Article

Attitudes towards the high achiever: The fall of the Tall Poppy

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Abstract

Three studies are reported that concerna attitudes towards a person in a high position (the tall poppy) and towards, the tall poppy's fall. The studies were developed in relation to theoretical analyses concerned with value systems, envy, social comparison, and other psychological processes. In Study 1,531 students in South Australian high schools responded to scenarios in which either a high achiever or an average achiever experienced failure. Results showed that subjects reported feeling more pleased about a high achiever's fall than about an average achiever's fall, more pleased when a high achiever fell to the average position on the performance scale rather than to the bottom, and more pleased and friendly towards a high achiever who fell to the average position than towards an average achiever who fell to the bottom. In Study 2, 361 university students responded to scenarios in which a high achiever or an average achiever cheated at an examination. Results showed that the students were more punitive towards the high achiever who transgressed than towards the average achiever and more pleased about the high achiever's fall. In Study 3, 205 adult subjects completed a Tall Poppy Scale, an extended version of the Rokeach Value Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a measure of political preference. Results for a global measure of tall poppy attitudes indicated that negative attitudes were more likely to occur among subjects who were low in global self-esteem, who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and social power, and who were more to the left in their political preference.

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... About three decades ago, Feather conducted the first laboratory study on Schadenfreude, examining people's affective responses when high-status individuals fall from grace. Corroborating the common belief that people may sometimes derive pleasure when societally successful individuals are cut down to size, Feather (1989) found that participants tended to experience greater delight in the misfortune of a high achiever and perceived him/her to be more deserving of the ...
... The word "Schadenfreude," which literally means "harm joy" in German, refers to the uncanny yet widely shared experience of pleasure or delight in the misfortune of others (Heider, 1958;Schadenfreude, n.d.). Despite the word's German origin, Schadenfreude is pervasive across many cultures (Feather, 2012), even those, such as U.S. culture, that do not possess a formal term for it (Feather, 1989;Nachman, 1986). ...
... Feather construed Schadenfreude as a justice-based emotion and proposed that individuals who believe that one's negative outcomes are deserved would experience delight when this person gets his/her just deserts. Based on Heider's (1958) principle of balance, Feather (1989) argued that whether an outcome is perceived as deserved depends on the action that produces it. An outcome may be perceived as deserved when the outcome and the action are consistent or balanced (e.g., a positive outcome follows a positive action), but undeserved when the action is inconsistent or unbalanced. ...
Article
Schadenfreude is the distinctive pleasure people derive from others' misfortune. Research over the past three decades points to the multifaceted nature of Schadenfreude rooted in humans’ concerns for social justice, self-evaluation, and social identity. Less is known, however, regarding how the differing facets of Schadenfreude are interrelated and take shape in response to these concerns. To address these questions, we review extant theories in social psychology and draw upon evidence from developmental, personality, and clinical research literature to propose a novel, tripartite, taxonomy of Schadenfreude embedded in a motivational model. Our model posits that Schadenfreude comprises three separable but interrelated subforms (aggression, rivalry, and justice), which display different developmental trajectories and personality correlates. This model further posits that dehumanization plays a central role in both eliciting Schadenfreude and integrating its various facets. In closing, we point to fruitful directions for future research motivated by this novel account of Schadenfreude.
... Во социопсихолошката литература овој термин се појавил пред околу 20 години. Прв пат бил истражуван од Федер (Feather, 1989). Во неговите истражувања Федер тргнал од неколку теориски идеи. ...
... Дури и повеќе, лицата што изгледаат перфектни, може да бидат помалку сакани од лицата што покажуваат човечки мани (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966). Исто така, Федер (Feather, 1989) наведува дека постои тенденција лицата со високи постигнувања да се обезвредат. Петерс објаснува дека станува збор за завидувачка околина во која што лицата што се натпреваруваат, на пример, за повисоко работно место или награда, бараат начини нивните директни ривали да се елиминираат (Peeters, 2003). ...
... Федер (Feather, 1989) прв го поставил прашањето како ги перципираме високите булки на кои им се случил брз пад на популарноста, на пример, кога важен политичар ќе даде непрoмислена изјава, кога успешен бизнисмен ќе направи груба повреда на законот, или кога добар студент ќе падне на испит. Тоа има за последица промена на нивниот статус. ...
... Envy has also been associated with feelings of hostility (Smith, Parrott, Ozer & Moniz, 1994) and with schadenfreude (taking pleasure in the suffering of others; Smith et al., 1996;Brigham, Kelso, Jackson & Smith, 1997). These findings are consistent with the "tall poppy" syndrome documented by Feather (1989Feather ( , 1991 in Australian culture. This syndrome describes the tendency of individuals to hold negative attitudes toward successful others ("tall poppies"), and to favor their fall. ...
... Drawing upon previous findings we suggest that envy is likely promote deception by increasing the psychological gains and decreasing the psychological costs of using deception when interacting with an envied counterpart. Congruent with the above mentioned research that has linked envy with schadenfreude (taking pleasure in the suffering of others; Smith et al., 1996, Feather, 1989, we postulate that feelings of envy may increase an individual's perceived psychological benefit from harming a counterpart via deception. Our notion that envy might lower the perceived psychological cost of engaging in deception is based on the previously described work that has found people experiencing envy to devalue and belittle the envied target (Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Vecchio, 1995). ...
... Prior work has found that negative attitudes toward high achievers occur more intensely when individuals believe that envied others do not deserve their rewards (e.g., Smith, 1991;Smith et al., 1994;Feather & Sherman, 2002) and when individuals themselves have low rather than high self- esteem (e.g., Feather, 1989Feather, , 1991. A related avenue for future research is the role of dispositional envy ( Smith et al., 1999). ...
Article
In this paper we describe the influence of envy on the use of deception. We find that individuals who envy a counterpart are more likely to deceive them than are individuals who do not envy their counterpart. Across both a scenario and a laboratory study, we explore the influence of envy in a negotiation setting. Negotiations represent a domain in which social comparisons are prevalent and deception poses a particularly important concern. In our studies, we induce envy by providing participants with upward social comparison information. We find that upward social comparisons predictably trigger envy, and that envy promotes deception by increasing perceived gains and decreasing psychological costs of engaging in deceptive behavior. We discuss implications of our results with respect to impression management and emotional intelligence as well as the role of emotions in ethical decision making and negotiations.
... The many studies concerned with tall poppies in Australia and in other countries have been reviewed elsewhere (Feather, 1994(Feather, , 1996b(Feather, , 1999. These studies showed that in general individuals did not want tall poppies to fall or to be "cut down to size" (Feather, 1989). Their attitudes depended on how the tall poppy presented themselves to others (e.g., boastful and self-centered versus humble and unassuming) and whether the tall poppy was perceived to deserve their high position or not. ...
... Also investigated were the effects of the values held by those doing the judging, their level of self-esteem, political preference (left-wing versus right-wing), and their level of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Overall, findings suggested that those who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and power and more importance to equality (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1994(Feather, , 1996a, individuals with lower levels of self-esteem (Feather, 1989), those with a preference for left-wing political parties (Feather, 1989), higher on some facets of RWA (i.e., authoritarian aggression and submission), but lower on others (i.e., conventionalism ;Feather, 1993) were more likely to favor the fall of the tall poppy. ...
... Also investigated were the effects of the values held by those doing the judging, their level of self-esteem, political preference (left-wing versus right-wing), and their level of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Overall, findings suggested that those who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and power and more importance to equality (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1994(Feather, , 1996a, individuals with lower levels of self-esteem (Feather, 1989), those with a preference for left-wing political parties (Feather, 1989), higher on some facets of RWA (i.e., authoritarian aggression and submission), but lower on others (i.e., conventionalism ;Feather, 1993) were more likely to favor the fall of the tall poppy. ...
Article
Individuals occupying high-status positions are sometimes victims of the tall poppy syndrome where people want to see them cut down to size. These attitudes reflect a tension between achievement, authority, and equality. In a pre-registered study (Study 1: N = 47,951), and a replication (Study 2: N = 5,569), of two representative New Zealand samples we investigated how social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, political ideologies and self-esteem predicted favoring the fall of the tall poppy. Novel findings showed individuals high in social dominance orientation favored the fall of the tall poppy. In both studies, high authoritarian aggression and submission, and low conventionalism (in Study 1 only) were also associated with negative tall poppy attitudes. So too were individuals with lower self-esteem and who were less conservative in their political ideology. These findings advance our understanding of how group-based hierarchy and inequality relate to attitudes toward individuals in high-status positions. ARTICLE HISTORY
... We draw from the literature on competitive dynamics in peer relationships (Campbell et al., 2017;Ingram & Roberts, 2000;Jensen et al., 2014;Kim & Glomb, 2010Lam et al., 2011;Lee, Kesebir, & Pillutla, 2016;Zou & Ingram, 2013) to explore how women and men's emotional ambivalence is elicited by a "tall poppy," a peer who disproportionately and visibly performs better relative to his or her peers and thus "sticks out" above them (Aguinis & O'Boyle, Aguinis & O'Boyle, 2014;Call et al., 2015;Feather, 1989Feather, , 1994. Our research is theoretically informed by role congruity theory (RCT; Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001;Eagly & Karau, 2002), which delineates how women and men are socialized into gender roles that prescribe appropriate behaviors. ...
... In particular, it would be valuable to uncover both actor and target characteristics as well as contextual factors that may offset the ambivalent feelings and negative social conduct towards tall poppies. For example, high degrees of self-evaluation traits such as self-esteem and emotional stability (Feather, 1989;Judge & Bono, 2001;Kernis, Grannemann, & Barclay, 1989) as well as learning and growth mindsets (Dweck, 2012) could facilitate teammates' selfregulation of emotions and behaviors when making upward comparisons. Highly competent group members who are warm and emotionally intelligent might not elicit psychological discomfort and hostility from their peers (Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011;Casciaro & Lobo, 2008;Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Coworkers are a source of mixed emotions yet research on emotional ambivalence—i.e., the co-existing and intertwining positive and negative feelings toward a subject—toward peers in work groups is scarce. We draw from the literature on competitive dynamics in peer relationships to explore how women and men’s emotional ambivalence is elicited by the presence of a “tall poppy,” a peer who disproportionately and visibly performs better relative to his or her peers. Informed by role congruity theory, we assert that men are socialized into peer relationships that embrace competition and camaraderie, so men tend to exhibit emotional ambivalence toward peers regardless of whether the focal coworker is a “tall poppy.” By contrast, women are socialized into a gender role that emphasizes harmony and equality so the presence of a “tall poppy” violates the female gender role, thereby eliciting more emotional ambivalence compared to when women work with equally matched peers. Experiencing emotional ambivalence then results in attempts to relationally distance oneself from the source of mixed emotions (e.g., ostracism, withdrawal). Two experimental studies—a behavioral laboratory study with students and an online experiment with working adults—both provided full support for these theorized relationships.
... Egalitarianism demonstrates itself in Aotearoa New Zealand as an anti-elitist society with high regard for equity, including equitable outcomes for all New Zealanders through education. Implicit in the egalitarian mindset is a tendency towards anti-intellectualism that is ingrained in the psyche of both countries and termed tall poppy syndrome (Feather, 1989;Feather & McKee, 1993;Peeters, 2004): "Tall poppies are people who are conspicuously successful or who have high status because of their achievements, rank, or wealth" (Feather & McKee, 1993, p. 67). Tall poppy syndrome refers to the satisfaction when these people are "cut down to size" (Feather & McKee, 1993, p. 67). ...
... Tall poppy culture describes the tendency for New Zealanders as a collective to choose modesty, 'playing down' strengths and successes, particularly in relation to intellectual achievement, as shown in Ange's quote above. Tall poppy culture discourages self-proclamation of achievements, labelling it as boastful (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1993Peeters, 2004). In tall poppy culture, high intellectual achievement is not to be self-proclaimed, even though it is a form of cultural capital that has the potential to transform into economic capital in the form of post-school tertiary and career options. ...
Thesis
This thesis is an exploration of gifted and talented girls’ identity constructions, notions of empowerment and their engagements with social media. Adopting a critical constructivist position, I utilise Bourdieu’s concepts as thinking tools to explore the intersection between gifted and talented girls and their social fields, including social media, and interrogate the structuring principles of gifted and talented girls’ social fields to explore how their practices and identity constructions reproduce and resist internalised structures that position high-achieving girls as both empowered and vulnerable within their social locations.
... Schadenfreude may be a response to feelings of inferiority because of prior upward social comparisons (Smith et al., 1996). For example, consumers may see their performance and abilities as inferior compared to others' (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991 or may lack of possession of status goods that demonstrate achievement (Sundie et al., 2009). ...
... If a competing outgroup actually makes people feel inferior, it will be evaluated even more negatively (Mummendey & Otten, 1998) and the failures of such group might trigger even greater schadenfreude (Leach et al., 2003). Overall, research in psychology and social psychology has identified envy (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Smith et al., 1996), trait or dispositional envy (Smith, Parrott, Diener, Hoyle, & Kim, 1999), resentment (Feather & Sherman, 2002) or anger (Hareli & Weiner, 2002) toward others as precursors of schadenfreude. ...
Article
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Consumers often feel schadenfreude, an emotion reflecting an experience of pleasure over misfortunes of another. Schadenfreude has found wide use in advertising, but its actual consequences for consumers have not been thoroughly documented. The present research investigates the effect of schadenfreude on consumers' satisfaction with choices they have made. Building on the feelings‐as‐information theory, the authors posit that consumers take their positive feelings of schadenfreude over another's unrelated bad purchase as positive information about their own choices, and through such misattribution become more satisfied with their own choices. Three experiments show that feeling schadenfreude over another consumer's bad purchase makes consumers more satisfied with their own choices (Study 1), regardless of whether the other's bad purchase is in the same or in a different product category as one's own choice (Study 2), but only so long as consumers are not aware that they are engaging in misattribution (Study 3). The present research contributes to the literature on schadenfreude and feelings‐as‐information theory. Its findings may be used by marketers aiming to exert an unconscious influence on consumer satisfaction.
... Hostile feelings are less observed in others species and originate from multiple sources. Emerging research in the field of schadenfreude supported relations with envy (Feather, 1989, Brigham et al., 1997Smith et al., 1996;Van Dijk et al.,2006;Sundie et al., 2009;Takahashi et al., 2009), anger/hate (Hareli and Weiner, 2002), disliked person (van dijk et al, 2005), resentment (Feather & Sherman, 2002), sympathy (Schindler et al., 2015) and even included importance to the self (Ortony et al., 1988;Leach et al., 2003). ...
... whether the participant cheers for the target team versus for a rival team) and a praise manipulation was implemented so that the consumers either see or do not praise the target team when they are making a bet. The praise manipulation results from the empirical evidence that envy represents one of the potential antecedents of schadenfreude (Feather, 1989, Brigham et al., 1997Smith et al., 1996;van Dijk et al., 2006;Sundie et al., 2009;Takahashi et al., 2009). Thus, praising a rival team is more likely to trigger schandenfreude and impact decision making as a result. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is not uncommon for people to feel good when bad luck happens to others, especially when there is rivalry. The paper aims to investigate the impact of schadenfreude (pleasure in another's misfortune) on decision-making. The first study, a lab experiment, showed that people preferred to send news about one's favorite team victory (pride) over one's rival team loss (schadenfreude) when the outcome of the game displayed small score differences and select the schadenfreude option when the score differences were large. The second study, conducted in the field, showed that supporters of a rival team increased their probability of betting against the target team when the target team was praised prior to the game. Taken together, the results show that schadenfreude is more powerful when the damage to a rival is large (study 1) or when the rival is praised (study 2). RESUMO Não é incomum que as pessoas se sintam bem quando a má sorte acontece com os outros, especialmente quando há algum tipo de rivalidade. O artigo investiga o impacto de schadenfreude (prazer na desgraça alheia) na tomada de decisões. O primeiro estudo, um experimento de laboratório, mostrou que os torcedores preferem enviar notícias sobre a vitória do seu clube de futebol favorito (orgulho) sobre a derrota de um clube rival (schadenfreude) quando o resultado do jogo apresenta pequenas diferenças de gols e prefere o schadenfreude quando acontecem goleadas. O segundo estudo, realizado no campo, mostrou que torcedores aumentaram a probabilidade de apostar contra um clube rival quando este clube foi elogiado antes do jogo. Em conjunto, os resultados mostram que schadenfreude é mais forte que o orgulho quando o dano a um rival é grande (estudo 1) ou quando o rival é louvado (estudo 2). PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Schadenfreude, inveja, orgulho.
... There are innumerable possibilities as to why it took so long for such legislation to emerge in Australia. One may be Australia's anti-intellectual culture combined with the tall poppy syndrome seen in public discourse around displays of achievement that is associated with giftedness (Feathers, 1989;Geake & Gross, 2008). Writing 5 years before CSCA was passed into law, Blandy (1968) connected Australia's anti-intellectual culture to the social and political movements of 19th-century Europe when Australia was developing its own identity separate from that of the motherland, England. ...
... Thus, the social justice and egalitarianism present in European political movements of this particular era are the underpinnings of the Australian concept of a "fair go." Intellectualism (and potentially giftedness) has been viewed as going against these ideals and thus had suspicion cast upon those who displayed these behaviors (Feathers, 1989;Smith & West, 2003). ...
Article
Gifted education as a field of research in Australia is relatively young when compared with its North American counterparts. A reflection of how the field of gifted education has developed from 1983 to 2017 in this context allows for observations of previous research and current trends, and how these may influence future directions for the field. Empirical research published in peer-reviewed journals is one metric that can be used to undertake this reflection, including the individuals responsible for the research, the setting where the research is undertaken, and outlets where resulting findings are published, as well as the research themes that dominate research agendas. Longitudinally, these metrics are part of the narrative that construct Australian gifted education. Reflecting on how the field developed provides an understanding of how research and practice have evolved and what future research and innovations are possible. Development of a Field of Study Developing a field of study as a discrete area of research requires the achievement of a number of key milestones. Although a checklist for researchers to consult in the development and growth of their particular area of study does not exist, the research literature does offer milestone examples identified as being essential for a field of study to evidence signs of growth and become recognized more broadly.
... However, status also comes with responsibilities. Given their main privileges, high-status actors are often subject to great envy, a phenomenon called "tall poppies" (Feather 1989). In case of wrongdoing, high-status actors are more severely punished than low-status ones. ...
Thesis
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Literature on social evaluations has mainly analyzed the “audience-candidate” dyad,leaving underexplored the way the evaluation of a main audience (e.g. a social-control agent)influences the evaluation of another audience. This dissertation looks at social evaluations in amultiple-audience context. It focuses on organizational social misconduct - an important, yetunderstudied social evaluation - and it investigates “Why does an audience change its evaluationfollowing organizational social misconduct?”. Each of the three essays focuses on a differentaudience (evaluation): people (people’s complaints), investors (share price) and the media(newspapers’ evaluation). Two novel settings and unique databases were used: advertising selfregulationin the UK and Calciopoli, the scandal that affected the Italian Serie A in 2006. Resultsshow that in case of organizational social misconduct, the evaluation of a social control agent doesinfluence the evaluation of another audience, however this effect is not mechanical. Three primarymoderators emerge from the three essays: the ambiguity of the norm, the saliency of the event, andlocalness of the transgressors. In summary, this dissertation shows that social norms are betterunderstood in a triadic framework: “candidate – social-control agent – another audience”. Socialnorms are not set exogenously, but are endogenously created by the actions of the candidates andthe evaluations of (at least) two audiences.
... An individual fully embracing The Law of Jante's Theme 2, however, would not be an especially cooperative group member but would rather be diagnosed with clinical depressionreflecting highly maladaptive behavior, disadvantageous for the individual as well as the group. Communication resembling Theme 2 does not encourage behaving so as to generate positive consequences for the whole group, but rather resembles what has been denoted as "crap mentality" or the "tall poppy syndrome" (Feather, 1989), which signifies behavior serving to hinder other group members in their achievements. Crap mentality might be regarded as the opposite of cooperation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many situations in human life present choices between (a) alternatives beneficial to an individual and (b) alternatives that are less beneficial to the individual, but could be beneficial if chosen by many individuals. Choices of the latter alternative are generally considered cooperative. Taking the supposition that a lack of cooperation between and amongst societies lies behind many crises of the 21st century as its point of origin, the paper takes a two-step approach to shed light on the Nordic cultural-evolutionary puzzle of managing to maintain a dynamic equilibrium between competition and cooperation. First, the paper suggests cooperation as a valuable temporally extended pattern of behavior that may be learned and maintained over an individual's lifetime. Second, the paper examines how Norwegian and Swedish culture fosters a commitment to extended patterns of cooperative behavior. By means of interpreting successful Scandinavian cultural characteristics in the light of selection of behavior both during phylogeny and during ontogeny, the paper derives hypotheses about functional relations between behavioral and environmental events that make for the success of the Nordic nations and which might inspire policy development in other countries.
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
... Their rivalry leads to denigrating each other privately, and at meetings which would also draw in other doctors often with a dose of nationalism for good measure. Envy was described as an early root of TPS especially in people with low self esteem [1]. The envier lacked what the tall poppy possessed and had the option to improve (good envy) or denigrate or cut down the tall poppy (bad envy). ...
... The cultural phenomenon of the 'tall poppy syndrome', which describes the situation where a successful person within a community is deliberately set up for failure (Blacklaws, 2001;Mayrhofer & Hendriks, 2003), has been argued to be a barrier to entrepreneurship in South Africa and may account for the reluctance of microentrepreneurs to innovate and upgrade their businesses (Feather, 1989;Yee, Ashkanasy & Härtel, 2003). During our interviews with the South African spaza owners, the respondents referred to the fact that people in the community are often felt jealous at the spaza shop owners' success. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Coopetition is a powerful means by which microenterprises can compete against large firms in low margin sectors, such as the small retail outlets in South African townships, known locally as spaza shops. Although coopetition is widely used by foreign nationals who own and manage such shops, and who are reported to be more successful, South African owners have failed to establish such relationships. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the reasons why South African owners do not form such relationships Method: The study used a qualitative, exploratory approach. Results: An absence of trust and a general lack of awareness of the potential benefits of coopetition are the major barriers. Moreover, the volatile environment within which these spaza shops operate, characterised by extensive unemployment and high crime rates, and makes the establishment of coopetitive relationships more difficult. Conclusion: Any intervention designed to improve the survival rate of spaza shops should include measures to address issues of trust and the benefits of coopetitive relationships. Keywords: Spaza shop; South Africa; coopetition; trust; microenterprise.
... An individual fully embracing The Law of Jante's Theme 2, however, would not be an especially cooperative group member but would rather be diagnosed with clinical depressionreflecting highly maladaptive behavior, disadvantageous for the individual as well as the group. Communication resembling Theme 2 does not encourage behaving so as to generate positive consequences for the whole group, but rather resembles what has been denoted as "crap mentality" or the "tall poppy syndrome" (Feather, 1989), which signifies behavior serving to hinder other group members in their achievements. Crap mentality might be regarded as the opposite of cooperation. ...
Article
Many situations in human life present choices between (a) alternatives beneficial to an individual and (b) alternatives that are less beneficial to the individual that would nevertheless be beneficial if chosen by many individuals. Choices of the latter alternative are generally considered cooperative. Taking the supposition that a lack of cooperation between and amongst societies lies behind many crises of the 21st century as its point of origin, the paper takes a two-step approach to shed light on the Nordic cultural-evolutionary puzzle of managing to maintain a dynamic equilibrium between competition and cooperation. First, the paper suggests regarding cooperation as a valuable temporally extended pattern of behavior that may be learned and maintained over an individual’s lifetime. Second, the paper examines how Norwegian and Swedish culture fosters a commitment to extended patterns of cooperative behavior. By means of interpreting successful Scandinavian cultural characteristics in the light of selection of behavior both during phylogeny and during ontogeny, the paper derives hypotheses about functional relations between behavioral and environmental events, which make for the success of the Nordic nations and which might inspire policy development in other countries.
... In the Australian context, a specific cultural phenomenon that may be relevant to teachers is 'tall poppy syndrome'. The term 'tall poppies' can be applied to people who are high achievers, often in sport or in business, who 'represent high ability or admirable qualities' (Mancl & Penington, 2011, p. 79) and who become the object of others' envy (Feather, 1989). Feather explains that tall poppy syndrome involves the reported tendency within Australian culture for people to enjoy watching high achievers fall or be 'cut down to size' (p. ...
Article
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This article reports on findings from a qualitative study in the English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) context which explored teachers’ experiences and their managers’ perceptions of teacher participation in the Cambridge Assessment English/English Australia Action Research in ELICOS program. Despite previously reported benefits for teachers’ professional development as a result of action research participation, the study found that some current tensions may be limiting the potential and sustainability of the English Australia Action Research program for the development of teachers, ELICOS centres and the sector as a whole. This article explores four key tensions and offers some possible ways in which the tensions can be addressed within ELICOS centres and more broadly. These tensions and directions are also likely to be relevant to other ELT contexts in which teachers are conducting action research. http://eajournal.realviewdigital.com/?iid=161637#folio=9
... 305), given that a unit's success depends on such superior performance. However, as Feather (1989) made clear, some employees are powerfully motivated to diminish an active, successful colleague and thus camouflage their own limitations of competence or character. In a susceptible setting, mobbing is a convenient strategy to achieve that purpose. ...
Chapter
This chapter presents a fictitious and satirical story, which explores how individuals and groups of privilege in a university structure exert their power (through intimidation and other oppressive actions) on targeted individuals who are perceived as challenging or disruptive to the power group's existing control. The story is presented as an allegory of the 1920-1940's mafia.
... Dalam studi-studi terakhir ini, iri hati secara eksplisit diukur dalam istilah-istilah yang tidak terlalu mengacu pada permusuhan, karena hal tersebut diperdebatkan apakah aspek-aspek yang bermusuhan mendefinisikan ciri-ciri iri hati. Baik Feather & Sherman (2002) Gagasan bahwa perasaan bermusuhan dapat menentukan taraf schadenfreude telah dikemukakan oleh banyak peneliti (misalnya, Ben Ze'ev, 2000;Feather, 1994;Heider, 1958;Leach, Spears, Branscombe, & Doosje, 2003;Ortony, Clore , & Collins, 1988;Spinoza, 1677Spinoza, /2002) dan telah menerima dukungan empiris yang cukup besar (misalnya, Brighametal., 1997;Feather, 1989;Feather & Sherman, 2002;Hareli & Weiner, 2002;Smith et al., 1996;van Dijk, Ouwerkerk, Goslinga, & Nieweg, 2005). Dalam pandangan peneliti saat ini, iri hati tidak termasuk komponen permusuhan. ...
Article
Schadenfreude is a compound word of the word Schaden, which means loss, andFreude, which means joy. It shows that envy plays an important role in generatingSchadenfreude; People are pleased with the misfortune of others when thismisfortune gives them a social comparison that increases the feeling of their selfesteem or removes the basic feelingof hurtful jealousy. This research method isexperiments with factorial design. The Sampling techniques uses RandomSampling. Analysis techniques are used with the correlation technique of PearsonProduct moment. The results of this study complement these opposing findings, indicating that envy is the Schadenfreude predictor when the target has the same gender. This research was conducted at one of the universities in Salatiga.AbstrakSchadenfreude adalah kata majemuk dari kata Schaden, yang berarti kerugian,dan Freude, yang berarti sukacita. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa iri hatimemainkan peran penting dalam membangkitkan Schadenfreude; orang merasasenang dengan ketidakberuntungan orang lain ketika ketidakberuntungan inimemberi mereka perbandingan sosial yang meningkatkan perasaan harga dirimereka atau menghilangkan dasar perasaan iri hati yang menyakitkan. Metodepenelitian dengan eksperimen dengan desain faktorial. Tehnik pengambilansampel menggunakan Random Sampling. Teknik analisis data yang digunakandengan tehnik korelasi Pearson Product Momen. Hasil penelitian ini melengkapitemuan-temuan yang berlawanan ini, dengan menunjukkan bahwa iri hatiadalah prediktor Schadenfreude ketika targetnya memliki gender yang sama.Penelitian ini dilakukan di salah satu universitas di Salatiga.
... Furthermore, according to the socio-cultural phenomenon known as the "Tall Poppy syndrome" (Feather 1989), New Zealand (and Australian) students are reticent to demonstrate their knowledge, ask and answer questions posed by the lecturer publically for fear of being perceived as attention-seeking and boastful by others, and ostracised by their peers (Tapper 2014). To conform to the social norms prescribed by the lecture environment, students rarely ask public questions and prefer to remain anonymous, particularly in large lectures (Exeter et al. 2010), thus likely reducing student engagement. ...
Article
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Technology is being increasingly integrated into teaching environments in view of enhancing students’ engagement and motivation. In particular, game-based student response systems have been found to foster students’ engagement, enhance classroom dynamics and improve overall students’ learning experience. This article presents outcomes of research that examined students’ experience using a game-based student response system, Kahoot!, in an Information Systems Strategy and Governance course at a research-intensive teaching university in New Zealand. We conducted semi-structured interviews with students to learn about the extent to which Kahoot! influence classroom dynamics, motivation and students’ learning process. Key findings revealed that Kahoot! enriched the quality of student learning in the classroom, with the highest influence reported on classroom dynamics, engagement, motivation and improved learning experience. Our findings also suggest that the use of educational games in the classroom is likely to minimise distractions, thereby improving the quality of teaching and learning beyond what is provided in conventional classrooms. Other factors that contributed to students’ enhanced learning included the creation and integration of appropriate content in Kahoot!, providing students with timely feedback, and game-play (gamification) strategies.
... iconic) luxury consumption could be viewed negatively (as a signal of one's individualistic focus, frivolousness, and desire to stand out), which may actually inhibit, rather than promote, social advancement. Indeed, some work suggests that there may be resentment towards individuals who conspicuously show their success (Feather, 1989), particularly in egalitarian systems (e.g., Lucas & Kteily, 2018). We therefore propose that in egalitarian settings, the effect of ephemeral (vs. ...
Article
Individuals signal status through luxury goods because high status confers social, economic, and psychological benefits. While it is known that luxury (vs. non-luxury) consumption signals individuals' high (vs. low) level of status, it is unclear how individuals' marketplace behaviors influence perceptions of type, or source, of their status. The present research examines how ephemeral and iconic luxury consumption signals individuals' achieved or ascribed social status. Seven studies (and two follow-ups) show that, while ephemeral and iconic luxury consumption signal similar levels of individuals' ascribed status, ephemeral luxury consumption signals individuals' higher achieved social status than iconic luxury consumption. This happens because ephemeral luxury consumption signals individuals' higher creativity than iconic luxury consumption. We outline the boundaries of this phenomenon and demonstrate its behavioral downstream consequences. Our findings offer guidance on how individuals and managers can leverage the status signaling value of ephemeral and iconic luxury goods.
... Typical tasks require imagining one's own reactions upon learning that someone with higher social status or opposite political views has lost his/her job [6,7], or when reading that your least favorite sport team has been defeated [8][9][10]. These studies have shown that schadenfreude is modulated by the deservingness of the other's misfortune [11][12][13], the resentment [14] and envy [2,6,[15][16][17] toward the person or group that failed, and one's positive self-evaluation [15,16,18]. ...
Article
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Schadenfreude (i.e., the pleasure derived from another’s misfortune) has been widely studied by having participants imagine how they would feel in hypothetical scenarios describing another person’s pain or misfortune. However, research on affective forecasting shows that self-judgments of emotions are inaccurate in hypothetical situations. Here we show a study in which we first presented a hypothetical schadenfreude situation and few months later, due to an exceptional circumstance, the situation turned out to happen in reality. This fortuitous circumstance allowed us to compare people’s imagined emotional reactions with their actual feelings. Results showed that schadenfreude was higher in the real situation than in the hypothetical one. More importantly, participants used different proxies to predict their emotional reaction: while out-group dislike served as a proxy of schadenfreude in both types of scenario, the degree of in-group identification also increased schadenfreude in those who had experienced the real event, arguably a mechanism to promote positive self-evaluation. These results highlight the importance of assessing schadenfreude in the heat of the moment.
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
Article
In this research, we explored and demonstrated a relatively implicit and covert means of undermining envied targets-namely, helping them in a way that retains their future dependence, rather than in a way that increases their autonomy. In four studies, we varied our envy manipulations, measured the extent to which these manipulations trigger malicious motivations, and examined the consequences in terms of intended (Studies 1-2) and actual (Studies 3-4) helping behaviors. In Study 4, we also measured and tested the role of individual differences in terms of proneness to malicious versus benign envy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the extent to which envy toward superior versus neutral peers activates malicious motivations negatively impacts peoples' willingness to provide these superior peers with help, particularly with autonomous help. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
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In this research, we explore and demonstrate a relatively implicit and covert means of undermining envied targets – namely, helping them in a way that retains their future dependence, rather than in a way that increases their autonomy. In four studies, we vary our envy manipulations, measure the extent to which these manipulations trigger malicious motivations, and examine the consequences in terms of intended (Studies 1-2) and actual (Studies 3-4) helping behaviors. In Study 4 we also measure and test the role of individual differences in terms of proneness to malicious versus benign envy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the extent to which envy toward superior versus neutral peers activates malicious motivations, negatively impacts peoples’ willingness to provide these superior peers with help, particularly with autonomous help.
... Another reason the wealthy might be judged more harshly is that even though people prefer high-status targets in some domains (e.g., Jost et al., 2004), the wealthy are envied (Fiske et al., 2002;see, Fiske, 2018, for a review) and resented (Piston, 2014). Because of this, perceivers might be especially willing or even eager to judge wealthy targets negatively when they do something wrong, in the same way they feel pleasure when envied or resented targets suffer misfortune (Feather, 1989;Feather & Sherman, 2002). ...
Article
Poor people are punished more frequently and more severely than are wealthy people for their transgressions, suggesting that an agent’s wealth affects how they are morally evaluated. To our knowledge, this has not been tested empirically. An initial study found that people expect the poor to be judged more harshly than the wealthy. Several other experiments consistently found that the reverse was true: Poor targets were judged as less immoral than wealthy targets for the same moral violations. Explanations of this wealth-based moral judgment gap were explored, including differences in descriptive/ prescriptive expectations, global anti-wealthy or pro-poor biases, and differences in how people understand and explain the behavior of wealthy and poor moral transgressors. Although the moral judgment gap is likely multiply determined, poor targets were consistently viewed as having better reasons than the wealthy to act badly. Thus, the immoral behavior of poor targets was attributed to situational factors and was discounted, whereas wealthy targets’ behavior was perceived as less excusable and was attributed primarily to bad moral character. A final study extended our findings to the domain of prosocial behavior. Consistent with a reasons-based explanation, poor targets were viewed as having better moral character than wealthy targets when their behavior benefited others, and wealthy targets were viewed as having more extrinsic reasons to behave prosocially.
... Second, the JL is arguably not a uniquely Scandinavian experience. To illustrate, the concept of 'tall poppy syndrome' is a term used in many Anglosphere nations to describe a social phenomenon in which successful people are resented, criticized and attacked -individuals are brought back down to size, after they become arrogant from performing better than their peers (Feather, 1989). This could indicate that Jante (and related) sentiments are better at explaining differences in trust at the individual level than at the contextual level, which agrees with our findings. ...
Article
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A widespread cultural phenomenon – and/or individual disposition – is the idea that one should never try to be more, try to be different, or consider oneself more valuable than other people. In Scandinavia this code of modesty is referred to as the ‘Jante mentality’, in Anglo-Saxon societies the ‘tall puppy syndrome’, and in Asian cultures ‘the nail that stands out gets hammered down’. The study reported here examines how this modesty code relates to generalized trust. We argue, prima facie, that a positive and a negative relationship are equally plausible. Representative samples of the Norwegian population were asked about their agreement with the Jante mentality and the extent to which they have trust in other people. Two population surveys were conducted; one measuring individual level associations and another measuring aggregate level associations. It was found that the relationship between having a Jante mentality and trust is negative, at both levels of analysis and, furthermore, that the Jante mentality – this modesty code assumed to be instilled in Scandinavians from early childhood – is a powerful predictor of generalized trust.
... The results from the first theme, identity and belonging, demonstrated how giftedness and talent occupied a marginalised position in gifted and talented girls' sociocultural fields as evidenced through popular culture and its negative associations with nerd status [55,56], and through New Zealand's tall poppy culture, which denounces outward displays of pride in one's intellectual successes [84,85]. As a result of such structural expectations, most participants adjusted their practices to distance themselves from the gifted and the talented label. ...
Article
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The field of gifted and talented studies has its origins in the intelligence quotient research of the late 19th and early 20th century. These psychological foundations remain a strong influence even though the field has since expanded to include other paradigms and greater diversity in conceptions of giftedness and talent. Some researchers argue that the field could benefit from greater interdisciplinary engagement, especially in studies of gifted and talented girls, which tend to include a focus on how gifted girls’ external environments influence their emotional worlds. This article proposes that concepts developed by critical sociologist Pierre Bourdieu are useful for expanding and deepening understandings of the internal and external worlds of gifted and talented girls. It offers evidence from a recent qualitative study with academically gifted and talented teenaged girls in New Zealand. The results highlighted the marginalised position of the gifted and talented identity and the privileging of identities that were based on dispositions versus innate ability. The study also identified a hierarchy of valued forms of capital within the teenage girl social landscape and a resulting theorisation of an empowered gifted and talented girl habitus. This article demonstrates how Bourdieu’s work is a constructive addition to the field.
... The "underdog effect" has been defined as a "tendency to support or root for an entity that is perceived as attempting to accomplish a difficult task, and that is not expected to succeed against an explicit or implicit advantaged opponent" (Kim et al., 2008(Kim et al., , p. 2551. Support for the underdog appears to be driven by affection for the "little guy," even though anti-corporate views toward big brands may exist simultaneously (see McGinnis and Gentry, 2009), and the desire to see undeserving top dogs fail (often called Schadenfreude) also exists (Feather, 1989;Heider, 1958). The underdog appeal or biography, as Paharia et al. (2011) find, can be especially effective when consumers are primed to think of their own underdog self-concept and appears more relevant in the decision-making process when consumers buy products for themselves. ...
Article
Purpose The understanding of the motives for consumers’ support of business underdogs is generally limited. The purpose of this paper is to help address this important research topic by conceptualizing underdog affection as a theoretical construct capturing the emotional attachment held by some consumers toward underdog business entities and advances two perspectives (self- and other-oriented) to unravel its motivational underpinnings. Design/methodology/approach To test the conceptual model, a survey study was conducted involving 365 respondents drawn from an electronic alumni association list from a medium-sized Midwestern university in the USA. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate the scales, and the structural equations modeling method was used to test the hypothesized effects. Findings The data support most of the hypotheses (eight out of nine). Under the self-oriented perspective, commerce underdog affection is positively influenced by underdog orientation, need for uniqueness, nostalgia proneness, and hope, and is negatively impacted by their materialism level. Only hope did not impact consumer underdog affection. Under the other-oriented perspective, balance maintenance, top dog antipathy, and empathic concern positively influence underdog affection. The other-oriented factors, especially top dog antipathy and balance maintenance, show stronger effects on commerce underdog affection than self-oriented factors. Research limitations/implications The sample was geographically restrictive in the sense that it measured only one group of respondents in the USA. The conceptual model is limited in terms of its coverage of the consequences of underdog affection. While discriminant validity is established in the scale development phase of the study, relatively close relationships do exist among some of these theoretical constructs. Practical implications Given the significant evidence linking consumers’ underdog affection to underdog support in commerce, small locally owned businesses could use underdog positioning advertising to differentiate themselves against national retailers. Due to their tendency to display higher underdog affection in commerce, people with higher levels of balance maintenance, top dog antipathy, underdog orientation, emphatic concern, and nostalgia proneness, and lower levels of materialism can be segmented for marketing purposes. Social implications This research indicates that there are ways in which small business entities and non-profits alike can operate in a business setting that is increasingly more competitive and challenging for underdog entities. Originality/value This study integrates the various underdog studies across contexts to examine motives to underdog affection, a construct not yet operationalized in business studies. In addition, hypotheses linking eight specific antecedents to commerce underdog affection, via two theoretical perspectives, are empirically examined to assess relative as well as absolute effects.
... Yet, belongingness may be a relatively more important basis for why people care about respect and social worth (see also, Simon & Stürmer, 2005), reinforcing the notion that the mechanisms of respect are closely tied to the needs and drives of the collective self. Notably, the combination of high competence and low liking from one's ingroup members elicits more negative affect than any other combination of competence and liking, perhaps because it threatens belongingness by creating a sense that one is superior and relatively disconnected from the group [i.e., a "tall poppy" phenomenon (Feather, 1989)]. ...
Article
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People care about the way that other members of their work groups and organizations view them, i.e., they care about their social worth or social reputation at work. These concerns are the foundation of two distinct lines of scholarly research: one on status and the other on respect. Yet, although the research literatures on people's sense of their own status and respect both explore the same fundamental concerns, they differ in their conceptual origins, theorized assumptions, motivational underpinnings, judgment processes, and in the group dynamics that they ascribe to social worth. Overall, the status and respect literatures provide differing images of the dynamics of individuals' social worth at work. However, these literatures have been largely disconnected from one another, and there have been relatively few systematic efforts to analyze their differences and similarities. We address this gap by reviewing and comparing the status and respect literatures. Our analysis leads us to conclude that, although status research and respect research are highly distinct, the two research areas ultimately investigate the same phenomenon and should be integrated more extensively. Moreover, our analysis highlights several limitations and gaps in prior research on status and respect. We suggest opportunities for integrating status and respect research and for developing a more complete understanding of the dynamics of social worth at work.
... The above skills are assessable either by observation in experiential environments or by accepted instruments, such as those named in the list below. Behaviors or characteristics and the attendant scale or approaches to assessing skills are • Self-efficacy: General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem 2000) • Personality assessment: MBTI® • Attitude toward achievement:Tall Poppy Scale (adapted) (Feather 1989 (Stoltz 1997) The above areas of assessment and development may be addressed using a model such as the one in Figure 2, an adaption of the TQM model of Plan, Do, Check,Act. Embedded in the model is Kolb's 4-state cycle of experiential learning which, throughout the cycle, moves from concrete experience, to reflective observation, to abstract conceptualization, to active experimentation (Kolb 2004, Sternberg 2001 Skills Development 5-Cycle Model demonstrates the process of improving on critical skills and has been used with good results in the classroom. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship education is rapidly growing, both in the number of schools offering programs and in the range of courses. But, survey data shows that entrepreneurship education is more likely to focus on how to evaluate business opportunities, write a business plan, present a proposal to investors, and conduct analytical exercises to determine value. The success of a venture begins with the entrepreneur, and as students become entrepreneurs, they will need to wear a variety of “hats” and serve as the primary finance, marketing, human resources, and operations person. High self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and well-developed interpersonal skills have been shown to equate to a firmʼs success.These skills are rarely polished and perfected in the classroom. But, because they are so critical, more concentration on their development is needed in the entrepreneurship curriculum. This article presents the case and provides a model for developing “Use of Self” skills in the entrepreneurship classroom.
... Past research has demonstrated the conditions under which schadenfreude is likely to emerge, such as when a person's suffering or downfall is viewed as deserved (Feather, 2006;Feather & Sherman, 2002; van Dijk, Goslinga, & Ouwerkerk, 2008). For example, people feel schadenfreude when wrongdoers (e.g., cheaters, liars, thieves, hypocrites) are justly punished because people believe that immoral individuals are responsible for their predicament and that they "had it coming" (Berndsen & Tiggemann, 2020;Brambilla & Riva, 2017;Feather, 1989;Powell & Smith, 2013). Schadenfreude may also emerge from observing misfortunes of envied individuals or disliked outgroup members, particularly in zero-sum competitive contexts (Cikara, Bruneau, Van Bavel, & Saxe, 2014;Hudson, Cikara, & Sidanius, 2019;Leach & Spears, 2009;van de Ven et al., 2015; van Dijk, Ouwerkerk, Goslinga, Nieweg, & Gallucci, 2006). ...
Article
When witnessing misfortunes, people sometimes react with schadenfreude—malicious pleasure at another's suffering. Previous research suggests that schadenfreude is elicited for competitors and envied targets, or when misfortunes seem deserved. Six experiments (five pre-registered, N-total = 3324) support a novel hypothesis that perceivers feel greater schadenfreude for social targets who endorse a strong general belief in a just world (BJW), even when misfortunes occur outside of the typical conditions that elicit schadenfreude. Experiments 1–2 show that people feel schadenfreude at the accidental misfortune of a person who expresses strong BJW, based in part on their misfortune seeming more deserved. Experiment 3 demonstrates the same effect for a wealthy, strong-BJW target who suffers a life-changing misfortune. In Experiment 4, we demonstrate that perceivers infer stronger BJW from a wealthy (vs. poor) person and that these inferences lead to increased perceptions that the misfortune was deserved, resulting in greater schadenfreude. Finally, Experiments 5–6 show that the effect of target BJW on schadenfreude via perceived deservingness is moderated by a target's financial status, such that endorsing strong BJW is particularly consequential for wealthy and middle-income targets. We conclude that even when people are not responsible for their predicaments, perceivers believe the misfortunes of people with strong just-world beliefs are more fitting and therefore derive more pleasure at their expense. The current research builds on and extends both schadenfreude and just-world belief literatures by documenting a unique antecedent of schadenfreude based on perceivers' inferences or knowledge regarding how someone generally views their world.
... Research suggests that this occurs because peer comparison information can lead to increased self-efficacy (Stajkovic andLuthans 1998, Larkin 2011) and higher individual effort on a task (Cohn et al. 2014), leading to improved performance. However, unfavorable social comparisons have been shown to lead to deception in the lab (Moran and Schweitzer 2008) and the field (Edelman and Larkin 2015), in part because they invoke negative emotions (Festinger 1954), such as resentment (Weiner 1986), low self-esteem (Tesser 1988), and envy (Feather 1989). However, this research is not specific to compensation incentives; existing research on unfavorable social comparisons in compensation has largely focused on comparisons about pay rather than performance. ...
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There are many factors that can affect academic success efforts of academics. In the study, it is aimed to determine the relationships between the ethical leadership behaviour of the managers, the loyalty of the academicians to their institutions and managers, and the behaviours of envy and jealousy to their colleagues. Within the framework of this purpose, a model was created and scale questions related to research variables were developed in the research conducted on 609 academicians. When the relationships in the research are examined; It has been seen that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a positive total effect on the academic success efforts of the academicians. It has been observed that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a positive effect on the loyalty of the academicians to both their institutions and their managers. It has been observed that the loyalty of academicians to their institutions has a positive effect on academic success efforts. It has been concluded that the jealousy behaviours of the academicians have a negative effect on their academic achievement efforts, while the envy behaviours have a positive effect. It has been observed that envy behaviour has a moderator effect on the effect of academics' loyalty to their institutions on their academic achievement efforts. In the research, it was concluded that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a mediating effect on the academic success efforts of the academicians, and the loyalty of the academicians to their institutions.
Article
There is ample evidence that families are important in supporting the development of giftedness in children. Although there has been a great deal of research addressing individual and school factors in promoting giftedness, the role of parents and caregivers is comparatively underresearched, particularly in Australia. This study investigated the ways in which parents supported their children’s development, drawing on the educational and learning capital framework within the Actiotope Model of Giftedness. A qualitative design was adopted and semistructured interviews were conducted with 32 parents and caregivers. The data demonstrated that parents draw on all 10 educational and learning resources in creating favorable environments to support their children’s development.
Article
The tall poppy syndrome (TPS) is a culturally specific term defined as the “habit of denigrating or ‘cutting down’ those who are successful or who are high achievers”. The purpose of this study was to understand TPS from the perspective of elite New Zealand athletes. Specifically, this study sought to gain elite athletes’ perceptions of whether TPS exists and how it influences New Zealand sporting culture, their personal experiences of being a target of TPS, and how they personally responded to being a target of TPS. Nine current and 11 former New Zealand athletes were interviewed who had competed at Olympic, Commonwealth, or World Championship events. Athletes suggested that TPS was infused throughout society and influenced how the public celebrated winners and viewed success. Athletes believed they had been targets of TPS and viewed it both a positive and negative influence on athlete development. TPS-related criticisms were seen as providing motivation for hard work by some athletes, while others identified the successful use of self-regulation skills and coping strategies to respond to TPS criticisms. How an athlete responded to TPS-related criticisms appeared to be more important than the actual experience of being a tall poppy target. Practical implications and recommendations are presented to highlight the need to better understand socio-cultural influences on athletic talent and career development and to prepare for related challenges.
Article
We examine the impact of consumers' competitive tendencies on responses to comparative advertising appeals and the underlying role of schadenfreude: pleasure derived from the misfortunes of others. Consistent with our theory that the depiction of others' misfortunes is compatible with more-competitive consumers' concerns for distinguishing themselves via competition, our studies show that comparative ads are associated with greater schadenfreude, as well as more favorable attitudes and a greater willingness to pay (WTP), among more- (versus less-) competitive consumers. Further results indicate that such relatively more favorable responses among consumers with greater competitive tendencies are limited to comparative ads depicting misfortunes involving brands whose choice is more deserving of failure (i.e., lower-quality brands). Importantly, even less-competitive consumers are revealed to respond favorably to comparative ads and to experience more schadenfreude when they are assured that they will not suffer the depicted misfortune.
Article
In this article, we examine the phenomenon of Tall Poppy syndrome (TPS) in relation to entrepreneurship in New Zealand. TPS is based on the concept that some peoples’ success elevates or distinguishes them from others, resulting in envy from others. TPS has been highlighted as an important element of New Zealand’s culture. This may clash with government initiatives, which often focus on building a high profile for aspirant entrepreneurs. In this article, we carry out a qualitative study into 11 such ‘celebrity’ entrepreneurs in New Zealand. The key question of our study is how being held up as a celebrity affects their practice. By introducing the celebrity element into our study, we contribute further understanding about the processes of social legitimacy for entrepreneurs. This has important implications for policy and practice, because if entrepreneurs are ‘allowed’ to be successful, this may encourage them to influence another generation of entrepreneurs to challenge TPS.
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Cambridge Core - Psychology: General Interest - Abnormal Psychology in Context - by Nadine Pelling
Article
Past research on jealousy and envy has focused primarily on dyadic interpersonal relationships; little is known about the perception and expression of such emotions within small groups. The expression of jealousy and envy can impact group dynamics, group outcomes, and interactions between group members. Our review examines literature on jealousy and envy within small groups, uncovering the primary focus of past research, identifying research gaps, and providing recommendations for future research. The social-functional approach to emotions provides a unifying theoretical framework for understanding jealousy and envy in small groups. We encourage future research to focus on bona fide groups, romantic relationships within peer/social groups, consensually non-monogamous and polyamorous romantic relationships, and organizational groups, and to utilize a social comparison perspective.
Chapter
Two salient discourses pattern much of New Zealand political discussion: egalitarianism and its levelling mechanism ‘tall poppy’ (the desire to ‘cut down’ those perceived as boastful). These discourses, however, do not seem to align with social reality (i.e., rising inequality) and this tension affects political identity genesis as it plays out in interaction. This chapter proposes novel conceptual models of Kiwi egalitarianism and tall poppy that can aid in the examination of their instantiation in talk.
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This chapter discusses mobbing as a predictable institutional disorder with significant community effect. Academic departments are particularly vulnerable as contexts where conflicting motivations and tacit power differentials may allow undetectable and infectious incivility, and while there are research tools to measure experience, there are few effective practical campus-based strategies to monitor these issues. The authors explore mobbing through the lenses of epidemiology, public health, and organizational psychology. As part of this exploration the terms “mobbable” and “mobbability” are proposed, connoting the degree of incivility tolerated in the workplace climate, people's and institution's vulnerabilities, and the potential for improved capacity surrounding mobbing prevention. Outlining a story of academic mobbing, the chapter highlights contributing factors at both personal and organizational levels. The authors close with practical suggestions for recognizing symptoms and opportunities.
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Despite organizations' professed commitment to fairness, thousands of employees file race-based discrimination claims every year. The current article examines how people deviate from impartiality when evaluating candidates in hiring decisions. Researchers have argued the ideological endorsement of elitism (i.e., scoring high in social dominance orientation) can lead to discrimination against racial minorities. We examined whether an opposing ideological commitment-egalitarianism-can also produce partiality, but in favor of minority applicants. Inspired by dual processing models and Nietzsche's philosophical theorizing, we also forwarded and tested a novel, affective predictor of racial biases in evaluation: ressentiment toward the socially powerful. Across 4 studies, we found evaluators' ideologies and ressentiment independently shaped evaluations of equally qualified candidates in hiring contexts. Participants who endorsed elitism showed a preference for White candidates, whereas those who endorsed egalitarianism evaluated Black candidates more favorably. Individuals who experienced stronger ressentiment toward the social elite also preferred Black over White applicants. Studies 3 and 4 tested and supported a novel intervention-inducing a calculative mindset-as a method for attenuating evaluators' ideological and ressentiment driven impartiality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
The Tall Poppy Scale was used to examine individual differences in: 1) the appreciation of high achievers; 2) associated online behaviours. A sample of 165 New Zealand Europeans completed a decisional self-esteem scale and the Favour Reward and Favour Fall scales. Participants were then offered a debrief screen providing information about achievements or failures, and their interactions with the debrief screen were tracked. Participants with lower decisional self-esteem preferred that high achievers failed. Those expressing an interest in the failure of high achievers spent more time and clicked more on the debrief screen. Schadenfreude – interest (or pleasure) in the misfortune of others - was demonstrated behaviourally online.
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The aim of this research is to strive for academic success; The aim of this study is to examine the ethical leadership behavior of the manager within the framework of the variables of loyalty to the manager and academic jealousy. Academic and administrative activities carried out by academicians at universities can shape academic success efforts in terms of their performance. It is thought that the ethical leadership behavior of the managers, loyalty to the manager and the institution, and jealousy of their colleagues, which are recommended to be taken into account in their organizations while academicians carry out their activities, may have important effects. The research was carried out on 609 academicians operating in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The convenience sampling method was preferred in the study. According to the findings, while the ethical leadership behavior of the manager, loyalty to the manager, and loyalty to the institution variables contributed to the academic success effort, academic jealousy behavior had a reducing effect. The ethical leadership behavior of the administrator has made significant contributions to both the administrator's loyalty and the institutional loyalty of the academician. It has been observed that loyalty to the manager and loyalty to the institution reduce jealousy behavior. In the study, it was also concluded that the administrator loyalty and corporate loyalty of the academicians have important mediating effects according to the model.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The aim of this research is to strive for academic success; The aim of this study is to examine the ethical leadership behavior of the manager within the framework of the variables of loyalty to the manager and academic jealousy. Academic and administrative activities carried out by academicians at universities can shape academic success efforts in terms of their performance. It is thought that the ethical leadership behavior of the managers, loyalty to the manager and the institution, and jealousy of their colleagues, which are recommended to be taken into account in their organizations while academicians carry out their activities, may have important effects. The research was carried out on 609 academicians operating in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The convenience sampling method was preferred in the study. According to the findings, while the ethical leadership behavior of the manager, loyalty to the manager, and loyalty to the institution variables contributed to the academic success effort, academic jealousy behavior had a reducing effect. The ethical leadership behavior of the administrator has made significant contributions to both the administrator's loyalty and the institutional loyalty of the academician. It has been observed that loyalty to the manager and loyalty to the institution reduce jealousy behavior. In the study, it was also concluded that the administrator loyalty and corporate loyalty of the academicians have important mediating effects according to the model. Keywords: Academic Success Effort, Ethical Leadership Behavior, Loyalty to the Manager, Corporate Loyalty, Academic Jealousy
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to strive for academic success; The aim of this study is to examine the ethical leadership behavior of the manager within the framework of the variables of loyalty to the manager and academic jealousy. Academic and administrative activities carried out by academicians at universities can shape academic success efforts in terms of their performance. It is thought that the ethical leadership behavior of the managers, loyalty to the manager and the institution, and jealousy of their colleagues, which are recommended to be taken into account in their organizations while academicians carry out their activities, may have important effects. The research was carried out on 609 academicians operating in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The convenience sampling method was preferred in the study. According to the findings, while the ethical leadership behavior of the manager, loyalty to the manager, and loyalty to the institution variables contributed to the academic success effort, academic jealousy behavior had a reducing effect. The ethical leadership behavior of the administrator has made significant contributions to both the administrator's loyalty and the institutional loyalty of the academician. It has been observed that loyalty to the manager and loyalty to the institution reduce jealousy behavior. In the study, it was also concluded that the administrator loyalty and corporate loyalty of the academicians have important mediating effects according to the model.
Book
This book provides a reconstruction of Aristotelian character education, shedding new light on what moral character really is, and how it can be highlighted, measured, nurtured and taught in current schooling. Arguing that many recent approaches to character education understand character in exclusively amoral, instrumentalist terms, Kristjánsson proposes a coherent, plausible and up-to-date concept, retaining the overall structure of Aristotelian character education. After discussing and debunking popular myths about Aristotelian character education, subsequent chapters focus on the practical ramifications and methodologies of character education. These include measuring virtue and morality, asking whether Aristotelian character education can salvage the effects of bad upbringing, and considering implications for teacher training and classroom practice. The book rejuvenates time-honoured principles of the development of virtues in young people, at a time when 'character' features prominently in educational agendas and parental concerns over school education systems. Offering an interdisciplinary perspective which draws from the disciplines of education, psychology, philosophy and sociology, this book will appeal to researchers, academics and students wanting a greater insight into character education.
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Luxury brand counterfeiting is illegal and its harmful effects on genuine brands and on the wider society are well known. Nonetheless, it has not prevented consumers to buy copies. This study introduces a new variable, Schadenfreude – the pleasure felt in response to another's misfortune – and examines how this emotion relates to the intention to purchase a counterfeit, the attitude toward the original brand, and the attitude toward the counterfeit. An online questionnaire was completed by 420 respondents who were presented a scenario involving the Louis Vuitton brand and a counterfeit. Using structural equation modeling, four hypotheses were supported. Major findings show that Schadenfreude is positively correlated with the intention to buy and the attitude toward counterfeiting and negatively correlated with the attitude toward the original brand. Luxury goods firms should be aware of the potential negative effects of Schadenfreude.
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For a long time I have had the gnawing desire to convey the broad motivational sig nificance of the attributional conception that I have espoused and to present fully the argument that this framework has earned a rightful place alongside other leading theories of motivation. Furthermore, recent investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of affect, thus providing the impetus to embark upon a detailed discussion of emotion and to elucidate the relation between emotion and motivation from an attributional perspective. The presentation of a unified theory of motivation and emotion is the goal of this book. My more specific aims in the chapters to follow are to: 1) Outline the basic princi ples that I believe characterize an adequate theory of motivation; 2) Convey what I perceive to be the conceptual contributions of the perspective advocated by my col leagues and me; 3) Summarize the empirical relations, reach some definitive con clusions, and point out the more equivocal empirical associations based on hypotheses derived from our particular attribution theory; and 4) Clarify questions that have been raised about this conception and provide new material for still further scrutiny. In so doing, the building blocks (if any) laid down by the attributional con ception will be readily identified and unknown juries of present and future peers can then better determine the value of this scientific product."
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The individualism and collectivism constructs are theoretically analyzed and linked to certain hypothesized consequences (social behaviors, health indices). Study 1 explores the meaning of these constructs within culture (in the US), identifying the individual-differences variable, idiocentrism versus allocentrism, that corresponds to the constructs. Factor analyses of responses to items related to the constructs suggest that US individualism is reflected in (a) Self-Reliance With Competition, (b) Low Concern for Ingroups, and (c) Distance from Ingroups. A higher order factor analysis suggests that Subordination of Ingroup Goals to Personal Goals may be the most important aspect of US individualism. Study 2 probes the limits of the constructs with data from two collectivist samples (Japan and Puerto Rico) and one individualist sample (Illinois) of students. It is shown that responses depend on who the other is (i.e., which ingroup), the context, and the kind of social behavior (e.g., feel similar to other, attentive to the views of others). Study 3 replicates previous work in Puerto Rico indicating that allocentric persons perceive that they receive more and a better quality of social support than do idiocentric persons, while the latter report being more lonely than the former. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The universality of S. H. Schwartz and W. Bilsky's (see record 1988-01444-001) theory of the psychological content and structure of human values was examined with data from Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Spain, and the United States. Smallest space analyses of the importance ratings that individuals assigned to values revealed the same 7 distinct motivational types of values in each sample as had emerged earlier in samples from Germany and Israel: achievement, enjoyment, maturity, prosocial, restrictive conformity, security, self-direction. Social power, studied only in Hong Kong, also emerged. The structural relations among the value types suggest that the motivational dynamics underlying people's value priorities are similar across the societies studied, with an exception in Hong Kong. The interests that values serve (individual vs. collective) and their goal type (instrumental vs. terminal) also distinguished values in all samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The theory of relative deprivation (RD) offers an instructive special case of Tajfel's CIC theory. Six focal issues characterize the current state of RD theory: (1) the egoistic–fraternalistic distinction, (2) measurement level, (3) the cognitive–affective distinction, (4) the absolute–relative distinction, (5) specification of the referent, and (6) specification of the compared dimensions. Each issue is discussed and possible resolutions suggested.
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We constructed a theory of the universal types of values as criteria by viewing values as cognitive representations of three universal requirements: (a) biological needs, (b) interactional requirements for interpersonal coordination, and (c) societal demands for group welfare and survival. From these requirements, we have derived and presented conceptual and operational definitions for eight motivational domains of values: enjoyment, security, social power, achievement, self-direction, prosocial, restrictive conformity, and maturity. In addition, we have mapped values according to the interests they serve (individualistic vs. collectivist) and the type of goal to which they refer (terminal vs. instrumental). We postulated that the structural organization of value systems reflects the degree to which giving high priority simultaneously to different values is motivationally and practically feasible or contradictory. To test our theory, we performed smallest space analyses on ratings given by subjects from Israel (N = 455) and Germany (N = 331) of the importance of 36 Rokeach values as guiding principles in their lives. Partitioning of the obtained multidimensional space into regions revealed that people do indeed discriminate among values according to our a priori specifications of goal types, interests served, and motivational domains in both societies. Moreover, the motivational domains of values are organized dynamically in relation to one another in both societies, as predicted by the patterns of compatible or contradictory motivation and practical consequences. We have noted additional values and domains possibly needed for a universal scheme as well as potential applications of this approach for comparing the meanings, structure, and importance of values across cultures, for analyzing relations between social structure and values, and for predicting and interpreting relations of values to attitudes and behavior.
Chapter
There are many ways to conduct research. Choice of topic, data collecting techniques, and analytical procedures derive from the training, traditions, predilections of, and the practical restraints acting upon the investigator. Choosing the facet approach requires a shift in thinking, an imaginative leap even, not only in the conception of the research problem but also in the design and execution of the inquiry.
Chapter
Relative deprivation and equity theory are the two major social psychological approaches to the study of felt distributive injustice. Both theories postulate its antecedent conditions, emotional concomitants, and behavioral consequences. Both theories assert that not having and deserving something are preconditions of felt unjust deprivation; that resentment, anger, and dissatisfaction are among its emotional concomitants, and that the experience of unjust deprivation leads to behaviors aimed at eliminating it.1
Chapter
For a number of years now, I have been interested in the conceptual analysis and investigation of human values. I began a program of research that commenced in the late 1960s and has continued ever since. In this program, I have looked at a wide range of topics that include the measurement of values and value systems, similarities and differences in value priorities across different segments of Australian society and across different cultures, the comparison of value systems between parents and their children, the value priorities of special groups such as juvenile offenders and student activists, the relationship between attitudes and values, and the consequences for the person of discrepancies between personal value systems and the value systems that defined environments such as the school or the work situation are perceived to promote. The results of the first phase of my work in this area were brought together in Values in Education and Society (Feather, 1975), a book that was particularly concerned with studies that mapped values in different groups and with studies that investigated the effects of person-environment discrepancies in value systems. The program of research has continued to be an active one. Since the 1975 book, I have built on the foundations laid down in that volume and have also followed some new directions.
Article
Responses to attitude and activity preference surveys were compared for the degrees of real and perceived similarity within male (n = 13) and female (n = 11) friendship pairs. Activity preference similarity was substantially greater than attitudinal similarity, in fact: friends' attitudinal similarity was no greater than strangers'; individuals were able to predict the friend's responses to the activity survey more accurately than to the attitude survey; and activity similarity was a better predictor of liking than was attitudinal similarity. The findings were the same for males and females. These results suggest that the opportunity to engage in mutually pleasurable activities may be a stronger motive in friendship choice and friendship maintenance than is the satisfaction of knowing the friend agrees with you.
Article
A theory of the features of situations and behavior which underlie actors' perceptions of envy was developed from a consideration of envy as a "sin"- a type of transgression of a moral order. The contextual component of envy was hypothesized to be a situation in which someone's possessions, attributes, and attainments have diminished another's status. In such a situation if the person diminished is seen to belittle the character of the successful person, or undercut his success, envy will be perceived. Seven variants were constructed of a scenario in which an individual achieved a valued goal, and another did not. In the basic scenario all of the theory's preconditions for envy were met. In each of the six other variants, one precondition was altered. Of subjects who saw the basic scenario, 92% spontaneously interpreted the character's feelings as envy. In four of the other variants, reliably fewer subjects perceived envy.
Article
Culture influences both individual behavior and how businesses operate. Those working in both the business and policy arenas must understand other cultures and avoid ethnocentrism. Culture is defined as the "collective programming of the mind"; in the modern context it exists within national borders. Using data from surveys of employees in 40 countries at the HERMES Corporation in 1968 and 1972, four categories of cultural difference become clear and useful: power distance; uncertainty avoidance individualism; and masculinity. These categories are then correlated not only with one another, but with other available data. Sex differentiation is the final dimension of cultural difference in this analysis. These four dimensions of national culture describe the human condition. Some of them correlate with one another. Analyzing the correlations between the various indices allows the clustering of these 40 countries with similar statistics into 8 groups: More and Less Developed Latin and Asian, Near-Eastern, Germanic, Anglo and Nordic. Because the HERMES data was collected at two different points, 1968 and 1972, it can show change over time. While scientific discoveries can effect cultural change, not every culture will become increasingly similar. Different cultures will follow different trends, though some trends will be global. There was a worldwide decrease in desired power difference and in elevations of stress and both the Individualism Index (IDV) and Masculinity Index (MAS) grew during this period. Speculation on long term trends is provided, suggesting that the IDV will rise and the Power Distance Index norm will fall as long as national wealth increases; the Uncertainty Avoidance Index will fluctuate as people age, and MAS will remain constant as time passes. Organizations are bound by the cultures that created them, with consequences for cultural relativity for a number of areas: motivation; leadership; decision-making; planning and control; organization design; development; humanization of work; industrial democracy; company ownership and control; and the reaction of the local environment to the organization. Possible training strategies for multi-national and multi-cultural corporations are included and the Values Survey Module is introduced, shortening and improving upon the original HERMES survey in the hope that research on cultural difference will continue. (RAS)
Article
The present research explores the relation between similarity, on the one hand, and interpersonal attraction and personality trait inference, on the other. The multidimensionality of these constructs was considered in terms of two general dimensions of first impressions, social and intellectual. In a 2 × 2 design, subjects were asked to form first impressions of a target person who was similar or dissimilar to them in terms of both attitudes and activity preferences. The results indicated that both attitude and activity preference similarity affected judgments of attraction. However, activity similarity was especially predictive of liking judgments, while attitude similarity was especially predictive of respect judgments. This differential effect was even more pronounced for the inference of personality traits. Activity preference similarity especially influenced inferences of socially desirable traits, while attitude similarity especially affected inferences of intellectually desirable traits. The implications of these results for inferential relations in impression formation are discussed, and potential moderators of such relations are considered.
Article
• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
80 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 experimental conditions in which they received either positive or negative feedback on a bogus personality test that was either self-definitionally relevant or irrelevant, followed by feedback of successful performance by another person in a domain that was either relevant or irrelevant to the S. Dependent measures included scores on the Depression Adjective Check Lists and the State scale of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Significantly greater jealousy of the other person was reported in the condition in which the S received negative feedback regarding own performance on a self-involving characteristic, and in which the successful performance of the other was on the same characteristic. Ss in this condition were more likely to disparage the rival and less likely to desire his or her friendship. In addition, these Ss tended to feel more depressed and anxious about interacting with the comparison person. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses educational, societal, and cross-cultural value systems; value differences between age, sex, and income groups; and values of special groups (e.g., student activists, juvenile offenders, and immigrants); and emphasizes particularly the "ecology of values"--how different value systems interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Stepwise multiple regression analyses that involved measures of value importance, age, sex, education, and income as the independent variables were conducted. It was hypothesized that conservative people would emphasize values concerned with attachment to rules and authority and ego defense (e.g., security, cleanliness, obedience) and downgrade values concerned with equality, freedom, love, and pleasure as well as open-minded, intellectual, and imaginative modes of thought. This hypothesis was confirmed by the results from 2 independent surveys involving families in metropolitan Adelaide, Australia, (Sample 1, 1972) and the families of students at a university (Sample 2, 1976–1977). Ss in both samples completed the Rokeach Value Survey and the Wilson-Patterson Conservation Scale and provided background and demographic information. In addition to the values, age, and sex were significant predictors, with older respondents tending to be more conservative than younger ones and females more conservative than males. Education and income of the heads (Sample 1) and fathers (Sample 2) of families played a minor role in prediction. Results support both the cognitive learning and psychodynamic explanations of value–attitude relationships. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Administered the Protestant Ethic Scale, the Conservatism Scale, and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) to 140 undergraduates to determine if Ss with a strong Protestant Ethic value (the "work ethic") also tended to have conservative social attitudes. Results show a significant postive relationship between scores on the 2 measures. Scores on both tests were also associated with the relative importance assigned to some of the terminal and instrumental values (positively to salvation, obedience, and self-control; negatively to world of beauty, mature love, being broad-minded, and imaginative) from the RVS. It is suggested that part of the causal fabric underlying economic development might involve some conservative respect for predictability, discipline, and order and that the findings support the thesis of M. Weber (1904–1905 [translated by T. Parsons, 1976]) that economic development is linked to Protestant Ethic values. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article reviews cross-cultural studies from the Flinders University research program on values that have involved use of the Rokeach Value Survey. These studies fall into two main classes: (a) comparisons of Australian value priorities with those of other countries, and (b) research into the value priorities of different ethnic groups within Australia as part of an interest in migrant assimilation. The Rokeach Value Survey is described and modifications to it are noted; analytic procedures based upon individual data and group data are discussed with examples; and questions of cross-cultural appropriateness and equivalence are addressed. The interpretation of value differences across cultures is discussed with specific reference to findings from student samples from Australia, Papua New Guinea, and China.
Article
This article is concerned with the relation between values and actions. Theoretical approaches to this issue are considered that are based upon cognitive-developmental theory and social learning theory. The preferred theoretical approach is by way of expectancy-value theory with the addition of the key assumption that a person's values, once engaged, induce valences (or positive and negative subjective values) on actions and their possible outcomes and future consequences. Actions are assumed to occur in relation to these induced valences and the person's expectations about the likelihood of achieving the outcomes and future consequences. Three recent studies are described that apply this general approach in three different contexts: assisting a social movement organisation, seeking employment, and selecting an academic course. Future directions for research are suggested that include more detailed conceptual and empirical analyses of expectations, valences and their combination, and the incorporation of recent developments in the psychology of volition and action control.
Article
The paper describes a program of cross-cultural research on children's use of decision rules to resolve competing claims by group majorities and minorities. The prediction that the cultural dimension of collectivism-individualism (Hofstede, 1980) influences the rules and principles children follow in determining majority versus minority rights and allocations is supported by classroom experiments in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Israel. Children in collectivist cultures are more likely to use the equal say or turn taking rule in resolving majority and minority claims. Children in individualist cultures are more likely to follow majority rule or self-interest in resolving majority and minority claims. Majorities and minorities differ in the decision rules and distribution principles they favour to protect their interests, with minorities especially prone to make disproportionate claims. Proposals for cross-cultural research are made, including studies of the effects of variations in the relative size of competing majority and minority groups, variations in the nature of the out-group (e.g., genuine or artificially created; own classroom or other classroom), and influence of decision rule on subsequent distribution of resources between groups.
Article
Families and businesses have often been treated as naturally separate institutions, whereas we argue that they are inextricably intertwined. Long-term changes in family composition and in the roles and relations of family members have produced families in North America that are growing smaller and losing many of their previous role relationships. Such transformations in the institution of the family have implications for the emergence of new business opportunities, opportunity recognition, business start-up decisions, and the resource mobilization process. We suggest that entrepreneurship scholars would benefit from a family embeddedness perspective on new venture creation.
Article
LetA 1,A 2, ...,A n be anyn objects, such as variables, categories, people, social groups, ideas, physical objects, or any other. The empirical data to be analyzed are coefficients of similarity or distance within pairs (A i,A i ), such as correlation coefficients, conditional probabilities or likelihoods, psychological choice or confusion, etc. It is desired to represent these data parsimoniously in a coordinate space, by calculatingm coordinates {x ia } for eachA i for a semi-metricd of preassigned formd ij =d(|x i1 -x j1 |, |x i2 -x j2|, ..., |x im -x jm |). The dimensionalitym is sought to be as small as possible, yet satisfy the monotonicity condition thatd ij d kl whenever the observed data indicate thatA i is closer toA j thanA k is toA l . Minkowski and Euclidean spaces are special metric examples ofd. A general coefficient of monotonicity is defined, whose maximization is equivalent to optimal satisfaction of the monotonicity condition, and which allows various options both for treatment of ties and for weighting error-of-fit. A general rationale for algorithm construction is derived for maximizing by gradient-guided iterations; this provides a unified mathematical solution to the basic operational problems of norming the gradient to assure proper convergence, of trading between speed and robustness against undesired stationary values, and of a rational first approximation. Distinction is made between single-phase (quadratic) and two-phase (bilinear) strategies for algorithm construction, and between hard-squeeze and soft-squeeze tactics within these strategies. Special reference is made to the rank-image and related transformational principles, as executed by current Guttman-Lingoes families of computer programs.
Article
Studied the effects on liking for a stimulus person in a 3 * 2 * 2 factorial design varying 120 male undergraduates' self-esteem stimulus-person competence, and the presence or absence of a pratfall by the stimulus person. The competent stimulus person with or without a pratfall was found to be significantly more attractive than his incompetent counterpart. However, Ss of average self-esteem found the attractiveness of a competent person enhanced significantly if he experienced a pratfall, while Ss of high and low self-esteem were significantly more attracted to the superior when he did not blunder. A pratfall did not significantly affect liking for the incompetent stimulus person by any of the self-esteem groups. Ss of low self-esteem volunteered at a higher rate for experimentation than those of high or average self-esteem.
Article
"The relationship between leadership, followership, and friendship peer nominations was studied within eight sections of Naval Aviation Cadets, N = 187 . . ... From the results it may be concluded that peer nominations on leadership are by no means a total function of friendship ties; quite the contrary, friendship appears to play only a minor role in the emergence of leadership nominations. Furthermore, followership status is not necessarily implied by nonleadership status on peer nominations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Social comparison jealousy A developmental and motivational study
  • S A Bers
  • J Rodin
Task roles and social roles in problem solving groups
  • R F Bales
A theory of achievement motivation
  • J W Atkinson
  • N T Feather
The sense of injustice: Social psychological perspectives
  • F Crosby
  • A M Gonzales-Intal
Social comparison processes: Theoretical and approaches
  • G R Goethals
  • J M Darley
Australian national dictionary
  • W S Ramson
Interpersonal attraction
  • E Berscheid
  • E Walster
Social comparison processes: Theoretical and empirical perspectives
  • T D Cook
  • F Crosby
  • K M Hennigan
Australian psychology: Review of research . Sydney: Allen & Unwin
  • N T Feather
Australia . London: Ernest Benn
  • W K Hancock
The nature of human values
  • M Rokeach
Authoritarian personality in contemporary perspective
  • R N Sanford
The psychology of conservation
  • G D Wilson