The control of the botulism hazard in hot‐smoked trout and mackerel

ArticleinInternational Journal of Food Science & Technology 14(2):123 - 129 · June 2007with12 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1979.tb00856.x
Abstract
The growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum types B, C, E and F in hot-smoked trout and mackerel has been studied. Using whole trout which were naturally contaminated with Cl. botulinum type E it was established that salt was the major inhibiting factor; a minimum concentration of 2.5% salt-on-water phase prevented the production of toxin for 30 days when fish were stored at 10°C. When whole and minced fish were inoculated with spores of Cl. botulinum types, B, E and F at a concentration considerably higher than that found in nature (102g−1) a minimum salt concentration of 3% was required to achieve a similar effect. Further studies using trout which were inoculated with suspensions of a number of strains of Cl. botulinum containing both spores and vegetative cells (102g−1) showed that fish smoked to produce a minimal salt concentration of 3% had a safe shelf life of 30 days at 10°C and 1 day at 20°C.
    • "Minced fish products were produced and stored according to a multi-barrier strategy against bacterial growth, encompassing vacuum packaging — prevention of aerobic bacteria growth —, heat treatment, 1 h at 90 C — according to Lund and Notermans (1993), 10 min at 90 C ensures a reduction by six log cycles of the number of viable spores of Clostridium botulinum —, chill storage and salt addition (Cann and Taylor, 1979; Huss, 1997). Approximately 30 kg of frozen hake were thawed over 12 h in a refrigerator (at 2 AE 1 C). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two ready-to-eat minced fish products from hake were developed, their proximate composition and fatty acid profiles determined and their quality changes followed during 3.5 months under refrigeration at 2 ± 1 °C and 10 ± 1 °C. These products contain dietary fiber and are innovative and healthy. The formulation was identical, except vegetable oil (VO), 5.6% (w/w) in one group and 2.7% (w/w) plus 2.9% (w/w) cod liver oil (CLO) in the other. CLO products had a higher ω3/ω6 ratio (0.54 ± 0.02 versus 0.08 ± 0.02) and ensured, per 100 g serving, the 500 mg recommended daily intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. CLO products showed lower gel strength (p ≤ 0.05), however, other textural properties were similar to those of the VO group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were higher in CLO products. All groups presented acceptable sensory scores and no microbiological growth. During storage products became redder and less yellow, while seafood aroma and flavor declined and saltiness perception augmented. Temperature had a negative effect on sensory elasticity and instrumental texture.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010
    • "Minced fish products were produced and stored according to a multi-barrier strategy against bacterial growth, encompassing vacuum packaging — prevention of aerobic bacteria growth —, heat treatment, 1 h at 90 C — according to Lund and Notermans (1993), 10 min at 90 C ensures a reduction by six log cycles of the number of viable spores of Clostridium botulinum —, chill storage and salt addition (Cann and Taylor, 1979; Huss, 1997). Approximately 30 kg of frozen hake were thawed over 12 h in a refrigerator (at 2 AE 1 C). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two groups of fish sausages were studied regarding quality changes during an 80-day storage experiment at 2°C. Formulations were identical with the exception of pork fat, 7.8%(w/w) in the control group, replaced by 5.2% (w/w) chicory root inulin and 2.6% (w/w) extra hake mince in the other. Control sausages were more elastic, cohesive, springy, and succulent, while substituted sausages presented higher gel strength and hardness. Both sausages presented an acceptable quality not only immediately after their production but also during storage at 2 ± 1°C. However, gel strength as well as textural and sensory hardness increased, and succulence showed a clear reduction during storage time. Moreover, for substituted sausages, saltiness and astringent aftertaste increased. Formulation had no effect on the microbial growth, which was low. However, microbiological changes occurred during storage time: growth of anaerobic spore-formers since the 45th and 43rd day for control and substituted sausages, respectively.
    Article · Apr 2008
    • "Quality parameters of cold smoked fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from six different farms in Norway and the Faeroe Islands were investigated after processing with a gentle (manual filleting, dry salting) or tough (machine filleting, injection salting, extended drying) cold smoking procedure were determined by Birkeland et al. [13]. Cann and Taylor [14] prepared hot-smoked whole trout from fish naturally contaminated with C. botulinum. Levels of C. Botulinum were not reported, but the trout were from a farm where the prevalence consistently was 80% or above [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the differences of microbiological and chemical quality in MAP and VP packages in refrigerated smoked trout fillets. Such information is important in evaluating the safety of these products. Three groups were constituted: group A – packed in 60%Co2/40% N2; group B – packed in 50%CO2/50% N2 and group C– vacuum packed. The ratio of fillet to package volume was 1/3 chemical analysis and microbiological analysis were done and also instrumental and sensory analysis were used to determined the shelf life. The observed shelf life of smoked trout was found at least 33 days in vacuum package, 47 days in 60% CO2/40% N2 gas mixture and 40 days in 50% CO2/50% N2 gas mixture according to results of microbiological analysis. The observed shelf life of smoked trout in MAP group A was determined as 14 days more than VP packs according to results of microbiological and sensory analysis in the study.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2006
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