity in ways which have critical implications for peacebuilding theory, because both moves inadvertently strip everyday acts of the emergent creativity and innovation inherent to ‘everyday-ness’. Alternative understandings of and engagement with different forms of agency would encourage peace scholars to acknowledge the overtly political nature of peace projects and so to reserve ‘the everyday’ label for pre-political forms of action which may contribute to peace, but in a more unintentional, organic or emergent fashion. This is not to argue that everyday acts are a-political or non-political, but only that they do not have political motivations and are not themselves products of conscious will to power, or even to peace itself.
... In one study, participants' hesitations around international cooperation included concerns about whether most other Americans would show support, and the essentialist belief that human nature is inherently violent (Mahoney & de Rivera, 2008). Elsewhere, Boulding (1988) has suggested that an overreliance on military defense systems is further predicated on persons' inability to imagine alternatives. Thus, they "turn to short-term survival strategies rather than focusing on processes of long-range social change" (p. ...
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It has been argued that the international cooperation needed to deal with global problems requires the development of a global community. We hypothesized that the sense of belonging to such a community would be promoted if we could increase a general sense of hopefulness about humanity and that such a sense of hopefulness would be influenced by the news to which persons are subjected. Participants were asked to visit news websites with different emotional tones. Those sent to a typical news site or to a fashion site showed a small but significant decrease in their sense of global community. Those sent to a nongovernmental organization (NGO) website featuring solutions-oriented news showed a significant increase. The latter site provoked greater admiration, appreciation, and hope, and less anger, disgust, and fear. Increase in a sense of global community was predicted by the extent to which the NGO site provoked both admiration and fear.
... 3-7). Elise's workshops on imagining a nonviolent world inspired thousands to renew their commitment to creating the potentials for a more peaceful world (Boulding, E., 1988b(Boulding, E., , 2002. Above all, Elise was a consummate networker. ...
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This chapter explores the primary contributions of two eminent Quakers, economist Kenneth Boulding (1910-1993) and his wife sociologist Elise Boulding (1920-2010), to the social sciences and examines how their perspectives as Quakers influenced their work as social scientists and activists. Early life experiences led both to become pacifists before they joined the Society of Friends, each in their early twenties. After their marriage in 1941 they were active in the Society of Friends at all levels throughout their lives. Kenneth, after establishing a reputation as one of the foremost Keynesian economists in the world as a young man, went on to do pioneering work in the bourgeoning fields of general systems, peace and conflict resolution and human betterment, as well as helping establish new fields of study within economics: ecological economics, grants economics, evolutionary economics and economics as a moral science. Elise did pioneering work in the fields of peace research, peacemaking, feminism, future studies and the family, as well as leaving a remarkable legacy at the local, national and international level as an activist, community building and networker. Kenneth and Elise worked together always as partners, sometimes as collaborators, and at times clashed as adversaries. Modern usage of the “social testimonies” in the Society of Friends provides a lens through which their perspective as Quakers influenced their work as social scientists. Though both Kenneth and Elise became pacifists before becoming Quakers, the peace testimony provided grounding for their work in peace research, conflict resolution and peacemaking. Both are recognized as founders of the international peace research movement. Elise is recognized as a matriarch of the twentieth century peace movement. Elise’s feminism and work as a scholar in the area of social justice was grounded in the testimony of equality. Though fully supportive of the feminist movement and LGBT rights as articulated by Elise, Kenneth did not see eye-to-eye with her on a number of other social justice issues. The testimony of community is reflected in the way Elise and Kenneth built community wherever they went. Differing views related to the testimony of simplicity created the greatest tension between Elise and Kenneth in their personal lives, yet throughout their lives they were united by an unbreakable bond of love.
... These perceived discrepancies drain the motivational power that we might otherwise harness to drive change (Higgins et al., 1986). Movements also suffer when they do not have a common vision toward which to strive (Boulding, 1988). Gilbert (1988) has noted that one of the psychological factors inhibiting activism is a perceived "maze of objectives." ...
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The alleviation of world suffering requires action on the part of individuals. Yet, for these persons, awareness of and attention to suffering combined with a felt sense of connection may function as both assets and liabilities. While these capacities enable the galvanization necessary to incite actions aimed at the relief of suffering, they may come at powerful costs, undermining the well-being of advocates and the efficacy of their labors. Personal and social resources have a part to play in how we manage our experience of emotions and our beliefs about social change. Privately, caregivers, advocates and activists might learn to deliberately recognize and direct their individual capacities for attention, awareness, and connection toward more effective responses. Socially, communities within the advocacy field play an equally imperative role in the emotional experience of its members. Communal norms that construct advocacy as necessarily onerous may fail to acknowledge the limitations of caregivers and advocates, while supportive communities that prioritize connection and celebration may alleviate helping stress. Sustainable social change will require an awareness of the ways in which individual beliefs and behaviors, institutional policies, and cultural norms may hamper the alleviation of suffering.
... Envisioning and illustrating sustainable and desired futures can be a powerful tool to nudge perceptions of what is possible or realistic, and to broaden the scope of solutions that are considered in the current agenda. Also, as Boulding (1995), for example, has argued, positive images can also create positive action. To explore sustainable futures beyond GDP growth, as we have done together with relevant stakeholder groups, has enabled a dialogue about what a sustainable economy is and should be. ...
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This chapter is currently under review prior to publication. Comments are welcome
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In this extraordinarily original and profound work, Noam Chomsky discusses themes in the study of language and mind since the end of the sixteenth century in order to explain the motivations and methods that underlie his work in linguistics, the science of mind, and even politics. This edition includes a new and specially written introduction by James Mc Gilvray, contextualising the work for the twenty-first century. It has been made more accessible to a larger audience; all the French and German in the original edition has been translated, and the notes and bibliography have been brought up to date. The relationship between the original edition (published in 1966) and contemporary biolinguistic work is also explained. This challenging volume is an important contribution to the study of language and mind, and to the history of these studies since the end of the sixteenth century.
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Boulding discusses the image as the key to understanding society and human behavior
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A model explaining how the motive to achieve and the motive to avoid failure influences behavior assumes strength of motivation as being a multiplicative function of motive, expectancy, and incentive. This accounts for level of aspiration and also performance level when only one task is presented. "It also assumes that the incentive value of success is a positive linear function of difficulty as inferred from the subjective probability of success; and negative incentive value of failure to be a negative linear function of difficulty." 2 theoretical implications are "that performance level should be greatest when there is greatest uncertainty about outcome" and people with strong motive to achieve should prefer immediate risk whereas those with strong motive to avoid failure will prefer easy tasks or extremely difficult and risky tasks. Experimental results are cited with implications for research on gambling and social mobility aspirations. 22 references.
Visuality among other senses and the eidetic process
  • Ahsen
Deep structures and sociological analysis: Some reflections
  • Boulding
  • McClelland