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Examining the relationships between individual, team and organizational learning in an Australian hospital

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Abstract

The concept of organizational learning has continued to capture the interests of scholars and practitioners. At the core of this notion is the belief that organizational learning provides a number of advantages. Some of these advantages include improved team performance, enhanced service quality, better quality-of-work life and, ultimately, competitive advantage. Hence, not surprisingly, there is a sustained upsurge in the interest of organizational learning. Moreover, there is widespread acceptance that learning could occur at the individual, team and organizational levels. Understanding of learning orientations at these three levels has the capacity to advance the current knowledge and practice of organizational learning. In spite of an outpouring of literature on learning, empirical research on organizational learning is still scarce. Thus, the three linkages addressed in this current study include: individual learning and organizational learning; team learning and organizational learning; and individual learning and team learning. These linkages were examined in a field study of an Australian hospital, where 189 respondents participated in an organization-wide survey. Interestingly, individual learning was not significantly related to organizational learning. However, individual learning was a significant predictor of team learning. Team learning was significantly related to organizational learning. The implications of the research findings are discussed.

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... A dinâmica da AO e as investigações acerca da aprendizagem nas organizações vêm crescendo desde a década de 1990 (Antonello & Godoy, 2011;Durante, Veloso, Machado, Cabral, & Santos, 2019;Neves & Steil, 2019), o que contribui para o progresso científico e a consolidação de um campo científico que se apresenta multifacetado e multidisciplinar (Antonello & Godoy, 2011), embora ainda embrionário (NEVES; STEIL, 2019). De fato, a AO é multinível no sentido de que a AO depende da AI e AG (ANTONELLO; GODOY, 2011;BIDO, et al., 2010;BIDO et al., 2011;CROSS et al., 1999;NONAKA;TAKEUCHI, 1997 Para tanto optou-se por utilizar a escala de mensuração de Chan (2003), traduzida e validada no Brasil por Bido et al. (2010). Justifica-se este estudo pela escassez de pesquisas que abarcam a compreensão sobre como se dá a relação entre os processos e níveis de AO e seu impacto para indivíduos, grupos e organizações, conforme já referido por Bido et al. ...
... A VL de segunda ordem AI, de acordo com a escala de Chan (2003), é avaliada pelos indicadores de importância e frequência. Contudo, com base nos dados da Figura 1 e da Tabela 5, verificou-se que apenas "importância" produziu influência sobre a VL de segunda ordem AI; o indicador "frequência" apresentou confiabilidade α < 0,7 (Nunnally, 1978). ...
... Nota.Chan (2003) utilizou as cinco dimensões de AO separadamente. **p<0,01. ...
... Studies by Berg (1993), Hurley and Cunningham (1993), Bennett and O'Brien (1994), Bain (1998), and Chan (2003) assess the relationship between the individual and team learning and find that a recurrent cycle of experience and knowledge among individuals triggers team learning through shared knowledge, a point that is consistent with Bierly and Hamalainen (1995) and Thompson and Zondlo (1995). Brown and Duguid (1998) emphasize the relationship between individual learning and group learning in certain circumstances. ...
... Some researchers also discuss the relationship between team learning and organizational learning. Chan (2003) discusses how organizational learning is a successor of the team's collective intelligence. Senge (1990), Bennett and O'Brien (1994), Argyris (1999), and Edmondson (1999) claim that organizational learning is a derivative of the collective intelligence gained from teams. ...
... Huysman and de Wit (2002) and Hecker (2012) strengthened this argument by stating that the constructive knowledge of the individual triggers organizational knowledge. Berg (1993), Hurley and Cunningham (1993), Bain (1998), andChan (2003) assessed the relationship between individual and team learning and found that there is a recurrent cycle of experience and knowledge among individuals that triggers team learning through shared knowledge, which is consistent with reports by Bierly and Hamalainen (1995) and Thompson and Zondlo (1995). Brown and Duguid (1998) emphasize that there is a relationship between individual learning and group learning in some circumstances. ...
Article
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It is undeniable that the Agile software development (SD) framework has been commonly used in information technology projects. However, many of the early adopters failed to implement it properly. Some researchers had proposed a solution by using the adaptation framework as a support, but they cannot clearly explain its development. Furthermore, the correlation between adaptation framework and problem solving is dubious. This study reviews and discusses the literature and empirical studies on the failure of Agile SD implementation by revisiting the supporting framework that used to comprehend the issues in Agile SD implementation. A comparative approach is used to review the literature available in academic databases, such as ProQuest, EBSCO, IEEE, and Scopus, to ensure research originality and novelty. By filtering 87 papers that met the initial criteria, only 4 researchers focused on the area of knowledge management and used the learning process as a supporting framework in Agile SD implementation. However, they did not clearly explain the development of the framework for Agile SD. The author’s initial research on a corporation reveals the failure of Agile SD implementation. Soft systems methodology (SSM)-based action research (AR) proposed to identify the real issues in Agile SD implementation. SSM-based AR provides a solution by clarifying the development of a framework using tacit and explicit knowledge to validate the development process. This study can help practitioners and academics understand the process of Agile SD implementation by early adopters who still need assistance with its application. This study is the first to explore Agile SD implementation in a corporation using the experience-based approach, contributing to knowledge improvement. It contributes to the scholarly literature by presenting concepts that combine human-centric aspects and knowledge management to improve the learning in the organization.
... Quando um grupo adquire o know-how associado à sua habilidade de executar tarefas coletivamente, constitui-se a AO (COOK;YANOW, 1996). A aprendizagem nos grupos se constitui em um importante fator da competitividade das organizações (CHAN, 2003). ...
... A consulta à literatura também permitiu identificar instrumentos próximos a abordagem deste estudo, como os desenvolvidos por Watkins & Marsick (1993), o de Templeton, Lewis e Snyder (2002), de Bontis, Crossan e Hulland (2002), de López, Peón e Ordás (2005) e de Chan (2003). As escalas apresentadas pelos quatro primeiros trabalhos apresentam muita similaridade no arcabouço teórico. ...
... Já o questionário desenvolvido por Chan (2003), consoante às premissas deste estudo, analisa a inter-relação entre os três níveis de aprendizagem (AI, AG e AO). É baseado em outros três instrumentos de mensuração de aprendizagem, cada qual voltado a uma das dimensões específicas. ...
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Este artigo visa a analisar a articulação entre os níveis individual, grupal e organizacional da aprendizagem em uma instituição hospitalar. A fim de atender a tal objetivo e, em acordo com estudos anteriores, foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativa, a partir da aplicação de questionários, com os enfermeiros do hospital. Os dados angariados foram analisados seguindo-se a modelagem de equações estruturais. Os resultados demonstram que a aprendizagem nos grupos está relacionada à aprendizagem que ocorre nos níveis individual e organizacional, porém, a aprendizagem individual não se mostrou significativamente associada à aprendizagem organizacional. Além disso, constatou-se que a aprendizagem grupal influencia substancialmente a aprendizagem organizacional, em comparação à aprendizagem individual. Os resultados obtidos são consoantes aos encontrados em outros estudos da mesma natureza.
... No Periódicos Capes, a utilização da expressão-chave "organizational learning" (busca avançada, no título, artigos, últimos 20 anos) recuperou 2.694 artigos, dos quais 27 são escalas de aprendizagem. Desse conjunto, destacam-se "Organizational learning: proposal of an integrative scale and research instrument", de Lloria e Moreno-Luzon (2014); "The Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ)", de Marsick e Watkins (2003); "The construct of the learning organization: dimensions, measurement, and validation (DLOQ-A)", de Yang, Watkins e Marsick (2004); "Organizational learning mechanisms: the meaning, measure, and implications for school improvement", de Schechter (2008); "Organizational learning as a determining factor in business competitiveness", de López, Peón e Ordás (2005); "Examining the relationships between individual, team and organizational learning in an Australian Hospital", de Chan (2003); "Development of a measure for the organizational learning construct", de Templeton, Lewis e Snyder (2002); "Escala de valores de aprendizagem em organizações: validação de um instrumento de medição", de Isidro-Filho (2009); "An integrated scale for measuring an organizational learning system", de Jyothibabu, Farooq e Pradhan (2010). ...
... Também ressaltando a relação entre os níveis de aprendizagem, para compor sua escala, Chan (2003) analisou três outras já existentes, adaptando-as para medir AI (SUJAN; WEITZ; KUMAR, 1994apud CHAN, 2003, AG (EDMONDSON, 1996apud CHAN, 2003) e AO (GOH; RICHARDS, 1997apud CHAN, 2003. A escala de Chan (2003) apresenta três fatores: AI (nove itens); AG (11 itens) e AO (21 itens). ...
... Também ressaltando a relação entre os níveis de aprendizagem, para compor sua escala, Chan (2003) analisou três outras já existentes, adaptando-as para medir AI (SUJAN; WEITZ; KUMAR, 1994apud CHAN, 2003, AG (EDMONDSON, 1996apud CHAN, 2003) e AO (GOH; RICHARDS, 1997apud CHAN, 2003. A escala de Chan (2003) apresenta três fatores: AI (nove itens); AG (11 itens) e AO (21 itens). Apesar de não mencionar o nível de aprendizagem interorganizacional, a escala de Chan (2003) também traz itens a ele relacionados (Nós temos um sistema que nos permite aprender práticas de sucesso de outra organização) (Quadro 2). ...
Article
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The objective was to analyze scales used to investigate organizational learning (OL), taking as reference the existing cleavages in the field (relationships between individual learning (IL) and OL, learning organization (LO), OL levels and their relationships, who learns, or phenomena of IL conversion into OL). The 24 selected scales were classified as: (1) focus on processes and learning outcomes; (2) focus on factors that facilitate learning; (3 focus on learning and performance. All 24 scales do not stimulate the association of subjects’ elicitations with concrete learning experiences. All these scales deal with generic and abstract learning processes, suggesting that respondents continually learn in their work environment, which seems to reflect the inexistence of barriers between work situations and learning. There is a trend toward parsimonious and multilevel scales, though few consider the inter-organizational level. The issue of transformation of Individual Learning (IL) into OL is still neglected by most of the scales that were revised, even by scales that focus on processes; the constructs of IL and OL are measured exclusively by self-perception; there is a relatively mismatch between OL and LO; and non-financial variables predominate as a method to measure the “performance” construct and use it as a dependent variable related to OL.
... Some serious attempts at combining individual, team and organizational learning are noticeable, [Senaratne & Malewana 2011;Chadwick & Raver 2015] despite qualitative and quantitative research relating to mutual relationships among those variables varies in terms of presentable results [e.g. Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995;Chan 2003;Yang et al. 2004;Senaratne & Malewana 2011;Taniyaovalaksna & Li 2013]. Thus, there is strong need to look further into the relationships among individual, team and organizational learning. ...
... According to some authors, the bridge connecting individual and organizational learning can be team learning [Chan 2003;Murray & Moses 2005;Aslam et al. 2011;Murray & Millett 2011]. In their opinion it can enhance organizational learning if individual members are able to share their knowledge and take part in discussions concerning their views during group meetings. ...
... In this context it was assumed that team learning plays a key role in distribution, processing and interpretation of individual experiences towards organizational memory. Chan [2003] took up a challenge to explain the directions and relation forces between individual, team and organizational learning. The research carried out in an Australian hospital showed a strong and statistically important relationship between team and organizational learning as well as slightly weaker, but still statistically significant relationship between individual and team learning. ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to recognize the relationships between individual and organizational learning while considering team learning as a mediator of these relationships. The research object is a large Polish enterprise specializing in the production of cast-iron items. In order to test assumed research hypotheses, statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics Suite, version 20. The suite helped conduct correlation analyses concatenation, line regression analyses and mediation analyses using the PROCESS macro by Hayes and Preacher. The research results show a statistically significant relationship between individual learning and each of the five dimensions of organizational learning [clarity of purpose and mission; leadership commitment and empowerment; knowledge transfer; experimentation and rewards; and teamwork and group problem solving]. What is more, they prove that team learning is a mediator of a relationship between individual and organizational learning. Interestingly, only one full mediation has been observed while researching the mediative effect of team learning in relation to each out of the five dimensions of organizational learning. It occurred in relation to experimentation and rewards. In the remaining cases these were partial mediations.
... No mercado laboral contemporâneo, diversas organizações têm buscado desenvolver as habilidades de seus membros no sentido de absorverem conhecimentos, reterem esses conhecimentos e promoverem a construção de soluções colaborativas em equipes, de forma que a organização crie um corpo de aprendizagem coletivo que Bontis, Crossan e Hulland (2002), Chan (2003) e López, Péon e Ordás (2005a;2005b), sendo a escala de Chan (2003) identificada no estudo como a que apresentou índices mais confiáveis. Ainda que sejam encontradas na literatura exemplos anteriores de avaliações sobre a relação entre CO e AO, nota-se a oportunidade de melhor explorar essa relação usando a escala de Chan (2003), seguindo a orientação de Bido e Araujo (2011). ...
... No mercado laboral contemporâneo, diversas organizações têm buscado desenvolver as habilidades de seus membros no sentido de absorverem conhecimentos, reterem esses conhecimentos e promoverem a construção de soluções colaborativas em equipes, de forma que a organização crie um corpo de aprendizagem coletivo que Bontis, Crossan e Hulland (2002), Chan (2003) e López, Péon e Ordás (2005a;2005b), sendo a escala de Chan (2003) identificada no estudo como a que apresentou índices mais confiáveis. Ainda que sejam encontradas na literatura exemplos anteriores de avaliações sobre a relação entre CO e AO, nota-se a oportunidade de melhor explorar essa relação usando a escala de Chan (2003), seguindo a orientação de Bido e Araujo (2011). ...
... No mercado laboral contemporâneo, diversas organizações têm buscado desenvolver as habilidades de seus membros no sentido de absorverem conhecimentos, reterem esses conhecimentos e promoverem a construção de soluções colaborativas em equipes, de forma que a organização crie um corpo de aprendizagem coletivo que Bontis, Crossan e Hulland (2002), Chan (2003) e López, Péon e Ordás (2005a;2005b), sendo a escala de Chan (2003) identificada no estudo como a que apresentou índices mais confiáveis. Ainda que sejam encontradas na literatura exemplos anteriores de avaliações sobre a relação entre CO e AO, nota-se a oportunidade de melhor explorar essa relação usando a escala de Chan (2003), seguindo a orientação de Bido e Araujo (2011). ...
Article
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Esta pesquisa estudou a relação entre o Comprometimento Organizacional Afetivo (CA) e a Aprendizagem Organizacional (AO). O CA foi mensurado pela Escala de Comprometimento Organizacional Afetivo. A AO foi mensurada através da escala desenvolvida por Chan (2003). Realizou-se análise das propriedades psicométricas dos instrumentos aplicados. O teste de hipóteses utilizou a Modelagem de Equações Estruturais. Identificou-se que o Comprometimento Organizacional não explicou de forma consistente a AO, porém verificou-se que o comprometimento de base afetiva apresentou relação significante com a missão organizacional, sugerindo que indivíduos afetivamente comprometidos tendem a se envolver mais com a organização.
... A aprendizagem organizacional (AO) tem sido definida de diversas formas, por exemplo, como a capacidade da organização para processar informações e criar informação e conhecimento (LÓPEZ; PEÓN; ORDÁS, 2005a) e como um processo de renovação estratégica em que o esforço de pesquisa estaria em entender como o estoque de conhecimento muda ao longo do tempo (BONTIS; HULLAND, 2002). Além disso, também é considerada como um fenômeno multidimensional, como exemplo, no modelo de Chan (2003), que abrande os seguintes construtos: delegação de poder (CLDP); clareza de propósito e missão (CPM); equipe de trabalho e solução de problemas em grupo (ETSP); práticas e recompensas (PR) e transferência de conhecimento (TC). ...
... A fim de implementar a avaliação da confiabilidade por escalas alternativas, foram selecionadas três escalas de mensuração da AO: Bontis, Crossan e Hulland (2002), Chan (2003) (2009), que utilizou a análise fatorial exploratória, não levando em conta a estrutura teórica. Tal estudo desconsiderou que a aprendizagem organizacional tinha sido operacionalizada como uma variável latente de 3ª ordem composta por quatro dimensõesaquisição, distribuição, interpretação e memória organizacional, como é apresentado na figura 4 (p.9), ...
... Idealmente as correlações entre as escalas de AO deveriam ser superiores às suas confiabilidades (NUNNALLY; BERNSTEIN, 1994, p.252), indicando que não há validade discriminante, ou seja, as escalas mediriam o mesmo construto. Observa-se que a escala de Chan (2003) apresentou correlação de 0,7 (p < 0,01) com as outras duas escalas, indicando que ela possui boa sobreposição de conteúdos, apesar de não representar exatamente o mesmo domínio de definição. ...
Conference Paper
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Resumo Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar as propriedades psicométricas (validade convergente, validade discriminante, confiabilidade composta, validade de critério e nomológica) de três escalas de mensuração da AO. Foram obtidas 416 respostas válidas de diferentes organizações do ramo industrial e de serviços na região Sudeste do Brasil. Os dados foram analisados em duas etapas. Na primeira foi utilizada a análise fatorial confirmatória, mantendo-se a estrutura fatorial definida nos estudos prévios. Na segunda etapa de análise, a AO foi utilizada como preditora do desempenho organizacional, mediada pela inovação. Do ponto de vista psicométrico (validade convergente, validade discriminante, confiabilidade, validade de critério e validade nomológica) as três escalas apresentaram resultados aceitáveis. Entretanto, a escala de Bontis, Crossan e Hulland (2002) foi a que apresentou menor correlação com a escala de López, Peón e Ordás (2005a; 2005b) e também menor correlação com a inovação (validade de critério). O fato de ter havido validade discriminante entre as três escalas (o ideal é que não houvesse) pode ser explicado pela complexidade do construto " aprendizagem organizacional " , que foi modelado com variáveis latentes de ordem superior para abarcar de forma mais completa o domínio de definição do construto. Foi observado que há maior sobreposição de conteúdos da escala de Chan (2003) e López et al., enquanto a escala de Bontis et al. não inclui aspectos relacionados a " pessoas " . Como tinha sido proposto no modelo hipotético, a influência da aprendizagem organizacional no desempenho organizacional é mediada totalmente pela inovação e, novamente, a escala de Bontis et al. apresentou validade de critério levemente inferior às outras duas. A primeira implicação desses resultados é a necessidade de ampliar a escala de Bontis et al. incluindo-se itens relacionados a " pessoas " , melhorando assim sua validade de conteúdo. Para pesquisas futuras, tanto a escala de Chan (2003) como a de López et al. se mostraram adequadas para a mensuração da aprendizagem organizacional. A ausência de assertivas referentes a " pessoas " na escala de Bontis et al. é explicável pelo contexto em que foi desenvolvida, que era mais relacionado a gestão do conhecimento, cuja preocupação principal são os mecanismos e sistemas para a aquisição, disseminação e armazenamento de informações. Do ponto de vista metodológico, uma contribuição que pode ser apontada foi o uso do PLS-PM (Partial Least Squares Path Modeling), que permitiu a estimação do modelo completo e a avaliação de suas partes. A análise fatorial exploratória seria inadequada, como se observou na análise de Silva Filho (2009) e o LISREL não teria suas suposições atendidas ou a não-convergência do algoritmo dada a complexidade do modelo. Como limitações aponta-se a impossibilidade de generalizações, dado que a amostra não é probabilística, e a impossibilidade de se fazer afirmações causais, já que o estudo é correlacional e cross sectional. 2 Introdução A aprendizagem organizacional (AO) tem sido definida de diversas formas, por exemplo, como a capacidade da organização para processar informações e criar informação e conhecimento (LÓPEZ; PEÓN; ORDÁS, 2005a) e como um processo de renovação estratégica em que o esforço de pesquisa estaria em entender como o estoque de conhecimento muda ao longo do tempo (BONTIS; CROSSAN; HULLAND, 2002). Além disso, também é considerada como um fenômeno multidimensional, como exemplo, no modelo de Chan (2003), que abrande os seguintes construtos: delegação de poder (CLDP); clareza de propósito e missão (CPM); equipe de trabalho e solução de problemas em grupo (ETSP); práticas e recompensas (PR) e transferência de conhecimento (TC). Ainda que a relação da AO com o desempenho das organizações seja mais indireta do que direta, do ponto de vista empírico, seu estudo é relevante porque aponta caminhos para o aumento do desempenho e do ponto de vista acadêmico, conseguir mensurar a AO e identificar variáveis que mediam sua relação com o desempenho tem sido um caminho trilhado por pesquisadores como Jiménez-Jimenez et al. (2008) e López, Peón e Ordás (2005a; 2005b) A operacionalização de conceitos abstratos como a AO, pode ser feita de diversas formas e varia de uma pesquisa para outra, mesmo quando a definição constitutiva do construto é única. Os itens utilizados para a mensuração do construto (definição operacional) dependerão do referencial teórico e das pesquisas prévias, incluindo pesquisas qualitativas e pré-testes, que tenham sido realizadas (
... The survey involved a sample of 105 employees of a financial institution. The instrument developed by Chan (2003) was used in the operationalization of the constructs, and for the data analysis, the principal component analysis was used followed by structural equation modeling. In addition to the validation of the measurement of individual learning in groups and organizational, another contribution of this study was the operationalization of the three constructs as second order latent variables, which made the structural model more parsimonious. ...
... Além destes níveis, os autores chamam a atenção para os relacionamentos interorganizacionais ocorridos a partir de alianças estratégicas, joint ventures e colaborações de natureza diversa. Para Bapuji e Crossan (2004) Embora Gherardi e Nicolini (2001) considerem que o fenômeno da aprendizagem nas organizações não tem uma separação artificial por níveis, outros estudiosos aceitam que a aprendizagem ocorra em diferentes níveis -individual, em grupo, organizacional, interorganizacional (EDMONDSON; MOINGEON, 1998;PAWLOWSKY, 2001;CHAN, 2003;ORDÁS, 2005). Consideram ainda que tais níveis possam ser examinados empiricamente utilizando-se medidas válidas e confiáveis que tragam melhor entendimento acerca dos aspectos (variáveis) presentes em cada um deles. ...
... O levantamento realizado envolveu uma amostra de 105 funcionários de uma instituição financeira. O instrumento elaborado por Chan (2003) foi utilizado na operacionalização dos construtos e para a análise dos dados foi utilizada a análise de componentes principais seguida pela modelagem em equações estruturais. Além da validação do instrumento de mensuração da aprendizagem individual, em grupos e organizacional, outra contribuição deste estudo foi a operacionalização dos três construtos como variáveis latentes de segunda ordem, o que tornou o modelo estrutural mais parcimonioso. ...
Article
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The phenomenon of learning can be studied at different levels - individual, group, organizational and inter-organizational - which are interconnected and involve a complex set of variables. This work aims to verify and analyze empirically the relationship between individual learning, group and organizational. The theoretical framework presents and analyzes how different authors studied the possible relationship between these levels, relying, in particular, in authors aligned with the technical perspective and proposed measurement instruments focused on some aspects of the phenomenon. The survey involved a sample of 105 employees of a financial institution. The instrument developed by Chan (2003) was used in the operationalization of the constructs, and for the data analysis, the principal component analysis was used followed by structural equation modeling. In addition to the validation of the measurement of individual learning in groups and organizational, another contribution of this study was the operationalization of the three constructs as second order latent variables, which made the structural model more parsimonious. The results showed that both individual and group learning influenced the organizational learning in the sample, with confirmation of the three hypotheses tested. At the end of the work are discussed their limitations and pointed out some directions for further research.
... Raisch and Birkinshaw (2008) defined being ambidextrous as the ability of a team to manage production-oriented and development-oriented processes simultaneously (Raisch and Birkinshaw, 2008). To transform into an ambidextrous team, team learning activities in the teams are inescapable (Chan, 2003;Merx-Chermin and Nijhof, 2005;Van Achterberg et al., 2008;Van Linge, 2006). The competence of nursing teams to be innovative and implement new developments has been argued as the most important competence of effective teams in the twenty-first century (Salas et al., 2008). ...
... Today, nursing teams are confronted with expectations on production, as well as the innovation of nursing (Blakeney et al., 2009;Van Linge, 2006). To cope, nurses in the team undertake team-learning activities to exchange and process the information needed to accomplish the productive and innovative tasks of the team (Cheater et al., 2005;Chan, 2003;Edmondson et al., 2001;Van Woerkom and Croon, 2009). ...
... Throughout the team-learning activities, teams transfer and apply new insights in their practice to find innovative approaches to problems. Teams become more efficient over time, acquires and applies new skills, and changes values, norms, and procedures (Chan, 2003;Edmondson et al., 2007;Van den Bossche, 2006). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative research utilising exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and correlation and multiple regression analyses, were used for empirical validation. Findings Principal component analyses of the team learning activities scale revealed a five‐factor model, explaining 78 per cent of the variance on the team‐learning scale. Being a nursing team in a community hospital, having high team longevity, and having a high percentage of female nurses explained 33 per cent of team learning. Research limitations/implications Data aggregation in a cross‐sectional design can be criticised for potential biases. However, statistical assumptions for aggregation were met, and the concepts used in this study were clearly formulated at team level. Thus, a valuable instrument is provided for further quantitative research on team learning in nursing. Practical implications The team learning activities in nursing teams reflected the ambidexterity of teams in modern nursing practice. The findings provide a rationale for managers to create infrastructures that support both productive, as well as developmental learning tasks in teams. Originality/value The study provides new insights regarding how team learning activities occur in ambidextrous teams in nursing. Contrary to prediction, the results show that team composition has little effect on team learning activities. This is valuable knowledge for researchers, trainers, teams and management in nursing.
... Nowadays nursing teams are called on to be innovative and adaptive to the changing environment [2,5,7] . Organizational learning and education research studies express the role of teams in organizations and propose team-learning activities as facilitators for implementation of innovations [8][9][10] . Also contemporary theoretical models on implementation of innovations in nursing team include the concept of learning, however, ignore the role of teams and focus on individual learning only 11-13 [16][17][18] . ...
... Most important observation is that team learning in nursing teams was defined as a concept on team-level, constructed by the activities that team members undertake to process the necessary information to produce and innovate their products. In addition, team learning was conceptualised in 26 team-learning activities [8,18,40] . Team-learning activities, e.g. ...
... team-learning activities as seeking and giving help and advice, asking questions, seeking feedback or challenging one's viewpoints were clustered in processes of team learning as gathering, processing and storing/reuse of information. This conceptualisation of team learning is congruent with earlier research, wherein concrete activities of team members build up to team learning processes [8,18] . Still, the definition limited team-learning to information handling only [9,27] . ...
Article
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Background/Objective: Noncompliance to implementation of innovations is a problem in nursing teams. In literature, team learning is proposed as a facilitator for change. Still, studies reporting the effects of team learning activities on the implementation of innovations in nursing teams are scarce. To address this gap in literature, this study explored the influence of team learning on the implementation of two innovations. Methods: A literature and three empirical studies were performed to address the research questions of this project. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between 2008-2011 with a sample of 1111 nurses, representing 79 nursing teams from The Netherlands and Belgium.
... There is wide spread acceptance that learning can occur at individual and team level in healthcare medical provision, and that individual learning is a significant predictor of team learning in these environments (Chan, 2003). At an individual level, "learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience" (Kolb, 2015: 49). ...
... Thus, the feedforward-feedback flow of learning (Smith et al., 2018) between individual and team in figure 3 exhibit the nature of the social processes in public healthcare medical teams, with the social interaction that occurs during the interpreting process being the bridge 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 o u r n a l o f H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d M a n a g e m e n t 21 between individual learning and team learning. It acknowledges that individual learning may vary considerably depending on how effective NCHDs are at building interpersonal relationships (Chan, 2003); those who take advantage of informal spontaneous learning opportunities and effectively manage the social dynamics within their team and with their consultant on each rotation are likely to be more effective learners. The level of effectiveness may not remain constant however as they rotate from clinical site to clinical site, and these degrees of variability in the quality of the learning and training experiences for NCHDs have implications for the public health service. ...
This paper explores how individual, dyad and team levels of learning interact in a public healthcare medical team when managing patient care. The resultant learning framework provides greater insight into how to facilitate effective teamwork and learning interactions in medical teams and for those who are interested in the consistency and quality of the training experience.
... Kim foi, talvez, quem melhor articulou a ideia da passagem direta da aprendizagem individual para a organizacional (CHAN, 2003). No entanto, segundo Ayres (2008), a lacuna deixada por Kim é a não consideração do papel dos grupos e das equipes como liame entre a transferência da aprendizagem individual para a grupal e desta para a aprendizagem organizacional. ...
... No entanto, segundo Ayres (2008), a lacuna deixada por Kim é a não consideração do papel dos grupos e das equipes como liame entre a transferência da aprendizagem individual para a grupal e desta para a aprendizagem organizacional. Nessa senda, alguns teóricos acrescentam que o aprendizado organizacional pode não ocorrer diretamente do aprendizado individual, mas sim do aprendizado grupal (EDMONDSON, 1999;EDMONDSON, 2002;LANE;WHITE, 1999;PAWLOWSKY, 2001;CHAN, 2003;AYRES, 2008). De acordo com Pawlowsky (2001), os grupos são importantes por permitirem o compartilhamento da aprendizagem, funcionando como um link entre a aprendizagem individual e a aprendizagem organizacional. ...
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Este artigo, de cunho eminentemente teórico, objetiva propor um framework voltado para resultados a partir da evolução da aprendizagem individual até a geração de novas competências, compreendendo as relações entre as aprendizagens individual, grupal e organizacional, as competências e os resultados. Este estudo apresenta um modelo que engloba os ambientes externo e interno da organização, em que a aprendizagem individual aparece enfatizando a mudança de comportamento que se estabelece da interação do indivíduo com seu ambiente, ocasionando, assim, a aprendizagem organizacional. Esse processo resultaria na aquisição de conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes traduzidos por novas competências. Palavras-chave: Aprendizagem. Competências organizacionais. Resultados. Abstract: This article, eminently theoretical aims to propose a framework focused on results from the evolution of individual learning to the generation of new competences, understanding the relationship between individual, team and organizational learning, competences and results. Finally, this study presents a model that includes the external and internal environment of the organization. In which appears the individual learning emphasizing behavior change that establishes the individual's interaction with its environment, causing thus organizational learning. This process would result in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes translated by new competences.
... In addition, a transformational leader believes in lifelong learning and views mistakes as opportunities to learn (Sadler, 2001). There are three possible pairs of learning relationships in organizations: 1) individual learning and team learning, 2) individual learning and organizational learning, and 3) team learning and organizational learning (Chan, 2003; Friedman, 2001; March, 1991; Yang et al., 2004). In schools, individual learning is a precursor to group and organizational learning. ...
... This led to learning that maintained, rather than challenged, the organizational status quo. Her work supported the findings by Chan (2003) and Chan, Lim et al. (2003) that individual learning does not have a positive correlation with organizational learning. Yet, Yang et al. (2004) found that organizations learn from individuals and teams. ...
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Scholars suggest that there is a need for more research, particularly quantitative designs, that aim to examine the relationship between individual learning, team learning, and organizational learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between perceived individual learning, team learning, and organizational learning. With a survey we collected data from 106 laboratory supervisors in Ontario hospitals to answer four research questions: 1) Is there a relationship between perceived individual learning and team learning?; 2) Is there a relationship between perceived individual learning and organizational learning?; 3) Is there a relationship between perceived team learning and organizational learning?; 4) Is there a relationship between perceived individual learning, or team learning, and a component of organizational learning? We found positive answers to the first three questions, but the answer to the last question was a little more complicated. Les chercheurs proposent qu'il faille pousser la recherche, notamment les études utilisant des modèles quantitatifs, qui portent sur le rapport entre l'apprentissage individuel, l'apprentissage en équipe et l'apprentissage organisationnel. L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer s'il existe un rapport entre l'apprentissage individuel, l'apprentissage en équipe et l'apprentissage organisationnel tel que perçu par les participants. Par le biais d'un sondage, nous avons récolté des données de la part de 106 superviseurs de laboratoire dans des hôpitaux en Ontario qui ont répondu à quatre questions : 1) Existe-t-il un rapport entre l'apprentissage individuel et l'apprentissage en équipe tel que perçu par les participants? 2) Existe-t-il un rapport entre l'apprentissage individuel et l'apprentissage organisationnel tel que perçu par les participants? 3) Existe-t-il un rapport entre l'apprentissage en équipe et l'apprentissage organisationnel tel que perçu par les participants? 4) Existe-t-il un rapport entre l'apprentissage individuel, ou l'apprentissage en équipe et une composante de l'apprentissage organisationnel? Nous avons trouvé des réponses affirmatives aux trois premières questions, mais la réponse à la dernière est un peu plus compliquée. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between perceived individual learning, team learning, and organizational learning among Ontario hospital clinical laboratory supervisors. While focused on the health care system, this study may have educational implications as well as schools should be learning organizations where participants continually expand their capacities to create and achieve and the organization expands its capacity for innovation and problem solving (Hoy & Miskel, 2012). In studying learning in
... This concern about the link between individual and organizational has been addressed repeatedly (e.g., Casey, 2005;Elkjaer, 2001;King, 2001;Schwandt and Marquardt, 2000). In general, scholars of organizational learning do contend that individual learning does not equate to organizational learning (e.g., Bogenrieder, 2002;Chan, 2003;Chonko et al., 2003;Knight and Pye, 2004). Many scholars -such as Dechant et al. (2000), Marquardt (1996), and the earlier works of Argyris and Schön (1978) -use team learning as the link between individual and organizational learning. ...
... The structure of the way that groups interact with each other within the organization has an impact over learning (Bapuji and Crossan, 2004). Organizations establish structures and systems that are flexible enough to adjust to both internal and external environments (Chonko et al., 2003), using individual learning as the catalyst for strategic change by engaging their commitment and skills (Chan, 2003). For example, an organization can create, acquire, and communicate information and strategic knowledge through employees (King, 2001) by, for example, publishing key information on the intranet, developing functional meetings to communicate relevant information, or developing mentors who can adapt strategic knowledge to the Fostering organizational performance particular needs of each employee. ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the connections between individual learning, intrapreneurship, and organizational learning to create an alternative model of how learning facilitates performance in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper selecting targeted scholarly works that provide support for the proposed model. Findings – The paper presents a model of intrapreneurial learning and performance in which the constructs of environment, individual learning, intrapreneurship, and organizational learning influence organizational performance. Intrapreneurship is a relatively recent area of exploration in which scholarly efforts have primarily focused on identifying the construct and distinguishing it from entrepreneurship. The proposed model of intrapreneurial learning and performance joins a growing number of works that explore how intrapreneurship contributes to organizational performance. It is suggested that the framework may help scholars identify potential strategies of learning that could help organizations position intrapreneurship as a vehicle for improving organizational performance. Originality/value – The paper postulates an original relationship among individual learning, intrapreneurship, organizational learning, environment, and organizational performance. In this framework, individual and organizational learning combine to offer a unique perspective on the link between intrapreneurship and organizational performance.
... This could be done through cross-functional team learning or inter-departmental learning. Given the importance of learning at these three levels, the limited empirical studies that systematically examine individual, team and organizational learning is unanticipated (Chan, 2003;Chan, Lim and Keasberry, 2003). Moreover, there is a noticeable dearth of reported research evidence on organizational learning in Asian organizations (Chan, 2001;Luo and Peng, 1999;Phan and Peridis, 2000). ...
... Apparently, previous studies (e.g. Chan, 2003;Chan et al., 2003) that utilized the individual learning survey had reported an improvement in reliability estimates after the negatively phrased item was removed. While two items from internal team learning had to be removed, one item was removed from external team learning. ...
Article
This study examines the relationships between individual, team and organizational learning of 1103 workers from a Thai manufacturing organization. Individual learning was conceptualized in terms of individuals' learning strategies and motivation to learn. Team learning consisted of internal team learning and external team learning. Organizational learning was believed to be underpinned by commitment to learning, shared vision and open mindedness. These three levels of learning were inter-related. Thus, individuals who are interested in self development are more likely to contribute positively to teamwork and the benefits from the team learning could flow to the organizational level. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Argote, 2005; Bapuji & Crossan, 2004; Friedman, Lipshitz, & Popper, 2005). Several studies have attempted to develop measures of organizational learning mechanisms but many of these do not evaluate their relationship with business performance (Chan, 2003; Goh & Richards, 1997; McDougall & Beattie, 1998). Where organizational practices have been related to company performance, positive associations have been found, but these studies tend to use self-report performance data (Bontis et al., 2002; Hsu & Pereira, 2008; Lin, 2008; López, Peón, & Ordás, 2005; Schechter, 2008). ...
... A case may also be made that individual, team and organizational learning practices could synergistically interact to influence organizational performance (Chan, 2003; McDougall & Beattie, 1998). For example, the impact of team development activities may be limited to localized areas if organizational systems are not in place to share and embed the learning with other parts of the organization; without the team development activities, the organization may not have enough new knowledge to share with its disparate components. ...
Article
Multi-level learning approaches suggest that individuals, groups and organizations act both independently and interact dynamically to contribute to organizational performance. We directly examined this proposition in an Australian sample using a longitudinal design that employed subjective and objective financial performance data. Respondents completed a survey that provided details on their individual, team and organizational learning practices (ILP, TLP and OLP, respectively), and self assessed performance compared to 3 years ago. Concurrently, we collected objective performance data (sales/employee numbers) at 3 yearly intervals and averaged these data to create an index. Using hierarchical and moderated regression, we found a positive main effect for OLP with both subjective and objective performance. Main effects for ILP and TLP were not found. Further, we found a significant interaction between ILP and TLP such that the effect of TLP on productivity was better in organizations with less ILP. Three-way interactions were not found. Overall, these results provide some support for the model. We discuss some limitations of the study and make recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... How teams learn and innovate has captured the attention of researchers in organizational learning and managerial sciences and this area is defined as an important competence of teams and organizations (Jeong et al. 2007, Salas et al. 2008 4 , Van Achterberg et al. 2008). Several theoretical studies state that teams in organizations must learn to change what they are doing and these studies define team learning as a facilitator for the production and development of nursing care (Chan 2003, Edmondson et al. 2007, Jeong et al. 2007). Throughout the appliance of team learning activities, teams become more efficient, apply new skills and change their business (Firth-Cozens 2001, Chan 2003, Friedman & Bernell 2006, Edmondson et al. 2007). ...
... Several theoretical studies state that teams in organizations must learn to change what they are doing and these studies define team learning as a facilitator for the production and development of nursing care (Chan 2003, Edmondson et al. 2007, Jeong et al. 2007). Throughout the appliance of team learning activities, teams become more efficient, apply new skills and change their business (Firth-Cozens 2001, Chan 2003, Friedman & Bernell 2006, Edmondson et al. 2007). Nursing teams have to produce nursing care, and innovate their nursing care (Van Linge 2006, Van Achterberg et al. 2009 5 , Blakeney et al. 2009). ...
Article
Aims: To report a correlational study of the relation between team learning activities and implementation-effectiveness of innovations in nursing teams. Background: Non-compliance to implementation of innovations is a problem in nursing teams. In the literature, team learning is proposed as a facilitator for change. Still, studies reporting the effects of team learning activities on the implementation of innovations in nursing teams are scarce. To address this gap in the literature, this study explored the influence of team learning on the implementation of two innovations. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2008-2009 with a sample of 469 nurses, representing 30 nursing teams from The Netherlands and Belgium. The relationship between variables representing team learning and the use and the knowledge of an incremental (n = 14) or a radical innovation (n = 16) was examined by correlation and multiple regression analyses. Results: Correlation analyses revealed positive relationships between the team learning activities handling production-oriented information and implementation-effectiveness of an incremental innovation. In addition, team learning activities about development-oriented information positively affected the implementation of a radical innovation. Multiple regression yielded models that explain 83% of the variance on the use of an incremental variable, 73% on knowledge of a radical innovation, and 80% on use of a radical innovation. Conclusion: In nursing teams, team learning activities that relate to the production of nursing care affect the implementation of an incremental innovation. The implementation of a radical innovation is effected by team learning activities that relate to the development of the provided nursing care.
... As pointed out by Bitencourt (2014, 2018), following the relational view of the strategy, AIO is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum (AO) and analyzed under a less cognitive and more social-behavioral approach. Thus, AO is a process that occurs at different levels -individual, group, organizational and interorganizational (Antonello, 2007;Chan, 2003; Correia-Lima, Loiola, Pereira, Costa, & Leopoldino, 2019; Neves & Steil, 2019) -, contemplating the theoretical approach to learning based on practices (Corradi et al., 2010) and following the sociological perspective according to the assumptions of Silvia Gherardi. ...
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Resumo Este ensaio teórico tem como objetivo refletir sobre as relações interorganizacionais (RIOs) com base na estratégia como prática social (EPS), contribuindo para o debate acerca da necessidade de considerar racionalidades alternativas à instrumental também nos estudos a respeito de estratégias interorganizacionais. Para tanto, resgatam-se pressupostos teóricos críticos da estratégia e dos estudos organizacionais. Parte-se da ideia de que as RIOs se dão no cotidiano, por meio das interações entre os diferentes agentes, considerando a análise dos microprocessos inerentes e complementares às análises em nível meso e macro. A justificativa é que a racionalidade instrumental inerente à ciência social dominante no Ocidente, tradicionalmente usada para explicar as RIOs, não é suficiente para contemplar o debate no campo das estratégias interorganizacionais, de forma a considerar o contexto social e o pensamento decolonial, que requerem um olhar para além do utilitarismo econômico.
... As pointed out by Bitencourt (2014, 2018), following the relational view of the strategy, AIO is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum (AO) and analyzed under a less cognitive and more social-behavioral approach. Thus, AO is a process that occurs at different levels -individual, group, organizational and interorganizational (Antonello, 2007;Chan, 2003; Correia-Lima, Loiola, Pereira, Costa, & Leopoldino, 2019; Neves & Steil, 2019) -, contemplating the theoretical approach to learning based on practices (Corradi et al., 2010) and following the sociological perspective according to the assumptions of Silvia Gherardi. ...
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This theoretical essay aims to reflect on interorganizational relations (IORs) from the idea of strategy as social practice (SSP), contributing to the debate on considering rationalities other than the instrumental in studies on interorganizational strategies. Therefore, critical theoretical assumptions of organizational strategy and organizational studies are reviewed. It is assumed that the IORs occur in everyday life through interactions between different agents, considering the analysis of micro-processes as inherent and complementary to analysis at the meso and macro level. The justification is that the instrumental rationality inherent to the dominant social science in the West, traditionally used to explain IORs, is not enough to contemplate the debate in the field of interorganizational strategies to consider the social context and the decolonial thought, which requires a look beyond economic utilitarianism.
... The CLS scale is unidimensional and consists of 10 expressions. The OL scale was prepared by referring to the studies conducted by Diebella, (2001); Mar-sick & Watkins, (2003); Sinkula & Baker, (1999) ;Chan, (2003); Goh & Richards, (1997) ;Hult, (1998) ;Senge, (2013). It consists of 25 expressions and five dimensions consisting of systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision and team learning. ...
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The aim of this research is to investigate the mediating role of organizational learning in the relationship between cost leadership strategy and business performance. The universe of the research is composed of middle and senior managers of The International Air Transport Association (IATA) member travel agencies operating throughout Turkey. Quantitative research method was conducted and the data were obtained by face-to-face and email survey techniques. The data of the 351 questionnaires evaluated were analyzed using the Structuralthe Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) AMOS package program. The results of the study indicate a positive relationship between cost leadership strategy and business performance. In addition, organizational learning plays a mediator role between cost leadership strategy and business performance. These results once again reveal the importance of cost leadership strategy and organizational learning in achieving desired performance goals in travel agencies. The population of this study is limited to IATA member travel agencies. Future research should review this limitation to improve rigorousness and generalisability. The population of this study was restricted to travel agencies. Comparative studies involving hotel and transportation establishments, and thereby changing the universe, will contribute to the relevant literature and provide more effective results.
... The considerable amount of literature about learning in organizations is often written through a level-of-analysis framework (Chan, 2003;Hirst, Van Knippenberg & Zhou, 2009;Zhu, Gardner & Chen, 2018). Indeed, this seems to be a valuable approach to understand different levels of knowledge flows within any organization. ...
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Purpose – In recent years, DT has become increasingly popular. Based on a clearly defined challenge, cross-functional teams shall conduct research to better understand a variety of problems. The results should then suggest new solutions. They start with the construction of prototypes and develop a new business area. As a cure-all, it is assumed that it contributes to a company's ability to innovate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the peculiarities and implications of DT in the context of mid-sized enterprises by applying the theoretical perspective of the theory of learning. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on a multiple qualitative case study approach exploring four different distinguishable cases. This paper implies a multi- stakeholder perspective, namely including interview partners with prior and non-prior design experience, as well as experts from research and consulting. The data were collected throughout semi-structured interviews and extents over the duration of three months. Findings – The empirical results emphasize the impact of different components addressing the design driven capabilities within cases. In this analysis, the author identifies key themes addressing the lack traditional organizational management, the missing leadership components and finally, the examination of the external dynamics. From the results, the author develops a specific framework for the analysis of companies from the design driven perspective. Originality/value – The findings enhance the understanding of how business requirements contributes to the design driven capabilities of companies. Thus, this research contributes to the existing literature by extending the framework conditions to individual and organizational learning. In addition, the study emphasizes the role of structural and social prerequisites in companies. Keywords: DT, Design Driven Innovation, Individual Learning, Organizational Learning, Single-Loop Learning, Double-Loop Learning, Paper type: Case study
... Any number of individuals on a unit may engage in leadership functions, with or without a formal leadership role (Collin, Valleala, Herranen, & Paloniemi, 2012). Some leadership functions include setting an example (Chamberlain, 2013;Crofts, 2006), engaging with staff (Chamberlain, 2013;Collin, Paloniemi, & Harranen, 2015), empowering staff (Chan, 2003), delegating tasks , persevering even when obstacles arise (Filice et al., 2013), creating connections among potential collaborators (Pappas & Wooldridge, 2007), forming effective teams (Rangachari, 2008a;van Veen-Berkx, Bitter, Kazemier, Scheffer, & Gooszen, 2015), and guiding collective reflection on changes implemented and lessons learned (Collado, 2002). Overall, leadership engenders a culture of safety that encourages open communication (Chamberlain, 2013;Souba et al., 2011) and facilitates change (Ford & Angermeier, 2008). ...
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Aim To establish a middle‐range theory of organizational learning in hospitals. Design A realist review of the literature, conducted according to established standards for realist and meta‐narrative evidence syntheses. Middle‐range theory development, performed according to Smith & Liehr's recommendations. Data sources Two comprehensive scientific databases and six discipline‐focused databases spanning healthcare, life sciences, business, sociology and psychology were searched from inception to 12 May 2016. Review Methods Citations meeting the inclusion criteria were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Data extraction was guided by a focus on the contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes associated with organizational learning. Results The initial search yielded 2,332 citations, 147 of which were ultimately included in the review. The included citations were generally of high quality. Reviewed evidence indicates certain aspects of organizational context can be conducive to mechanisms of organizational learning, leading to a range of positive organizational outcomes. Conclusion This review updates and expands on a previous review of the literature on organizational learning in hospitals, refines the concept of organizational learning in hospitals and provides a middle‐range theory of organizational learning in hospitals. Impact This updated review provides a strong evidence base for future work on the topic of organizational learning in hospitals. The refined concept of organizational learning makes it possible to develop reliable, valid research instruments that better reflect of the full scope of organizational learning. Finally, the middle‐range theory guides researchers and clinical leaders as they advance the science and practice of organizational learning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Many authors emphasize group communication, dialogue, planning, and reflecting as basic ingredients in workplace learning. The team is suggested to have a central role in hospital and long-term care settings [22,23] as well as in other organizations [24]. This is in line with the statements from the LPNs at the rehabilitation ward who learned and transferred knowledge when attending the multidisciplinary meetings. ...
... However, sharing idea and developing a common meaning have been the basic mechanism underlying learning. Acquiring, sharing knowledge, and profiting from it have been three important processes which help organizational learning start (Chan, 2003). Meanwhile, many thinkers including Senge (1990) emphasized the importance of teambased learning to acquire learning in organizational levels and considered team-based learning approach as a method or bridge to acquire organizational learning. ...
... Se examina la relación entre el aprendizaje individual, grupal y organizacional. Para ello se adaptó el instrumento presentado por Chan (2003) para estudiar el aprendizaje en un hospital australiano, que fue organizado a partir de tres escalas ya existentes y adaptadas para la medición del aprendizaje individual, en los equipos y organizacional. Estuvo compuesto por 41 ítems, siendo nueve dirigidos a la medición del aprendizaje individual, once para el aprendizaje grupal y 21 para el organizacional. ...
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En este trabajo se realiza una revisión de los instrumentos utilizados para indagar sobre el aprendizaje organizacional, a fin de proponer una guía de relevamiento. En el campo del diagnóstico del aprendizaje organizacional prima la investigación a partir de escalas que dan cuenta de la opinión de los informantes sobre las dimensiones en las que se operacionaliza el aprendizaje organizacional, en tanto que son mucho menos frecuentes los abordajes cualitativos que intentan, a partir de un proceso inductivo, abordar el tema con la mirada de los actores. Partiendo de la identificación de las dimensiones consideradas y su operacionalización, así como de las técnicas puestas en juego para llevar adelante el relevamiento de la información, se realiza una propuesta de preguntas de investigación orientadas a identificar los procesos, obstáculos, facilitadores e impactos originados en los procesos de aprendizaje organizacional, como espacios en los que se recupera e incorpora en las rutinas organizacionales la experiencia adquirida en la resolución de los problemas que se enfrentan.
... To measure the relationship between internal and external team learning, team innovations and gender, a survey was used. Team learning (both internal and external) was measured using a tool proposed by Chan [2003], who used "Learning Survey Team" developed by Edmondson [1996]; whereas to measure team innova-tions a tool invented by Wong and others was used [2009]. The researchers used the seven-point Likert scale. ...
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Badacze na świecie i w Polsce od dawna interesują się wpływem płci na zarządzanie. Dociekają, czy i w jakim stopniu płeć menedżerów determinuje funkcjonowanie organizacji (ich wyniki, kulturę, strategię itp.). Poszukują różnic między kobietami a mężczyznami w sposobach podejmowania decyzji, rozwiązywania problemów organizacyjnych i w ogóle funkcjonowania w organizacji oraz wyjaśniają, jaki te różnice mają związek z odmiennością zachowania i sposobu myślenia obu płci. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie i analiza wyników badania wpływu płci na preferencje w zakresie polityki rachunkowości. Takie badanie zostało przeprowadzone w Polsce po raz pierwszy (także na świecie nie podejmuje się ich zbyt często); nasze badanie miało charakter sondażowy. Zostało przeprowadzone w lutym 2016 r. i objęło celowo wybraną grupę studentów Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego. Przystępując do badania, założyliśmy, że pewne różnice między kobietami a mężczyznami, o których piszą badacze wpływu płci na zarządzanie, mogą mieć istotny wpływ na preferencje w zakresie polityki rachunkowości. Innymi słowy, polityka rachunkowości wybrana przez menedżera kobietę może być inna niż wybrana przez menedżera mężczyznę. Artykuł składa się z następujących części: 1. prezentacja wybranych badań wpływu płci na sposób zarządzania, 2. omówienie nielicznych badań wpływu płci na politykę rachunkowości, 3. przedstawienie własnego badania wpływu płci na preferencję w zakresie polityki rachunkowości, 4. wnioski. Gdyby okazało się, że płeć ma istotny wpływ na politykę rachunkowości, tzn., że istnieje męska i kobieca polityka rachunkowości (przez analogię do męskiego i kobiecego stylu zarządzania), miałoby to duże znaczenie zarówno z poznawczego, jak i praktycznego punktu widzenia.
... This learning gap exists at the heart of Marsick's (1993, 1996) learning organization theory. Previous research identified significant relationships between individual-level learning and team-level learning and between team-level learning and organization-level learning (Chan, 2003). However, the same research was unable to identify a significant relationship between individual-level learning and organization-level learning. ...
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Although recent studies confirmed that concepts related to learning organizations could achieve positive outcomes such as financial performance, innovation, and adaptation to change; research addressing whether religious organizations can benefit from these concepts is absent. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the status of Christian denominations as learning organizations. Completed surveys of a random selection of senior pastors from 34 denominations provided the data for multiple regression analysis. Key research questions addressed the possible relationship between learning components and performance outcomes and between individual, team, and organization-level learning and performance outcomes. Results demonstrated Christian denominations lacked proficiency in team-level learning, inquiry and dialogue, collaboration, and other learning components. The recommendation is that denominations explore the benefits of team-level initiatives, which could lead to improved organizational performance, which allows the organizations to adapt more effectively to changing social conditions.
... Organizational learning, as a research field, examines how organizations develop knowledge and 'routines' to guide their behaviors (Levitt & March, 1988). Learning in organizations takes place at the individual, team and organizational level (Chan, 2003;Rashman, Withers, & Hartley, 2009) Understanding the interplay and interaction between these learning levels is a major theme in organizational learning (Crossan, et al., 1999). ...
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Our case analysis presents and identifies significant and systemic shortcomings of the incident response practices of an Australian financial organization. Organizational Incident Response Teams accumulate considerable experience in addressing information security failures and attacks. Their first-hand experiences provide organizations with a unique opportunity to draw security lessons and insights towards improving enterprise-wide security management processes. However, previous research shows a distinct lack of communication and collaboration between the functions of incident response and security management, suggesting organizations are not learning from their incident experiences. We subsequently propose a number of lessons learned and a novel security-learning model.
... (Goh, Swee C., 2003). Since then, the OLS has been used in several empirical studies of organizational learning (Chan, 2003;Chiva-Gomez, Camison-Zornoza, & Lapiedra-Clcami, 2003;Goh, Swee C. , Cousins, & Elliott, 2006;Goh, Swee C. & Ryan, 2002;Jerez-Gomeza et al., 2005;Stetler, Ritchie, Rycroft-Malone, Schultz, & Charns, 2007). ...
... Irrespective of the time when the debate first took off, it did not attract much attention until late 1970s (4)(5)(6). Thus, the organizational learning is defined as creating circumstances in an organization so that every individual comes to terms with the change and welcomes it as an ongoing process (7). Senge observed that organizational learning embraced both cognitive and behavioral change (8). ...
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Today, the concept of organizational learning has attracted the attention of many managers and researchers in scientific and research circles as well as those in the organization-related studies. Taking the organizational learning into account might offer a means of organizational effectiveness that has gone unnoticed. Thus the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the organizational learning in each of its four aspects as independent variables and organizational citizen behavior of the staff as constituting the dependent variable of the study. This was a descriptive-analytical study with a practical approach conducted in 2010. The sample included 167 staff members working in educational health centers affiliated with Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The data were collected via both the organizational learning questionnaire and organizational citizen behavior questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS software and Spearman test. The results indicated that the mean of organizational learning indicator was 2.9±0.648 and that of organizational citizen behavior 3.78±0.413. In addition, the spearman correlation coefficient ranging from 0.058 to 0.129 between the elements of the organizational learning and the organizational citizen behavior was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The findings also indicated that the correlation between them was average among the staff of Shahid Raja'ee Educational health center (0.319), thus the relationship between the two sets of variables proved significant (p=0.031). However, the same was not true in other centers. It was concluded that management commitment, open space, transfer of knowledge, and systemic vision could all enhance the level of organizational learning in hospitals which calls for focus on the elements of organizational citizen behavior.
... This instrument is made up of four different well-developed self-report scales, including: the Individual Learning Scale (Ames and Archer 1988); the Team Learning Survey (Edmondson 1996); and two subscales of the Organizational Learning Survey (Goh and Richards 1997). These scales have been shown to be valid and reliable measures (Chan 2003; Chan, Pearson and Entrekin 2003). Internal and external team learning behaviors are measured by the Team Learning Survey (Edmondson 1996). ...
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Organizational learning is essential especially in rapidly changing environments, through seeking new knowledge and the effective use of existing knowledge,to unleash innovative potential. It is therefore, important to identify what increases employee engagement in these organizational learning activities. Research was conducted through a survey of local public sector employees in the Philippines to examine empirically the hypothesis that individual learning will increase employee involvement in organizational learning activities through their increased engagement in team learning activities. The findings confirm the mediating role of team learning between individual learning and organizational learning. This study also examines the distinct roles of internal (within team) and external team (across team) learning in this relationship and findings suggest team learning also plays a significant role in improving organizational performance. This study has the potential to inform the development of appropriate human resource management strategies to facilitate knowledge sharing and learning within and across teams at the local level, as a major intermediate step toward motivating employees to engage in organizational learning activities by applying their individual knowledge.
... Moreover, leading learning organizations also have employees training which have especially been designed for developing/sharpening Moreover, there seems to be apparent difficulties with the notion of organization learning as a whole. There is clear evidence that learning does take place in organiza tions during dynamic interactions amongst individuals, groups, and the organization it self (Akgun et al. 2003, Chan 2003. The benefits of organizational learning are well recognized in terms of improved innova tion (Chanal 2004), achieving and sustain ing change (Boyce 2003), and in develop ing competence (Pedler 2002). ...
... Moreover, there seems to be apparent difficulties with the notion of organisation learning as a whole. There is a clear evidence that the learning does take place in organisations during dynamic interactions amongst individuals, groups and the organisation itself (Akgun, Lynn and Byrne, 2003; Chan, 2003; Sole and Edmundnson, 2002; Drejer, 2002). The benefits of the organisational learning are well recognised in terms of improved innovation (Chanal, 2004), achieving and sustaining change (Boyce, 2003). ...
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Organisational learning has been observed as strategic building block of knowledge management movement in this study. The study investigated the relationship and the impact of organisational learning on to knowledge management processes. It was a quantitative research investigation in which the participants were administered psychometric instruments on organisational learning and knowledge management. The results indicate that processes as well as mechanisms of organisational learning are significantly and positively associated with management of explicit and tacit knowledge in the company. Moreover, organisational learning has been found to create significant percentage of variance in both explicit and tacit knowledge management. This study offers empirical support from India to research findings of other academicians in the area of organisational learning and knowledge management.
... Whilst there are apparent difficulties with the notion of organisations leaning as a whole, there is clear evidence that learning does take place in organisations during dynamic interactions amongst individuals, groups and the organisation itself (Akgun et al 2003; Chan 2003; Sole and Edmonson 2002; Drejer 2000 ). The benefits of effective organisational learning are wellrecognised in terms of improved innovation (Chanal 2004), achieving and sustaining change (Boyce 2003) and in developing competence (Drejer 2000). ...
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This paper introduces and develops the argument that e-learning can play a pivotal role in encouraging and facilitating organisational learning. Theories of both organisational learning and e-learning are discussed and the major factors in both domains are distilled from this discussion. These factors are then cross-matched to demonstrate the potential for e-learning to address the needs of organisations that wish to improve their learning. We then discuss experiences from two case examples of how e-learning techniques have impacted on organisational learning, as a means of encouraging further debate and research in this area. Organisations as learning organisms The concept of organisational learning was first introduced by March and Simon (1958) in their early work on organisations. Since then it has become an increasingly accepted theory, although the road to acceptance has not been straight, with scholars such as Argyris and Schon (1996:1) commenting that "As late as 1978 when our Organisational Learning was first published, ….. well respected scholars …. found the idea confusing and, in some ways, repugnant." One of the central points of debate about the concept is the notion of an organisation as an identifiable organism that, as a whole, displays some of the characteristics of individuals. This anthropomorphic model of an organisation is rejected by many writers (see, for example, Berger and Luckmann 1966; Argyris and Schon 1996; Nicolini 2001), who argue that the notion of organisational learning is a metaphor rather that a description of the behaviour of an independent entity. Many writers avoid the "ontological fallacy" (Berends et al 2003) of ascribing human characteristics to an organisation by concentrating upon the role of individuals within the organisation and how the learning of those individuals is, or is not, integrated and aggregated.
... To do so, using the sample of 249 respondents, a principal component's analysis was conducted. After the principal component analysis, some of the attributes proved not to comply with the model and were excluded (Chan, 2003). Thus, the model presented was developed through the use of the remaining 45 attributes (Table 4). ...
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This paper presents a scale developed to classify organizations through cluster analysis as being exploiters, explores, ambidextrous or with no defined orientation. The theoretical framework helps identify that the concepts associated with exploration and exploitation may be classified into six practical dimensions: organizational knowledge practices, innovative practices, competition, strategic orientation, organizational efficiency and partnerships. After stripping the data, the scale was underpinned by 45 attributes related to these dimensions. Convergent and divergent validity statistics are presented resulting from a questionnaire being applied to 249 respondents from companies located in Brazil.
... Moreover, there seems to be apparent difficulties with the notion of organisation learning as a whole. There is a clear evidence that the learning does take place in organisations during dynamic interactions amongst individuals, groups and the organisation itself (Akgun, Lynn and Byrne, 2003;Chan, 2003;Sole and Edmundnson, 2002;Drejer, 2002). The benefits of the organisational learning are well recognised in terms of improved innovation (Chanal, 2004), achieving and sustaining change (Boyce, 2003). ...
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Organisational learning has been observed as strategic building block of knowledge management movement in this study. The study investigated the relationship and the impact of organisational learning on to knowledge management processes. It was a quantitative research investigation in which the participants were administered psychometric instruments on organisational learning and knowledge management. The results indicate that processes as well as mechanisms of organisational learning are significantly and positively associated with management of explicit and tacit knowledge in the company. Moreover, organisational learning has been found to create significant percentage of variance in both explicit and tacit knowledge management. This study offers empirical support from India to research findings of other academicians in the area of organisational learning and knowledge management.
... Many authors emphasize group communication , dialogue, planning, and reflecting as basic ingredients in workplace learning. The team is suggested to have a central role in hospital and long-term care settings [22,23] as well as in other organizations [24]. This is in line with the statements from the LPNs at the rehabilitation ward who learned and transferred knowledge when attending the multidisciplinary meetings. ...
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Background Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients. Methods A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, “the balancing act”. The theme includes three categories: “the right to decide”, “the constant watch”, and “the ongoing negotiation” as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients’ appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients’ risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words “risk of falling” were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example “dizzy and pale”. The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer. Conclusions Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others, and take actions to prevent falls. The climate and the structure of the ward are essential if licensed practical nurses are to be encouraged to routinely consider risk of falling and implement risk reduction strategies.
... An organization cannot serve a custodial sentence. Whilst there are apparent difficulties with the notion of organizations leaning as a whole, there is clear evidence that learning does take place in organizations during dynamic interactions amongst individuals, groups and the organization itself (Akgun et al., 2003;Chan, 2003;Sole and Edmonson, 2002;Drejer, 2000). The benefits of E-learning: a review effective organizational learning are well-recognized in terms of improved innovation (Chanal, 2004), achieving and sustaining change (Boyce, 2003) and in developing competence (Drejer, 2000). ...
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Thesis
Globally, higher education institutions (HEIs) face increasing pressure to learn, change, and adapt to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex and turbulent in today’s environment (Alsabbagh & Khalil, 2017; Coman & Bonciu, 2016; Tierney, 1988, 2008). Furthermore, HEIs are the catalyst to create new knowledge that contributes to economic and social growth by setting the framework for technology transfer, shifting demographics, globalization, and the recruitment of diverse students (Habtoor et al., 2019, 2020; Sayed & Edgar, 2019; Voolaid & Ehrlich, 2017). To effectively reduce the stress and strain produced in colleges and universities by the changing environment, HEIs must better understand the internal organizational culture (OC) to facilitate the progression of organizational learning. Important to realize, HEIs have been linked with economic prosperity and development of developing countries; the Bahamas needs to focus on the University of The Bahamas’ OC to determine the present and desired state of OC to bring about continuous improvements strategic redirection for organizational success. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact OC types—clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy—can have on the dimensions of learning at the University of The Bahamas, the oldest HEI in the Bahamas. This cross-sectional quantitative study used the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory and the Dimension of Learning Questionnaire. The surveys were completed by 154 participants in this study: 15.0% (n = 70) were staff, 13.1% (n = 61) were faculty members, and 17.9% (n = 10) were administration. Additionally, the study examined the control variable of gender. This research indicates that hierarchy and market partially significantly predict individual learning, and adhocracy, clan, hierarchy, and market significantly predict organizational learning.
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Aim To provide a clear definition and description of organizational learning in hospitals. Background Organizational learning is a promising strategy nurse managers and leaders can use to improve organizational performance. A clear definition and description of organizational learning is necessary to advance theory, research, and practice in this field. Methods Walker & Avant's method was used to conduct a concept analysis of organizational learning in hospitals. Data sources included 147 empirical studies, 16 review articles, 3 dictionary entries, and 3 book chapters. Results Organizational learning occurs when experiences are translated into positive changes in the organization's collective knowledge, cognition, and actions. Organizational context plays a key role in the learning process. Other manifestations of the concept are identified. Conclusions This concept analysis provides a clear definition of organizational learning and a description of its defining attributes, antecedents, empirical referents, and consequences. Implications for Nursing Management Nurse managers and leaders can improve patient and organizational outcomes by creating an environment conducive to translating experiences into organizational learning. Further research is needed to continue advancing the science of organizational learning in hospitals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The present study defined "creative team learning" as the kind of team learning geared towards seeking creative results for the team as whole, and aimed to show its structure and influencing process. Responses from 198 survey subjects were subjected to factor analysis to identify conceptual elements, followed by covariance structure analysis. The conclusion can be summed up in two points. First, the structure and process influencing team learning with regard to creative results were confirmed. Overlapped learning, which is a basic activity aimed at improving the quality of reflection, was found to promote creative results through reflective learning. Similarly, new insights obtained through reflective learning were found to influence creative results through diversified learning. Second, the influence of the group characteristics on team learning and its results varied with team results. In preceding studies, task cohesion influenced team effectiveness. In the present study, however, group cohesion and duty orientation did not influence creative results except through team learning. Respect for individuals and personal interaction orientation had a direct influence on creative results.
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It is argued that for organizational learning to occur maladaptive social defenses within the organization have to be altered. The origins of the concept of social defenses are traced through the work of Jaques and Menzies. A new concept of "system domain," and related concepts of "system domain fabric," and "system domain defenses," are proposed in order to account for the difficulties in sustaining organizational change in organizations that share a similar primary task. "Organizational learning" is defined as occurring when there is co-evolution of "organizational container" and "contained." The article distills variables from three successful consultancy/action research projects which are characteristic of organizations that are learning, and it is hypothesized that the creation of "organizational awareness" is necessary for organizational learning to occur.
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This study used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effectiveness of self-managing teams in a telecommunications company. These teams performed customer service, technical support, administrative support, and managerial functions in a variety of locations. The balance of evidence indicates that self-managing teams were more effective than comparable traditionally-managed groups that performed the same type of work. The study illustrates the value of a collaborative research project in which researchers and clients jointly define the research questions, study design, and methods.
Article
Although organizational learning is often defined as the result of many individuals learning generatively in an organizational context, the argument is made that such learning is de facto coercive persuasion. Generative learning by the individual requires free choice of exit if and when cognitive redefinition becomes painful. When organizations demand such redefinition as part of culture change programs they are de facto creating a situation of coercive persuasion. We must then examine our moral position with respect to both the methods of learning and the ultimate goals of the change effort.
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By treating work as socially constructed and innovating as integrated learning, organizations can create new knowledge, models and tools and acquire new experiences to achieve the result they desire in support of their survival and growth. Provides a framework for innovating, and demonstrates the way in which different types of individuals and learning can contribute towards innovating within organizations.
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This paper describes a framework for investigating organizational learning style. The theory of learning styles developed for individual applications is extended to an organizational application. Learning styles of organizations may be best categorized by the preferences of both formal and informal systems of information handling. The link between organizational learning and strategy formulation is examined based on a learning style framework containing two dimensions: Abstract—Concrete and Random—Sequential. Different types of organizations will tend to exhibit different learning styles. Predispositions toward general patterns of strategy process and content are associated with each learning style.
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Spurred by the globalization of competition, organizational learning and continuous improvement have attracted a great deal of research and managerial interest in recent years. Notwithstanding the growing literature on these topics, there is still considerable conceptual ambiguity about organizational learning and continuous improvement among researchers. The paper clarifies the underlying processes through which organizations “learn,” highlights the role of learning in continuous improvement programs, and shows how an organization may go about building a continuous improvement culture. Specific tools and techniques of organizational learning which may be used in continuous improvement programs are also discussed.
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Twelve key factors influence an organization's ability to learn and change: strategy/vision, executive practices, managerial practices, climate, organizational structure, information flow, individual/team practices, work processes, performance goals/feedback, training/education, individual/team development, and rewards/recognition. (SK)
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Organizational learning theories suggest that organizations tend to know less than the sum of the knowledge of their members. In light of trends towards globalization with concomitant localization, the knowledge gained by international managers is a crucial resource for organizations seeking to understand and influence their multiple stakeholders in diverse environments. Expatriate managers return from overseas assignments with a wealth of different kinds of knowledge, but active strategies are needed in order for this individual resource to become embedded into the organization. This study of two German-based multinational companies found little evidence of strategic use of returned expatriates for organizational learning. To the extent that knowledge was transformed from a purely individual resource into an organizational asset (e.g., change in method or policy), the learning was driven by the returned expatriates rather than by the organization itself. The research suggests that if organizations are to optimize their learning from their international managers, a conscious knowledge-management approach to the entire expatriation cycle is needed. Using the data from the interviews and the insights from organizational learning theory, improvements on the frequently used expatriation cycle are proposed.
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We studied how specific motivational processes are related to the salience of mastery and performance goals in actual classroom settings. One hundred seventy-six students attending a junior high/high school for academically advanced students were randomly selected from one of their classes and responded to a questionnaire on their perceptions of the classroom goal orientation, use of effective learning strategies, task choices, attitudes, and causal attributions. Students who perceived an emphasis on mastery goals in the classroom reported using more effective strategies, preferred challenging tasks, had a more positive attitude toward the class, and had a stronger belief that success follows from one's effort. Students who perceived performance goals as salient tended to focus on their ability, evaluating their ability negatively and attributing failure to lack of ability. The pattern and strength of the findings suggest that the classroom goal orientation may facilitate the maintenance of adaptive motivation patterns when mastery goals are salient and are adopted by students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews what is known about learning organizations. The authors argue that the ability to generate and generalize ideas with impact is an important evolution of the learning organization concept. They suggest specific ways managers can build learning capability and instill an intellectual and emotional commitment to learning among their staff. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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No theory or model of organizational learning has widespread acceptance. This paper clarifies the distinction between organizational learning and organizational adaptation and shows that change does not necessarily imply learning. There are different levels of learning, each having a different impact on the strategic management of the firm.
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Organizational learning takes place through activities performed by individuals, groups, and organizations as they gather and digest information, imagine and plan new actions, and implement change. I examine the learning practices of companies in two industries – nuclear power plants and chemical process plants – that must manage safety as a major component of operations, and therefore must learn from precursors and near-misses rather than exclusively by trial-and-error. Specifically, I analyse the linked assumptions or logics underlying incident reviews, root cause analysis teams, and self-analysis programmes. These logics arise from occupational and hierarchical groups that work on different problems in different ways – for example, anticipation and resilience, fixing and learning, concrete and abstract. In organizations with fragmentary, myopic and disparate understandings of how the work is accomplished, there are likely to be more failures to learn from operating experience, recurrent problems, and cyclical crises. Enhanced learning requires ways to broaden and bring together disparate logics.
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The purpose of this paper is to develop an organizational learning framework to support the strategic management process. Organizational learning is divided into two strategically relevant categories, external and internal, which involve complementary processes with separate advantages and disadvantages. External learning focuses on four strategically relevant domains of the organizational environment: customers, competitors, networks, and institutions. Internal learning includes individual, intrafunctional, interfunctional, and multilevel learning. Different domains of learning become crucial for firms over time depending on the evolving characteristics of their industry environment. Thus, an important task of strategic management is to lead the organizational learning process by identifying and allocating resources to the crucial domains of organizational learning that provide the necessary organizational capabilities to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
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The authors review the concept of organizational learning and present a broad conceptual framework for its modeling. Within this framework, one specific process for market-based organizational learning is postulated. An empirical test of this model leads the authors to conclude that a more positive learning orientation (a value-based construct) will directly result in increased market information generation and dissemination (knowledge-based constructs), which, in turn, directly affects the degree to which an organization makes changes in its marketing strategies (a behavioral construct). Managerial implications are discussed.
Article
The innovating organization described is one that recognizes and formalizes the roles, processes, rewards, and people practices that naturally lead to innovations. The point we have emphasized throughout this article is that the organization that purposely designs these roles and processes is more likely to generate innovations than is an organization that doesn't plan for this function. Such a purposely designed organization is needed to overcome the obstacles to innovation. Because innovation is destructive to many established groups, it will be resisted. Innovation is contrary to operations and will be ignored. These and other obstacles are more likely to be overcome if the organization is designed specifically to innovate.Managers have tried to overcome these obstacles by creating venture groups, by hiring some entrepreneurs, by creating “breakthrough funds,” or by offering special incentives. These are good policies but by themselves will not accomplish the goal. Figure 1 conveyed the message that a consistent set of policies concerning structure, process, rewards, and people are needed. The innovating organization is illustrated in Figure 7. It is the combination of idea people, reservations in which they can operate, sponsors to supervise them, funding for their ideas, and rewards for their success that increase the odds in favor of innovation. Simply implementing one or two of these practices will result in failure and will only give people the impression that such practices do not work. A consistent combination of such practices will create an innovating organization that will work.
Article
Most experts agree that a learning organization whose employees have a clear vision of the importance of service quality and are motivated to provide that quality will achieve superior service quality. We develop a theoretical framework and conduct a cross-sectional empirical study to investigate the inter-relationships among these constructs. The results indicate that higher levels of both employees’ motivation/vision and organizational learning positively affect perceived service quality. Additionally, employees’ motivation/vision was found to mediate the relationship between organizational learning and perceived service quality. These results highlight the importance of employees’ motivation/vision in both the service process and the learning process.
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Team-based work systems are emerging as key source of sustained competitive advantage in manufacturing and engineering design operations. The focus on teams derives in no small part from the competitive success of Japanese corporations, where team-based systems have been central to manufacturing and engineering design for more than three decades. For years, Japanese operations were seen as dependent on what was perceived as the collective nature of Japanese culture, but these assumptions have been shattered by the success of Japanese firms in establishing manufacturing operations in North America. This article features a detailed look at team-based work systems in eight Japanese-affiliated factories located in North America. There are three distinct types of team systems in these factories: lean production teams, socio-technical system teams, and off-line team structures. The team systems vary in the degree of interdependency and autonomy among teams and in the amount of team-responsibility for daily production operations. These variations in team systems are attributable to the timing of Japanese investment, the nature of the production technology, and the influence of U.S. business partners. This research thus provides a roadmap to the diverse mix of Japanese work practices and identifies important lessons for any organization moving toward greater use of team-based work systems.
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Sumario: The challenge of team management these days is not simply to execute existing processes efficiently. It's to implement new processes as quickly as possible. But adopting new technologies or new business processes is highly disruptive, regardless of the industry. The authors studied how surgical teams at 16 major medical centers implemented a difficult new procedure for performing cardiac surgery. The authors found that the most successful teams had leaders who actively managed the groups' learning efforts. Teams that most successfully implemented the new technology shared three essential characteristics. They were designed for learning; their leaders framed the challenge so that team members were highly motivated to learn; and an environment of psychological safety fostered communication and innovation
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Sumario: The purpose of this paper is to build a theory about the process through which individual learning advances organizational learning. To do this, we must address the role of individual learning and memory, differentiate between levels of learning, take into account different organizational types, and specify the transfer mechanism between individual and organizational learning. This transfer is at the heart of organizational learning: the process through which individual learning becomes embedded in an organization's memory and structure
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The materials are heaped on the ground: pieces of plywood, ropes, PVC pipes, tarps, a saw. Twelve people--physicians and administrative leaders from Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque--appraise the pile. Their assignment: Build a structure into which all 12 people will fit; one that will be wind-proof, rain-proof, and sun-proof; and that will house their traveling library (about $500 worth of books). By the time they are finished, this group will have begun to experience the pleasures and problems of team learning. And over the next six months, they will have occasion to reflect back on their common experience as it reverberates through the life of their organization in ways they cannot now foresee.