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The Relationship between Organizational Support, Employee Development, and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study

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Abstract

An empirical study conducted in a major midwestern hospital found that organizational commitment and perceived organizational support were significantly correlated with satisfaction with career development. Results suggested that when organizations make efforts to develop their managers, the managers become more committed to the organization and also more likely to develop their employees.

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... Numerous research findings conducted over the past decade have maintained that a significant connection between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment exist (Arshadi, 2011;Aube et al., 2007). An experiential analysis completed by Tansky and Cohen, (2001), uncovered that there was a significant association between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment (Tansky & Cohen, 2001). The data was collected in a major metropolitan hospital in the Midwest. ...
... Numerous research findings conducted over the past decade have maintained that a significant connection between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment exist (Arshadi, 2011;Aube et al., 2007). An experiential analysis completed by Tansky and Cohen, (2001), uncovered that there was a significant association between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment (Tansky & Cohen, 2001). The data was collected in a major metropolitan hospital in the Midwest. ...
... At the beginning of a workshop for managers and supervisors, titled "Managers as coaches" attendees were requested to complete a survey on perceived organisational support. A total of two hundred and sixty-two attendees responded to the survey (Tansky & Cohen, 2001). The results indicated that organisational commitment influences perceptions of organisational support. ...
Thesis
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Globally and in South Africa turnover has been identified as a major challenge in organisations. An examination of the literature revealed that perceived organisational support (POS) and organisational commitment can significantly influence an employee’s turnover intention. The literature also showed that when employees perceive that they are being supported by their employers they reciprocate positively and commit to organisational imperatives because they feel appreciated. As a result, organisational efficiency and employee performance is enhanced and turnover is decreased. However, little attention has been directed at examining POS and organisational commitment on turnover intention in the cash industry in South Africa. This privation of literature was found even though employee retention is a critical challenge in the cash industry in South Africa. A quantitative research design was employed to investigate this phenomenon. By drawing a convenience sample, data was collected using three questionnaires together with a biographical inquiry form. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Furthermore, exploratory factor analyses were performed to identify and highlight poor items in the three questionnaires and test for uni-dimensionality of the three scales and their subscales. Correlational analysis was used to determine if there are relationships between the various variables and lastly, regression was performed to identify what impact the variables have on one another. The contribution of the study can ensure the retention of staff in this dangerous working environment. The research findings of this report reveal that a statistically significant relationship is present between perceived organisational support and turnover intentions amongst employees. In addition, the results reveal a negative statistically significant relationship between organisational commitment, namely the three dimensions (affective, continuance and normative commitment) and turnover intentions. Furthermore, an inverse statistically significant relationship between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment, namely the three dimensions (affective, continuous and normative commitment) was discovered. The use of regression analysis found perceived organisational support to be the stronger predictor of turnover intentions, making a statistically significant and unique contribution to turnover intention. Included in the research finding was the exploration of the dimensions of organisational commitment and turnover intentions – both affective and normative commitment were discovered to be the strong predictors of turnover intentions.
... Besides, developing from the research of ; Chang et al. (2007) also showed that the gap between career needs and career development programs could lead to the low organisational commitment. Moreover, career development was considered as an essential factor affecting and strengthening psychological employees, which result in a strong organisational commitment (Harel and Tzafrir, 1999;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Apart from the direct relationship with organisational commitment, satisfaction with career development was also indirectly associated to organisational commitment through the organisational support (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). ...
... Moreover, career development was considered as an essential factor affecting and strengthening psychological employees, which result in a strong organisational commitment (Harel and Tzafrir, 1999;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Apart from the direct relationship with organisational commitment, satisfaction with career development was also indirectly associated to organisational commitment through the organisational support (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Similar to previous independent variables, it was quite popular to recognise the importance of career development in predicting job satisfaction and organisational commitment. ...
... Consequently, employee job satisfaction resulted in organisational commitment which has mentioned above and has been confirmed by many researchers for a long time (Bateman and Strasser, 1984). Regarding direct influence, SOP were also pointed out to be correlated with organisational commitment (Eisenberger et al., 1986;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Later, Aube et al. (2007) and Panaccio and Vandenberghe (2009) also found the positive relationship of POS on two important components of organisational commitment (affective commitment and normative commitment). ...
... Besides, developing from the research of ; Chang et al. (2007) also showed that the gap between career needs and career development programs could lead to the low organisational commitment. Moreover, career development was considered as an essential factor affecting and strengthening psychological employees, which result in a strong organisational commitment (Harel and Tzafrir, 1999;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Apart from the direct relationship with organisational commitment, satisfaction with career development was also indirectly associated to organisational commitment through the organisational support (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). ...
... Moreover, career development was considered as an essential factor affecting and strengthening psychological employees, which result in a strong organisational commitment (Harel and Tzafrir, 1999;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Apart from the direct relationship with organisational commitment, satisfaction with career development was also indirectly associated to organisational commitment through the organisational support (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Similar to previous independent variables, it was quite popular to recognise the importance of career development in predicting job satisfaction and organisational commitment. ...
... Consequently, employee job satisfaction resulted in organisational commitment which has mentioned above and has been confirmed by many researchers for a long time (Bateman and Strasser, 1984). Regarding direct influence, SOP were also pointed out to be correlated with organisational commitment (Eisenberger et al., 1986;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Later, Aube et al. (2007) and Panaccio and Vandenberghe (2009) also found the positive relationship of POS on two important components of organisational commitment (affective commitment and normative commitment). ...
... SET has economic as well as social impact (Lambe et al., 2001). Employees will be encouraged to do more work in the organization when employees receive desirable OC (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Furthermore, fair exchange creates linkage between employee and employer which bring psychological attachment of employees with the work (Burns, 1973). ...
... Furthermore, fair exchange creates linkage between employee and employer which bring psychological attachment of employees with the work (Burns, 1973). It brings connection between employees and organization on the basis of trust rather than legal obligations (Tansky and Cohen, 2001), flexibility rather than rigidness, and mutual cooperation (Stafford, 2008). In this connection, Thibaut and Kelley (1959) suggested that organizations should implement effective and sound OC which the employees can appreciate, with that different exchange relationships can be achieve by both party. ...
Article
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The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of organizational culture (OC) on employee engagement (EE) and employee performance (EP) among academic staff of Malaysian Private Universities (MPU). However, studies of such have been given less attention within the context of MPU. Therefore, this paper highlights the issue through a systematic review of previous literature on the subject matter. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents while Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the study hypotheses. The results revealed that OC has a significant effect on EP while EE partially mediates the relationship between OC and EP. This study encourages university management to initiate sound OC and at the same time invest on OC in order to actualize EE and achieve a sustainable EP. This research has made a significant contribution to the operationalization of OC, EE, and EP literature which help to develop model, theory, research and practice in the fields of job performance.
... Researchers seem to agree on the mediating role of work attitudes; however, less attention has been given to other intervening or moderating variables (Maurer and Lippstreu, 2008). To date, turnover models that include employee development and employee attitudes as key antecedents have used either OST or JD-R, independently, to explain why perceptions of employee development lead to a decrease in voluntary turnover (Bakker et al., 2003;Tansky and Cohen, 2001). However, we suggest that OST and JD-R are not mutually exclusive and that a more complete model of the relationship between employee development and turnover intention involves integrating both theories. ...
... A few notable studies acknowledged the effects of EPD and its various related conceptualizations, on employee turnover intentions (Allen et al., 2003;Koster et al., 2011;Ito and Brotheridge, 2005;Kraimer et al., 2011;Lee and Bruvold, 2003;Tansky and Cohen, 2001;Wayne et al., 1997). However, the results are inconclusive. ...
Article
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Purpose Responding to calls for further research, the primary aim of the current study is to examine the employee perceptions of development (EPD) and intent to stay process with potential intervening variables (i.e. job satisfaction and supervisor support) to expand our understanding of how employees will respond to such perceptions. Design/methodology/approach A large sample ( n = 687) of survey responses from a health-care organization was analyzed. The data set is from an employee experience survey that was distributed to employees after one year of employment. As one of the largest change initiatives in its history, the organization was in the process of merging with another large health-care organization. Findings The results indicated that there is a direct and positive relationship between EPD and intent to stay, and that job satisfaction mediated this relationship. These findings provide further evidence that employee development is an effective intervention to reduce turnover and increase job satisfaction. Originality/value The current study contributed to the existing literature by providing additional evidence for the positive effects of employee career development perceptions on job satisfaction and intent to stay by examining a large sample in an organizational setting.
... Employees influenced by affective commitment are willing to go above and beyond to accomplish OGD-driven innovation. They are more likely to engage in radical innovation activities [31,62]. Moreover, since employees are newbies to OGD applications at this stage, they are more open-minded and likely to generate fresh ideas without being constrained by previous experience [19,21]. ...
Article
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Open government data (OGD) are considered a sustainable driver of firm innovation. Leadership is a crucial decision-maker for firms to employ OGD in innovation. The present study focuses on two of the most prominent leadership styles: transformational and transactional. Drawing on the Organizational Commitment Theory, we claim that affective and normative commitment are the two parallel mechanisms that explain how leadership promotes OGD-driven innovation in firms. Our results show that transformational leadership promotes OGD-driven radical innovation through affective commitment. In contrast, transactional leadership promotes OGD-driven incremental innovation through normative commitment. More importantly, we suggest that the OGD application stage moderates the effect of leadership on organizational commitment. Specifically, in the initial stage of the OGD application, higher transformational leadership triggers higher affective commitment in employees. In contrast, in the mature stage of OGD application, higher transactional leadership triggers higher normative commitment in employees.
... For example, when older workers report increased development opportunities, their turnover intentions are correspondingly lower (Henry et al., 2015). Reduced turnover intentions and higher commitment to the organization are just a few recognised outcomes connected to development opportunities (Henry et al., 2015;Tansky & Cohen, 2001), which keep older workers" built-up industry and occupational experience and knowledge in the organization. In addition, increasing workers development opportunities has also been linked with increased career and job satisfaction (Lee & Bruvold, 2003;Maurer & Chapman, 2013). ...
Article
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Background and Objectives The global aging workforce necessitates new approaches in designing work environments to cater to the needs of increasingly age-diverse work groups. The OECD has in reaction outlined that organizations need to provide age inclusive work environments that support the needs of their multigenerational workforce, to ensure their sustainability and profitability. To capture the age inclusiveness of the work environment, the present study proposes and validates an age inclusive ‘environment check’ for organizations referred to as the Age Inclusive Work Environment Instrument (AIWEI), which covers discrimination, inclusion, and development opportunities. Research Design and Methods We validate the 9-item AIWEI using cross-sectional and multilevel data from 2892 Swedish workers across 101 workplaces who completed an online survey, using confirmatory factor analyses across young, middle-age, and older workers. Using a nomological approach we also evaluate the concurrent validity of the AIWEI with a 2-1-1 path analysis. Results The factor analyses supported a 3-factor model comprising of inclusion, discrimination, and development opportunities, across three age groups (i.e., young, middle-age, and older workers). These three factors had high ICC scores showing consistency in responding in the workplace. In accordance with the nomological approach, the factors of the AIWEI were linked with Psychosocial Safety Climate, burnout, and engagement, demonstrating concurrent validity for the AIWEI. Discussion and Implications This new ‘environment check’ provides a way to capture age inclusive work environments for both younger and older workers, in an age-diverse workforce. In the validation process, age inclusive work environments were found to exist as a group phenomenon, through shared perceptions within an organization, as well as an individual phenomenon, as experiences specific to an individual. This is important for the development and implementation of policies and strategies designed to benefit workers and organizations.
... According to Guest (1997), an individual's opinion of human resource management systems is most closely tied to individual and attitude-based behavioral outcomes such as organizational commitment and job satisfaction. According to Tansky (2001), commitment is defined as the degree to which an individual identifies with and is involved in something. A person's feelings toward an organization directly determine their level of performance, so these feelings are known as commitment. ...
Article
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This research investigates the aspect that impacts the autonomy of employees and sustainable HRM involved in corporate recognition against competitors and propensity to leave. This stud supports the idea that resilient employees have the autonomy to change the status of an organization. This study focused solely on employee resilience on the two effects of perceived insider status and perceived external prestige in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the linkages that exist between the study factors. This study further analyzed that job autonomy may also enhance the employee's capability and potential to try and do their job in the best possible way. Moreover, In this study, questions (items) were taken from previous research studies that were cited in reputable SCI or ESCI publications. Additionally, sophisticated PLS software was employed to carry out the structural equation modeling. This mechanism is based primarily on the subject's comfort to exact process the participants for having to respond to the studies tool or amassing data. Further findings discuss in the study.
... As professional development can take place through a variety of activities such as formal trainings or workshops (e.g., Steinert, 2010), informal learning on the job (e.g., Virolainen, 2007), learning in teams or through learning communities (e.g., Gast et al., 2017), or learning through individual reflection or experimentation (e.g., Clayton and Ash, 2005), this study takes a multi-faceted approach to understanding the link between development activities and university teachers' well-being, in line with Acton and Glasgow (2015) and Onyura et al. (2017). Extant research within and outside of the university context has found that professional development empowers employees by providing both social and institutional support (Tansky and Cohen, 2001;Kraimer et al., 2011;Onyura et al., 2017;Heffernan and Heffernan, 2019). However, little is known to date about how specific teacher professional development activities are related to psychological well-being in the higher education context. ...
Article
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Over the last decades, changes within higher education have created increased pressure and uncertainty for academics, increasing their risk for cognitive, behavioral, physical, as well as psychological issues due to high job demands. Specifically, for new academics in teaching roles, their lack of knowledge and skills can contribute to a negative effect of these job demands on their well-being. This study therefore explored how teaching-related professional development programs can enhance new university teachers’ well-being, through semi-structured interviews with 10 university teachers participating in such a program at a mid-sized Dutch university. We pay special attention to the relationship between specific learning activities integrated in the program (such as learning communities, formal workshops, and reflecting) and various dimensions of the psychological model of well-being by Ryff and Keyes (such as self-acceptance, autonomy, environmental mastery, and positive relationships). Using co-occurrence analysis and content analysis, we found that different learning activities had distinct relationships with different well-being facets. For example, formal workshops were mainly related to environmental mastery, a purpose in life and personal growth, while reflecting seemed to be especially connected to teachers’ self-acceptance, and participating in a learning community was mainly related to positive relations with others and personal growth. Our findings have implications for research on teacher well-being as well as for the design of professional development programs for higher education teaching staff.
... Organizational investment in human capital can take various forms, such as education and professional development. In addition to formal professional education (Grawitch et al., 2006;Tansky & Cohen, 2001), employers can assign project workers to various projects (Sveiby, 1997) or provide them with on-the-job training programs (Chambel & Sobral, 2011) to enhance their skills and capabilities. Such professional development programs enhance employee skills and marketability (Fallon & Rice 2015). ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between a project worker’s attitude toward organizational change and the organization’s career-related human resources management (HRM) practices. A quantitative research study utilizing survey data collected in China was conducted with project workers in the oil and gas industry. A hierarchical regression model was used to identify how HRM practices impact employee positive attitudes toward organizational change (PATOC). Study results indicate that professional development programs are not statistically significant predictors of project worker PATOC. The results also show that internal promotion opportunities can significantly predict a project professional’s PATOC. Findings suggest that project management contextual influences may limit the efficacy of some HRM practices.
... Without any doubt, this fact, reflects the importance for organizations of developing training and development activities (oriented to employment), that may be able to boost employees' affective commitment level (Fugate et al., 2004;van Dam, 2004), and a sense of responsibility and obligation (Hutchison, 1997) or, in other words, a higher level of normative commitment. Training and development programs cause employees to perceive the firm interest for their general labor well-being (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). ...
Article
Este estudio analiza el impacto de la empleabilidad interna percibida como un medio para retener empleados poseedores de capital humano valioso para la empresa. Se utilizan las percepciones de los empleados puesto que son estas las que determinan las actitudes y por lo tanto las predisposiciones para actuar, así como los comportamientos individuales adoptados. La satisfacción laboral y el compromiso organizativo se proponen como variables mediadoras de dicha relación, pues se han manifestado como determinantes en la literatura a la hora de explicar el comportamiento de los empleados. Como variable dependiente se utiliza la intención de renunciar al trabajo dado que es muy complejo analizar la rotación efectiva de los empleados, la cual depende en gran medida de las oportunidades que ofrece el mercado laboral. El análisis se lleva a cabo a través de ecuaciones estructurales en una muestra de 218 empleados. Los resultados muestran que la empleabilidad interna sí tiene un efecto positivo en una dimensión afectiva combinada del trabajo, así como esta última dimensión impacta negativamente en la intención de los empleados de renunciar a su trabajo.
... Here, organizations can provide for differentiated training opportunities that resemble personalized coaching sessions dedicated to professional development rather than generic training that is destined to be soon forgotten. Indeed, the well-being focused sales organization understands that opportunities for personal development are a critical component in fostering job satisfaction and organizational commitment (e.g., García-Bernal et al. 2005;Tansky and Cohen 2001), and makes efforts to ensure that their employees are both aware of-and prepared forpromotion opportunities within the firm, even if they are outside of the sales function. ...
Article
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Although the topic of well-being has become an increasingly prominent topic of discussion amongst scholars and practitioners alike, it has heretofore been given scant attention in the academic sales discipline. The current research attempts to correct this notable omission by developing a vision of salesforce well-being as it pertains to the people, processes, and performance metrics associated with the sales function. We posit that the concept of well-being is of enduring importance to the many stakeholders impacted by professional sales organizations. We conclude our research by offering a series of research questions for interested scholars who, in lending insight into these questions, will advance both academic theory and provide needed insights to sales organizations who must increasingly attend to the well-being of their employees, customers, suppliers, and communities.
... Les pratiques de formation de même que toutes autres opportunités de développement permettant aux employés de faire progresser significativement leurs compétences et font état d'une organisation qui se soucie des intérêts de ses employés au même titre que des siens (Eisenberger & Stinglhamber, 2011). Plusieurs études ont établi l'association positive entre la satisfaction envers les efforts organisationnels de développement et le soutien organisationnel perçu (Eisenberger & Stinglhamber, 2011;Tansky & Cohen, 2001). Une organisation qui ne procure pas assez d'activités de formation pourrait transmettre une image d'entité insouciante du développement des compétences de son personnel, et donc de son bien-être. ...
Article
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While there has been a significant amount of research on the issue of voluntary employee turnover, retention remains the Achilles heel of most public and private sector organizations. By focusing more on intention to leave, research is often positioned in a curative rather than preventive perspective and fails to pinpoint preventive factors of turnover. Hence, intention to stay was adopted in this research to assess the effectiveness of social policies adopted by commercial banks in Morocco. The research we report is part of a larger study incorporating three bundles of HR practices, namely development, motivation and empowerment. The purpose of this paper is to better map the influence of developmental practices on perceived organizational support and intention to stay. For the purposes of this research, a sample of 802 usable responses was collected, and the results reveal the negative influence of career management, and the prominent mediating role that perceived organizational support plays. The results are compelling and provide practical recommendations for leaders and managers of the surveyed organizations. The limitations of the research are documented and help to pave the road for future research perspectives.
... This study indicates that when universities encourage young academics, they feel the universities value their contributions and meet their psychological needs. As a result, they may believe that they have more opportunities for professional development (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). The enhanced affective commitment of young academics has an effect on their organizational identification (Marique et al., 2013) and job satisfaction level (Alnıaçık et al., 2012), which may affect academic performance (Habieb et al., 2013) and the prestige of the university where they work (Carmeli, 2005). ...
Article
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The most important mission of universities is the production of highly skilled manpower and research outputs. In this context, the ability of universities to implement these missions is directly related to their human resources. Academics are the most important intellectual capital of universities, and the support they receive from the universities they work for plays a critical role in the realization of this objective. Organizational trust is also vital for successful relations and collaboration to share research and teaching ideas and address problems in universities. Both of these have an impact on their scientific activities, as well as motivation to work and commitment. Therefore, drawing on the social exchange theory, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of young academics’ perceived organizational support and organizational trust on their organizational commitment behaviour. The sample comprised 305 young academics in Turkey. This study showed that perceived organizational support and organizational trust have a significant and positive impact on affective and normative commitment. However, trust in managers has a significant and negative impact on continuance commitment. Keywords: perceived organizational support (POS), organizational trust, organizational commitment, social exchange theory, young academics
... This research investigation found that JS is product of organizational commitment therefore this study supports the previous empirical study of Gaertner (1999). Moreover, JS is linked with organizational support program and organizational commitment thus this study is aligned with the work of Porter et al., 1974;Buchanan, 1974;Reed et al., 1994;Tansky and Cohen, 2001;Bartlett and Kang, 2004;Aube et al., 2007;LaMastro;2008;Riggle et al., 2009;and Gu and Siu, 2009. ...
Article
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This study aims to establish a level of significance between organizational commitment (OC) and organizational support program (OSP) inside hospitality sector to measure the employees' performances. To critically investigate research variables, Hotel Ramada Heathrow is considered as case study. The theories and models of past research have investigated the connection between variables but are limited to one dimension. Present study considered multivariate and found job satisfaction is a mediating determinant between employees' organizational commitment and perceived organizational support. Thus, mixed method is commenced by using interviews and survey questionnaire as primary research instruments. The research exploratory and therefore degree-based matrix questionnaire to measure the responses of participants. Interview questions were open ended. Semi structured approach was used to investigate research problem, The sample size for interview is 6 officials from Ramada Heathrow while for survey 28 employees formed sample size. The respondents were selected through convenience sampling technique. Moreover, t-test is used to test hypothesis. The findings confirmed that there is strong significant correlation between OC and OSP. The t-test results showed 0.90688 value which reflects significantly strong correlation. Moreover, it is evident in present study that all three respective dimensions of organizational commitment (AC, NC, and CC) are influenced by perceived organizational support to high level in positive way. The research contains suggestions and recommendations to Hotel Ramada Heathrow's management by developing strong OSP to ensure employees attitude and perception is influenced positively.
... The continued development of the OC relationship studies prompted researchers between the 1990s and late 2000s to focus attention on model development within a multidimensional perspective (Allen & Meyer, 1990;Tansky & Cohen, 2001;Meyer et al., 2002;Martin & Roodt, 2008;Dhar, 2015). The first tri-component model incorporated all three psychological states of employee commitment, affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment (AC, CC, and NC respectively), and was developed by Allen and Meyer (1990), who argued that employees are likely to experience all three commitment levels simultaneously, although at varying degrees. ...
Conference Paper
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Studies on coopetition have gained research interest over the last three decades. Coopetition refers to a complex structure of firms' interdependence where cooperation and competition are simultaneously present and intertwined, also defined as simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms. The tourism industry consists of diversified categories of SMEs that operate in close proximity and are interdependent due to limited resources; competing and cooperating becomes ineludible. This paradox has led researchers to explore the drivers or motivations, as well as outcomes of coopetition. Drivers are classified under external drivers relating to industry factors, relation-specific and internal drivers. There are inevitable tensions generated by the coopetition phenomena. Paradoxes emerging from inter-organizational relationships surface from competing goals and demands, hence the tension. This paper determined drivers and outcomes of coopetition at the inter-organizational level among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism industry at Lüderitz through in-depth interviews and ethnographic methodology. External drivers such as geographic proximity, customer preferences or needs and credibility, and, relation-specific drivers such as location, trust and commitment were the dominant determinants of coopetition. The outcomes of coopetition include customer satisfaction, enhanced destination image, cost saving, information sharing, enhanced innovation, access to required resources and firm growth. A main challenge uncovered is the lack of joint marketing of Lüderitz as a destination which impede the long-term competitiveness and success of the destination. There is a dominant cooperative culture of coopetitive relationships which alludes to coopetition capability of businesses to maintain moderate levels of tension for best alliance performance.
... A successful talent management strategy focusses on bringing out the best qualities from talented employees and retaining them in the organization since they are an important human capital resource to sustain competitive advantage in this challenging business environment. According to Tansky and Cohen (2001), employee development activities are positively connected to perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. Supports from the company such as comprehensive development program, supervisor support and performance-based career promotion are considered as part of talent management practices that will further elevate the level of perceived organizational support among talents in a company. ...
Article
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The study analyzed the relationships between talent management practices, namely talent identification, talent development and talent culture, and perceived organizational support between talents at Government Linked Corporation (GLCs). Survey questionnaires were disseminated at 47 GLCs and the responses were collected from 164 employees. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis was utilized to examine the research hypotheses. The results of the analysis found that there are significant correlations between both talent identification and talent development with perceived organizational support, while the result exhibited non-significant relationship for talent culture.
... So to measure the depth of relationship social exchange theory is recommended (Blau, 1964). The firm may give incentives and opportunities to employees and in this exchange, an employee becomes more committed to organization (Tansky, 2001). Different researchers give different definition of organizational commitment. ...
Article
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In this current era of a competitive world, it's has become necessary to every organization to maintain its sustainable performance and retain its employees. Researchers have reported that there are different factors that relate to organizational performance. Therefore, this study tries to find out relation of under study variables with organization performance. For comprehensive understanding mediation mechanism has been applied. This research has investigated the mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationship between Compensation, Employee Engagement, Employee Loyalty and Organization Performance. Data were collected from 278 respondents from bank through questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was conducted by using Smarts PLS 3. The findings of the study have discovered that direct and significant positive relationship exists between Compensation, Employee Engagement, Employee Loyalty and organization performance. So, organization must give importance to these factors in order to increase their performance and sustain in business world.
... However, the literature has shown the opposite occurs. Offering development opportunities increases employee satisfaction, retention and organizational commitment (Bartlett, 2001;Tansky & Cohen, 2001;Benson, 2006). Therefore career development initiatives and opportunities to enhance employability, and hence career resilience result in employees' continued engagement in their role and the organization thus contributing to long term business sustainability (Mitchell, Holton, Lee, Sablynski & Erez, 2001). ...
Chapter
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The increasingly complex and turbulent 21st century work environment poses challenges for businesses that can threaten their long-term sustainability. Given the rapid developments in technology, increasing rates of employee turnover, skills shortages, and changing expectations from Generation Z, the youngest generation now entering the workforce, organizations are recognizing the importance of developing a career resilient workforce. Individual employees' career resilience frames their capacity to respond when faced with career challenges, allowing them to continue functioning effectively, adapt in a flexible manner, and to successfully deliver work outcomes. To sustain a resilient workforce, managers must actively plan, develop, and deploy human resource management initiatives aimed at instilling career resilience in the youngest workplace entrants. By strategically designing generationally-appropriate management practices to maximize Generation Z talent, organizations can bolster their business sustainability to remain competitive in the changing economy.
... According to the reciprocity norm, the theory of the organizational support explains how the perceived organizational support is related with positive outcomes in employees, as for example organizational commitment [36] in healthcare system [57] and with nurse samples [58]. ...
Article
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Background: Leader-Member Exchange theory provides strategic information about how to improve the leader's role and nurses' satisfaction on healthcare organizations. Objectives: The main objective of this research was to study the quality of the supervisor-nurse relationship in relation to the nurses' job satisfaction. This research also analyses how the relationship between Leader-Member exchanges and nurse job satisfaction could be moderated by other variables, such as nurse psychological empowerment, nurse-perceived organizational support and Leader-Leader Exchange. Methods: The sample comprises of 2541 registered nurses who work in public hospitals in the Autonomous Region of Aragon (Spain). Regression analyses were conducted. Results: The statistically significant results demonstrate the influence that the supervisor's leadership exerts on the job satisfaction of the nurse. Conclusions: The moderating variables (Empowerment, Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Leader relationship) play an important role explaining the job satisfaction of the nurse. Deepening in these relationships could help us implement precise strategies to improve the nurse organizational commitment and the quality of health care performance.
... This theory suggested that all human relations are based on cost and benefit analysis of the comparison of substitutions. Indeed, social exchange relation depends on the trust, obligations and responsibilities [58] . Hence, SET postulate that all people being relationships is founded on social and economic exchanges. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, the Four-Type Negotiation Matrix is introduced. The model is useful to address negotiation issues regarding the number of parties and the number of issues within a given negotiation process. In the next paragraphs, a sound introduction addresses the model. Then, ta a comprehensive theoretical background is disclosed. Next, four managerial, business negotiation cases are presented-each case relative to a negotiation type. Finally, case analysis and discussion compile the chapter.
... Particularly, it will improve the perception of employees that organization is keen on improving the well-being of its members. Thus, it will further their emotional obligation towards the firm (Tansky & Cohen, 2001, Sánchez-Manjavacas, 2014). The first hypothesis is proposed as follows; ...
Article
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Organizations have spent substantial time, effort and money to train employees and convert them into assets and the cost of losing such talent is enormous. Additionally, losing talented executives also lead to loss of company secrets. As such, in times of difficulties present in maintaining employees for shorter or longer, employability and high leader member exchange (LMX) can be considered as an important strategy for increasing their commitment and hence their retention. This paper has observed the impact of internal employability and leader member exchange on organizational commitment and subsequently turnover intention. This study has tested three models; first is the mediation of commitment between internal employability and intention to quit, second model is the mediation of commitment between LMX and intention to quit and last model is double mediation which has internal employability and commitment taken as two proposed dual mediators between LMX and intention to quit. A sample of 137 employees from ten commercial banks was taken from banking sector in Karachi Pakistan. Personal survey technique has been implemented and questionnaire has been used for data collection. The conclusion derived from the findings and results of the hypotheses have confirmed few propositions of this research but there was no mediation or double mediation found in the study.
... Wyniki badań pokazują również, że pracownicy przywiązani do organizacji są bardziej innowacyjni w pracy i przywiązani do zespołu, a pracownicy z większym przywiązaniem do profesji wykazują mniejsze zaangażowanie zawodowe i przywiązanie normatywne (Singh & Gupta, 2015). J.W. Tansky i D.J. Cohen (2001) wykazali, że satysfakcja pracowników ze swojego rozwoju jest pozytywnie skorelowana z przywiązaniem organizacyjnym. Dodatkowo A. Rakowska i I. wykazały, że przywiązanie organizacyjne jest wyraźnie związane z satysfakcją z relacji interpersonalnych, z postrzeganym wsparciem ze strony organizacji oraz z poczuciem sprawiedliwości. ...
Book
Monografia obejmuje wybrane zagadnienia związane z zarządzaniem różnorodnością pracowników w odniesieniu do wyzwań przemysłu 4.0. Publikacja jest rezultatem prowadzonych prac naukowych i badawczych pracowników z różnych ośrodków akademickich specjalizujących się w dyscyplinie nauki o zarządzaniu i jakości. Monografia składa się z trzech rozdziałów. Pierwszy o charakterze teoretycznym przedstawia aspekty rozwoju czwartej rewolucji przemysłowej w kontekście wyzwań dla zarządzających pracownikami oraz prezentuje kluczowe kompetencje pracowników tego przemysłu z perspektywy ekspertów, naukowców oraz specjalistów z zarządzania. Omawia też wybrane problemy polskich przedsiębiorstw w zakresie ZZL podczas wdrażania przemysłu 4.0. Rozdział drugi prezentuje praktyczne aspekty związane z szeroko pojętą różnorodnością i koncentruje się na praktykach stosowanych przez przedsiębiorstwa w zakresie zarządzania różnorodnością. Trzeci rozdział koncentruje uwagę na budowaniu zaangażowania u pracowników przemysłu 4.0. Monografia wychodzi naprzeciw potrzebom współczesnych pracodawców i praktyków zajmujących się diversity management w przedsiębiorstwach zaliczanych do przemysłu 4.0. Może także służyć jako pomoc naukowa studentom zgłębiającym problematykę zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi.
... Training development programs are viewed by employees as a form of caring by the organization (Aubé et al., 2007;Johlke et al., 2001;Tansky & Cohen, 2001). High Tech has always attached importance to sustaining employee personal and professional growth. ...
Chapter
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The COVID-19 pandemic forced many organizations to abruptly introduce remote working, without an accurate analysis of organizational processes and employees’ expectations about work exibility. Thus, remote working has been implemented without a rational plan of interventions based on remote work- enabling technologies, managerial practices, and resources. This chapter aims at understanding the role of “supporting” structures and practices in driving the e ective implementation of remote working in the post-COVID era. The authors rely on a case study of a multi-national IT company with a long experience with remote work arrangements, focusing on mobile work and virtual teams and looking at expectations and actions of remote workers in relation to organizational support. Findings revealed the importance to adopt a holistic approach to organizational support to remote working based on formal procedures, adequate evaluation systems, tools for self-management, blended training programs, sup- portive leadership style, along with a collaborative work environment and a remote culture.
... According to Schlager et al. (2011), a strong mentoring culture, training opportunities and an empowering environment for employees are important criteria in evaluating an organization's growth value. At the same time, whatever form of development value an employee receives from the organization, this form will affect their commitment to the organization (Tansky & Cohen, 2001). In addition, the development value also improves organizational identification (Lee, 1971). ...
Article
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Human resource quality as one important factor affects the success of each organization. The need to build human resource foundation with knowledge, skills and good attitude is one urgent task for all business leaders. The first task is to attract and recruit excellent individuals to work for the business; therefore, how to attract candidates is always academic researchers’ as well as business managers’ top priority. Employer attractiveness factor (Berthon et al., 2005) has been applied in some recent studies. However, because talent recruitment and attraction is diverse and different for individual organization, culture and country, the scale of employer attractiveness concept still implies many points that are not absolutely appropriate for Vietnamese contexts. This research, based on the social exchange theory, the signaling theory, the person - organization fit theory and the employer branding theory, develops in great details and confirms the employer attractiveness scale in Vietnamese business. The mixed method (interviewing 4 experts and 2 staff in-depth groups as well as surveying quantitatively 937 employees working for Vietnamese enterprises) has been applied. The research results determine the employer attractiveness dimension factor comprising social value, development value, application value, safety value and economic value. This research has discovered a new factor of employer attractiveness scale: safety value.
... In accordance with the exchange relationship of employee and employer, an employer should realise the efforts of an employee by giving appropriate opportunities and benefits, in turn, an employee should feel indebted to give in return and become more committed towards the organisation (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Hunsaker (2018) also posited that employees build some general beliefs about their workplace that to which extent their organisation gives values for their effort and consider their well-being that leads to higher engagement. ...
... In accordance with the exchange relationship of employee and employer, an employer should realise the efforts of an employee by giving appropriate opportunities and benefits, in turn, an employee should feel indebted to give in return and become more committed towards the organisation (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). Hunsaker (2018) also posited that employees build some general beliefs about their workplace that to which extent their organisation gives values for their effort and consider their well-being that leads to higher engagement. ...
Article
The term employee engagement has become one of the leading foci in human resource development and employee behaviour literature. Both conceptual as well as empirical research on employee engagement are studied to explore the multiple aspects of engagement and its predictors. The outcomes of previous studies have sometimes been unsystematic and inconsistent. They also found a confusion concerning the concept and overlaps between commitment and engagement. The present study tackles these gaps with a theoretical model suggesting the mediating moderating role on HRM engagement linkage. It further explains the relationships of research framework under the norms of social exchange theory and gives guidance for upcoming research.
... Finally, nurses' turnover intent increases when employment conditions, such as opportunities for growth and development as well as pay and salary, are unsatisfactory . Perceived organizational support for further development (Tansky and Cohen, 2001) and career growth (Weng et al., 2010;Weng and McElroy, 2012) also appear to be associated with organizational commitment, being one of the outcome indicators in our research model. ...
Book
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Approaching occupational health psychology from a Healthy Healthcare perspective is important to generating new knowledge on the necessary pathways or interventions that could retain healthcare workers, and to maintain or positively influence the quality of healthcare service delivery. This book with relevant research, therefore, aims to: (i) introduce the concept of Healthy Healthcare and how it relates to occupational health psychology; (ii) summarize the accepted papers in this special issue and discuss how they relate to the concept of Healthy Healthcare; and (iii) to present a new research agenda, drawing on occupational health psychology research to further advance our understanding of the concept of Healthy Healthcare.
... This theory suggested that all human relations are based on cost and benefit analysis of the comparison of substitutions. Indeed, social exchange relation depends on the trust, obligations and responsibilities [58] . Hence, SET postulate that all people being relationships is founded on social and economic exchanges. ...
Chapter
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This conceptual paper is created to investigate the impacts of job design, organisational safety, self-efficacy on turnover intention among doctors in the Algerian public hospitals. Furthermore, this paper proposes to test career commitment as a moderator between the relationship between job design, organisational safety, self-efficacy and turnover intention among the doctors in Algeria because of the conflicting discoveries of the connection between job design, organisational safety, self-efficacy towards turnover intention. These conflicting discoveries dependent on the exact proof don't allow a lot of data to the current evidences; subsequently, requiring a further explanatory investigation. This investigation alludes to the Social Exchange Theory (SET) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to clarify the relationship among all factors. Observational confirmations detailed a critical impact of job design on employees’ turnover intention. Likewise, past authors introduced critical impacts of different factors, for example, organisational safety and selfefficacy on turnover intention. Not just that, the function of career commitment as a mediator is assumed can strengthen the relationship between independent variables (job design, organisational safety and self-efficacy) and the dependent variable (turnover intention) in this investigation. Moreover, SET has been alluded to clarify the connection between job design, organisational safety and turnover intention. In the interim, SCT has been utilized as a hypothesis to clarify the relationship of self-efficacy and turnover intention. Toward the end of this investigation, a few activities can be proposed so as to let doctors can be retained in the Algerian public hospitals. By taking the suitable activities in the parts of job design, organisational safety, self-efficacy the degree of turnover intention among the Algerian doctors can be diminished. Subsequently, this may assist with illuminating the lack of medical doctors in the country.
... This theory suggested that all human relations are based on cost and benefit analysis of the comparison of substitutions. Indeed, social exchange relation depends on the trust, obligations and responsibilities [58] . Hence, SET postulate that all people being relationships is founded on social and economic exchanges. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explores the effects of organisational justice (OJ), personality and work engagement (WE) on teachers' burnout in the Malaysian teaching setting. This research has analysed the total aspects of teachers’ burnout in the forms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Data were obtained by mail from 351 respondents. Several tests in Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS) have been carried out to confirm the three developed hypotheses. The first findings presented a significant effect of OJ on teachers’ burnout (ꞵ=0.237, p=0.000). The second and third findings also presented significant effects of personality (ꞵ=0.133, p=0.026); and WE (ꞵ=0.160, p=0.011) towards teachers’ burnout. OJ is found to be the strongest predictor of teachers’ burnout, followed by WE and personality. This study has contributed some new knowledge to the Ministry of Education (MOE), particularly to the improvement of the level of OJ, personality and WE in order to decrease the level of teachers’ burnout in the context of Malaysian secondary schools.
... These kinds of initiative provide insight value for the satisfaction of the employees arises from training and development (Hunt, S. (1986). There is supportive and positive relationship proved among employees training and development programs and organizational commitment, satisfaction of workers, coaching and organizational outcome (Tansky and Cohen, 2001). ...
Article
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The present research study investigated the functions of human resource management in Marks and Spencer. The training and development found in practice in the Marks and Spencer proved to be a practical initiator towards the satisfaction of employees. Total 419 respondents in the mentioned organization were investigated. Convenient sampling techniques were used where the research questionnaires were distributed randomly for the investigation of first hand data. The result found significant between training and development and employees' satisfaction. It is found that Marks and Spencer understand the significance of advancement in the field of human resource development in the volatile working environment in current time. Training and development adaptation of updated practices mutually benefited working environment and employees of the firm. Such practices are further suggested for other organizations also on the basis of logical recommendations.
... Perceived organizational support is primarily important in maintaining the positive relationship between top management and the subordinate, and organization that offers support such as comprehensive personnel development may be seen as offering greater inducements to its staffs. This is supported by Tansky and Cohen (2001) who found positive link between employee development activities with perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. According to Allen et al. (2003), Dekker & Barling (1995), Eisenberger, Rhoades & Cameron (1999), Rhoades & Eisenberger (2002) and Wayne et al. (1997), trainings are a part of the elements in perceived organization support. ...
... Nghiên cứu cũng chấp nhận giả thuyết H2 có nghĩa là giá trị phát triển của EB tác động trực tiếp lên gắn bó công việc của nhân viên. Phát hiện này phù hợp với những nghiên cứu trước đây cho rằng các tổ chức tạo điều kiện để nhân viên phát triển nghề nghiệp dẫn đến nhân viên sẽ có xu hướng gắn bó với công việc nhiều hơn [4,29,50,51]. Tương tự với giả thuyết H4 được chấp nhận và hệ số chuẩn hóa cao nhất, phù hợp với nghiên cứu của Kunerth & Mosley (2011); Piyachat và cộng sự 20 (14). Kết quả này khẳng định giá trị thích thú của EB ảnh hưởng rất lớn đến gắn bó công việc của nhân viên. ...
Article
Nghiên cứu tiến hành điều tra ảnh hưởng của giá trị thương hiệu nhà tuyển dụng (EB - Employer Brand) đến gắn bó công việc của nhân viên trong lĩnh vực dịch vụ tại Tp.HCM. Mẫu nghiên cứu gồm 342 mẫu và dữ liệu được thu thập thông qua khảo sát trực tiếp và qua email, từ tháng 06/2018 đến 07/2019. Từ dữ liệu thu thập, tiến hành xử lý và phân tích Cronbach's Alpha, EFA, CFA, SEM để kiểm định các thang đo và các giả thuyết trong mô hình nghiên cứu. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy thang đo giá trị EB gồm: giá trị kinh tế, giá trị phát triển, giá trị xã hội, giá trị thích thú, giá trị ứng dụng và giá trị danh tiếng. Nghiên cứu cũng phát hiện có mối quan hệ giữa những thành phần giá trị của EB với gắn bó công việc của nhân viên. Từ kết quả nghiên cứu này, nhà tuyển dụng sử dụng những giá trị của EB để hấp dẫn nhân viên, từ đó họ gắn bó công việc nhiều hơn.
... (1997);Rhoades vd. (2001);Tansky and Cohen (2001) yaptıkları çalışmalara göre; maaş ve yan haklar, ödüller ve teşvikler, tanınma, eğitim ve geliştirme, süpervizör desteği, iş özerkliği, işin katılımı ve organizasyonel prosedürlerde adalet gibi çeşitli ...
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, özel sağlık kuruluşlarında çalışanların örgütsel bağlılık düzeylerinin ortaya konularak bunun görev yapılan sağlık kuruluşu, mesleki deneyim süresi, kurumdaki çalışma süresi, birimdeki çalışma süresi, cinsiyet, yaş, medeni durum ve eğitim düzeyi ile anlamlı bir farklılık oluşturup oluşturmadığını ortaya koymaktır. Betimsel tarama modeli niteliğinde olan bu çalışmanın ana kütlesi Samsun ili özel hastaneleridir. Çalışma Samsun ilindeki tüm özel sağlık kuruluşuna uygulanmış olup bu hastane sayısı 6 dır. Örneklemi ise basit tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen 60 sağlık çalışanları oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak anket yöntemine başvurulmuştur. Anket içerisinde çalışanların kişisel özelliklerini belirlemek için demografik bilgi formu ile Meyer ve Allen tarafından geliştirilen Örgütsel Bağlılık Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Anket uygulaması sonucunda elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde SPSS 26.00 programı tercih edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, mesleki deneyim, cinsiyet, yaş, eğitim düzeyi, medeni durum, mevcut birimdeki çalışma süresi, kurumdaki çalışma süresine göre örgütsel bağlılık düzeyi ve alt boyutlarının karşılaştırılmasında 0,05 düzeyinde anlamlı bir farklılık olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Buna karşın görev yapılan sağlık kuruluşuna göre örgütsel bağlılık düzeyinin anlamlı düzeyde farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada
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Uncertainties and increasing challenges in economics have led to the importance of organizational commitment in an organization. Government-linked companies in Malaysia, the leading economic players that play a substantial role in contributing to the country's economic growth, are responsible for overcoming these challenges. Given the complexity in predicting employee commitment and the difficulties faced by today’s organizations in maintaining the workforce, there is a need to conduct further organizational commitment studies. Empirically, human resource management practices and the evolving servant leadership style are exemplary factors found to be the antecedents for organizational commitment. Researchers are also interested in examining the role of organizational learning capability between the antecedents mentioned above and organizational commitment. However, there are minimal studies on the mediation role of organizational learning capability, thereby necessitating a further investigation to examine such association. Recognizing the gap in linking or incorporating human resource management practices, servant leadership, organizational learning capability, and organizational commitment, this research was conducted to explore the context of organizational commitment specifically in a selected government-linked company in Malaysia. Adopting quantitative and qualitative methods, data collection was conducted on a sample of 270 (for quantitative analysis), and 4 samples (for qualitative analysis) of employees in Malaysia Airport Holdings Berhad. The quantitative data were analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling(PLS-SEM) software while the qualitative data was analyzed using ATLAS-ti7. The findings indicated support for all hypothesized relationships between organizational commitment antecedents, except for human resource management practices. An indirect effect was found between human resource management practices and organizational commitment with organizational learning capability acting as mediator. This is further supported by the qualitative findings in this study. Theoretically, this study provides additional insights into the context of organizational commitment, particularly in Malaysia. Furthermore, a detailed discussion of the research's practical implications is also provided, including identification and suggestions for potential approaches in future endeavours. Finally, this study also contributed to further augmenting the vast landscape of organizational commitment
Article
Studies on business model innovation (BMI) have largely focused on firm performance, neglecting outcomes of BMI beyond financial performance indicators. Research lacks empirical findings from the internal organizational dynamics following the inherent transformation process induced by BMI. Rooting our analysis in configuration theory, the purpose of this paper is to shed light on the organizational impact of BMI. We employ the person‐organization fit concept and assess (unintentional) changes in the fit relationship subsequent to BMI. Our findings suggest that incremental BMI enhances fit whereas radical BMI decreases it. We further discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our study.
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The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of perceived organizational support and structural and psychological empowerment on entrepreneurship. Based on the relation between variables in this research, an analysis was also conducted on the predictive power of perceived organizational support and structural and psychological empowerment on the level of entrepreneurship in addition to the mediator role of structural and psychological empowerment between perceived organizational support and entrepreneurship. As a descriptive study modeled as relational design, this analysis was implemented among 579 teachers employed in a number of elementary, secondary and high schools of (Kdz. Ereğli) a district of Western Black Sea Region in Turkey. In the study, perceived organizational support, psychological empowerment, structural empowerment and entrepreneurship scales were administered. Arithmetic means, standard deviation, Anova, Correlation Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis and Structural Equation Model-Path Analysis were harnessed in the analysis of collected data. Significantly positive relations were measured between perceived organizational support, structural and psychological empowerment and entrepreneurship levels. It was identified that perceived organizational support and structural and psychological empowerment were significant predictors of entrepreneurship. Additionally it was manifested that structural and psychological empowerment played a partial mediator role between perceived organizational support and entrepreneurship.
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Background The Taiwanese military trains smoking cessation counselors to counsel officers and soldiers on quitting smoking as part time. The intention to stay among smoking cessation counselors affects the promotion of smoking cessation. This study investigated smoking cessation counselors' intention to stay by applying a conceptual model of intent to stay (CMIS) to analyze influencing factors. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we applied the CMIS to design a questionnaire. We invited 577 smoking cessation counselors trained in the military from 2016 to 2017. The response rate was 46.7%, and the questionnaire responses of 260 military smoking cessation counselors were analyzed. We used path analysis to verify the relationships among the various aspects of the CMIS. Results We determined that smoking cessation counselors' intention to stay is directly affected by job satisfaction (β = 0.150, p = 0.014), job stress (β = −0.225, p < 0.001), and institutional identification (β = 0.431, p < 0.001). Career opportunities indirectly affect intention to stay through institutional identification, working environment indirectly affects intention to stay through job stress, and co-worker support and self-fulfillment indirectly affect intention to stay through job satisfaction and institutional identification. Our model could explain 36.7% of the variance in intent to stay among smoking cessation counselors. Conclusion Our results suggest that relevant policies should be formulated to enhance smoking cessation counselors' recognition, affirmation, and sense of belonging as related to smoking cessation counseling work, thereby raising their institutional identification and promoting their intention to stay.
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Indian society is characterized as highly democratic, humanistic and advanced. But still the arguments regarding the equality of people with regard to social class, gender, race etc still persists. A “glass ceiling” represents all invisible barriers present in the workplace which are beyond the thoughts of the women. These hidden parameters become the hurdles between the middle and top management for the women. Glass Ceiling and Gender inequality are the prominent challenges these days which are stopping women from holding high positions of prominence in the business world. Due to the presence of this phenomenon working women in India are often struggling to go up in the corporate hierarchies and faces exclusions from significant decision-makings also. The present research paper explores the presence of glass ceiling effect in leading industries/sectors in India along with a focus on highlighting obstacles, key concerns and possible remedies on account of this. This study also attempts to identify the factors which create the grounds of glass ceiling amongst working women in an organization.
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Bài viết này nghiên cứu mối quan hệ giữa hấp dẫn thương hiệu nhà tuyển dụng (Employer Attractiveness - EA) với gắn bó công việc (Work Engagemet- WE) và giữa gắn bó công việc với trung thành của nhân viên (Employee Loyalty - EL). Bằng phương pháp chọn mẫu ngẫu nhiên, dữ liệu được thu thập 412 nhân viên đang làm việc tại các doanh nghiệp ngành dịch vụ Tp.HCM với hình thức khảo sát trực tiếp và trực tuyến từ tháng 8/2020 đến tháng 04/2021. Sử dụng dữ liệu đã thu thập thực hiện phân tích Cronbach's Alpha, EFA, CFA, SEM và kiểm định các giả thuyết của mô hình. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy những thành phần giá trị của hấp dẫn thương hiệu nhà tuyển dụng có tác động cùng chiều đến gắn bó công việc. Tuy nhiên, giá trị ứng dụng của hấp dẫn thương hiệu nhà tuyển dụng lại không được như kỳ vọng. Đồng thời, nghiên cứu cũng phát hiện có mối quan hệ thuận chiều giữa gắn bó công việc và thái độ trung thành của nhân viên. Hấp dẫn thương hiệu nhà tuyển dụng hoạt động một cách liên tục đưa ra một hình ảnh xung quanh các hoạt động quản lý và kinh doanh làm cho tổ chức trở thành một nơi hấp dẫn “nơi đáng để làm việc”. Hấp dẫn thương hiệu nhà tuyển dụng là một chiến lược dài hạn, với mục tiêu để quản lý nâng cao thái độ của nhân viên, chiến lược này có thể được điều chỉnh để thúc đẩy các nỗ lực trong quản lý tuyển dụng và giữ chân nhân tài.
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This conceptual paper is developed to determine the effects of job design and self-efficacy on turnover intention among doctors in the Algerian public hospitals. Additionally, this conceptual paper proposes to test career commitment as a moderator between the relationship of job design and self-efficacy towards turnover intention among the doctors in Algeria due to the inconsistent findings of the relationship between job design and self-efficacy towards turnover intention. These inconsistent findings based on the empirical evidence do not permit much information to the existing literature; thereby, requiring a further empirical exploration. This study refers to the Social Exchange Theory (SET) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to explain the relationship among all variables. Empirical evidences reported a significant effect of job design on employees' turnover intention. Also, past authors presented significant effects of other variable such as self-efficacy on turnover intention. Not only that, the role of career commitment as a moderator is expected can enhance the relationship between the predictors (e.g., job design and self-efficacy) and the criterion (e.g., turnover intention) in this study. Furthermore, SET has been referred to explain the relationship between job design and turnover intention. Meanwhile, SCT has been used as a theory to explain the relationship of self-efficacy and turnover intention. At the end of this study, several actions can be proposed in order to let doctors can be retained the Algerian healthcare sector. By taking the appropriate actions in the aspects of job design and self-efficacy the level of turnover intention among the Algerian doctor can be decreased. Thus, this may help to solve the shortage of medical doctors in the country.
Article
Purpose The study aims to explore ‘motivational climate', which designs the recurring patterns associated with employees' attitudes, behaviour, and feelings. If organizations successfully adopt a motivational climate, such climate influences the performance and behavior of employees to a great extent. Responsible leadership plays a constructive role in injecting a motivational climate in an organization to ensure information flow. In a motivational climate, top management or leaders reward their employees for individual progress, improvement and mastery. Knowledge sharing is supported in a mastery climate because such a climate can reduce the motive of knowledge hiding and instead further help in stimulating creativity. Design/methodology/approach Study was to scrutinize a moderated-mediation model, a quantitative hypothetic deductive approach to verify the hypotheses of the study. The data were gathered from employees and supervisors of advertising agencies and marketing departments in metropolitan cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Such firms and departments are considered because they offer a great opportunity to relevant variables and their relations. These organizations and departments are the most creativity-seeking domains and involve frequent interactions (for instance, regular meetings) between leaders with their employees and among peers. Data were primarily gathered from managerial employees performing their duties in the areas mentioned above. Findings Current study reveals that RL has a positive and significant relation with employee creative behaviour. Increasing RL characteristics can ultimately boost employee performance in the creativity domain. Being a responsible leader becomes mandatory for leaders to foster employee creativity to maintain the sustainability of an organization. It is confirmed from the results that responsible leadership articulates the mind thinking of employees, which creates an open environment of information while persuading creative and similar behaviour. Originality/value The current research investigates how responsible leadership can efficiently leverage the stakeholder approach in influencing employees through a knowledge-based pathway to boost their creative behaviour. The current study tends to uncover the mediating effect of the basic construct of knowledge management, which is knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing enables employees to exchange their information while creating mutual understanding, which helps in the smooth flow of knowledge within the organization; this flow enriches employees to think openly in a creative and appreciative environment.
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The aim of this research was to create a developmental model for new graduate employees according to improvements in their performance. The model’s scope covered the period when employees take part in apprenticeship training after graduation from college or university. The process of developing and validating the model referred to the International Board of Standards for Training, Performance, and Instruction’s competency development model as a framework and involved six steps. This research analyzed 111 freshly graduated recruits who had recently been hired by a leading travel company in Japan. The final model includes five apprenticeship levels, namely beginning, elementary, intermediate, advanced, and end of apprenticeship, with criteria for performance in planning and implementation. To validate the model, three transitions in the developmental levels over six months in 2017 and nine months in 2020 were examined using the model’s performance criteria. The results show that the transitions for the three companies reflect the characteristics of their new graduate employees. This indicates that the proposed model may be valid for determining the development levels of new graduate recruits and can have a certain level of discriminative power. This model can serve as a helpful tool for planning on-the-job and off-the-job training to support new employee development, comprehending their current development levels, and providing a guideline for the next step for further development.
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Introduction Creating a proper career program is the best way to enhance employees’ organizational commitment; it motivates and retains them. This research aims to measure career growth’s influence on turnover intention, mediated by employees’ commitment through self-reported employees’ perceptions. This study identifies the key dimensions of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative commitment) that mediate the relationship between career growth and employee turnover intention exploring the indirect effects between career growth and turnover intention. The relationship is examined among the public sector employees in the Sultanate of Oman, a sector currently facing high turnover rates and losing key skilled talent pool. Methodology Data collection was executed through an adopted questionnaire distributed among 500 employees of 38 government units within the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 351 questionnaires were returned, and after the initial screening process, 329 were found to be valid for further analysis. CFA analysis was conducted to identify the factors falling under the three primary constructs of the study. Assessment of the models was explained through Goodness-of-fit Indices. Structural equation modeling, which is most recommended to study the effect of latent variables, was performed using AMOS to evaluate the mediating role of organizational commitment between career growth and employee turnover intention. Findings The results indicated that the potential for career growth is an essential motivating element for public sector employees in the Sultanate of Oman to encourage retention and reduce intention to leave. The findings also confirm that effective and continuous commitment significantly mediates the relationship between career growth and employees’ turnover intention. Contribution and originality value The results generated could help both researchers and those involved in public sector policy-making to understand how employee turnover intention is influenced by career growth and organizational commitment in the public sector in the Sultanate of Oman.
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The issue in this study is related to the tendency of public service quality in Indonesia that are decreasing recently. This case triggers Employee ASN to continue to increase the performance for the sake of getting back the citizen’s belief in term of public services. The purpose of this study is to test empirically how far the effect of spiritual leadership, organizational support and emotional Intelligence on employee performance with mediation job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. This study used quantitative method and the data analysis method used Structural Equation Models (SEM) technique with Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) 21 version, which had 223 employee samples. The result of this study shows ASN performance is influenced by emotional intelligence, organizational support, leadership and employee behaviour, while job satisfaction has no significant effect on employee performance. The result of importance this study reference to make or consideration in decision making for OPD leaders related to ASN performance
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Purpose This study aims to examine the direct effects of job support and the indirect effects of individual career planning on the motivational process of training transfer, which consists of the structural relationship between learning goal orientation, learning motivation, transfer motivation and training transfer. Design/methodology/approach An online survey was administered to 255 respondents in South Korea, and 252 valid responses were used for analysis. A hypothetical model was examined using a structural equation model and multi-group analysis. Findings This study found that the synchronous process model of training transfer was well validated in the Korean context; moreover, job support promoted employee motivations that led to their training transfer. In addition, career planning was found to have a moderating role in the relationships explored in this study. That is, when the level of career planning was high, job support directly affected the motivation to transfer, and the link between intrinsic learning orientation and motivation to learn was highly activated compared to the group with a low level of career planning. Research limitations/implications This study is limited by the single-dimensional measurement of its constructs, including job support, goal orientation and motivation to transfer. This limitation should be considered when interpreting the study’s results. In terms of implications, the study suggests that organizations should help individuals identify their career interests and establish a strategy to achieve their career goals by providing information about specific areas of interest. Originality/value This study proposes that the motivational mechanisms leading to training transfer are affected by trainees’ level of career planning. In addition, the study findings emphasize the importance of organizations’ role in guiding individual employees’ career planning to facilitate performance through training transfer.
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Employees' expertise is the basic component of human capital of organizations. As the role of human capital and the understanding of employee development become increasingly vital, research works about the effects of working expertise on development are necessary. This article aims to confirm the effect of expertise and find out how expertise affects development. In this article, we analyze employee development and working expertise through data-driven methods, using a data set of a Chinese state-owned enterprise. In addition to statistical analysis, expertise networks are constructed to discover more insights about the effect of expertise on employee development. Moreover, to further validate and exploit the effect, a prediction model of development potential is proposed based on machine learning. Results of the experiment show that the random forests model with network embedding (RFNE) is effective in identifying excellent employees. Finally, with the help of data-driven analysis of expertise and development, we find that the appropriate post, the right choice, the distinctive competency, as well as the interdisciplinary transfer contribute to employee development.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Self-reports figure prominently in organizational and management research, but there are several problems associated with their use. This article identifies six categories of self-reports and discusses such problems as common method variance, the consistency motif, and social desirability. Statistical and post hoc remedies and some procedural methods for dealing with artifactual bias are presented and evaluated. Recommendations for future research are also offered.
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We describe why human resource management (HRM) decisions are likely to have an important and unique influence on organizational performance. Our hope is that this research forum will help advance research on the link between HRM and organizational performance. We identify key unresolved questions in need of future study and make several suggestions intended to help researchers studying these questions build a more cumulative body of knowledge that will have key implications for both theory and practice.
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In a field study, the factors that influence employees' participation in development activities are investigated. The proposed model hypothesized that the influence of self-efficacy and work environment perceptions on development activity is mediated by learning attitudes, perceptions of development needs, and perceived benefits. Attitudinal and perceptional data and self-report and objective measures of development activity were collected from employees in health maintenance ( n = 343), financial services ( n = 196), and public sector engineering firms ( n = 496). No statistical support was found for the proposed mediated relation. However, motivation to learn, perception of benefits, and work environment perceptions had significant unique effects on development activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Executive Overview Strategic managers and researchers have long been interested in understanding sources of competitive advantage for firms. Traditionally, this effort has focused on the relationship between a firm's environmental opportunities and threats on the one hand, and its internal strengths and weaknesses on the other. Summarized in what has come to be known as SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, this traditional logic suggests that firms that use their internal strengths in exploiting environmental opportunities and neutralizing environmental threats, while avoiding internal weaknesses, are more likely to gain competitive advantages than other kinds of firms.¹ This simple SWOT framework points to the importance of both external and internal phenomena in understanding the sources of competitive advantage. To date, the development of tools for analyzing environmental opportunities and threats has proceeded much more rapidly than the development of tools for analyzing a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses. To address this deficiency, this article offers a simple, easy-to-apply approach to analyzing the competitive implications of a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses.
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The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.
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Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for employees with a strong exchange ideology than those with a weak exchange ideology. These findings support the social exchange view that employees’ commitment to the organization is strongly influenced by their perception of the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support is assumed to increase the employee’s affective attachment to the organization and his or her expectancy that greater effort toward meeting organizational goals will be rewarded. The extent to which these factors increase work effort would depend on the strength of the employee’s exchange ideology favoring the trade of work effort for material and symbolic benefits.
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The theory, research, and practice of Human Resource Management (HRM) has evolved considerably over the past century, and experienced a major transformation in form and function primarily within the past two decades. Driven by a number of significant internal and external environmental forces, HRM has progressed from a largely maintenance function, with little if any bottom line impact, to what many scholars and practitioners today regard as the source of sustained competitive advantage for organizations operating in a global economy. In this 25th anniversary Yearly Review issue, we conduct a less comprehensive and more focused review of the field of HRM. In doing so, we attempt to articulate some key concepts and issues that can be productively integrated with HRM to provide some interesting and important directions for future work, and consider ways to bridge the gap between the science and practice of HRM.
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The authors describe a model for integrating coaching and career management. Included is a discussion of managers' three roles in employee development--coaches, sponsors, and mentors. (CH)
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The field of strategic human resource management (SHRM) has been criticized for lacking a solid theoretical foundation. This article documents that, contrary to this criticism, the SHRM literature draws on three dominant modes of theorizing: universalistic, contingency, and configurational perspectives, Seven key strategic human resource practices are identified and used to develop theoretical arguments consistent with each perspective, The results demonstrate that each perspective can be used to structure theoretical arguments that explain significant levels of variation in financial performance.
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Discusses mediation relations in causal terms. Influences of an antecedent are transmitted to a consequence through an intervening mediator. Mediation relations may assume a number of functional forms, including nonadditive, nonlinear, and nonrecursive forms. Although mediation and moderation are distinguishable processes, with nonadditive forms (moderated mediation) a particular variable may be both a mediator and a moderator within a single set of functional relations. Current models for testing mediation relations in industrial and organizational psychology often involve an interplay between exploratory (correlational) statistical tests and causal inference. It is suggested that no middle ground exists between exploratory and confirmatory (causal) analysis and that attempts to explain how mediation processes occur require specified causal models. (57 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of "Managing the Training Enterprise" is to examine how organizations educate employees and to consider policies and programs for improving this educational process. The book covers organizational training strategies, learning methods, ways of structuring training departments, the process of allocating funds and other resources to training, and the role of training as a communications vehicle in the organization. Also treated is an often-ignored part of employee education—training management and administration. This area includes developing business and operations plans, budgeting and expense tracking, and measuring and evaluating training effectiveness. The book also examines long-term employee development programs, training for quality improvement, directions for retraining and redevelopment, and development for training professionals. While primarily directed at training managers, training directors and department heads, corporate officers overseeing training departments, and managers who are members of training advisory boards, this book is also for those managers in a variety of staff disciplines and line functions having responsibility for training employees. Secondarily, the book is for training professionals, such as program developers, instructional technologists, and instructors. Graduate students in instructional design and related disciplines who are interested in training administration can also benefit from the book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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start this chapter by providing some historical background on the study of careers in organizational contexts and will move on to an overview of major models and theories present some of my thoughts in relation to these models comment on contemporary issues in organizational career development (such as midcareer change and alternative career patterns) and consider why the work of vocational psychologists and organizational career development scholars has taken such different paths over the years Lewin's field theory / the Chicago School of Sociology / organizational behavior overview of major organizational career theories / Hall: psychological success / triggering midcareer change / learning in the career Schein: individual-organization interaction / career anchors Van Maanen: organizational socialization / six strategies Driver: career concepts implications for practitioners / alternative career patterns / integrating vocational and organizational approaches (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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"This book thoroughly explores the styles of appraisal interviews, each requiring different skills and designed to meet different objectives. The author describes the problems faced by the interviewer, the skills needed to make the interview successful by overcoming these problems, and the importance of clarifying the objectives of the interview in order to reach a productive conclusion. Actual transcriptions of interviews, conducted by different methods, have been included to illustrate specific problems." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The literature on managing careers has traditionally been based on the twin assumptions of organizational growth and increased opportunities for individual advancement. Large-scale layoffs in the 1980s and continued downsizing in the 1990s, however, have left organizations questioning how to develop the careers of their employees under conditions of diminished resources and have left employees wondering how to manage their own careers under conditions of diminished opportunities. This article examines the issues involved in managing careers in downsizing firms from both the organization's and the individual's perspective. In addition, it explores not only short-term tactics for handling career disruptions which occur at the time of downsizing but also longer-term strategies for managing careers during times of little or no organizational growth. © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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A model of organizational commitment was developed using, as independent variables, factors associated with self, with family and with career. Australian military officers (males only) were used as the research population (N=13OO). All these factors were influential in explaining the variance in organizational commitment. Examination of the interplay of the independent variables across career/life stages gives insight into the dynamics of organizational commitment.
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Rapid technological innovation has made updating the knowledge and skills of technical professionals, such as engineers, a key concern for many organizations. The facilitation of performance and updating activities to prevent obsolescence is thought to require the development of a congruent organizational climate. To date, this issue has received some theoretical but little research attention. This study assessed the efficacy of the concept of updating climate. It was hypothesized that the technical updating climate construct would (1) be able to distinguish among organizations under different pressures for technological innovation, (2) evidence interobserver consensus within organizations, and (3) be associated with relevant organizational context features and affective, performance, and updating responses. Data gathered from 447 engineers and their 218 supervisors drawn from 10 diverse organizations provided support for the hypotheses. It was concluded that the concept of updating climate provides a useful framework for understanding factors that facilitate technical competence and performance.
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The global business environment of the 1990s provides both challenge and opportunity to human resource development to become an integral player in helping implement business strategy. The results of two best practice studies suggest that some leading firms such as 3M and Motorola are doing just that. At these companies current strategic business issues are the drivers of flexible and opportunistic executive development activities. Naturally occurring on-the-job experiences are consciously utilized in such a way that helping executives to develop becomes an integral part of conducting business. The implications of linking executive development to business strategy for practice and for future research are discussed. © 1995 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable overtime this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage—value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability—are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
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This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). Based on a series of studies among 2563 employees in nine divergent organizations, satisfactory test-retest reliabilities and internal consistency reliabilities were found. In addition, cross-validated evidence of acceptable levels of predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity emerged for the instrument. Norms for males and females are presented based on the available sample. Possible instrument limitations and future research needs on the measurement and study of organizational commitment are reviewed
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Nurse leaders in Wales, with the support of chief executives and the Welsh Office are taking control of nurse development. Georgina Gordon explains how.
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Theories of motivation built upon primary drives cannot account for playful and exploratory behavior. The new motivational concept of "competence" is introduced indicating the biological significance of such behavior. It furthers the learning process of effective interaction with the environment. While the purpose is not known to animal or child, an intrinsic need to deal with the environment seems to exist and satisfaction ("the feeling of efficacy") is derived from it. (100 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Convergent-discriminant validation in measurements and research strate-gies Forms of validity in research. New directions for methodology of social and behavioral science
  • D W Fiske
Fiske, D. W. (1982). Convergent-discriminant validation in measurements and research strate-gies. In D. Brinberg & L. Kidder (Eds.), Forms of validity in research. New directions for methodology of social and behavioral science, no. 12. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
When careers flower, organizations flourish
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Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). When careers flower, organizations flourish. Training and Development Journal, 47, 24–29.
The new protean career: Psychological success and the path with a heart The career is dead: Long live the career
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Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1996). The new protean career: Psychological success and the path with a heart. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead: Long live the career. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 15–45.
Employee development and job creation: Trends, problems, opportunities
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Jarratt, J., & Coates, J. F. (1995). Employee development and job creation: Trends, problems, opportunities. In M. London (Ed.), Employees, careers, and job creation (pp. 1–30). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mentoring at work Lanham, MD: University Press of America A relational approach to career development The career is dead: Long live the career
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Kram, K. (1988). Mentoring at work (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Kram, K. (1996). A relational approach to career development. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead: Long live the career. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Handbook of organizational measurement Unlocking employee potential: Devel-oping skills
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Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Handbook of organizational measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pitman. Schneier, C. E., MacCoy, D., & Burchman, S. (1988, Feb.). Unlocking employee potential: Devel-oping skills. Management Solutions, pp. 9–15.
Summer) Career paths in the face of restraint
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