Article

Attitudes towards the high achiever: The fall of the Tall Poppy

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Abstract

Three studies are reported that concerna attitudes towards a person in a high position (the tall poppy) and towards, the tall poppy's fall. The studies were developed in relation to theoretical analyses concerned with value systems, envy, social comparison, and other psychological processes. In Study 1,531 students in South Australian high schools responded to scenarios in which either a high achiever or an average achiever experienced failure. Results showed that subjects reported feeling more pleased about a high achiever's fall than about an average achiever's fall, more pleased when a high achiever fell to the average position on the performance scale rather than to the bottom, and more pleased and friendly towards a high achiever who fell to the average position than towards an average achiever who fell to the bottom. In Study 2, 361 university students responded to scenarios in which a high achiever or an average achiever cheated at an examination. Results showed that the students were more punitive towards the high achiever who transgressed than towards the average achiever and more pleased about the high achiever's fall. In Study 3, 205 adult subjects completed a Tall Poppy Scale, an extended version of the Rokeach Value Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a measure of political preference. Results for a global measure of tall poppy attitudes indicated that negative attitudes were more likely to occur among subjects who were low in global self-esteem, who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and social power, and who were more to the left in their political preference.

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... The many studies concerned with tall poppies in Australia and in other countries have been reviewed elsewhere (Feather, 1994(Feather, , 1996b(Feather, , 1999. These studies showed that in general individuals did not want tall poppies to fall or to be "cut down to size" (Feather, 1989). Their attitudes depended on how the tall poppy presented themselves to others (e.g., boastful and self-centered versus humble and unassuming) and whether the tall poppy was perceived to deserve their high position or not. ...
... Also investigated were the effects of the values held by those doing the judging, their level of self-esteem, political preference (left-wing versus right-wing), and their level of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Overall, findings suggested that those who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and power and more importance to equality (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1994(Feather, , 1996a, individuals with lower levels of self-esteem (Feather, 1989), those with a preference for left-wing political parties (Feather, 1989), higher on some facets of RWA (i.e., authoritarian aggression and submission), but lower on others (i.e., conventionalism ;Feather, 1993) were more likely to favor the fall of the tall poppy. ...
... Also investigated were the effects of the values held by those doing the judging, their level of self-esteem, political preference (left-wing versus right-wing), and their level of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Overall, findings suggested that those who assigned less importance to values concerned with achievement and power and more importance to equality (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1994(Feather, , 1996a, individuals with lower levels of self-esteem (Feather, 1989), those with a preference for left-wing political parties (Feather, 1989), higher on some facets of RWA (i.e., authoritarian aggression and submission), but lower on others (i.e., conventionalism ;Feather, 1993) were more likely to favor the fall of the tall poppy. ...
Article
Individuals occupying high-status positions are sometimes victims of the tall poppy syndrome where people want to see them cut down to size. These attitudes reflect a tension between achievement, authority, and equality. In a pre-registered study (Study 1: N = 47,951), and a replication (Study 2: N = 5,569), of two representative New Zealand samples we investigated how social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, political ideologies and self-esteem predicted favoring the fall of the tall poppy. Novel findings showed individuals high in social dominance orientation favored the fall of the tall poppy. In both studies, high authoritarian aggression and submission, and low conventionalism (in Study 1 only) were also associated with negative tall poppy attitudes. So too were individuals with lower self-esteem and who were less conservative in their political ideology. These findings advance our understanding of how group-based hierarchy and inequality relate to attitudes toward individuals in high-status positions. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Во социопсихолошката литература овој термин се појавил пред околу 20 години. Прв пат бил истражуван од Федер (Feather, 1989). Во неговите истражувања Федер тргнал од неколку теориски идеи. ...
... Дури и повеќе, лицата што изгледаат перфектни, може да бидат помалку сакани од лицата што покажуваат човечки мани (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966). Исто така, Федер (Feather, 1989) наведува дека постои тенденција лицата со високи постигнувања да се обезвредат. Петерс објаснува дека станува збор за завидувачка околина во која што лицата што се натпреваруваат, на пример, за повисоко работно место или награда, бараат начини нивните директни ривали да се елиминираат (Peeters, 2003). ...
... Федер (Feather, 1989) прв го поставил прашањето како ги перципираме високите булки на кои им се случил брз пад на популарноста, на пример, кога важен политичар ќе даде непрoмислена изјава, кога успешен бизнисмен ќе направи груба повреда на законот, или кога добар студент ќе падне на испит. Тоа има за последица промена на нивниот статус. ...
... There are innumerable possibilities as to why it took so long for such legislation to emerge in Australia. One may be Australia's anti-intellectual culture combined with the tall poppy syndrome seen in public discourse around displays of achievement that is associated with giftedness (Feathers, 1989;Geake & Gross, 2008). Writing 5 years before CSCA was passed into law, Blandy (1968) connected Australia's anti-intellectual culture to the social and political movements of 19th-century Europe when Australia was developing its own identity separate from that of the motherland, England. ...
... Thus, the social justice and egalitarianism present in European political movements of this particular era are the underpinnings of the Australian concept of a "fair go." Intellectualism (and potentially giftedness) has been viewed as going against these ideals and thus had suspicion cast upon those who displayed these behaviors (Feathers, 1989;Smith & West, 2003). ...
Article
Gifted education as a field of research in Australia is relatively young when compared with its North American counterparts. A reflection of how the field of gifted education has developed from 1983 to 2017 in this context allows for observations of previous research and current trends, and how these may influence future directions for the field. Empirical research published in peer-reviewed journals is one metric that can be used to undertake this reflection, including the individuals responsible for the research, the setting where the research is undertaken, and outlets where resulting findings are published, as well as the research themes that dominate research agendas. Longitudinally, these metrics are part of the narrative that construct Australian gifted education. Reflecting on how the field developed provides an understanding of how research and practice have evolved and what future research and innovations are possible. Development of a Field of Study Developing a field of study as a discrete area of research requires the achievement of a number of key milestones. Although a checklist for researchers to consult in the development and growth of their particular area of study does not exist, the research literature does offer milestone examples identified as being essential for a field of study to evidence signs of growth and become recognized more broadly.
... Hostile feelings are less observed in others species and originate from multiple sources. Emerging research in the field of schadenfreude supported relations with envy (Feather, 1989, Brigham et al., 1997Smith et al., 1996;Van Dijk et al.,2006;Sundie et al., 2009;Takahashi et al., 2009), anger/hate (Hareli and Weiner, 2002), disliked person (van dijk et al, 2005), resentment (Feather & Sherman, 2002), sympathy (Schindler et al., 2015) and even included importance to the self (Ortony et al., 1988;Leach et al., 2003). ...
... whether the participant cheers for the target team versus for a rival team) and a praise manipulation was implemented so that the consumers either see or do not praise the target team when they are making a bet. The praise manipulation results from the empirical evidence that envy represents one of the potential antecedents of schadenfreude (Feather, 1989, Brigham et al., 1997Smith et al., 1996;van Dijk et al., 2006;Sundie et al., 2009;Takahashi et al., 2009). Thus, praising a rival team is more likely to trigger schandenfreude and impact decision making as a result. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is not uncommon for people to feel good when bad luck happens to others, especially when there is rivalry. The paper aims to investigate the impact of schadenfreude (pleasure in another's misfortune) on decision-making. The first study, a lab experiment, showed that people preferred to send news about one's favorite team victory (pride) over one's rival team loss (schadenfreude) when the outcome of the game displayed small score differences and select the schadenfreude option when the score differences were large. The second study, conducted in the field, showed that supporters of a rival team increased their probability of betting against the target team when the target team was praised prior to the game. Taken together, the results show that schadenfreude is more powerful when the damage to a rival is large (study 1) or when the rival is praised (study 2). RESUMO Não é incomum que as pessoas se sintam bem quando a má sorte acontece com os outros, especialmente quando há algum tipo de rivalidade. O artigo investiga o impacto de schadenfreude (prazer na desgraça alheia) na tomada de decisões. O primeiro estudo, um experimento de laboratório, mostrou que os torcedores preferem enviar notícias sobre a vitória do seu clube de futebol favorito (orgulho) sobre a derrota de um clube rival (schadenfreude) quando o resultado do jogo apresenta pequenas diferenças de gols e prefere o schadenfreude quando acontecem goleadas. O segundo estudo, realizado no campo, mostrou que torcedores aumentaram a probabilidade de apostar contra um clube rival quando este clube foi elogiado antes do jogo. Em conjunto, os resultados mostram que schadenfreude é mais forte que o orgulho quando o dano a um rival é grande (estudo 1) ou quando o rival é louvado (estudo 2). PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Schadenfreude, inveja, orgulho.
... Schadenfreude may be a response to feelings of inferiority because of prior upward social comparisons (Smith et al., 1996). For example, consumers may see their performance and abilities as inferior compared to others' (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991 or may lack of possession of status goods that demonstrate achievement (Sundie et al., 2009). ...
... If a competing outgroup actually makes people feel inferior, it will be evaluated even more negatively (Mummendey & Otten, 1998) and the failures of such group might trigger even greater schadenfreude (Leach et al., 2003). Overall, research in psychology and social psychology has identified envy (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Smith et al., 1996), trait or dispositional envy (Smith, Parrott, Diener, Hoyle, & Kim, 1999), resentment (Feather & Sherman, 2002) or anger (Hareli & Weiner, 2002) toward others as precursors of schadenfreude. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers often feel schadenfreude, an emotion reflecting an experience of pleasure over misfortunes of another. Schadenfreude has found wide use in advertising, but its actual consequences for consumers have not been thoroughly documented. The present research investigates the effect of schadenfreude on consumers' satisfaction with choices they have made. Building on the feelings‐as‐information theory, the authors posit that consumers take their positive feelings of schadenfreude over another's unrelated bad purchase as positive information about their own choices, and through such misattribution become more satisfied with their own choices. Three experiments show that feeling schadenfreude over another consumer's bad purchase makes consumers more satisfied with their own choices (Study 1), regardless of whether the other's bad purchase is in the same or in a different product category as one's own choice (Study 2), but only so long as consumers are not aware that they are engaging in misattribution (Study 3). The present research contributes to the literature on schadenfreude and feelings‐as‐information theory. Its findings may be used by marketers aiming to exert an unconscious influence on consumer satisfaction.
... Egalitarianism demonstrates itself in Aotearoa New Zealand as an anti-elitist society with high regard for equity, including equitable outcomes for all New Zealanders through education. Implicit in the egalitarian mindset is a tendency towards anti-intellectualism that is ingrained in the psyche of both countries and termed tall poppy syndrome (Feather, 1989;Feather & McKee, 1993;Peeters, 2004): "Tall poppies are people who are conspicuously successful or who have high status because of their achievements, rank, or wealth" (Feather & McKee, 1993, p. 67). Tall poppy syndrome refers to the satisfaction when these people are "cut down to size" (Feather & McKee, 1993, p. 67). ...
... Tall poppy culture describes the tendency for New Zealanders as a collective to choose modesty, 'playing down' strengths and successes, particularly in relation to intellectual achievement, as shown in Ange's quote above. Tall poppy culture discourages self-proclamation of achievements, labelling it as boastful (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1993Peeters, 2004). In tall poppy culture, high intellectual achievement is not to be self-proclaimed, even though it is a form of cultural capital that has the potential to transform into economic capital in the form of post-school tertiary and career options. ...
Thesis
This thesis is an exploration of gifted and talented girls’ identity constructions, notions of empowerment and their engagements with social media. Adopting a critical constructivist position, I utilise Bourdieu’s concepts as thinking tools to explore the intersection between gifted and talented girls and their social fields, including social media, and interrogate the structuring principles of gifted and talented girls’ social fields to explore how their practices and identity constructions reproduce and resist internalised structures that position high-achieving girls as both empowered and vulnerable within their social locations.
... We draw from the literature on competitive dynamics in peer relationships (Campbell et al., 2017;Ingram & Roberts, 2000;Jensen et al., 2014;Kim & Glomb, 2010Lam et al., 2011;Lee, Kesebir, & Pillutla, 2016;Zou & Ingram, 2013) to explore how women and men's emotional ambivalence is elicited by a "tall poppy," a peer who disproportionately and visibly performs better relative to his or her peers and thus "sticks out" above them (Aguinis & O'Boyle, Aguinis & O'Boyle, 2014;Call et al., 2015;Feather, 1989Feather, , 1994. Our research is theoretically informed by role congruity theory (RCT; Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001;Eagly & Karau, 2002), which delineates how women and men are socialized into gender roles that prescribe appropriate behaviors. ...
... In particular, it would be valuable to uncover both actor and target characteristics as well as contextual factors that may offset the ambivalent feelings and negative social conduct towards tall poppies. For example, high degrees of self-evaluation traits such as self-esteem and emotional stability (Feather, 1989;Judge & Bono, 2001;Kernis, Grannemann, & Barclay, 1989) as well as learning and growth mindsets (Dweck, 2012) could facilitate teammates' selfregulation of emotions and behaviors when making upward comparisons. Highly competent group members who are warm and emotionally intelligent might not elicit psychological discomfort and hostility from their peers (Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011;Casciaro & Lobo, 2008;Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Coworkers are a source of mixed emotions yet research on emotional ambivalence—i.e., the co-existing and intertwining positive and negative feelings toward a subject—toward peers in work groups is scarce. We draw from the literature on competitive dynamics in peer relationships to explore how women and men’s emotional ambivalence is elicited by the presence of a “tall poppy,” a peer who disproportionately and visibly performs better relative to his or her peers. Informed by role congruity theory, we assert that men are socialized into peer relationships that embrace competition and camaraderie, so men tend to exhibit emotional ambivalence toward peers regardless of whether the focal coworker is a “tall poppy.” By contrast, women are socialized into a gender role that emphasizes harmony and equality so the presence of a “tall poppy” violates the female gender role, thereby eliciting more emotional ambivalence compared to when women work with equally matched peers. Experiencing emotional ambivalence then results in attempts to relationally distance oneself from the source of mixed emotions (e.g., ostracism, withdrawal). Two experimental studies—a behavioral laboratory study with students and an online experiment with working adults—both provided full support for these theorized relationships.
... Their rivalry leads to denigrating each other privately, and at meetings which would also draw in other doctors often with a dose of nationalism for good measure. Envy was described as an early root of TPS especially in people with low self esteem [1]. The envier lacked what the tall poppy possessed and had the option to improve (good envy) or denigrate or cut down the tall poppy (bad envy). ...
... Hence, doing well in school may have the opposite effect on one's social standing (Allen, Porter, McFarland, Marsh, & McElhaney, 2005;Kessels, 2005). These results are in line with the 'tall poppy syndrome' (Feather, 1989;Gross, 1999), which is the tendency in some cultural contexts to denigrate peers with outstanding achievements. For this reason, some gifted students -especially gifted girls (Callahan, Cunningham, and Plucker, 1994;Kramer, 1991) -may hide their abilities in an attempt to be socially accepted (Gross, 1989;Kerr, Colangelo, & Gaeth, 1988) and will resist being labelled 'gifted' to avoid accusations of being a nerd or other derogatory terms (Manaster, Chan, Watt, & Wiehe, 1994). ...
... Another reason the wealthy might be judged more harshly is that even though people prefer high-status targets in some domains (e.g., Jost et al., 2004), the wealthy are envied (Fiske et al., 2002;see, Fiske, 2018, for a review) and resented (Piston, 2014). Because of this, perceivers might be especially willing or even eager to judge wealthy targets negatively when they do something wrong, in the same way they feel pleasure when envied or resented targets suffer misfortune (Feather, 1989;Feather & Sherman, 2002). ...
Article
Poor people are punished more frequently and more severely than are wealthy people for their transgressions, suggesting that an agent’s wealth affects how they are morally evaluated. To our knowledge, this has not been tested empirically. An initial study found that people expect the poor to be judged more harshly than the wealthy. Several other experiments consistently found that the reverse was true: Poor targets were judged as less immoral than wealthy targets for the same moral violations. Explanations of this wealth-based moral judgment gap were explored, including differences in descriptive/ prescriptive expectations, global anti-wealthy or pro-poor biases, and differences in how people understand and explain the behavior of wealthy and poor moral transgressors. Although the moral judgment gap is likely multiply determined, poor targets were consistently viewed as having better reasons than the wealthy to act badly. Thus, the immoral behavior of poor targets was attributed to situational factors and was discounted, whereas wealthy targets’ behavior was perceived as less excusable and was attributed primarily to bad moral character. A final study extended our findings to the domain of prosocial behavior. Consistent with a reasons-based explanation, poor targets were viewed as having better moral character than wealthy targets when their behavior benefited others, and wealthy targets were viewed as having more extrinsic reasons to behave prosocially.
... Past research has demonstrated the conditions under which schadenfreude is likely to emerge, such as when a person's suffering or downfall is viewed as deserved (Feather, 2006;Feather & Sherman, 2002; van Dijk, Goslinga, & Ouwerkerk, 2008). For example, people feel schadenfreude when wrongdoers (e.g., cheaters, liars, thieves, hypocrites) are justly punished because people believe that immoral individuals are responsible for their predicament and that they "had it coming" (Berndsen & Tiggemann, 2020;Brambilla & Riva, 2017;Feather, 1989;Powell & Smith, 2013). Schadenfreude may also emerge from observing misfortunes of envied individuals or disliked outgroup members, particularly in zero-sum competitive contexts (Cikara, Bruneau, Van Bavel, & Saxe, 2014;Hudson, Cikara, & Sidanius, 2019;Leach & Spears, 2009;van de Ven et al., 2015; van Dijk, Ouwerkerk, Goslinga, Nieweg, & Gallucci, 2006). ...
Article
When witnessing misfortunes, people sometimes react with schadenfreude—malicious pleasure at another's suffering. Previous research suggests that schadenfreude is elicited for competitors and envied targets, or when misfortunes seem deserved. Six experiments (five pre-registered, N-total = 3324) support a novel hypothesis that perceivers feel greater schadenfreude for social targets who endorse a strong general belief in a just world (BJW), even when misfortunes occur outside of the typical conditions that elicit schadenfreude. Experiments 1–2 show that people feel schadenfreude at the accidental misfortune of a person who expresses strong BJW, based in part on their misfortune seeming more deserved. Experiment 3 demonstrates the same effect for a wealthy, strong-BJW target who suffers a life-changing misfortune. In Experiment 4, we demonstrate that perceivers infer stronger BJW from a wealthy (vs. poor) person and that these inferences lead to increased perceptions that the misfortune was deserved, resulting in greater schadenfreude. Finally, Experiments 5–6 show that the effect of target BJW on schadenfreude via perceived deservingness is moderated by a target's financial status, such that endorsing strong BJW is particularly consequential for wealthy and middle-income targets. We conclude that even when people are not responsible for their predicaments, perceivers believe the misfortunes of people with strong just-world beliefs are more fitting and therefore derive more pleasure at their expense. The current research builds on and extends both schadenfreude and just-world belief literatures by documenting a unique antecedent of schadenfreude based on perceivers' inferences or knowledge regarding how someone generally views their world.
... This is in line with the research (Smith & Van Dijk, 2018) that schadenfreude is often triggered by power struggles and social status among the community. In tune with that Feather (1989) also argues that schadenfreude in society is closely related to the clinical problem of Tall Poppy Syndrome in which a person will drop another person or friend who is more accomplished than him. But certainly the scientific cause of schadenfreude is still a lot of debate and disagreements from previous researchers, so the scientific study of schadenfreude still needs to be continued. ...
Article
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This study aims to examine the variables of social relationship, self-esteem, and empathy towards schadenfreude in Pagutan Villagers, Mataram, Indonesia. The researcher hypothesizes that there is a significant influence on the variables of social relations, self-esteem, and empathy towards schadenfreude in Pagutan Villagers. The population in this study is people who live in Pagutan Village and are aged between 22-55 years. The respondents in this study found 500 people. This sample was taken using a non-probability sampling technique, namely purporsive sampling. The researcher used the schadenfreude scale, the social relationship scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the interpersonal reactivity index. Test the validity of the measuring instrument using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) technique. Data analysis used multiple regression technique. The results of data analysis show that communication, selfesteem fantasy, and empathetic attention have a significant effect on schadenfreude. Meanwhile, social contact, perspective taking and its effect are not significant on schadenfreude. The results of the study also obtained an R-square result of .330 or 33%. That is, the proportion of variance from Schadenfreude explained by all independent variables is 33%, while the remaining 67% is influenced by other variables outside this study. The researcher hopes that the results of this study will be reviewed and developed again in further research by adding other variables.
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
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In this research, we explore and demonstrate a relatively implicit and covert means of undermining envied targets – namely, helping them in a way that retains their future dependence, rather than in a way that increases their autonomy. In four studies, we vary our envy manipulations, measure the extent to which these manipulations trigger malicious motivations, and examine the consequences in terms of intended (Studies 1-2) and actual (Studies 3-4) helping behaviors. In Study 4 we also measure and test the role of individual differences in terms of proneness to malicious versus benign envy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the extent to which envy toward superior versus neutral peers activates malicious motivations, negatively impacts peoples’ willingness to provide these superior peers with help, particularly with autonomous help.
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
... iconic) luxury consumption could be viewed negatively (as a signal of one's individualistic focus, frivolousness, and desire to stand out), which may actually inhibit, rather than promote, social advancement. Indeed, some work suggests that there may be resentment towards individuals who conspicuously show their success (Feather, 1989), particularly in egalitarian systems (e.g., Lucas & Kteily, 2018). We therefore propose that in egalitarian settings, the effect of ephemeral (vs. ...
Article
Individuals signal status through luxury goods because high status confers social, economic, and psychological benefits. While it is known that luxury (vs. non-luxury) consumption signals individuals' high (vs. low) level of status, it is unclear how individuals' marketplace behaviors influence perceptions of type, or source, of their status. The present research examines how ephemeral and iconic luxury consumption signals individuals' achieved or ascribed social status. Seven studies (and two follow-ups) show that, while ephemeral and iconic luxury consumption signal similar levels of individuals' ascribed status, ephemeral luxury consumption signals individuals' higher achieved social status than iconic luxury consumption. This happens because ephemeral luxury consumption signals individuals' higher creativity than iconic luxury consumption. We outline the boundaries of this phenomenon and demonstrate its behavioral downstream consequences. Our findings offer guidance on how individuals and managers can leverage the status signaling value of ephemeral and iconic luxury goods.
... Using the context of teams is valuable not only because teams have become a common and fundamental unit in modern organizations (e.g., Hills, 2007;Kozlowski & Bell, 2003;Pfeffer, 1997), but also because they provide a particularly fertile ground for provoking envy. Envy is strongly associated with a threat to one's selfesteem (Tesser, 1988) and is predominantly evoked when the comparison target is otherwise similar, and when the comparison domain is self-relevant (Feather, 1989(Feather, , 1991Parrott & Smith, 1993;Salovey & Rodin, 1984;Smith, 1991;Tesser & Collins, 1988;Vecchio, 1995Vecchio, , 2000. Consequently, we offer that envy is particularly likely to occur in teams. ...
Article
In this research, we explored and demonstrated a relatively implicit and covert means of undermining envied targets-namely, helping them in a way that retains their future dependence, rather than in a way that increases their autonomy. In four studies, we varied our envy manipulations, measured the extent to which these manipulations trigger malicious motivations, and examined the consequences in terms of intended (Studies 1-2) and actual (Studies 3-4) helping behaviors. In Study 4, we also measured and tested the role of individual differences in terms of proneness to malicious versus benign envy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the extent to which envy toward superior versus neutral peers activates malicious motivations negatively impacts peoples' willingness to provide these superior peers with help, particularly with autonomous help. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... a stick [12]. Today, tall poppies are conspicuously successful people, who may attract envy, resentment or hostility, and the Tall Poppy Syndrome (TPS) is the habit of others to diminish those who have attained excellence in a field -to cut them down to size [13]. While TPS is commonly associated with Australia and New Zealand, it is also part of other cultures. ...
Article
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The hospitality industry is under intense pressure. COVID-19 restrictions and limited trading opportunities have forced restaurateurs to consider their pricing structures. Reflecting those concerns, Richard Corney, MD of the Inigo Coffee Group, proposed that the retail price of a cup of coffee needed to rise to between $6.50 and $7.00 to “take into account all the other cost increases hospitality establishments have experienced in the last decade, not to mention the challenges of the pandemic in the last two years” [1]. Alongside these revenue issues, the industry also needs to move away from a tradition of low pay and low value [2], and perhaps towards the concept of a ‘hospitable wage’ [3]. However, laudable as these goals might be, upward price movement may be resisted by many customers. So how can restaurateurs and hoteliers ‘sell’ revised-price-products to their customers? Clearly, increased revenue can be achieved through both marginal price increases and up-selling to increase average customer spend. We propose that both of these goals can be achieved if employers embrace the concept of hospitality as an experience [4, 5], where the performance of staff is central [6], and where the experience is delivered with ‘hospitality personality’. Much has been written about the personality of hospitality staff. Most of that work can be traced back to the early work of Erving Goffman [7] who proposed that hospitality employees were playing roles, and acting out, by using their emotional intelligence. Goffman likened such workers to actors who literally ‘take on’ a character. The characteristics of the hospitality personality have been explored by many authors [8–10] and include, agreeableness, extroversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and emotional stability; although some research also reveals that neuroticism is also a hospitality characteristic in hotel receptionists. Alongside this research, other studies have identified the role of mood and personality in positive guest experiences, specifically service quality perception and customer satisfaction [11]. This supports our suggestion that the performance of staff can have a direct impact on customer experience and potentially revenue, and that Corney’s price recommendation could be a realistic option for many businesses struggling economically. But there’s a ‘fly in the ointment’: the Tall Poppy Syndrome. Tall poppy syndrome originated around 500BC in ancient Rome, when King Tarquinius Superbus demonstrated how the nation should deal with its enemies. In an active display he lopped off the heads of the tallest poppies in his garden with a stick [12]. Today, tall poppies are conspicuously successful people, who may attract envy, resentment or hostility, and the Tall Poppy Syndrome (TPS) is the habit of others to diminish those who have attained excellence in a field – to cut them down to size [13]. While TPS is commonly associated with Australia and New Zealand, it is also part of other cultures. Within Scandinavian cultures, janteloven1 promotes humility and conformity paralleling TPS [15]; in Japanese culture, ‘the nail that sticks up gets pounded down’ [16]; and within Filipino culture a crab mentality exists whereby crabs in a bucket tend to pull back any adventurous crabs trying to escape [17]. TPS is often described as being ingrained in New Zealand culture [18] and has been identified as a phenomenon in New Zealand entrepreneurship and business [19]. While TPS encourages conformist cultures, our research provides a valuable insight into how employers can spot potential employees who actively resist notions of TPS’s conformity and are more likely to perform to the highest levels. Using Instagram, we interviewed 1000 young self-identifying New Zealanders to explore their qualitative experiences of TPS. They identified as 68% female and 32% male. Their age ranges were: 58% aged 18–24; 27% aged 25–34; 7% aged 35–44; 3% aged 45–54; and 2% aged 55 or above. Three percent of the respondents were excluded from our final sample because they were aged 17 or younger. The respondents’ feelings, victimhood, self-esteem, and knowledge about TPS provided our research with the largest amount of data. Of our 1000 participants, 50% knew what TPS was, while 50% did not. Similarly, 45% of our respondents claimed to be victims of TPS. Contrastingly, 55% had no experiences of TPS. Within those considerations, the data revealed clearly that TPS was perceived by participants as ‘something done to them’ and not as ‘something they do to other people’. Yet, and despite that difference, the pervasive nature of TPS within Kiwi socio-culture was noted by participants. Several participants recounted the cost of TPS; for example, “Definitely held me back. It can knock your confidence so much” and “Made me want to hide/play down my talents/my life.” Other participants perceived TPS “put-downs” (belittling or humiliating remarks) as a challenge or motivating force. They commented, “Uncomfortable but it pushed me harder to be even more successful” and “It motivated me. I realized people saw something in me and strived to continue improving.” For the 45% of our participants directly experiencing TPS, those experiences were grounded within two base reactions. Reflecting that, more than half of our participants adopted conformist behaviours, succumbing to the bullying pressures of others. However, 45% recognised TPS and its bullying as a motivator to create further behaviours and actions of excellence. The role of social media in TPS was significant. Participants directly linked TPS to social media with 89% of respondents recognising the role of social media in TPS. Key to their views was the realisation that social media not only provided distance between people but also that people used social media to manipulate the image they projected to others. In those ways, social media was a mediating factor. As participants observed, “Easier to be mean and cut someone down through a comment than to their face” and “Social media has made it easier to abuse and put down those that stand out.” Given the attributes of the hospitality personality, and Richard Corney’s proposed pricing restructures in hospitality, the key is for employers to consider the resilience of their staff to TPS and conformity. They should consider whether they can recruit and retain the 45% of staff that use TPS as inspiration to succeed – the staff who will rise the challenge of delivering exceptional customer experiences through their own performance of the ‘hospitality personality’. It is within the unique characteristics of these staff that hospitality businesses can generate that extra point of difference and experience that customers will be happy to pay a little more to enjoy; and perhaps hospitality businesses might go a step further by also considering the concept of the ‘hospitable wage’. Corresponding author Lindsay Neill can be contacted at: lindsay.neill@aut.ac.nz Note “Janteloven (the law of Jante) at its simplest describes the way that all Norwegians (and in fact, other Scandinavians too) behave: putting society ahead of the individual, not boasting about individual accomplishments, and not being jealous of others” [14]. References (1) Wilkes, M. We Need to Pay $7 for a Flat White if Cafes are Going to Survive, Says Coffee Boss, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/life-style/food-drink/drinks/127196374/we-need-to-pay-7-for-a-flat-white-if-cafes-are-going-to-survive-says-coffee-boss (accessed Dec 12, 2021). (2) Te Ora, N. Does Hospitality Have a Low Wages Problem? Workers Say Yes. Some Restaurant Owners Say No, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/125301113/does-hospitality-have-a-low-wages-problem-workers-say-yes-some-restaurant-owners-say-no (accessed Dec 10, 2021). (3) Douglas, J.; Williamson, D.; Harris, C. Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap: Creating “Hospitable Wages” through the Living Wage Movement. Hospitality & Society 2020, 10 (1), 3–22. (4) Hemmington, N. From Service to Experience: Understanding and Defining the Hospitality Business. The Service Industries Journal 2007, 27 (6), 747–755. (5) Lugosi, P. Hospitality Spaces, Hospitable Moments: Consumer Encounters and Affective Experiences in Commercial Settings. Journal of Foodservice 2008, 19 (2), 139–149. (6) Morgan, M.; Watson, P.; Hemmington, N. Drama in the Dining Room: Theatrical Perspectives on the Foodservice Encounter. Journal of Foodservice 2008, 19 (2), 111–118. (7) Goffman, E. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life; Doubleday: Garden City, New York, 1959. (8) Köşker, H.; Unur, K.; Gursoy, D. The Effect of Basic Personality Traits on Service Orientation and Tendency to Work in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism 2019, 19 (2), 140–162. (9) Grobelna, A. Extraversion and its Importance in the Hospitality Workplace. Scientific Journal, No. 876, Economic Problems of Tourism 2015, 3 (31), 89–96. (10) Gonzalez-Gonzalez, T.; García-Almeida, D. J. Frontline Employee-Driven Change in Hospitality Firms: An Analysis of Receptionists’ Personality on Implemented Suggestions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 2021, 33 (12), 4439–4459. (11) Kocabulut, Ö.; Albayrak, T. The Effects of Mood and Personality Type on Service Quality Perception and Customer Satisfaction. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research 2019, 13 (1), 98–112. (12) Felton, D. Advice to Tyrants: The Motif of “Enigmatic Counsel” in Greek and Roman Texts. Phoenix 1998, 52 (1–2), 42–54. (13) Feather, N. T. Attitudes towards the High Achiever: The Fall of the Tall Poppy. Australian Journal of Psychology 1989, 41 (3), 239–267. (14) Nikel, D. What Exactly Is Janteloven? Life in Norway, 2015. https://www.lifeinnorway.net/what-exactly-is-janteloven/ (accessed Dec 10, 2021). (15) Ahlness A. Janteloven and Social Conformity in Thorbørn Egner’s Literature, 2014. http://ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2014/article/view/738 (accessed Oct 8, 2019). (16) Matsumoto, D. Culture and Self: An Empirical Assessment of Markus and Kitayama’s Theory of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 1999, 2, 289–310. (17) Licuanan, P. A Moral Recovery Program: Building a People – Building a Nation. In: Dy, M. B. (ed) Values in Philippine Culture and Education: Philippine Philosophical Studies, 1; The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy: Washington, DC, 1994, pp. 35–54. (18) Ockhuysen, S. It's Time to Do Better and Cut Tall Poppy Syndrome out of Our Culture. Stuff, Feb 20, 2020. https://www.stuff.co.nz/taranaki-daily-news/news/119627156/its-time-to-do-better-and-cut-tall-poppy-syndrome-out-of-our-culture (accessed Dec 11, 2021) (19) Kirkwood, J. Tall Poppy Syndrome: Implications for Entrepreneurship in New Zealand. Journal of Management & Organization 2007, 13 (4), 366–382.
... Dalam studi-studi terakhir ini, iri hati secara eksplisit diukur dalam istilah-istilah yang tidak terlalu mengacu pada permusuhan, karena hal tersebut diperdebatkan apakah aspek-aspek yang bermusuhan mendefinisikan ciri-ciri iri hati. Baik Feather & Sherman (2002) Gagasan bahwa perasaan bermusuhan dapat menentukan taraf schadenfreude telah dikemukakan oleh banyak peneliti (misalnya, Ben Ze'ev, 2000;Feather, 1994;Heider, 1958;Leach, Spears, Branscombe, & Doosje, 2003;Ortony, Clore , & Collins, 1988;Spinoza, 1677Spinoza, /2002) dan telah menerima dukungan empiris yang cukup besar (misalnya, Brighametal., 1997;Feather, 1989;Feather & Sherman, 2002;Hareli & Weiner, 2002;Smith et al., 1996;van Dijk, Ouwerkerk, Goslinga, & Nieweg, 2005). Dalam pandangan peneliti saat ini, iri hati tidak termasuk komponen permusuhan. ...
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Schadenfreude is a compound word of the word Schaden, which means loss, andFreude, which means joy. It shows that envy plays an important role in generatingSchadenfreude; People are pleased with the misfortune of others when thismisfortune gives them a social comparison that increases the feeling of their selfesteem or removes the basic feelingof hurtful jealousy. This research method isexperiments with factorial design. The Sampling techniques uses RandomSampling. Analysis techniques are used with the correlation technique of PearsonProduct moment. The results of this study complement these opposing findings, indicating that envy is the Schadenfreude predictor when the target has the same gender. This research was conducted at one of the universities in Salatiga.AbstrakSchadenfreude adalah kata majemuk dari kata Schaden, yang berarti kerugian,dan Freude, yang berarti sukacita. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa iri hatimemainkan peran penting dalam membangkitkan Schadenfreude; orang merasasenang dengan ketidakberuntungan orang lain ketika ketidakberuntungan inimemberi mereka perbandingan sosial yang meningkatkan perasaan harga dirimereka atau menghilangkan dasar perasaan iri hati yang menyakitkan. Metodepenelitian dengan eksperimen dengan desain faktorial. Tehnik pengambilansampel menggunakan Random Sampling. Teknik analisis data yang digunakandengan tehnik korelasi Pearson Product Momen. Hasil penelitian ini melengkapitemuan-temuan yang berlawanan ini, dengan menunjukkan bahwa iri hatiadalah prediktor Schadenfreude ketika targetnya memliki gender yang sama.Penelitian ini dilakukan di salah satu universitas di Salatiga.
... 305), given that a unit's success depends on such superior performance. However, as Feather (1989) made clear, some employees are powerfully motivated to diminish an active, successful colleague and thus camouflage their own limitations of competence or character. In a susceptible setting, mobbing is a convenient strategy to achieve that purpose. ...
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This chapter presents a fictitious and satirical story, which explores how individuals and groups of privilege in a university structure exert their power (through intimidation and other oppressive actions) on targeted individuals who are perceived as challenging or disruptive to the power group's existing control. The story is presented as an allegory of the 1920-1940's mafia.
... The cultural phenomenon of the 'tall poppy syndrome', which describes the situation where a successful person within a community is deliberately set up for failure (Blacklaws, 2001;Mayrhofer & Hendriks, 2003), has been argued to be a barrier to entrepreneurship in South Africa and may account for the reluctance of microentrepreneurs to innovate and upgrade their businesses (Feather, 1989;Yee, Ashkanasy & Härtel, 2003). During our interviews with the South African spaza owners, the respondents referred to the fact that people in the community are often felt jealous at the spaza shop owners' success. ...
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... However, status also comes with responsibilities. Given their main privileges, high-status actors are often subject to great envy, a phenomenon called "tall poppies" (Feather 1989). In case of wrongdoing, high-status actors are more severely punished than low-status ones. ...
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Literature on social evaluations has mainly analyzed the “audience-candidate” dyad,leaving underexplored the way the evaluation of a main audience (e.g. a social-control agent)influences the evaluation of another audience. This dissertation looks at social evaluations in amultiple-audience context. It focuses on organizational social misconduct - an important, yetunderstudied social evaluation - and it investigates “Why does an audience change its evaluationfollowing organizational social misconduct?”. Each of the three essays focuses on a differentaudience (evaluation): people (people’s complaints), investors (share price) and the media(newspapers’ evaluation). Two novel settings and unique databases were used: advertising selfregulationin the UK and Calciopoli, the scandal that affected the Italian Serie A in 2006. Resultsshow that in case of organizational social misconduct, the evaluation of a social control agent doesinfluence the evaluation of another audience, however this effect is not mechanical. Three primarymoderators emerge from the three essays: the ambiguity of the norm, the saliency of the event, andlocalness of the transgressors. In summary, this dissertation shows that social norms are betterunderstood in a triadic framework: “candidate – social-control agent – another audience”. Socialnorms are not set exogenously, but are endogenously created by the actions of the candidates andthe evaluations of (at least) two audiences.
... The results from the first theme, identity and belonging, demonstrated how giftedness and talent occupied a marginalised position in gifted and talented girls' sociocultural fields as evidenced through popular culture and its negative associations with nerd status [55,56], and through New Zealand's tall poppy culture, which denounces outward displays of pride in one's intellectual successes [84,85]. As a result of such structural expectations, most participants adjusted their practices to distance themselves from the gifted and the talented label. ...
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In this article, we examine the phenomenon of Tall Poppy syndrome (TPS) in relation to entrepreneurship in New Zealand. TPS is based on the concept that some peoples’ success elevates or distinguishes them from others, resulting in envy from others. TPS has been highlighted as an important element of New Zealand’s culture. This may clash with government initiatives, which often focus on building a high profile for aspirant entrepreneurs. In this article, we carry out a qualitative study into 11 such ‘celebrity’ entrepreneurs in New Zealand. The key question of our study is how being held up as a celebrity affects their practice. By introducing the celebrity element into our study, we contribute further understanding about the processes of social legitimacy for entrepreneurs. This has important implications for policy and practice, because if entrepreneurs are ‘allowed’ to be successful, this may encourage them to influence another generation of entrepreneurs to challenge TPS.
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The Tall Poppy Scale was used to examine individual differences in: 1) the appreciation of high achievers; 2) associated online behaviours. A sample of 165 New Zealand Europeans completed a decisional self-esteem scale and the Favour Reward and Favour Fall scales. Participants were then offered a debrief screen providing information about achievements or failures, and their interactions with the debrief screen were tracked. Participants with lower decisional self-esteem preferred that high achievers failed. Those expressing an interest in the failure of high achievers spent more time and clicked more on the debrief screen. Schadenfreude – interest (or pleasure) in the misfortune of others - was demonstrated behaviourally online.
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When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
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The aim of this research is to strive for academic success; The aim of this study is to examine the ethical leadership behavior of the manager within the framework of the variables of loyalty to the manager and academic jealousy. Academic and administrative activities carried out by academicians at universities can shape academic success efforts in terms of their performance. It is thought that the ethical leadership behavior of the managers, loyalty to the manager and the institution, and jealousy of their colleagues, which are recommended to be taken into account in their organizations while academicians carry out their activities, may have important effects. The research was carried out on 609 academicians operating in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The convenience sampling method was preferred in the study. According to the findings, while the ethical leadership behavior of the manager, loyalty to the manager, and loyalty to the institution variables contributed to the academic success effort, academic jealousy behavior had a reducing effect. The ethical leadership behavior of the administrator has made significant contributions to both the administrator's loyalty and the institutional loyalty of the academician. It has been observed that loyalty to the manager and loyalty to the institution reduce jealousy behavior. In the study, it was also concluded that the administrator loyalty and corporate loyalty of the academicians have important mediating effects according to the model.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
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In this paper, we study the effects of non-monetary symbolic awards on winners, losers, and their peers. Using a regression discontinuity design, we examine post-award performance differences between those who barely won a symbolic performance award and those who came just short of winning the award in a large insurance company (Study 1). Our findings show that awarded workers performed worse than their non-awarded counterparts, and worse performance was more severe in more competitive teams. Building on these findings, we explore potential mechanisms using an incentivized real-effort experiment (Study 2). The experiment reveals that award winners’ worse post-award performance relative to unawarded workers was driven by social undermining in the form of deliberate sabotage by coworkers, rather than award winners’ own behavioral changes due to negative motivational effects.
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Setting ambitious goals is a proven strategy for improving performance, but we suggest it may have interpersonal costs. We predict that relative to those with moderately ambitious goals, those with highly ambitious goals (and those with unambitious goals) will receive more negative interpersonal evaluations, being seen as less warm and as offering less relationship potential. Thirteen studies including nine preregistered experiments, three preregistered replications, and one archival analysis of graduate school applications (total N = 6,620) test these hypotheses. Across career, diet, fitness, savings, and academic goals, we found a robust effect of ambition on judgments, such that moderately ambitious goals led to the most consistently positive interpersonal expectations. To understand this phenomenon, we consider how ambition influences judgments of investment in one’s own goals as opposed to supportiveness for other people’s goals and explore expectations about goal supportiveness as one mechanism through which ambition may influence interpersonal judgments.
Article
The willingness to support (or denigrate) high‐profile individuals online was examined across cultures using the Tall Poppy Scale. A sample of 106 Chinese and 164 New Zealand Europeans answered an online questionnaire addressing their preference for high achievers to be rewarded or fail. Participants were asked whether they would vote to support reality TV contestants, and offered further information (about success or failure) on a debrief page. The Favour Reward scale predicted willingness to vote and support others. The Favour Fall subscale tended to predict time spent viewing achievement‐related information on a debrief page. The Chinese sample did not prefer reward of high achievers, instead favoring their fall, but spent less time per click on the debrief page, suggesting they disliked recognizing individual achievement.
Thesis
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There are many factors that can affect academic success efforts of academics. In the study, it is aimed to determine the relationships between the ethical leadership behaviour of the managers, the loyalty of the academicians to their institutions and managers, and the behaviours of envy and jealousy to their colleagues. Within the framework of this purpose, a model was created and scale questions related to research variables were developed in the research conducted on 609 academicians. When the relationships in the research are examined; It has been seen that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a positive total effect on the academic success efforts of the academicians. It has been observed that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a positive effect on the loyalty of the academicians to both their institutions and their managers. It has been observed that the loyalty of academicians to their institutions has a positive effect on academic success efforts. It has been concluded that the jealousy behaviours of the academicians have a negative effect on their academic achievement efforts, while the envy behaviours have a positive effect. It has been observed that envy behaviour has a moderator effect on the effect of academics' loyalty to their institutions on their academic achievement efforts. In the research, it was concluded that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a mediating effect on the academic success efforts of the academicians, and the loyalty of the academicians to their institutions.
Chapter
This chapter develops a detailed analysis of the differences in turnout rates determined by the individual characteristics of voters, and in particular by their socio-economic conditions. After introducing the strands of literature and the methodological debate over the Resource Model, I shall be discussing the role played by income, social class and education in the political mobilisation of the electorate. Following the numerous empirical studies on disparities in turnout rates across different groups of the electorate, the analysis shows whether, and to what degree, the most disadvantaged groups actually participate less. The chapter also considers the transformation of the labour market and its implications with regard to turnout. Increased unemployment, greater job instability and the growth in the number and variety of atypical jobs, have together made employment status more fluid, and this has impacted the link that voters establish with politics and voting. In a situation of ongoing recession and economic crisis, a growing number of citizens experience a relative or absolute decline in their social status, and this has a significant impact on public and political life.KeywordsResource modelSocio-economic statusUnemploymentRelative deprivation
Book
This book provides a reconstruction of Aristotelian character education, shedding new light on what moral character really is, and how it can be highlighted, measured, nurtured and taught in current schooling. Arguing that many recent approaches to character education understand character in exclusively amoral, instrumentalist terms, Kristjánsson proposes a coherent, plausible and up-to-date concept, retaining the overall structure of Aristotelian character education. After discussing and debunking popular myths about Aristotelian character education, subsequent chapters focus on the practical ramifications and methodologies of character education. These include measuring virtue and morality, asking whether Aristotelian character education can salvage the effects of bad upbringing, and considering implications for teacher training and classroom practice. The book rejuvenates time-honoured principles of the development of virtues in young people, at a time when 'character' features prominently in educational agendas and parental concerns over school education systems. Offering an interdisciplinary perspective which draws from the disciplines of education, psychology, philosophy and sociology, this book will appeal to researchers, academics and students wanting a greater insight into character education.
Article
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The aim of this research is to strive for academic success; The aim of this study is to examine the ethical leadership behavior of the manager within the framework of the variables of loyalty to the manager and academic jealousy. Academic and administrative activities carried out by academicians at universities can shape academic success efforts in terms of their performance. It is thought that the ethical leadership behavior of the managers, loyalty to the manager and the institution, and jealousy of their colleagues, which are recommended to be taken into account in their organizations while academicians carry out their activities, may have important effects. The research was carried out on 609 academicians operating in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The convenience sampling method was preferred in the study. According to the findings, while the ethical leadership behavior of the manager, loyalty to the manager, and loyalty to the institution variables contributed to the academic success effort, academic jealousy behavior had a reducing effect. The ethical leadership behavior of the administrator has made significant contributions to both the administrator's loyalty and the institutional loyalty of the academician. It has been observed that loyalty to the manager and loyalty to the institution reduce jealousy behavior. In the study, it was also concluded that the administrator loyalty and corporate loyalty of the academicians have important mediating effects according to the model.
Article
Full-text available
Existing literature suggests that there is a relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and workplace envy (WE). However, a degree of inconsistency among research results was detected which could be due to overlooking the possible role of organizational stress (OS). Building on social comparison theory and transactional theory of stress and coping, it is proposed that the relationship between LMX and WE is moderated by OS. This study aims to provide additional insight into the mechanisms that develop WE and how it could be managed among Egyptian athletes. Two hypotheses were developed, and data was collected via self-report surveys from a sample of 320 Egyptian athletes. Regression analysis and multi-group moderation analysis were employed to test research hypotheses. Results indicated that LMX is negatively related to WE among Egyptian athletes. Moreover, it was found that OS moderates this relationship in the way that the strength of the relationship between LMX and workplace is significantly stronger among athletes with high perceived OS than among athletes with low perceived OS. Results were discussed and theoretical and managerial applications were presented. Fruitful insights have been communicated to coaches, athletes, and sport managers. Limitations and proposals for future research were suggested.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The aim of this research is to strive for academic success; The aim of this study is to examine the ethical leadership behavior of the manager within the framework of the variables of loyalty to the manager and academic jealousy. Academic and administrative activities carried out by academicians at universities can shape academic success efforts in terms of their performance. It is thought that the ethical leadership behavior of the managers, loyalty to the manager and the institution, and jealousy of their colleagues, which are recommended to be taken into account in their organizations while academicians carry out their activities, may have important effects. The research was carried out on 609 academicians operating in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The convenience sampling method was preferred in the study. According to the findings, while the ethical leadership behavior of the manager, loyalty to the manager, and loyalty to the institution variables contributed to the academic success effort, academic jealousy behavior had a reducing effect. The ethical leadership behavior of the administrator has made significant contributions to both the administrator's loyalty and the institutional loyalty of the academician. It has been observed that loyalty to the manager and loyalty to the institution reduce jealousy behavior. In the study, it was also concluded that the administrator loyalty and corporate loyalty of the academicians have important mediating effects according to the model. Keywords: Academic Success Effort, Ethical Leadership Behavior, Loyalty to the Manager, Corporate Loyalty, Academic Jealousy
Book
Full-text available
For a long time I have had the gnawing desire to convey the broad motivational sig nificance of the attributional conception that I have espoused and to present fully the argument that this framework has earned a rightful place alongside other leading theories of motivation. Furthermore, recent investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of affect, thus providing the impetus to embark upon a detailed discussion of emotion and to elucidate the relation between emotion and motivation from an attributional perspective. The presentation of a unified theory of motivation and emotion is the goal of this book. My more specific aims in the chapters to follow are to: 1) Outline the basic princi ples that I believe characterize an adequate theory of motivation; 2) Convey what I perceive to be the conceptual contributions of the perspective advocated by my col leagues and me; 3) Summarize the empirical relations, reach some definitive con clusions, and point out the more equivocal empirical associations based on hypotheses derived from our particular attribution theory; and 4) Clarify questions that have been raised about this conception and provide new material for still further scrutiny. In so doing, the building blocks (if any) laid down by the attributional con ception will be readily identified and unknown juries of present and future peers can then better determine the value of this scientific product."
Article
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The individualism and collectivism constructs are theoretically analyzed and linked to certain hypothesized consequences (social behaviors, health indices). Study 1 explores the meaning of these constructs within culture (in the US), identifying the individual-differences variable, idiocentrism versus allocentrism, that corresponds to the constructs. Factor analyses of responses to items related to the constructs suggest that US individualism is reflected in (a) Self-Reliance With Competition, (b) Low Concern for Ingroups, and (c) Distance from Ingroups. A higher order factor analysis suggests that Subordination of Ingroup Goals to Personal Goals may be the most important aspect of US individualism. Study 2 probes the limits of the constructs with data from two collectivist samples (Japan and Puerto Rico) and one individualist sample (Illinois) of students. It is shown that responses depend on who the other is (i.e., which ingroup), the context, and the kind of social behavior (e.g., feel similar to other, attentive to the views of others). Study 3 replicates previous work in Puerto Rico indicating that allocentric persons perceive that they receive more and a better quality of social support than do idiocentric persons, while the latter report being more lonely than the former. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The universality of S. H. Schwartz and W. Bilsky's (see record 1988-01444-001) theory of the psychological content and structure of human values was examined with data from Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Spain, and the United States. Smallest space analyses of the importance ratings that individuals assigned to values revealed the same 7 distinct motivational types of values in each sample as had emerged earlier in samples from Germany and Israel: achievement, enjoyment, maturity, prosocial, restrictive conformity, security, self-direction. Social power, studied only in Hong Kong, also emerged. The structural relations among the value types suggest that the motivational dynamics underlying people's value priorities are similar across the societies studied, with an exception in Hong Kong. The interests that values serve (individual vs. collective) and their goal type (instrumental vs. terminal) also distinguished values in all samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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The theory of relative deprivation (RD) offers an instructive special case of Tajfel's CIC theory. Six focal issues characterize the current state of RD theory: (1) the egoistic–fraternalistic distinction, (2) measurement level, (3) the cognitive–affective distinction, (4) the absolute–relative distinction, (5) specification of the referent, and (6) specification of the compared dimensions. Each issue is discussed and possible resolutions suggested.
Article
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We constructed a theory of the universal types of values as criteria by viewing values as cognitive representations of three universal requirements: (a) biological needs, (b) interactional requirements for interpersonal coordination, and (c) societal demands for group welfare and survival. From these requirements, we have derived and presented conceptual and operational definitions for eight motivational domains of values: enjoyment, security, social power, achievement, self-direction, prosocial, restrictive conformity, and maturity. In addition, we have mapped values according to the interests they serve (individualistic vs. collectivist) and the type of goal to which they refer (terminal vs. instrumental). We postulated that the structural organization of value systems reflects the degree to which giving high priority simultaneously to different values is motivationally and practically feasible or contradictory. To test our theory, we performed smallest space analyses on ratings given by subjects from Israel (N = 455) and Germany (N = 331) of the importance of 36 Rokeach values as guiding principles in their lives. Partitioning of the obtained multidimensional space into regions revealed that people do indeed discriminate among values according to our a priori specifications of goal types, interests served, and motivational domains in both societies. Moreover, the motivational domains of values are organized dynamically in relation to one another in both societies, as predicted by the patterns of compatible or contradictory motivation and practical consequences. We have noted additional values and domains possibly needed for a universal scheme as well as potential applications of this approach for comparing the meanings, structure, and importance of values across cultures, for analyzing relations between social structure and values, and for predicting and interpreting relations of values to attitudes and behavior.
Chapter
There are many ways to conduct research. Choice of topic, data collecting techniques, and analytical procedures derive from the training, traditions, predilections of, and the practical restraints acting upon the investigator. Choosing the facet approach requires a shift in thinking, an imaginative leap even, not only in the conception of the research problem but also in the design and execution of the inquiry.
Chapter
Relative deprivation and equity theory are the two major social psychological approaches to the study of felt distributive injustice. Both theories postulate its antecedent conditions, emotional concomitants, and behavioral consequences. Both theories assert that not having and deserving something are preconditions of felt unjust deprivation; that resentment, anger, and dissatisfaction are among its emotional concomitants, and that the experience of unjust deprivation leads to behaviors aimed at eliminating it.1
Chapter
For a number of years now, I have been interested in the conceptual analysis and investigation of human values. I began a program of research that commenced in the late 1960s and has continued ever since. In this program, I have looked at a wide range of topics that include the measurement of values and value systems, similarities and differences in value priorities across different segments of Australian society and across different cultures, the comparison of value systems between parents and their children, the value priorities of special groups such as juvenile offenders and student activists, the relationship between attitudes and values, and the consequences for the person of discrepancies between personal value systems and the value systems that defined environments such as the school or the work situation are perceived to promote. The results of the first phase of my work in this area were brought together in Values in Education and Society (Feather, 1975), a book that was particularly concerned with studies that mapped values in different groups and with studies that investigated the effects of person-environment discrepancies in value systems. The program of research has continued to be an active one. Since the 1975 book, I have built on the foundations laid down in that volume and have also followed some new directions.
Article
Responses to attitude and activity preference surveys were compared for the degrees of real and perceived similarity within male (n = 13) and female (n = 11) friendship pairs. Activity preference similarity was substantially greater than attitudinal similarity, in fact: friends' attitudinal similarity was no greater than strangers'; individuals were able to predict the friend's responses to the activity survey more accurately than to the attitude survey; and activity similarity was a better predictor of liking than was attitudinal similarity. The findings were the same for males and females. These results suggest that the opportunity to engage in mutually pleasurable activities may be a stronger motive in friendship choice and friendship maintenance than is the satisfaction of knowing the friend agrees with you.
Article
A theory of the features of situations and behavior which underlie actors' perceptions of envy was developed from a consideration of envy as a "sin"- a type of transgression of a moral order. The contextual component of envy was hypothesized to be a situation in which someone's possessions, attributes, and attainments have diminished another's status. In such a situation if the person diminished is seen to belittle the character of the successful person, or undercut his success, envy will be perceived. Seven variants were constructed of a scenario in which an individual achieved a valued goal, and another did not. In the basic scenario all of the theory's preconditions for envy were met. In each of the six other variants, one precondition was altered. Of subjects who saw the basic scenario, 92% spontaneously interpreted the character's feelings as envy. In four of the other variants, reliably fewer subjects perceived envy.
Article
Culture influences both individual behavior and how businesses operate. Those working in both the business and policy arenas must understand other cultures and avoid ethnocentrism. Culture is defined as the "collective programming of the mind"; in the modern context it exists within national borders. Using data from surveys of employees in 40 countries at the HERMES Corporation in 1968 and 1972, four categories of cultural difference become clear and useful: power distance; uncertainty avoidance individualism; and masculinity. These categories are then correlated not only with one another, but with other available data. Sex differentiation is the final dimension of cultural difference in this analysis. These four dimensions of national culture describe the human condition. Some of them correlate with one another. Analyzing the correlations between the various indices allows the clustering of these 40 countries with similar statistics into 8 groups: More and Less Developed Latin and Asian, Near-Eastern, Germanic, Anglo and Nordic. Because the HERMES data was collected at two different points, 1968 and 1972, it can show change over time. While scientific discoveries can effect cultural change, not every culture will become increasingly similar. Different cultures will follow different trends, though some trends will be global. There was a worldwide decrease in desired power difference and in elevations of stress and both the Individualism Index (IDV) and Masculinity Index (MAS) grew during this period. Speculation on long term trends is provided, suggesting that the IDV will rise and the Power Distance Index norm will fall as long as national wealth increases; the Uncertainty Avoidance Index will fluctuate as people age, and MAS will remain constant as time passes. Organizations are bound by the cultures that created them, with consequences for cultural relativity for a number of areas: motivation; leadership; decision-making; planning and control; organization design; development; humanization of work; industrial democracy; company ownership and control; and the reaction of the local environment to the organization. Possible training strategies for multi-national and multi-cultural corporations are included and the Values Survey Module is introduced, shortening and improving upon the original HERMES survey in the hope that research on cultural difference will continue. (RAS)
Article
The present research explores the relation between similarity, on the one hand, and interpersonal attraction and personality trait inference, on the other. The multidimensionality of these constructs was considered in terms of two general dimensions of first impressions, social and intellectual. In a 2 × 2 design, subjects were asked to form first impressions of a target person who was similar or dissimilar to them in terms of both attitudes and activity preferences. The results indicated that both attitude and activity preference similarity affected judgments of attraction. However, activity similarity was especially predictive of liking judgments, while attitude similarity was especially predictive of respect judgments. This differential effect was even more pronounced for the inference of personality traits. Activity preference similarity especially influenced inferences of socially desirable traits, while attitude similarity especially affected inferences of intellectually desirable traits. The implications of these results for inferential relations in impression formation are discussed, and potential moderators of such relations are considered.
Article
• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
80 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 experimental conditions in which they received either positive or negative feedback on a bogus personality test that was either self-definitionally relevant or irrelevant, followed by feedback of successful performance by another person in a domain that was either relevant or irrelevant to the S. Dependent measures included scores on the Depression Adjective Check Lists and the State scale of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Significantly greater jealousy of the other person was reported in the condition in which the S received negative feedback regarding own performance on a self-involving characteristic, and in which the successful performance of the other was on the same characteristic. Ss in this condition were more likely to disparage the rival and less likely to desire his or her friendship. In addition, these Ss tended to feel more depressed and anxious about interacting with the comparison person. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses educational, societal, and cross-cultural value systems; value differences between age, sex, and income groups; and values of special groups (e.g., student activists, juvenile offenders, and immigrants); and emphasizes particularly the "ecology of values"--how different value systems interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Stepwise multiple regression analyses that involved measures of value importance, age, sex, education, and income as the independent variables were conducted. It was hypothesized that conservative people would emphasize values concerned with attachment to rules and authority and ego defense (e.g., security, cleanliness, obedience) and downgrade values concerned with equality, freedom, love, and pleasure as well as open-minded, intellectual, and imaginative modes of thought. This hypothesis was confirmed by the results from 2 independent surveys involving families in metropolitan Adelaide, Australia, (Sample 1, 1972) and the families of students at a university (Sample 2, 1976–1977). Ss in both samples completed the Rokeach Value Survey and the Wilson-Patterson Conservation Scale and provided background and demographic information. In addition to the values, age, and sex were significant predictors, with older respondents tending to be more conservative than younger ones and females more conservative than males. Education and income of the heads (Sample 1) and fathers (Sample 2) of families played a minor role in prediction. Results support both the cognitive learning and psychodynamic explanations of value–attitude relationships. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Administered the Protestant Ethic Scale, the Conservatism Scale, and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) to 140 undergraduates to determine if Ss with a strong Protestant Ethic value (the "work ethic") also tended to have conservative social attitudes. Results show a significant postive relationship between scores on the 2 measures. Scores on both tests were also associated with the relative importance assigned to some of the terminal and instrumental values (positively to salvation, obedience, and self-control; negatively to world of beauty, mature love, being broad-minded, and imaginative) from the RVS. It is suggested that part of the causal fabric underlying economic development might involve some conservative respect for predictability, discipline, and order and that the findings support the thesis of M. Weber (1904–1905 [translated by T. Parsons, 1976]) that economic development is linked to Protestant Ethic values. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article reviews cross-cultural studies from the Flinders University research program on values that have involved use of the Rokeach Value Survey. These studies fall into two main classes: (a) comparisons of Australian value priorities with those of other countries, and (b) research into the value priorities of different ethnic groups within Australia as part of an interest in migrant assimilation. The Rokeach Value Survey is described and modifications to it are noted; analytic procedures based upon individual data and group data are discussed with examples; and questions of cross-cultural appropriateness and equivalence are addressed. The interpretation of value differences across cultures is discussed with specific reference to findings from student samples from Australia, Papua New Guinea, and China.
Article
This article is concerned with the relation between values and actions. Theoretical approaches to this issue are considered that are based upon cognitive-developmental theory and social learning theory. The preferred theoretical approach is by way of expectancy-value theory with the addition of the key assumption that a person's values, once engaged, induce valences (or positive and negative subjective values) on actions and their possible outcomes and future consequences. Actions are assumed to occur in relation to these induced valences and the person's expectations about the likelihood of achieving the outcomes and future consequences. Three recent studies are described that apply this general approach in three different contexts: assisting a social movement organisation, seeking employment, and selecting an academic course. Future directions for research are suggested that include more detailed conceptual and empirical analyses of expectations, valences and their combination, and the incorporation of recent developments in the psychology of volition and action control.
Article
The paper describes a program of cross-cultural research on children's use of decision rules to resolve competing claims by group majorities and minorities. The prediction that the cultural dimension of collectivism-individualism (Hofstede, 1980) influences the rules and principles children follow in determining majority versus minority rights and allocations is supported by classroom experiments in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Israel. Children in collectivist cultures are more likely to use the equal say or turn taking rule in resolving majority and minority claims. Children in individualist cultures are more likely to follow majority rule or self-interest in resolving majority and minority claims. Majorities and minorities differ in the decision rules and distribution principles they favour to protect their interests, with minorities especially prone to make disproportionate claims. Proposals for cross-cultural research are made, including studies of the effects of variations in the relative size of competing majority and minority groups, variations in the nature of the out-group (e.g., genuine or artificially created; own classroom or other classroom), and influence of decision rule on subsequent distribution of resources between groups.
Article
Families and businesses have often been treated as naturally separate institutions, whereas we argue that they are inextricably intertwined. Long-term changes in family composition and in the roles and relations of family members have produced families in North America that are growing smaller and losing many of their previous role relationships. Such transformations in the institution of the family have implications for the emergence of new business opportunities, opportunity recognition, business start-up decisions, and the resource mobilization process. We suggest that entrepreneurship scholars would benefit from a family embeddedness perspective on new venture creation.
Article
LetA 1,A 2, ...,A n be anyn objects, such as variables, categories, people, social groups, ideas, physical objects, or any other. The empirical data to be analyzed are coefficients of similarity or distance within pairs (A i,A i ), such as correlation coefficients, conditional probabilities or likelihoods, psychological choice or confusion, etc. It is desired to represent these data parsimoniously in a coordinate space, by calculatingm coordinates {x ia } for eachA i for a semi-metricd of preassigned formd ij =d(|x i1 -x j1 |, |x i2 -x j2|, ..., |x im -x jm |). The dimensionalitym is sought to be as small as possible, yet satisfy the monotonicity condition thatd ij d kl whenever the observed data indicate thatA i is closer toA j thanA k is toA l . Minkowski and Euclidean spaces are special metric examples ofd. A general coefficient of monotonicity is defined, whose maximization is equivalent to optimal satisfaction of the monotonicity condition, and which allows various options both for treatment of ties and for weighting error-of-fit. A general rationale for algorithm construction is derived for maximizing by gradient-guided iterations; this provides a unified mathematical solution to the basic operational problems of norming the gradient to assure proper convergence, of trading between speed and robustness against undesired stationary values, and of a rational first approximation. Distinction is made between single-phase (quadratic) and two-phase (bilinear) strategies for algorithm construction, and between hard-squeeze and soft-squeeze tactics within these strategies. Special reference is made to the rank-image and related transformational principles, as executed by current Guttman-Lingoes families of computer programs.
Article
Studied the effects on liking for a stimulus person in a 3 * 2 * 2 factorial design varying 120 male undergraduates' self-esteem stimulus-person competence, and the presence or absence of a pratfall by the stimulus person. The competent stimulus person with or without a pratfall was found to be significantly more attractive than his incompetent counterpart. However, Ss of average self-esteem found the attractiveness of a competent person enhanced significantly if he experienced a pratfall, while Ss of high and low self-esteem were significantly more attracted to the superior when he did not blunder. A pratfall did not significantly affect liking for the incompetent stimulus person by any of the self-esteem groups. Ss of low self-esteem volunteered at a higher rate for experimentation than those of high or average self-esteem.
Article
"The relationship between leadership, followership, and friendship peer nominations was studied within eight sections of Naval Aviation Cadets, N = 187 . . ... From the results it may be concluded that peer nominations on leadership are by no means a total function of friendship ties; quite the contrary, friendship appears to play only a minor role in the emergence of leadership nominations. Furthermore, followership status is not necessarily implied by nonleadership status on peer nominations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Social comparison jealousy A developmental and motivational study
  • S A Bers
  • J Rodin
Task roles and social roles in problem solving groups
  • R F Bales
A theory of achievement motivation
  • J W Atkinson
  • N T Feather
The sense of injustice: Social psychological perspectives
  • F Crosby
  • A M Gonzales-Intal
Social comparison processes: Theoretical and approaches
  • G R Goethals
  • J M Darley
Australian national dictionary
  • W S Ramson
Interpersonal attraction
  • E Berscheid
  • E Walster
Social comparison processes: Theoretical and empirical perspectives
  • T D Cook
  • F Crosby
  • K M Hennigan
Australian psychology: Review of research . Sydney: Allen & Unwin
  • N T Feather
Australia . London: Ernest Benn
  • W K Hancock
The nature of human values
  • M Rokeach
Authoritarian personality in contemporary perspective
  • R N Sanford
The psychology of conservation
  • G D Wilson