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Olympic Urbanism and Olympic Villages: Planning Strategies in Olympic Host Cities, London 1908 to London 2012

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... Baade Source: Flyvbjerg & Stewart (2012) Proponents of the event strive to promote their events using simple, media-friendly and eye-catching slogans, addressing to a desirable outcome of the event. Examples are 'One World, One Dream' (Beijing, 2008), 'KeNako: Celebrate Africa's Humanity' (2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa), 'Share the Spirit' (Sydney, 2000) and 'Inspire a Generation' (London, 2012). From an event marketing perspective the usage of a catchy slogan is understandable, but it risks promising too much as the event is presented as a solution to economic or social challenges. ...
... Although the Barcelona city council had promised to include subsidised housing in the post-Games Olympic Village, it gave in to pressure from real estate developers, and ultimately all except 76 of the 6,000 units had been sold at market value to middle-income professionals. Overall, from 1986 to 1992, new house prices in Barcelona had risen by 250 per cent (Lenskyi, 2010;Muñoz, 2006). The same issue might arise in Glasgow. ...
... Although the following statement refers to the 1992 Games in Barcelona, it also applicable to other mega events: "Finding the equilibrium between success in the global arena and solutions for local social problems is (…) the main challenge for the city." (Muñoz, 2006). ...
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Governments need to play a role in enhancing integrity. National governments can use their influence to warrant that the four dimensions for organisational integrity described in this report are being met. Governments need to support their national federations, and need to be explicit on their own criteria for becoming involved. The EU needs to use its resources to establish common ground among nations and the international sport movement; to exchange best practices; to initiate research; and to formulate guidelines. These are the actions that are needed to restore faith in the integrity of major and mega sport events.
... Although this symbolic role has existed since ancient times, the use of major sports events to 390 A. Smith strategically restructure cities did not emerge until the modern era. Both Munoz (2006) and Whitson (2004) cite the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 as the moment from which major sports events began to be considered as urban development tools. Of particular interest to this study is the 1972 games in Munich, Germany, where the Olympic Village was set in an Olympic Park which was "clearly orientated towards urban leisure" (Munoz, 2006, p. 179). ...
... Therefore, it is likely that we will see more concentrated sports zones in future Olympic host cities. This was borne out by the bidding process for the 2012 Games in which the idea of a compact Olympic city prevailed (Munoz, 2006). Fifty years of rather disappointing outcomes suggest that it is difficult to turn event sites into coherent and functioning zones of cities. ...
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In recent years, several cities have constructed new sports facilities in concentrated areas or supplemented existing facilities to create a themed sport zone. Some have branded these areas as “sports cities” to give them visibility and coherence. This research assesses the rationale for these projects, in particular, their potential value as new tourist areas for cities. Although the relationship between sport and cities is an established part of urban studies, there is currently little research that explicitly addresses this new phenomenon of themed areas of cities dedicated to sport. To address the lack of previous work, existing literature on comparable manifestations of themed urban areas is used as a conceptual basis for the paper. A comparative analysis is then conducted of four specific schemes: “SportCity”, Manchester (UK); “The International Sports Village”, Cardiff (UK); “The Aspire Zone”, Doha (Qatar) and “Dubai Sports City” (UAE). These different sports-city zones are compared and evaluated with reference to issues raised in the literature. The paper concludes that, to be successful, sports-city zones need to be planned as such, and not merely employed as convenient brands for existing events facilities.
... The Olympic Games form a crucial intervention in the urban development of the hosting city, which goes far beyond the sportive aims and entails a wide spectrum of economic, cultural, environmental and social change. Muñoz (2006) goes as far as to state that the current politics of urbanization cannot be understood fully without considering the contribution of major urban mega-events. With global events impinging on local decision-making, the Olympic Games and other mega-events turn urban politics into urban geopolitics. ...
... There were extensive investments in transport infrastructure, such as metro, coastal railway, and airport, but also in housing, hotel rooms and office development, and in cultural provisions. Probably most symbolic of its long-lasting legacy has been the extension to a metropolitan waterfront and, in particular, the public access to five kilometers of coastline and new beaches (Gold and Gold, 2008), which was at that time a very deprived and inaccessible area, despite being close to the historic center (Muñoz, 2006). The core of the Barcelona approach has been said to include strong and long-term visioning, an emphasis on urban design as much as on well-funded social programs (Coaffee, 2011). ...
... In addition, host cities have increasingly addressed the objective of social benefits such as enhancing confidence and self-esteem, empowering disadvantaged groups with employment and income, and improving the capacity of the community to take the initiative (Long & Sanderson, 2001). The Barcelona experience clearly shows how Olympics can represent new opportunities for host cities in dealing with the reinforcement of higher social integration (Munoz, 2006). ...
... An ongoing process of gentrification and the 'brandification' of urban space worked together to reinforce the lack of diversity in many urban areas. For example, touristic promotion has served to link some urban areas either directly or indirectly with tourism, thus diminishing the goal of a diversified and integrated city, in both urban and social terms (Munoz, 2006). Furthermore, despite that many of the Olympic investments in Barcelona were for the city's population as a whole, some citizens feared that regular schemes or programmes that were not part of the overall Olympic plans would obtain less funding. ...
Article
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Mega-event strategies and their impact on the development of host cities have drawn increasing interest as they have become part of wider city development strategies. Studies of mega-event strategies have tended to focus on a single perspective such as economic rationale and impact. As greater attention is paid to their long-term impact, there is a need for more comprehensive evaluation combining economic, social and environmental perspectives, and assessing the management of competing objectives. This paper proposes a comprehensive analytical framework for examining the multiple long-term impacts of mega-events on host cities. It illustrates the use of the framework through two examples of the Summer Olympics as the archetypal mega-event.
... The murals were part of a growing trend in US cities to rely on public art to spur economic revitalization and foster profitable place distinction ( Miles and Adams, 1989;Deutsche, 1996;Lippard, 1997). As a visual manifestation of 'Olympic urbanism' ( Liao and Pitts, 2006;Muñoz, 2006), the Olympic murals provided just that. But given the amount of writing on LA by members of the LA School ( Nicholls, 2011), in addition to the attention the city has received from scholars internationally, it is striking that LA's Olympic urbanism-the large-scale and often contentious planning and development that accompanies the hosting of the Olympic Games-has received little attention in the urban literature ( Chalkley and Essex, 1999;Hiller, 2000;Andranovich et al., 2001;Gold and Gold, 2008;Chen et al., 2013). ...
... As with other types of civic stewardship, the bureaucracy involved with permitting and preserving sanctioned murals is daunting. Unlike neoliberal, public-private sector and mega-event development, unprofitable-that is, often cultural-forms of urban development that do not possess clearly articulable 'spectacle as an added value' are often subject to first rounds of disinvestment and the most severe form of dereliction ( Harvey, 1985;Jakle and Wilson, 1992;Zukin 1993;Muñoz, 2006: 177). Because LA's form of Olympic urbanism in 1984 was largely arts based, the city has struggled, or has been unwilling, to preserve its Olympic heritage. ...
... Mega-events can be considered an integral component of much 20th century urban development (Muñoz, 2006), with urban transformation and 'legacy benefits' used to justify the expenditure (Essex and Chalkley, 1998;Leopkey and Parent, 2011;Pound, 2003;Smith, 2012). In many ways, the essence of a mega-event is scale. ...
Article
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A focus on the 'mega' aspect of hallmark events can divert attention from the micro – those local communities who are most impacted by the event. Similarly, attention to the 'event' aspect underplays the long process of bidding and preparation before any putative legacy of urban transformation for local people. This paper uses qualitative data to unpack the complex and multi-layered views of local residents, living in a deprived neighbourhood beside the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games site in Scotland. They reflect on five years of intensive urban regeneration, evaluate the experience of 'lockdown' at Games time, and consider their hopes and fears for the future of the community. Interviewing a mixture of lifelong, established, new and returning residents, we found considerable common ground across the different groups in terms of hopes for a new, mixed community in the area. However, findings also highlight concerns around urban governance practices and the limitations of a market-led approach to regeneration.
... Essex and Chalkey 1998;Preuss 2000;Varela 2002;Smith 2012), or analysed the transformation of the Winter Olympics and their infrastructural implications (Essex and Chalkey 2004). Other studies have focused on a classification of the Olympic Villages (Muñoz 1997(Muñoz , 2006, or on the evolution of the concept of legacy in the Games (Leopkey 2013), while only in recent years there are attempts to categorize International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) World Cups' venues (Street, Frawley, and Cobourn 2014). In all these studies, it is useful to note certain common traits. ...
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The study investigates the legacies of the 2014 Winter Olympics, and, in particular, it focuses on the evaluation of the new public open spaces created after their stage and their sustainability outcomes. Indeed, Sochi was the second city, after London 2012, with a chapter dedicated to legacy in its candidature file. The study develops a post-occupancy evaluation of the Adler Olympic Park, the coastal cluster, and one of the main legacies of the Games. Findings highlight that the Games failed in the achievement of almost all the legacy promises made in the bid book.
... The heterotopian mega-event concept proposed here reaches far beyond the notion of Olympic urbanism (Munoz, 2006;Viehoff, Poynter, & Carmona, 2015). The concept of the mega-event heterotopia distinguishes itself from Olympic urbanism as follows: rather than being an ex-ante study of actual impacts, the mega-event heterotopia is deductible as idealistic or worsts from diverse stakeholders through pre-event conceptions, broader scale, and its co-influence, co-dependence, and coexistence of legacies. ...
Article
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Mega-events like the Olympic Games are powerful forces that shape cities. In the wake of mega-events, a variety of positive and negative legacies have remained in host cities. In order to bring some theoretical clarity to debates about legacy creation, I introduce the concepts of the mega-event utopia, dystopia and heterotopia. A mega-event utopia is ideal and imaginary urbanism embracing abstract concepts about economies, socio-political systems, spaces, and societies in the host during events. The mega-event utopia (in contrast to other utopian visions other stakeholders may hold) is dictated by the desires of the mega-event owners irrespective of the realities in the event host. In short, a mega-event utopia is the perfect event host from the owner’s perspective. Mega-event utopias are suggested as a theoretical model for the systematic transformation of their host cities. As large-scale events progress as ever more powerful transformers into this century, mega-event dystopias have emerged as negatives of these idealistic utopias. As hybrid post-event landscapes, mega-event heterotopias manifest the temporary mega-event utopia as legacy imprints into the long-term realities in hosting cities. Using the Olympic utopia as an example of a mega-event utopia, I theorize utopian visions around four urban traits: economy, image, infrastructure and society. Through the concept of the mega-event legacy utopia, I also provide some insight toward the operationalization of the four urban traits for a city’s economic development, local place marketing, urban development, and public participation.
... Mega-events can be considered an integral component of much 20th century urban development (Muñoz, 2006), with urban transformation and 'legacy benefits' used to justify the expenditure (Essex and Chalkley, 1998;Leopkey and Parent, 2011;Pound, 2003;Smith, 2012). In many ways, the essence of a mega-event is scale. ...
Article
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Host cities have increasingly sought to combine the staging of a multi-sports event with the regeneration of run-down areas. Like London 2012, Glasgow has sought to use the Commonwealth Games 2014 as a catalyst for the physical, social and economic renewal of its East End. This paper presents a novel approach to the assessment of legacy for a host community which recognises the complexity of potential impacts, without assuming a trickle-down effect to the local area. This comprises a holistic approach to evaluation, encompassing consideration of plausibility, the specifics of people and place, and legacy programmes. Three requirements for sustained economic legacy impacts for the host community are identified: continued and extended partnership working at a strategic level; extending the scope and duration of legacy programmes beyond that required for the event itself; resolving inherent tensions between delivering legacy at different spatial scales, and ensuring the equitable treatment of disadvantaged areas.
... The tangible legacy consists of the economic impact, the investments in infrastructural improvements and event facilities, the effects in terms of tourist flows and the construction of significant public works (Hiller, 2006(Hiller, , 2007Muñoz, 2006). ...
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Hosting, or organising, a mega-event is a form of destination branding; it is a way to generate the leveraging process of the event itself and promote the image of a location. Besides, these events allow a destination to attract the attention of the public and the media, enhancing its awareness nationally and internationally. Mega-events promote greater flows of tourists and visitors, especially in the short term. Nevertheless they produce long-lasting effects, such as the attraction and stimulation of investments, urban regeneration, advanced facilities and equipment, in addition to the improvement of accommodation, services and infrastructures. Thanks to those investments and to the growth in tourist arrivals, the mega-events could have a positive impact on the local economy, also over years, but some of their most important outcomes deal with the so-called intangible legacy, or rather social, cultural and political effects, more difficult to identify and measure. They can modify local identity and image, supporting the repositioning of the hosting place at an international level. The above considerations are discussed in this study; most attention is paid to three Italian cities, involved in top events: Genoa, appointed as European Capital of Culture in 2004; Turin, that hosted the XX Olympic Winter Games in 2006; Milan, that is now organising the Universal Expo 2015. Article available on line: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/nq8aM2fGPTzagZm2Ni8g/full
... This indicates a potential to analytic generalisation, which aims to expand and generalise the application of theories in different contexts (Denscombe 2014;Yin 2013). Findings from the case should be transferable to other Olympic cases, considering that host cities share multiple features among them (Muñoz 2006;Gold and Gold 2016). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to analyse the impacts of the urban regeneration on small businesses in preparation to host the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games and the reactions of owners of such businesses toward the changes. This research focused on the effects of urban regeneration on small business located in the Olympic Green cluster of Beijing 2022, which has been the one with major changes. Owners of small businesses were interviewed two years before the Games. Whilst owners revealed that they have not taken part in the process of planning the urban regeneration, they have been willing to sacrifice their profits as a sign of patriotism. Meanwhile, they expressed their frustration with their no-right-to-the-city. The study applies the right-to-the-city theoretical framework to sport mega-event-led urban regeneration. The application of the theoretical framework transcends the case of Beijing 2022.
... The term 'Polish effect' refers obviously to the 'Barcelona effect': TheOlympics in Barcelona in 1992 were considered the exemplary success story of a mega-sport event. However, benefits of mega-sport events (including the Olympics in Barcelona) are questionable (e.g.,Munoz, 2006). visit Wroclaw in the future. ...
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Our case study aimed to analyse the social construction of the impact of the 2012 European Football Championship on the Polish city of Wroclaw. To realise this aim, we conducted an analysis of 35 semi-structured interviews with select residents of Wroclaw; we also analysed the local press. Before presenting our findings, we briefly discuss the organisation of Euro 2012 and official discourse on this event in Poland to introduce a broader context. Referring to the Stuart Hall model of encoding/decoding, we argue that informants constructed the meaning of Euro 2012 in a negotiated manner. For example, they seemed to accept the thesis that Euro 2012 helped to modernise Wroclaw. However, they were suspicious of how and why modernisation projects were realised. Many argued that it was only because of external pressure that officials were able to act efficiently and honestly. It seems as though the respondents had rather low opinions of the competence of local authorities and did not trust in their ability to govern the city rationally and honesty. This observation is in accordance with a macro-social analysis of post-communist societies that speaks about a ‘culture of distrust’ or a ‘culture of cynicism’. We demonstrate that, in contrast to official discourse, residents of the city did not see any far-reaching and revolutionary social changes in Wroclaw.
... As Peck (2005:740) critically suggests, creative strategies have become ''the policies of choice, since they license both a discursively distinctive and an ostensibly deliverable development agenda.'' Impressive literature now exists that focuses on arts, culture and creativity as important assets to urban strategies of global cities (Muñoz, 2006;Sassen, 2000;Waitt, 1999). Culture, as a key element of urban strategies, was also documented in the context of other, considerably smaller cities such as Bilbao, Glasgow, Newcastle and Turin (Garcia, 2004a;Jamieson, 2004;McCarthy, 2002;Vanolo, 2008). ...
Article
Recent years have seen a broad range of towns and cities investing major efforts in devising culture-led urban strategies. These strategies have often been explained against the backdrop of economic neoliberalization that forced municipal administrations to re-invent the local in order to stimulate urban development by attracting new residents, tourists and investors alike. In this context, scholarship has identified urban festivals and other flagship events as major drivers of urban regeneration. Considerably less attention has been paid to the role of festivals in the eradication of long-conceived territorial stigmas. Using the case of Bat-Yam, this paper examines how an international festival has sought to re-construct a defamed mid-sized city’s image. Specifically, we argue that the city-sponsored International Biennale of Landscape Urbanism, which was part of a broader culture-led urban strategy, deployed creative means to breathe new meanings into some of its most entrenched stigmatized attributes, including urban density and marginal(ized) cultural practices.
... Rome's Olympic Games in 1960 marked the beginning of the modern trend to use large-scale events for strategic urban development. 1,2 This means there are now almost fifty years of past experience for contemporary host cities to learn from. Unfortunately, the politicisation of events and the time pressures involved mean that mistakes are often repeated. ...
Article
Hosting large-scale events is often justified by the envisaged regeneration benefits. This paper explores the merits of events as regeneration tools, before providing recommendations for future host cities about how best to maximise opportunities for sustainable regeneration. Large-scale events are often represented as the epitome of 'top-down' approaches to regeneration, but ideas are suggested here that can allow events to assist a diverse range of target beneficiaries at the neighbourhood level. The paper concludes that cities should try to follow ten generic principles to maximise the regeneration legacy of events, but that they also need to think about which events, or which portfolio of events, would be most likely to assist their regeneration objectives.
... Subsequent data analysis (VanWynsberghe et al. 2012) invoked sport management's burgeoning concept of leveraging to provide a more powerful tool for explaining host context as an intervening factor in the Games' impacts. It should be explained that the bundling approach also has its basis in arguments presented in the mega-event literature that longer-term impacts of mega-events will only occur if there is a relevant, long-term, well-planned and effectively managed effort to produce impacts (Kirkup and Major 2006, Liao and Pitts 2006, Muñoz 2006. Together, bundling and leveraging argue that change can be more expected to happen when there is a driving force intended to produce change rather than in the absence of such a force. ...
Article
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Vancouver's successful bid for the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games took place at a transformational moment for the International Olympic Committee (IOC). In the first decade of this century, the IOC began to require host cities to address a much wider range of local impacts of the global Games', and to undertake planning initiatives to ensure maximum local social inclusion. In this article, we present a case study of the policies and principles of social inclusion used by the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) in preparing for the 2010 Games. We use key informant interviews, document analysis and participant observation to study a specific programme Building Opportunities with Business (BOB) that was showcased as one of VANOC's prominent demonstrations of social inclusion. Our evidence suggests that Games planning processes have become even more powerful instruments for the promotion of liberal philosophies through neoliberal local governance regimes; social inclusion is promised through the proliferation of ever more institutionally diffused public-private partnerships. With the neoliberal shift from public service provision to private sector entrepreneurialism, individual employability becomes the primary goal of, and normative justification for, social inclusion policies. Heavily circumscribed VANOC efforts at specific types of social inclusion have met with limited success, but it appears clear that the fusion of transnationally mobile mega-events and prevailing doctrines of neoliberal entrepreneurialism has become a significant new framework for local urban social policy.
... In various ways, local social tensions may be refracted through festivals (Gibson and Davidson 2004). Furthermore, as part of the broader entrepreneurial, neoliberalization of contemporary government, festivals are also used as justification for large building projects, and changes in planning laws (Hall 1997Hall , 2006 Muňoz 2006), even when the actual extent of monetary benefits gained is questionable. ...
Article
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Examining a database of 2,856 festivals in Australia and survey results from 480 festival organizers, we consider how nonmetropolitan cultural festivals provide constraints as well as opportunities for economic planners. Cultural festivals are ubiquitous, impressively diverse, and strongly connected to local communities through employment, volunteerism, and participation. Despite cultural festivals being mostly small-scale, economically modest affairs, geared around community goals, the regional proliferation of cultural festivals produces enormous direct and indirect economic benefits. Amidst debates over cultural and political issues (such as identity, exclusion, and elitism), links between cultural festivals and economic development planning are explored.
... A common feature in such areas is the growth of a distinctive segment of the housing market which consists of purchase primarily for investment (sometimes by institutions), acquisition for business lettings and second homes (Visser 2004;Cameron 2006). Within the last two decades a number of specific events have prompted significant property development and residential renewal in several Spanish cities, most obviously the Barcelona Olympics (Muñoz 2006), the Seville Expo and the nomination of Madrid as European City of Culture, all in 1992 (Garcia 1993). These new models of urban regeneration have been followed elsewhere, for example Bilbao (Vicario and Mártinez Monje 2003). ...
Article
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This paper explores the relationship between primary and secondary homes in the overall Spanish housing market against the background of conflicting views on the nature of this relationship. Some of the theoretical arguments in favour of the independence of the two sectors are critiqued and a series of research questions on the precise nature of any relationship are posed. In answering these questions, a range of empirical data for different spatial scales is examined. It is concluded that, for indigenous Spaniards, the two sectors of the housing market are inter-related in various ways and that the most significant contemporary dichotomy in the Spanish housing market may be between Spaniards and foreigners rather than between primary and second homes.
... Subsequent data analysis (VanWynsberghe et al. 2012) invoked sport management's burgeoning concept of leveraging to provide a more powerful tool for explaining host context as an intervening factor in the Games' impacts. It should be explained that the bundling approach also has its basis in arguments presented in the mega-event literature that longer-term impacts of mega-events will only occur if there is a relevant, long-term, well-planned and effectively managed effort to produce impacts (Kirkup and Major 2006, Liao and Pitts 2006, Muñoz 2006. Together, bundling and leveraging argue that change can be more expected to happen when there is a driving force intended to produce change rather than in the absence of such a force. ...
Article
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This paper aims to contribute to a burgeoning dialogue on evaluating the sustainability of sport mega-events by introducing three strategies for implementing the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC’s) Olympic Games Impact (OGI) study. The three techniques are bundling/leveraging, before–after control and sustainability scorecards. This paper begins by offering a twofold definition of OGI, one based on the OGI Technical Manual and one based on the author’s experience undertaking this initiative. Second, it presents and discusses the OGI critiques that exist in the sport mega-event impact literature. Although only recently implemented, critical analyses of the OGI methodology have already produced a handful of critiques. Third, the experience of applying OGI in an examination of the 2010 Games is the grounds for suggesting two new critiques. Fourth, the paper describes, using empirical data from 2010, how the OGI researchers have addressed the methodological critiques by: (1) connecting indicator data to public policy objectives; (2) positing a provisional means to create a sustainability standard; and (3) comparing changes in the indicator data in the host to non-host jurisdictions. This article would be of interest to future prospective Olympic host cities, researchers of mega-events and their impacts and practitioners who evaluate urban sustainability.
... Mega-events can be considered an integral component of much 20th century urban development (Muñoz, 2006), with urban transformation and 'legacy benefits' used to justify the expenditure (Essex and Chalkley, 1998;Leopkey and Parent, 2011;Pound, 2003;Smith, 2012). In many ways, the essence of a mega-event is scale. ...
Article
Full-text available
A focus on the ‘mega’ aspect of hallmark events can divert attention from the micro – those local communities who are most impacted by the event. Similarly, attention to the ‘event’ aspect underplays the long process of bidding and preparation before any putative legacy of urban transformation for local people. This paper uses qualitative data to unpack the complex and multi-layered views of local residents, living in a deprived neighbourhood beside the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games site in Scotland. They reflect on five years of intensive urban regeneration, evaluate the experience of ‘lockdown’ at Games time, and consider their hopes and fears for the future of the community. Interviewing a mixture of lifelong, established, new and returning residents, we found considerable common ground across the different groups in terms of hopes for a new, mixed community in the area. However, findings also highlight concerns around urban governance practices and the limitations of a market-led approach to regeneration.
... Chalkley and Essex, 1999), a diachronic approach for modeling the development of sports facilities (e.g. Pitts and Liao, 2006) or the Olympic Village (Muñoz, 2006), a contemporary approach for remedying to the gigantism "syndrome" of the SOG (e.g. Muller and Stewart, 2016) and a prospective approach for ensuring that bids for the 2028 SOG conform to the principles of IOC Olympic legacy planning (Hartigan, 2012 with the example of Brisbane) or local authorities (Hartmann and Zandberg, 2015 with the example of Amsterdam). ...
... Pour vérifier les effets de cette évolution, il faut revenir sur les conditions de son organisation. Pour les organisateurs, cette relation à l'espace autorise un renvoi à la qualité des aménagements comme facteur de développement local (Munoz, 2006). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to understand the contents of collective tensions between the organizers of sports events and issues of territorial development. The slalom competition, appeared at the Olympics in 1972 and then reintroduced in 1992, is marked by the development of artificial sites. These constructions are based on massive investment through the hosting of the Olympics. These projects are part of the organization of the event to create a site for the olympic canoeing slalom. This is to analyze the evolution of whitewater stadiums, veritable areas dedicated to the show. This study, based on archival materials and interviews with the organizers of the Olympics, provides details on the nature of projects and the main springs of the development of competition venues. Hosting these events participate in the spatial strategy of the host cities. Their legacy would be in a sustainable development approach.
... The Olympic Games just before and after the Great War Stockholm, 1912;Antwerp, 1920;Paris, 1924;and Amsterdam, 1928) were characterized by answering the accommodation problem with an "emergency residential menu" (Muñoz, 1997), comprising all manner of temporary dwellingseven the ships that had transported the athletesin order to satisfy the accommodation needs that the Games involved. 10 At the Olympic Games of London (1908), the majority of the participating teams couldn"t and didn"t stay for the whole duration of the Games 11 . The British Army set up camps to accommodate athletes during the Antwerp Olympic Games (1920), while the Red Cross provided bedding and cooking utilities 12 . ...
... Humphry 2020). Historiographic studies have suggested different eras in the relation between the Games and urbanization processes following the evolution of the event turned into a megaevent (Muñoz 1997(Muñoz , 2006Chalkley and Essex 1999;Liao and Pitts 2006). By analysing the different designs for all summer OV, we investigate the heterotopian character of these unique spaces, in view of the disparity between practice and theoretical and methodological advances. ...
Article
As a showcase for ideal urban visions, Olympic Villages encompass the utopian disposition of the Olympic Games. More precisely, Olympic Villages could be understood as a heterotopia, a theorization that stems from an analysis of their historical, conceptual, and spatial evolution over the course of the Summer Olympic Games. Against this backdrop, we analysed some notable examples of Olympic Villages as we questioned the relationship between their proposed “legacies” and their subsequent integration in the urban realities of their host cities. We conclude that most Olympic Villages have not fulfiled their legacy role as proposed by the IOC. This suggests that we need to further explore the relationship between the host region’s urban development and the Olympic Games so that the desired “Olympic legacy” may become part of the daily life of the host cities.
... Secondly, as a second exogenous pulling factor, in general the larger the hosting city, the harder it is to manage the mobility of thousands of visitors in addition to normal city traffic (Gold & Gold, 2015;Muñoz, 2006). Therefore, the hypothetical relationship is proposed as follows: ...
Article
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Transportation is one of the main topics in the wide-ranging theme of event sustainability. The aim of this article is to make a contribution towards the evaluation of the sustainable transportation policies implemented by the organizers of hallmark events, to establish an accurate and objective methodology for a cross-comparison. The organizers, policy makers and the host community are the main stakeholders interested in an evaluation of the degree of sustainability implicit in the mobility policy of an event. A non-hierarchical model-based clustering is performed, using a sample of periodical Italian hallmark events, and then examined to determine whether there is a difference in the distribution of a selection of auxiliary variables among the clusters. The results show that neither visitor number, nor the number of inhabitants in the host city, is associated with the cluster membership. However, the theme of the event appears to be associated with the estimated partition.
... About the London Olympic Village, see Muñoz (2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Although the landscape of Lomas is part of a green chain from the north of Peru to the north of Chile, over time, this landscape has been losing territory turning into small islands that extends for more than 3,500 km, because of natural factors and urban development issues. Lomas are seasonal ecosystems that represent a great opportunity for Lima to adapt to climate change, as well as protection of biodiversity. However, due to rapid and uncontrolled urbanization in Lima reaching a population of more than 10 million inhabitants, they are threatened by land traffic and inappropriate use. After the establishment of National and Metropolitan Environmental tools since 2012, the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima (MML) has started the experience of climate-oriented policies to support the transition from mitigation to adaptation in local planning including the Lomas ecosystems protection. In late 2019, the System Regional Conservation Area (RCA) Lomas of Lima, a proposal developed by the MML with the technical support of national and international organizations, has been approved by the national government. In an attempt to reflect climate risk management and adaptation, the research focuses on the integration of EbA in Lomas Ecosystems into urban policies for climate change adaptation. This by linking adaptation in EbA quality standards and identifying drivers of vulnerability to increase resilience in the Metropolitan Area of Lima. The research concludes that although it is a breakthrough for the city with some gaps to be clarified due to very weak quality standards at the initial planning phase, Lomas Ecosystems within its environmental, social, and economical components should take place inside the landscape approach. Lomas Ecosystems are a potential network of open spaces that can become the transition between the city and nature to strengthen climate change adaptation as well as create environmental awareness and culture in Lima.
... Using the influx of income generated from winning the bid to 128 become host city as a means to regenerate urban areas allows change to occur at a much faster rate than 129 would normally be achievable (Horne, 2011), but the event-led approach to urban policy does not fit 130 neatly into any of the accepted style or models of town planning or trend planning, as it is not led by Games, (Pound, 2002), but despite concerns over its sustainability, the significance of the Olympics on 142 the world stage is such that its abandonment is culturally and financially inconceivable to many athletes, 143 spectators and the media. Moderation to the structure and organisation of the Olympics would intrinsically detract from its original purpose, and regardless of any modification, the Games will remain a high-profile 145 event (Liao & Pitts, 2008), with significant opportunity for the host cities to enhance their infrastructure 146 and initiate environmental revitalization (Liao & Pitts, 2009 (Munoz, 2006). As the Games moved into twenty-first Century, and issues of sustainability began to arise, ...
Article
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... Many scholars 1-3 define the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome as the first example of a sport event used intentionally for urban redevelopment purposes, while the Olympic Village built for the 1972 Olympics in Munich is considered an early case of an event-led sports city, because the village was concentrated in one main area (the Olympic Park), instead of being spread around the city, and because it was designed specifically for delivering urban leisure. 2,3 Both Rome and Munich opened the way, and nowadays cities are increasingly competing and bidding to secure the hosting of mega-events, attracted by the potential urban regeneration effect led by those events. But results are not encouraging, and the literature shows how difficult it is to transform event sites into well-integrated areas inside cities. ...
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... Pour vérifier les effets de cette évolution, il faut revenir sur les conditions de son organisation. Pour les organisateurs, cette relation à l'espace autorise un renvoi à la qualité des aménagements comme facteur de développement local (Munoz, 2006). ...
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... Being a host of an Olympic Games, challenges for creating the image of world-class athlete village require thoughtful and human friendly environments. Muñoz (2006) stated that "architecture most clearly places itself in the service of creating the image that the host city aims to project internationally, building typologies, formal languages specifically conceived to highlight given values of modernity and specific values of the place" (p.175). According to Tang (2008) interviewed Ping-Pong champion, Deng Yaping, the winner of four Olympic gold medals in table tennis. ...
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The study investigated experiences of archery national champions regarding their use of English language at the international athlete village. The slowly growing recognition of the issue in the language barrier was discovered. Three female elite archery athletes were selected that met the criteria for national champion status was based upon previous experiences of competing in the international games. The use of semi-structure interview technique was implemented to be the main method of gathering research data. The study identified several language barriers to communication difficulties. The findings indicated language barriers become issues and had debilitating effect in communication through English language.
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Artykuł podejmuje problematykę wielkich imprez sportowych (ang. Sport Mega Events, dalej: WIS) będących najbardziej spektakularnymi przejawami komercjalizacji i neoliberalizacji współczesne-go zglobalizowanego sportu. Analiza obejmuje dwa przypadki procesów politycznych, w które zaangażowane były polskie elity polityczne: organizację w 2012 roku Mistrzostw Europy w Pił-ce Nożnej (dalej: Euro 2012) oraz inicjatywę na rzecz organizacji Zimowych Igrzysk Olimpijskich w 2022 roku w Krakowie, zablokowaną przez referendalny sprzeciw mieszkańców tego miasta. Rozważane są skutki organizacji Euro 2012 i konteksty politycznego konsensusu wszystkich sił politycznych na rzecz organizacji obu imprez oraz okoliczności, które doprowadziły do fiaska ini-cjatywy Kraków 2022
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Mega-events are often considered to be catalysts of urban transformation. They are perceived as a great opportunity to advertise the host cities globally. Therefore, focusing on the Barcelona model, the strategic urban planning and urban regeneration built upon the 1992 Olympic Games have become a model for several stakeholders. This paper intends to critically examine the strategies and implications of the Barcelona model, urban development, and renewal schemes in the Catalan capital. More specifically, it aims to provide a critical geographic analysis of the impacts of such schemes on the residents. Furthermore, it could give us clues about the extent to which the urban renewal changes taken place in Barcelona affected the core of what constitutes public governance practices and urban entrepreneurialism. Key words: Barcelona model, mega-events and evictions, urban marketing, strategic urban planning.
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This paper examines the temporality of urban planning in contemporary London, especially with regard to the 2012 Olympic Games. I argue that planners and officials deployed a rhetoric of permanence to validate not only the Games themselves, but also the costly development and infrastructural changes in the city as well as human displacements. Specifically, a decentralized network of planners, officials, consultants, and administrators used temporal concepts such as ‘legacy’, ‘sustainability’, and ‘regeneration’ in describing the benefits of hosting the Games, all of which purposely ignored the temporary and unsustainable nature of the two-week sporting event. I further argue that this rhetoric could be sustained only through an implication that the Olympic site—and East London as a whole—was in a state of ruin, a state which could be ameliorated through the production of this sporting ‘mega-event’. Above all, the Olympics attempt to rhetorically mitigate their own temporary, ‘pop-up’ quality for the sake of an urban settler colonialism.
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The establishing of Villages to accommodate athletes and officials at Olympic Games, in the winter and in the summer, can change the respective host cities forever and hopefully for the good. This impact was felt less for the early Modern Olympic Games, however, due to the increasing commercialisation and ‘gigantism’ of the Olympics in the 21st century (Preuss, 2005:32) this change has become more pronounced. Within this process of transformation, the concept of the Olympic Village has increasingly had a positive role to play as a possible mini-image of the host city (Muñoz, 2006). Take for example the City of Vancouver, host city of the Olympic Winter Games in 2010. The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) had to follow explicit guidelines from the International Olympic Committee (IOC), outlining the close proximity between the Olympic Village and the competition venues. This enabled the responsible people of the City of Vancouver, an important stakeholder within VANOC, to speed up an already existing plan for the redevelopment of the Southeast False Creek (SEFC) district and to effect the changes in a timely manner to create a ‘sustainable urban neighbourhood’ (IOC, 2011:4), all in the wake of the 2008 global economic crisis. In the City of Vancouver, the Olympic Village has ever since been geographically and symbolically considered to be the trigger for further wide-reaching and accelerated urban development. This fascinating change of an outdated district into an own-little-village within the city, with its heritage of being an Olympic Village, has caused the authors to investigate the history of the Winter Olympic Villages.
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