Quantitative Assessment of Left Ventricular and Left Atrial Functions by Strain Rate Imaging in Diabetic Patients with and without Hypertension
Background: Impaired left ventricular (LV) function is shown by strain rate (SR) imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Left atrium (LA) function in patients with DM, however, has not been assessed by this method and the effect of hypertension (HT) on LV and LA functions in diabetic patients has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess LA function in diabetic patients with and without HT in combination with LV function. Methods: Conventional echocardiographic and SR imaging studies were performed in 55 subjects with normal systolic LV function (LV ejection fraction of 55% or more) and no evidence of coronary artery disease: 17 with DM (DM group), 22 who have both DM and HT (DM+HT group), and 16 age-matched controls. SR imaging was performed from three apical views, and peak SR was measured at 12 LV segments and 5 LA segments. Mean peak systolic SR (LVs and LAs, respectively), early diastolic SR (LVe and LAe, respectively) and late diastolic SR (LVa and LAa, respectively) were calculated by averaging data in each LV and LA segment. Results: Despite no significant differences in age, LV ejection fraction and E/A ratio among the three groups, systolic blood pressure, LA dimension and LV mass index in the DM+HT group were significantly larger than those in the controls. The DM group had reduced systolic and diastolic LV functions and impaired LA reservoir and conduit functions compared with those in the controls, as shown by lower LVs (P < 0.05), LVe (P < 0.01), LAs (P < 0.01), and LAe (P < 0.05). The DM+HT group had reduced LVs (P < 0.01), LVe (P < 0.01), LAs (P < 0.01) and LAe (P < 0.01) compared with those in the controls. The DM+HT group had significantly lower LVe (P < 0.05) and LAe (P < 0.05) than did the DM group. Conclusions: SR imaging can detect impairment of LA reservoir and conduit functions as well as LV systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in patients with DM, even in the absence of LV hypertrophy and LA dilatation. Coexisting HT augments the impairment of LV diastolic and LA conduit functions in diabetic patients.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was to develop a strain analysis method to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in type 2 diabetic patients with an asymptomatic LV diastolic dysfunction. Methods: Two groups (10 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic subjects and 10 control ones) were considered. All of the subjects had normal ejection fraction values but impaired diastolic functions assessed by the transmitral blood flow velocity. For each subject, based on cardiac MRI, global indexes including LV volume, LV myocardial mass, cardiac index (CI), and transmitral peak velocity, were measured, and regional indexes (i.e., LV deformation, strain and strain rate) were calculated through an image-registration technology. Results: Most of the global indexes did not differentiate between the two groups, except for the CI, LV myocardial mass and transmitral peak velocity. While for the regional indexes, the global LV diastolic dysfunction of the diabetic indicated an increased strain (0.08 ± 0.044 vs. -0.031 ± 0.077, p = 0.001) and a reduced strain rate (1.834 ± 0.909 vs. 3.791 ± 2.394, p = 0.033) compared to the controls, moreover, the local LV diastolic dysfunction reflected by the strain and strain rate varied, and the degree of dysfunction gradually decreased from the basal level to the apical level. Conclusions: The results showed that the strain and strain rates are effective to capture the subtle alterations of the LV functions, and the proposed method can be used to estimate the LV myocardial function based on cardiac MRI.0Comments 0Citations
- "Regarding the imaging technologies, tissue Doppler imaging, strain rate imaging, speckle-tracking echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have emerged as new methods for the evaluation of the diastolic function. Many studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus were based on one of these imaging techniques or their combinations (Bonito et al. 2005; Ng et al. 2009; Muranaka et al. 2009). These imaging techniques have their own characteristics: tissue Doppler imaging and strain rate imaging conduce to directly measure myocardial velocity and deformation in real time, but they are angle-dependent (Pellerin et al. 2003); Speckle-tracking echocardiography provides non-Doppler, angle-independent, and objective quantification of myocardial deformation and LV dynamics, but it strictly relies on the frame rate and high-quality 2D images (Mondillo et al. 2011); cardiac MRI has unlimited access to the thoracic cavity and can quantify the complex process of diastolic function both globally and regionally with great accuracy and reproducibility (Paelinck et al. 2002). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives To clarify the time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation using velocity vector imaging and to provide insights into our understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in diabetes mellitus. Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into either the control group (n = 10) or the diabetes mellitus (DM) group (induced with STZ, n = 20). For the myocardial deformation studies, echocardiography and syngo-vector velocity imaging (VVI) were performed at baseline and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all of the rabbits. The left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate were measured. For histomorphological study of the heart structure, 2 of the STZ-induced rabbits were killed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed. Results At 2 weeks, the global longitudinal strain (GLS), systolic strain rate (GLSRs), and diastolic strain rate (GLSRd) were significantly lower in the DM group compared with the control group (-18.16% versus -24.00%, -1.86 s-1 versus -2.49 s-1, 1.93 s-1 versus 2.42 s-1, respectively, P < 0.05), while, compared with the control group, the global circumferential strain (GCS), systolic strain rate (GCSRs), and diastolic strain rate (GCSRd) in the DM group were significantly decreased (-12.77% versus -23.31%, -1.31 s-1 versus -2.20 s-1, 1.41 s-1 versus 2.15 s-1, respectively, P < 0.05) at 8 weeks. With the progression of untreated diabetes, the histoanatomical alterations intensified gradually beginning at 2 weeks. Conclusions The progressive impairments in LV myocardial deformation and structure occurred early in diabetic rabbits with normal LV ejection fraction (EF), FS, and E/A. VVI could be used to evaluate subtle cardiac dysfunction in the early phase of DM.0Comments 1Citation
- "The finding indicated diastolic strain rate might be more sensitive to impaired left ventricular diastolic function. Muranaka et al  demonstrated that early diastolic circumferential strain rates were reduced in diabetic patients using strain rate imaging. Wei Z et al [8,9] reported that 12 weeks after STZ induction, circumferential diastolic strain rates of the mid-level wall decreased mildly from 3.53-1 to 2.47-1. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-dippers were reported as showing different left atrial function, compared to dippers, but no study to date investigated the changes in the left atrial function according to the diurnal blood pressure pattern, using tissue Doppler and strain imaging. Forty never treated hypertensive patients between 30 and 80 years of age were enrolled in this study. Patients were classified as non-dippers when, during night time, they had a blood pressure decrease of less than 10%. Strain of the left atrium was measured during late systole, and peak strain rates of the left atrium were measured during systole, early and late diastolic periods. The left atrial expansion index, left atrial active emptying volume and left atrial active emptying fraction were all significantly increased in non-dippers. They also had increased values of mean peak left atrial strain (dippers = 21.26 ± 4.23% vs. non-dippers = 24.91 ± 5.20%, p = 0.02), strain rate during reservoir (dippers = 1.29 ± 0.23 s(-1) vs. non-dippers =1.52 ± 0.27 s(-1), p = 0.01) and contractile period (dippers = -1.38 ± 0.24 s(-1) vs. non-dippers = -1.68 ± 0.32 s(-1), p < 0.01). Strain and strain rate acquired from color Doppler tissue imaging demonstrate exaggerated reservoir and booster pump function in never-treated, non-dipper hypertensive patients. These methods are simple and sensitive for the early detection of subtle changes in the left atrial function.0Comments 2Citations
- "Thus, both the utility and reproducibility of this method were validated. Second, many clinical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, were studied using this technique and the clinical implications developed from previous studies.13-15)22) Third, all the parameters representing various functions of the LA can be measured from one imaging. "