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Students' Travel Behaviour: A Cross-cultural Comparison of UK and China

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Abstract

This paper compares the travel behaviour and attitudes of two different nationalities of undergraduate students from the United Kingdom and China. The survey did find some similarities between the two. Both groups enjoyed beach holidays, and placed importance on having fun and relaxing after their studies. Both were motivated to discover somewhere new and both preferred to eat the local food of the destination. In other ways, the two groups showed significant differences. The Chinese students thought it more important to see the famous sights and learn about other cultures and history, while the British were more concerned to have fun, to socialise and enjoy the challenges of outdoor adventure. These differences were found to exist in both male and female groups. The paper discusses the extent to which these differences could be explained by cultural factors as opposed to market factors or the students' previous experience in their travel career. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Despite the importance of the youth market and the fact that "having fun" is one of the greatest motivations to travel of that market (Richards, 2007;Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009), no research is known that deeply examines the effect that tourism trips have on the happiness of the youth market. Moreover, no studies are known that examine the factors that influence this impact in the case of the youth market. ...
... However, deeper analysis will be necessary to draw more conclusions. The literature suggests that fun and entertainment are some of the most important travel motivations for this market in leisure trips (Kim & Jogaratnam, 2003a;Xu et al., 2009). For example, in the research conducted by Richards (2007), for more than a quarter of respondents (28%) the purpose of the most recent trip was to relax and have fun. ...
... In addition, fun is also a very important determinant in the destination choice for the youth market (Thrane, 2008). Entertainment was also, in the study of Xu et al. (2009), one of the most preferred activities mentioned by young visitors. Finally, along with being with family and friends, fun was the holiday memory retained by the higher number of young visitors interviewed (23%), in Morgan and Xu's (2009) research. ...
Article
This paper aims to analyse the factors influencing the impact of tourism trips on young visitors’ happiness using the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to analyse the influence of various factors on the impact of tourism on happiness. The results reveal that tourism has great potential to improve young tourists’ happiness. Positive outlook, well-being and cheerfulness are the happiness domains most influenced by tourism trips. The findings also reveal that the travel group composition, type of tourism destinations, some types of social encounters, and overall satisfaction with trips have a significant influence on the tourism impact on happiness. The paper ends with some conclusions and implications for improving the impact of tourism on happiness.
... Yan and Halpenny (2019) reported that Asian-Canadians are more motivated by knowledge and culture than Anglo-Canadians with regard to event participation. Similarly, Xu et al. (2009) found that Chinese tourists are more concerned about culture and history, whereas British tourists think it more important to have fun, socialize and search for adventure. Xu et al. (2009) explained that Chinese tourists' desire for famous sights may be attributable to traditional Confucian culture that requires individuals to admire 'the wisdom of the older generation' (p. ...
... Similarly, Xu et al. (2009) found that Chinese tourists are more concerned about culture and history, whereas British tourists think it more important to have fun, socialize and search for adventure. Xu et al. (2009) explained that Chinese tourists' desire for famous sights may be attributable to traditional Confucian culture that requires individuals to admire 'the wisdom of the older generation' (p. 266). ...
Article
This research aims to explore the relationship between travel motivations and information sharing behaviors on social media in a context of Confucianism, and examine whether there are significant differences across gender. Partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used for data analysis. By conducting a multigroup analysis (MGA), it is found that there are significant differences between three travel motivations (i.e. exciting experiences, escape and relationship/socializing) and travel information sharing between Chinese Gen Y males and females. More significantly, gender-based differences reveal a combination of traditionality and modernity of social norms guiding Chinese Gen Y’s travel motivations and online information sharing behaviors. This paper makes theoretical contributions to tourism literature with regard to Chinese tourists and China’s outbound tourism market by comparing Gen Y males and females in a Confucianism context. Furthermore, marketing implications and future research directions are provided.
... Existing research on youth tourism is relatively underdeveloped; its heterogeneity in motivation and behavior remains relatively unexplored (Li et al., 2015;Shaffieri, et al. 2017). Studies examining youth tourism motivations focus on differences between youth and other motivations (e.g., Richards and Wilson, 2003), cross-cultural differences in youth motivation (e.g., Kim & Jogaratnam, 2007;Xu et al., 2009), factors which might affect youth tourism motivation such as demographics and travel characteristics (Prayag et al., 2015), personality traits and travel styles (Lepp & Gipson, 2008) and previous tourism experience (Xu et al., 2009). ...
... Existing research on youth tourism is relatively underdeveloped; its heterogeneity in motivation and behavior remains relatively unexplored (Li et al., 2015;Shaffieri, et al. 2017). Studies examining youth tourism motivations focus on differences between youth and other motivations (e.g., Richards and Wilson, 2003), cross-cultural differences in youth motivation (e.g., Kim & Jogaratnam, 2007;Xu et al., 2009), factors which might affect youth tourism motivation such as demographics and travel characteristics (Prayag et al., 2015), personality traits and travel styles (Lepp & Gipson, 2008) and previous tourism experience (Xu et al., 2009). ...
... Indeed, food and wine heritage can be considered an essential resource to create appeal and support the tourism offering. Several authors indicate local food as an element of tourist attraction either in terms of consumption [29,30], heritage and territorial characterization [31][32][33], and, in some cases, it is identified as a travel motivation [34] in mountain areas [35]. Food and wine are also elements of attraction for specific population classes, significant from the point of view of consumption levels, such as the Millennials [29,34,35]. ...
... Several authors indicate local food as an element of tourist attraction either in terms of consumption [29,30], heritage and territorial characterization [31][32][33], and, in some cases, it is identified as a travel motivation [34] in mountain areas [35]. Food and wine are also elements of attraction for specific population classes, significant from the point of view of consumption levels, such as the Millennials [29,34,35]. ...
Article
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Tourism in inner areas, especially in the mountains, is a complex phenomenon due to the different tourist’s needs and to the specific local features that vary considerably from one destination to another. Consequently, a unique tourism development strategy cannot be defined and adopted anywhere. When considering tourism-based territorial development in mountain areas, it is crucial to take the vision of local stakeholders into consideration. To drive different and/or unexpressed opinions towards shared tools, this study analyses the local stakeholder’s point of view using a mixed method consisting of a Delphi method followed by a Group Nominal Technique. The research was performed in Soana Valley, a small mountain community in the Northwestern Italian Alps. It involved 17 local stakeholders divided into three main groups—local administrators (n = 3), hospitality operators (9) and retailers (5). Results show how operators converge on three common aspects—local food product offering, territorial promotion and collaboration among operators, on which the community should focus to build a territorial integrated tourism offering.
... As Linh (2015) notes, their trip duration is usually short (i.e. less than five days for first-year students). Some authors believe that Gen Z tourists are active during their vacations and try various activities (Xu et al. 2009), such as sunbathing, sightseeing (Frändberg 2010) and shopping (Xu et al. 2009). Shopping is also mentioned by Lin and Huang (2018) as being an important motive for young tourists from China. ...
... As Linh (2015) notes, their trip duration is usually short (i.e. less than five days for first-year students). Some authors believe that Gen Z tourists are active during their vacations and try various activities (Xu et al. 2009), such as sunbathing, sightseeing (Frändberg 2010) and shopping (Xu et al. 2009). Shopping is also mentioned by Lin and Huang (2018) as being an important motive for young tourists from China. ...
Chapter
The importance of the Generation Z cohort in tourism has significantly increased. Although the past literature on the role of this generational cohort in the tourism sector is limited, this chapter aims at exploring the tourism behaviour of Generation Z. As independent travellers, Gen Zers are active during their trips and get involved in many activities. Their key motivations to travel include among others socialisation, escape from the everyday routine and gaining a unique and memorable experience that they could share with their peers (e.g. in social media). Gen Zers, as family tourists, enjoy being engaged in physical activities and having fun. Thus, tourism providers could include such activities when targeting family vacations, whereas unique cultural and sports events could also be attractive for Gen Zers who travel independently.
... When asked about the reason for choosing a specific destination, most (43.9%) did not give a reason, or want to see different destinations ). In another research Xu, Morgan and Song (2009) have been established that British and Chinese students enjoy beach holidays, and place importance on having fun and relaxing. They are motivated to discover somewhere new and prefer to eat the local food of the destination. ...
... Nowadays, many influences come from new media, especially in the information gathering phase. According to research of Xu, Morgan and Song (2009), the main sources of information for students used in planning the trip are the Internet, and friends and family. Therefore, this research builds on this and extends to explore reasons for using and information seeking patterns. ...
... In addition, past studies have indicated that university students are a heterogeneous group with regard to nationality, culture, and demographic characteristics (e.g. Xiao et al., 2015;Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009); however, most previous studies have mainly investigated university students' travel motivations, preferences, and travel patterns (e.g. Xiao et al., 2015;Xu et al., 2009). ...
... Xiao et al., 2015;Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009); however, most previous studies have mainly investigated university students' travel motivations, preferences, and travel patterns (e.g. Xiao et al., 2015;Xu et al., 2009). In other words, although considerable research has been done on university students' spring break travel behavior, little has been accomplished to better understanding their hospitality experiences during spring breaks. ...
Article
This research explored factors influencing lodging experiences and examined the relationship among B&B (bed and breakfast) experiences, satisfaction, and revisit intentions for properties on the small island of Liuqiu in Taiwan, based on the social servicescape concept and was mainly from the perspective of a younger generation of Asian Millennials. On-site surveys were conducted with visitors who had stayed at Liuqiu's B&Bs. The findings showed that B&B experiences consisted of two dimensions: physical environment and personal interactions. Satisfaction was largely affected by personal interactions; and revisit intentions were mainly influenced by satisfaction. The physical environment had little effect on satisfaction and revisit intentions. Implications and managerial suggestions for Liuqiu's B&B businesses are provided.
... From among the vast number of tourist segments, the 'youth travel segment', has evolved as a significant, potential, lucrative market for the tourism businesses and is forecast to grow at a phenomenal pace around the globe (UNWTO, 2010). Therefore, over the last few decades 'youth travel behavior' has attracted sporadic, but keen attention of researchers (Bizirgianni and Dionysopoulou, 2013;Carr, 1998aCarr, , 2002Carr, , 2003Chiu et al., 2015;Gmelch 1997;Haung, 2006;Horak and Weber, 2000;Hudman, 1990;Kim and Jogaratnam, 2003;Linh, 2015;Madrigal, 1995;Richards, 2015;Swarbrooke and Horner 2001;Ting, Chiu and Kayat 2015;Xu, Morgan and Song, 2009). The youth market is usually associated with the 'student travel market', because 'youth' between the age group of 15-24 years, are commonly students. ...
... Hence, 'students' have been the prime focus of research with respect to youth studies (Dann, 1977;Pearce, 2005;Pearce and Son, 2004). While researchers have acknowledged the importance of the growing market size of young travelers, till date, research on youth travel market has largely been conducted in the Western world (Carr, 2001;Chiu, et al., 2015;Hesse & Tutenges, 2011;Xu, Morgan & Song, 2009). In the East, research addressing travel lifestyles of youth remains scarce and relatively recent (Chen, Huang and Cheng, 2009;Hakam, Wee and Yang, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The 'youth' segment has emerged as a lucrative travel market across the globe and has a promising potential for future growth. In the youth market, a characteristic trend visible with change of times is the increasing participation of both 'male and 'female' genders as 'tourists', indicating a striking change in comparison to travel of early times that was dominated by male tourists alone. This shows the emergence of a societal trend moving towards defying 'gender stereotypes' and 'doing gender'. Particularly in progressing societies, the softening of gender stereotypes has been instrumental in encouraging participation of both males and females equally as consumers of tourism. Hence, in the present times characterized by rapid social transitions, changes in gender status and narrowing of gender differences towards lifestyles becoming 'gender neutral', this study attempts to identify whether or not, in tourism participation, travel behaviour and travel lifestyle of young males and females is undergoing a parallel transformation, moving from being 'gender distinct' to becoming 'gender blurred'.
... Similar findings were obtained by Butler and Richardson (2013) regarding their study in Soweto, South Africa. Additionally, empirical results from Xu, Morgan and Song (2009) showed that even though young student travellers have relatively low income and depend mainly on scholarships and student loans, they still fund their travelling, which is due to the high interest they have in tourist activities (as with Chiu, Ramli, Yusof & Ting, 2015). Four vital elements describing tourism consumer behaviour of Generation Z identified in literature, are highlighted below: ...
... This study found that more than 76% of Generation Z members attested to have travelled domestically, though the frequency of travel may be low. The findings by Xu et al. (2009) posit hat even though young student travellers have relatively low income [no jobs] and depend mainly on scholarship and student loans, they still fund their travelling, which is due to the high interest they have in tourist activities (see also Chiu et al., 2015). Results show that respondents generally are more involved in domestic tourism decisions with their friends and colleagues, than with their parents and relatives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Generation Z is increasingly becoming more powerful regarding influencing family travel choices and emerging as a segment with significant buying potential for tourism, however not much tourism-related studies have been conducted on this generational cohort. This study explored relationships between Generation Z members' socio-demographics and perceptions of domestic tourism in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. A structured questionnaire survey of 385 Generation Z respondents gave rise to quantitative data for analyses. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed to explore variable relationships. Results show that significant number of Generation Z members have tertiary education but largely unemployed, as most of them were still studying at the time this research was conducted. Lack of funds and opportunity seem to be the major limiting factors to their participation in domestic tourism. Generation Z females, older members (above 20 years of age) and respondents with tertiary education are more likely to participate in domestic tourism than their counterparts. This study considers competitive pricing of tourism products and services and more aggressive marketing of local tourism destinations using technology as ways of attracting and retaining members of Generation Z as domestic tourists.
... Similar findings were obtained by Butler and Richardson (2013) regarding their study in Soweto, South Africa. Additionally, empirical results from Xu, Morgan and Song (2009) showed that even though young student travellers have relatively low income and depend mainly on scholarships and student loans, they still fund their travelling, which is due to the high interest they have in tourist activities (as with Chiu, Ramli, Yusof & Ting, 2015). Four vital elements describing tourism consumer behaviour of Generation Z identified in literature, are highlighted below: ...
... This study found that more than 76% of Generation Z members attested to have travelled domestically, though the frequency of travel may be low. The findings by Xu et al. (2009) posit hat even though young student travellers have relatively low income [no jobs] and depend mainly on scholarship and student loans, they still fund their travelling, which is due to the high interest they have in tourist activities (see also Chiu et al., 2015). Results show that respondents generally are more involved in domestic tourism decisions with their friends and colleagues, than with their parents and relatives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Generation Z is increasingly becoming more powerful regarding influencing family travel choices and emerging as a segment with significant buying potential for tourism, however not much tourism-related studies have been conducted on this generational cohort. This study explored relationships between Generation Z members’ sociodemographics and perceptions of domestic tourism in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. A structured questionnaire survey of 385 Generation Z respondents gave rise to quantitative data for analyses. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed to explore variable relationships. Results show that significant number of Generation Z members have tertiary education but largely unemployed, as most of them were still studying at the time this research was conducted. Lack of funds and opportunity seem to be the major limiting factors to their participation in domestic tourism. Generation Z females, older members (above 20 years of age) and respondents with tertiary education are more likely to participate in domestic tourism than their counterparts. This study considers competitive pricing of tourism products and services and more aggressive marketing of local tourism destinations using technology as ways of attracting and retaining members of Generation Z as domestic tourists.
... Reisinger and Mavondo (2004) described psychographic make-up of student travel market under five factors such as cultural values, personality, travel motivation, preferences for activities, and lifestyle. According to Xu, Morgan, and Song (2009), a tourist product may include attractions and activities, accommodation and transport. These elements may be available either as a package or as separate products for travelers. ...
... Kim and Jogaratnam (2003) categorized the accommodation options into four categories (hotel/motel, home of friends/relatives, hostel, and campground/trailer park) in a study which investigated students' travel behaviors in the USA. A study conducts by Xu et al. (2009) on travel behaviors of UK and Chinese students categorized the accommodation options into five categories; hotel/B&B, youth hostel, camp site, with friends, and self-catering. Further this study found that both Chinese and UK students mostly prefer the serviced accommodation followed by the staying with friends. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Within immense competitive business market, Apparel Industry is one of the giants that apply various strategies to marketing. Among them, visual merchandising refers as a main concept that attempts to influence impulse purchasing behavior of consumers through creative and aesthetic aspects for the store environment. Literature suggests the emotional state of the consumers is stimulating the purchase intention. Hence the objective of the paper is to identify the impact of Visual Merchandising Strategies (VMS) on Consumer Purchase Intention (CPI) and mediating impact of Consumer Emotional State (CES) between VMS and CPI. Both primary and secondary data were collected and survey method was adopted to collect primary data from a sample of 200 respondents which was drawn from Colombo and Kandy Districts. VMS was evaluated by store exterior and interior factors while CES was measured using Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) scale and CPI was assessed by dimensions in literature. According to findings, Pearson correlation and the simple linear analysis have proved that there is a significant weak positive relationship between VMS and CPI while the relationships between VMS and CES as well as CES and CPI have been recorded to be strong positive. Baron and Kenny approach has observed that there is a partial mediation of CES on the relationship between VMS and CPI while Sobel test confirmed the significant mediation. Descriptive statistics justified that consumers consider various factors other than VMS when make purchase decision in Fast Fashion Apparel Industry. Improve noticeable VMS which stimulate the pleasure and arousal of consumers can be recommended as Managerial Implications to the retailers in the industry Keywords: Consumer Emotional states, Fast Fashion Apparel, Purchase Intention, Visual Merchandising
... Reisinger and Mavondo (2004) described psychographic make-up of student travel market under five factors such as cultural values, personality, travel motivation, preferences for activities, and lifestyle. According to Xu, Morgan, and Song (2009), a tourist product may include attractions and activities, accommodation and transport. These elements may be available either as a package or as separate products for travelers. ...
... Kim and Jogaratnam (2003) categorized the accommodation options into four categories (hotel/motel, home of friends/relatives, hostel, and campground/trailer park) in a study which investigated students' travel behaviors in the USA. A study conducts by Xu et al. (2009) on travel behaviors of UK and Chinese students categorized the accommodation options into five categories; hotel/B&B, youth hostel, camp site, with friends, and self-catering. Further this study found that both Chinese and UK students mostly prefer the serviced accommodation followed by the staying with friends. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated the holidaying behaviours of International Students in New Zealand. A total of 132 international students was contacted to collect data on structured questionnaire consisting 27 questions including 2 open ended questions. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis were used to analyse quantitative data and textual data was analysed manually with the help of Microsoft Excel worksheet. Results outlined the students’ travel characteristics in terms of travel frequency, length of trip, and per day expenditure indicating that; an average of 2.49 times travel frequency per year, an average of 134.88 NZ$ per trip expenditure, and an average length of 4.33 days per trip. In terms of transportation and accommodation preferences, car transportation and youth hostel accommodation were the most popular among students. Safety and mental refreshment were the main expectations from a trip. The factor analysis yield two factors with regard to motives and expectations of a travel; ‘fundamental preferences’ and ‘associated preferences’.
... These studies which differentiate between push and pull factors have received considerable attention in recent decades and have been applied in studies that analyse differences between tourists in different countries. Other cross-cultural studies highlight the differences in travel motivations due to nationality (Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009). Assiouras, Skourtis, Koniordos, and Giannopoulos (2015) found, based on a comparison between Korean, Japanese and Chinese tourists, significant differences in their motivations. ...
Article
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The research objective is to analyse the destination image and corporate image of Spain among the Korean university population. We study the moderating effect of the motivation between two potential groups of tourists, escapers (tourists who travel for relaxation) and seekers (tourists who travel for seeking culture). Information was collected in South Korea via a questionnaire and the data were analysed using structural equation and multi-group analysis. For both groups, the results show that the corporate image has influence on the cognitive component of the destination image, motivation impacts on the cognitive and affective dimensions, and the cognitive component effects the affective component.
... Attitudes can be explained by cultural factors (Xu et al. 2007), in this paper, we decided to explore their attitude regarding the reliability of the busses between three countries from different continents in order to understand behaviors under diverse cultural and transport context conditions. Based on the research addressed so far, the following assumption is described. ...
Article
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Arrival on time when reaching a trip destination is perceived differently by different communities, but the need to arrive at the desired time is essential. This study conducted a cross-cultural comparison of the waiting time reliability of public bus transport systems in three cities in three different countries: Haifa, Israel; Quito, Ecuador; and Valencia, Spain. The objective of the study was to understand and compare the importance of reliable public transport for university students attending classes in these diverse locations. A stated preference survey was conducted that considered the local fares and current travel times for each community. A logit model was designed to detect the importance of the waiting time reliability of bus timing. The values of time and value of reliability were estimated for each location, and the results were compared. The study established that reliability is, in fact, one of the important characteristics when choosing a travel mode (along with cost and travel time) across all of these diverse communities. The results showed that in all of the samples, the Value of Reliability (VOR) late was much higher than the Value of Reliability (VOR) early. Due to the differences between the transportation systems of the distinct countries, this study did not cover all possible transportation variables. An in-depth study, covering other variables, should be undertaken in the future.
... "Togetherness" as a general theme have been previously found in the reviews of tourists' motivation (Goolaup & Mossberg, 2017;Pearce, 2011;Sthapit, 2017), perception to attend an event (Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009) and now as a memorable part of the experience. A work by emphasized that the enjoyment and excitement caused by the social dynamics among travel companions can create more memorability for travel experiences. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of culture on the memorability of tourism experiences. Such understanding sheds light on memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) research. The study employed Iranian culture as its context. Participants were asked to write a narrative text of their memorable experiences detailing why that experience was special for them. A grounded theory approach was adopted to extract themes from data. Results indicated that there were four unique themes related to the Iranian culture that made tourism experiences memorable: togetherness, independence and control, spontaneity and flexibility as well as distinctiveness. The paper initiates discussion for culture as a neglected influence on the memorability of travel experiences.
... In addition, Walker reported that separate hierarchical multiple regressions were performed on each motivation with culture entered first, followed by a block composed of four types of self-construal: vertical collectivism, horizontal collectivism, horizontal individualism, and vertical individualism [10]. Xu and Morgan performed a cross-cultural comparison of travel behavior from two different nations, namely, China and England [11]. They found that Chinese students believed it was more important to see famous sights and learn about other cultures and history, while the British were more concerned about having fun, socializing and enjoying the challenges of outdoor adventures. ...
Article
Full-text available
453 residents of Hangzhou China (56.1% women, average age 34.68 with range of 18–65) were used to investigate leisure activities and leisure motivations. Demographic data such as gender, age, marital status, education level, and income were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the following: (a) Residents’ top three favorite activities were internet surfing, drinking tea and chatting, and traveling; (b) The Leisure Motivation Scale had a high reliability, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93; (c) In general, residents’ intellectual, social, competence mastery, and stimulus avoidance scores all reached high levels; and (d) Significant differences among gender, marital status, and education level were found in leisure motivation. The findings are discussed in regard to the status quo of leisure behaviors and leisure motivations of Chinese residents.
... Moreover, based on previous studies, it has been assumed that MCIS are mainly interested in passive activities such as sightseeing (Kim & Jogaratnam, 2003;King & Gardiner, 2015;Liao, 2012;Ryan & Xie, 2003;Shanka, Ali-Knight, & Pope, 2002;Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009). Thus, there are travel constraints that inhibit MCIS from undertaking or seeking alternative tourism activities. ...
Article
An exploratory approach using qualitative methodology and 15 in-depth interviews with Mainland Chinese International Students (MCIS) in Norway was employed in the study. The country is experiencing an increasing number of both MCIS and Chinese tourists in general. Passive activities remain as the most popular activities due to travel constraints consisting of lack of information and equipment and the perception of risk due to the lack of perceived skills. Parental disapproval and fear of “losing face” while also wanting to seek independence are specifically relevant for this particular segment. Such phenomenon causes dilemmas which also serve as travel constraints. While constraints influence type of tourism activities, frequency and destination choices, they do not inhibit travel and tourism activity participation all together. Some constraints can be limited by the tourism industry while others are more challenging as they are dependent on individuals' willingness and motivation to negotiate the constraints.
... It is necessary to develop experiences that are positively remembered by the visitor in an attractive environment, besides contributing to the quality of life of the local community (Agapito et al., 2014;Agapito et al., 2016;Kastenholz et al., 2012). Sensory experience is relevant to successful tourism experiences (Agapito et al., 2014;Ballantyne et al., 2011;Hosany, 2012;Kastenholz et al., 2012;Xu et al., 2009). The current trend of destination marketing promotes an image that must adapt to the supposed tastes of the market, using emotional or experiential advertising directly affecting the senses, and stimulating the mind of those who see it Mariottini (2012). ...
Article
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Flamenco is a living art that excites and awakens the senses of those who witness such a dance, singing and guitar show. It is a way of expressing feelings. Flamenco was considered a world intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO and is a part of the identity and culture of Andalucía, place where it originated. Flamenco is a symbol of Spanish culture around the world. In addition, it has been discovered that there is a typology of flamenco tourists whose motivation is related to the search of experience and authenticity in the tourist destination. A search of published scientific articles on emotional tourism, motivation and flamenco has been conducted using three databases: Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Flamenco is an art that transmits passion in each of its three components: song, dance and music. Therefore, tourism management of the sites where flamenco is part of its identity must bet on its development and potential as a motivating factor to travel, bringing the emotion to the tourist, which consists not only in perceiving it, but also in experiencing it, living it. We conclude that Flamenco as a living art forms an essential part of Spain’s cultural heritage and becomes an important tourist factor to cover the experiential needs of tourists.
... For example, by conducting a cross-cultural study, Pizam and Jeong (1996) found that tourists from individualistic cultures, such as that of the US, preferred more dynamic and active tourism activities than those from collectivist cultures. Corroborating these findings, Xu, Morgan, and Ping (2009) found that British college students prefer to engage in outdoor activities, shopping, and entertainment, whereas Chinese students prefer to appreciate cultural and historical attraction during their trips. Furthermore, Reisinger, Mavondo, and Crotts (2009) found that Western and Asian tourists exhibit differences in evaluating destination attributes and consumption behaviour. ...
Article
The extant literature on destination attributes has seldom focused on negative tourism experiences. Considering that negative tourism experiences result in undesirable future behaviours, destination managers and researchers must understand the factors that influence tourists’ negative experiences. Therefore, this research examined the destination attributes that influence visitors’ negative experiences. A total of 298 travelogues were analysed via an a priori approach. We identified 16 destination attributes that result in negative tourism experiences, including safety, price, quality of service, environment, physiography, culture and history, infrastructure, accessibility, hospitality, variety of activities, weather, food, tourist information, unethical business practices, regulations and customs, and visitor management. The chi-square and correspondence analysis results show that these destination attributes differ by contextual factors, such as the travel destination (domestic or international) and travel type (independent or package tour). Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed based on the study results, and directions for future research are provided.
... Groups of students are a common subject of research in the tourism sector (e.g. Michael et al., 2003;Gallarza and Saura, 2006;Kim et al., 2006;Xu et al., 2009;Kim and Park, 2016). This is because this group of young adults is very active in tourism and involved in many tourist trips. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper was to examine the antecedents of young adult tourists’ loyalty intentions. The study is concerned with the overall loyalty tendencies of individuals, comprising the two dimensions of revisit intentions (RVIs) and recommendation intentions (RIs), and thus does not explore their loyalty to a specific destination (as in most previous studies). The research uses an Internet questionnaire with a total sample of 305 university students recruited from two Polish universities. Statistical analysis with the partial least squares structural equation modeling method indicates that destination RI is mainly driven by social bonding, while RVI is influenced positively by risk and uncertainty avoidance and negatively by novelty and variety seeking. In addition, income is found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between risk and uncertainty perception and RIs, such that a transition from very low to very high incomes tends to reverse the focal relationship from positive to negative. In addition, the research demonstrates that there is no significant difference between male and female young tourist’s loyalty intention. Implications for tourism entrepreneurs and destinations are suggested in the concluding section of the article.
... In addition to interviews and surveys with structural equation modelling analysis, some authors have employed other research methods such as economic parameter analysis (Divisekera, 2010), importance and performance analysis (Kao et al., 2008), ANOVA tests (Kim et al., 2008), grounded theory (Kim et al., 2009), scenario planning method (Page et al., 2006) and the Mann-Whitney test (Xu et al., 2009). Although different research methods were used, they all focused on the effect of food on tourism development. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of destination food research based on a systematic literature review. This bibliometric analysis involves authors, institutions, countries and co-citation networks and discloses trending developments in the field. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on 176 articles published in hospitality and tourism journals during the period 2000–2018 and bibliometric data downloaded from the ISI Web of Science. This review applies bibliometric analysis, citation network analysis and content analysis to examine the structure and networks of destination food knowledge so as to provide destination food researchers with a reference guide to the context, methods and focus of previous studies. Findings The findings demonstrate the development and trends of destination food research. This is the first study to address the limitations of prior systematic literature reviews by applying network analysis to reveal the interrelated structures and properties of the destination food research domain. Practical implications Practitioners can also discover trends in the design of development strategies, as well as identify extended themes that may be integrated with research in the field of destination food at present. Originality/value As a summary of key characteristics, this report is a useful reference guide to previous studies for researchers. This study presents core content about the destination food field and identifies development trends within destination food research. Based on the results, further research directions are provided.
... The Cronbach's alpha reliability of the 40-items examining the factors influencing Arab college students' travel decisions in terms of their selection of a tourist attraction, accommodation, mode of transport, restaurants and travel agency was 0.954; these are greater than the acceptable alpha value. Table 1 The demographic profile of respondents Xu et al. (2009) pointed out that the tourism industry requires a deep understanding of the travel behaviours of tourists, which may include choosing different attractions, activities, accommodation and modes of transportation. Therefore, the means, standard deviations, and rank of the factors influencing Arab college students' travel decisions in terms of their selection of the tourist attraction are shown in Table 2. Descriptive statistics indicated that the factors which had the most influence on Arab students' travel decisions in terms of their selection of the tourist attraction were the availability of amenities being the most influencing factor (M: 4.08, SD: 1.25); followed by distance and costs associated with getting to the destination (such as transportation cost and entry fees) (M: 3.85, SD: 1.21) and friends' recommendations and suggestions (word of mouth marketing) (M: 3.82, SD: 1.13) respectively. ...
... Past studies have shown that motivation positively influences leisure participation (Alexandris et al. 2011;Loucks-Atkinson and Mannell 2007;Stanis et al. 2009b). Visiting famous destinations and sights is sometimes given as a reason for making the visit (Isaac and Cakmak 2014;Ross and Iso-Ahola 1991;Xu et al. 2009). Another motivation, visiting a place that is recommended by others, is also often cited as a motivation (Croy and Buchman 2009;Tang 2014). ...
Article
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This study considers the relationship between lack of interest (as a leisure constraint), practical travel motivation (desire to visit famous and recommended destinations), and tourists’ perception that a destination has enough to see and experience (perceived extent). We examine the effect of smartphone use at a destination (e.g., to watch movies and to play games) on perceived extent. Using a nature-based destination for context, the analysis reveals that lack of interest lowers the perceived extent of a destination. Smartphone applications reduce this negative impact, thus serving as a negotiation strategy for mitigating tourists’ lack of interest in a destination.
... Türkiye'de şehir merkezinde yerleşimi bulunmayan ve şehirden uzak olan üniversitelerde özellikle kampüsten şehre ulaşım için öğrencilerin başvurduğu yollardan biri de otostoptur. Her ne kadar Türkiye'de bu konu ile ilgili yapılmış bir çalışma bulunmasa da Birleşik Krallık ve Çin'de yapılan kültürlerarası bir çalışmada kültürel ve demografik farklar bulunmakla beraber otostop ile yolculuk etmenin öğrenciler tarafından tercih edilen bir seyahat türü olduğu bulgulanmıştır (Xu, Morgan ve Song, 2009). ...
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Sürücüler, araçlarına otostopçu alarak bireyleri gitmek istedikleri yere ücretsiz olarak taşımakta olduğu için otostopçu alma davranışı, özgeci davranışın getirileri arasında sayılabilmektedir. Mevcut çalışmada, sürücülerin otostopçu kabul etme ve otostop çekme davranışlarının, otostopa dair tutumlar ve özgecilik ile arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan ilk araştırmada sürücülerin otostopçu kabul etmeleri Şile-İstanbul yolunda gözlem aracılığı ile incelenmiştir. İlk çalışmanın örneklemini, gözlem boyunca belirlenen yoldan geçen 508 araç oluşturmaktadır. Elde edilen bulgular, bu araçlardan sadece 19 erkek sürücünün, sadece kadın araştırmacıları almak için durduğunu göstermektedir. Takip eden çalışmada, 132 erkek ve 94 kadın olmak üzere toplam 226 kişilik ayrı bir örneklemden Özgecilik Ölçeği, Kişisel Bilgi Formu ve otostopa yönelik açık uçlu soruları içeren bir anket formu aracılığıyla veri toplanmıştır. Bulgular, sürücülerin özgecilik düzeyi arttıkça daha fazla otostopçu aldıklarını göstermektedir. Katılımcılara sunulan açık uçlu sorular ile yapılan içerik analizi sonucunda, sürücülerin otostopçu kabul etmelerinin en büyük sebebinin otostopçunun kendi yardımlarına ihtiyacı olduğunu düşünmeleri olduğu, kabul etmemelerinin en büyük sebebinin ise zarar görmekten korkma olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca otostopçu kabul ettiklerinde yaşadıkları en baskın duyguların öncelikle tedirginlik ve güvensizlik, sonrasında ise mutluluk olduğu görülmektedir. Bulgular ilgili alan yazın çerçevesinde tartışılmıştır. /Since drivers let hitchhikers to get in their vehicles and carry them to wherever they want to go, hitchhiking can be counted among the benefits of altruistic behavior. In the present study, hitchhiking was aimed to investigate regarding its relationship with attitudes towards hitchhiking and altruism in both roles (hitchhiking and to pick a hitchhiker up). In the first study, an observational hitchhiking study was conducted on Şile-İstanbul highway. The sample of the first study consist of 508 vehicles which passing through on Şile-İstanbul highway. Results showed that only 19 male drivers of the sample were stopped to pick only the female hitchhikers up. In the following study, 132 males and 94 females, a total of 226 participants answered Altruism Scale, Demographic Information Form, and a semi-structured open-ended survey related to attitudes towards hitchhiking. Findings show that drivers get more hitchhikers as their altruism increases. As a result of the content analysis conducted with open-ended questions presented to the participants, it was observed that the biggest reason for the drivers to accept the hitchhiker is that they think that the hitchhiker needs their help, and that the biggest reason they do not accept is fear of being harmed. In addition, when they get a hitchhiker, the most dominant emotions drivers experience are the uneasiness and distrust, and happiness, respectively. Findings are discussed within the framework of the related literature.
... This finding also confirms Carr's (2005) research, which shows that although students have relatively low levels of income, it appeared that this low-income group has a high interest tendency and a strong desire for tourism. Another possible explanation is that, as stated by Xu et al. (2009), students' tourism travel expenses are funded by their families. Also, besides spending money from parents, students depend on saving their money on travelling and gain earnings from doing additional work while travelling (WYSE Travel Confederation, 2018). ...
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There are various components such as diverse products and services offered to the theme park visitors as an ‘all-inclusive theme park experience’. The necessities in satisfying the needs of theme park visitors are crucial in retaining and attracting visitors to the park. The absence of research in visitor perceived experience at the Indonesian theme park has led this study to examine the profiles and satisfaction level of visitors at the theme park. This study aims to examine the profiles and factors that contributed to visitor satisfaction at JungeLand Adventure Theme Park, Indonesia. A total of 384 questionnaires were distributed to previous visitors at JungeLand Adventure Theme Park using ‘Google Forms’ between August to October 2020. The questionnaire was meant to assess the demographic profiles and the factors influencing the satisfaction level of the theme park visitors. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to examine the satisfaction of visitors towards various components at the theme park. Findings revealed that single, high-school female students aged between 18 to 22 years old, are the majority of visitors to the theme park, who visits the park mostly on weekends and companied by friends. Visitors were mostly satisfied with the ‘Interaction with Staff’ variables, followed by the ‘Facilities’ for rides available at the park and the discount and promotion of ‘Ticket Prices’. Findings provide reliable suggestions for developing effective promotional materials, which in turn will help theme park operators to enhance their offerings and services while also enriching visitors’ experiences.
... Travel behavior examines how people move physically to meet their mobility needs; their purpose for moving; and the personal, social, and environmental conditions which influence their decisions to move (Acker et al., 2010). There are several factors that influence travel behavior: socio-economic and demographic characteristics of people such as age, sex, income, family size, etc. (Porter, 2011;Porter et al., 2013;Foley et al., 2021;Dėdelė et al., 2020); the travel options available to people (Porter et al., 2013); cost of travel (Porter et al., 2013;Foley et al., 2021); built environment and land use factors (Ramezani et al., 2021;Wee et al., 2019;Li et al., 2018); social affiliations and networks (Carrasco et al., 2008;Kim et al., 2018); ownership or access to technologies (Fadare & Salami, 2004;Porter, 2016;Gwaka, 2018); religious and cultural factors (Xu et al., 2009;Badawi & Farag, 2021); health conditions (Olawole, 2017;Porter et al., 2013), (Cochran, 2020;Dėdelė et al., 2020); and a combination of these factors. In recent times, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the travel behavior of people (Brough et al., 2021;Irawan et al., 2021), (Brinkman & Mangum, 2021;Anwari et al., 2021). ...
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The poor quality of rural road infrastructure may limit the transport services available to rural dwellers. The objective of this study is to understand the travel choices made by rural smallholder farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria in the face of poor rural road infrastructure. The study uses an existing sampling frame of smallholder farmers obtained from the World Bank-supported Fadama III Project in Akwa Ibom State, and employs multistage sampling to generate data. According to the data, motorcycles are the most owned means of transportation in the study area, and also the most used – even by persons who do not own any means of transportation. Further, we employ the multinomial logit model to examine the factors that influence their choices of means of transportation, and we use motorcycle as the reference category. The result shows that the preference of respondents for the different means of transportation is influenced mainly by the attributes of the means of transportation. In addition, among the socio-economic variables included in the model, only the coefficient of income under saloon cars is significant. Given that motorcycles and tricycles are now dominating the rural transport landscape as an economical way to meet the transport needs of people, rural transport policy in Nigeria should be revised to reflect this reality. The operation of motorcycles and tricycles should be properly mainstreamed in rural transport policy to improve rural transport services.
... The Busy explorer and Travel time lover clusters shared similar personal characteristics, which are in line with the findings of previous research suggesting young tourists are willing to seek active adventures and discover new places and experiences as a key element of their travel motives (Almeida-Santana and Moreno-Gil 2018; Correia, Zins, and Silva 2015;Xu, Morgan, and Song 2009). Thus, they would be more interested in spending the time savings on maximizing their holidays for novel and adventurous experiences. ...
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Technological solutions to achieve energy efficiency and carbon reduction in tourism are unlikely to be sufficient alone. This is partly because of the rebound effect (RE) where consumer behavior can absorb some of or all the energy efficiency gains. Time savings from time-efficient technologies can intensify energy consumption, leading to the time use rebound effect (TRE). Research suggests that the TRE in tourism can be high, especially in relation to tourist travel, but its understanding is limited. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of the TRE by categorizing tourist groups that are most prone to its occurrence. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach is employed. Key factors that influence the potential TRE occurrence include socio-demographic characteristics, holiday preferences, time/money availability, time perception/attitudes, and time use patterns on holiday. The “Busy explorer” cluster of tourists is most likely to show TREs. Implications and suggestions for future research are outlined.
... Despite this, culture is dynamic and heterogeneous by its very nature. A study of Xu, Morgan, and Song (2009), for example, comprised a cross-cultural comparison that focussed on two different student cultures, those of the UK and China, in relation to the importance and preferences given to activities in travel. They described how cultural dimensions invite distinct, and significantly different, interpretations of travel experiences between the two groups. ...
Article
Educational school trips may contribute to student visitors' cultural identity by facilitating exposure to new cultural values. This study sought to analyse how native Papuan student visitors from a secondary school in Indonesia make meaning of their own cultural identity, and further, explore their responses to the cultural issues faced by young Papuan generations. The study employed a grounded qualitative methodology, which allowed respondents to voice their own opinions on cultural identity. The results include 3 themes: Becoming more Papuan; Clarifying and understanding the cultural context and; Self-reflection. This study reveals how students in the trips conceptualize cultural understanding as a bridge to their cultural identity. Furthermore, they brought the larger ideas of Papuan identity and community values and demonstrated intention to maintain it through conservation and preservation. Several recommendations are provided for future research in the tourism and education fields to foster cultural experiences for student visitors from different cultural backgrounds.
... Literature on Chinese student tourists provides implications on their preferred educational tourism patterns. For instance, Xu et al. (2009) revealed that Chinese students were keen on learning about other cultures and histories. ...
Conference Paper
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Acknowledging a lack of studies on international field trips in Asia for undergraduate students in tourism, the present study focuses on the students' perceptions of such field trips. This study uses a case of bachelor's degree programs in a tourism institution in Macao. Drawn from the literature about understanding Chinese student tourists and educational tourism, focus group interviews and in-depth structured interviews were conducted. The study revealed that coursework pressure, financial pressure, safety concerns, and school regulations were the main travel barriers. Students also emphasized the importance of the instructors' roles and valued unique learning experiences that cannot be offered in other leisure tours. Post-trip educational experience was normally achieved by completing assignments related to the trips. Furthermore, students valued special destination experiences and cultural and intellectual fulfilment. Based on the results, implications and future studies are discussed.
... Numerous studies adopted the approach of identifying general travel motives of the young generation (e.g. Carr, 1999;Mohsin and Alsawafi, 2011;Thrane, 2008;Xu, Morgan and Song, 2009 (Leask, Fyall and Barron, 2014;Moscardo and Benckendorff, 2010). ...
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The study aims to examine Gen Z tourists’ perceptions of patronizing street food in Hong Kong. A questionnaire was distributed and a total of 161 valid samples were collected from Chinese tourists and Western tourists. Factor analysis, series of independent sample t-tests and chi-square tests were conducted. The study identified five factors: etic destination image, local emersion, e-WOM, emic food characteristics and safety/hygiene. Further investigation revealed no significant difference between both groups of respondents based on the five factors. The chi-square results suggest that Chinese Gen Z are more knowledgeable and receptive to patronize street food in Hong Kong. Implications for promoting street food for the future development of Hong Kong food tourism are discussed.
... While carrying out tourism promotion, the unique natural scenery of the WSPMA and nature conservation-related promotion should be performed through the various social media platforms commonly used by millennials. In terms of cultural landscapes, Xu's [64] study confirmed the preference of millennials for cultural landscapes. In response to the low preference for cultural landscapes among tourists on family trips, decision/policy-makers and tourism managers can enrich the form of ethnic activities, so that children and the elderly can be more involved in ethnic cultural activities and experience ethnic cultural features in an interesting way. ...
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Mountain area is one of the most important modern tourist attractions, and unique mountain landscapes are highly appealing to millennials. Millennials post their travel photos and comments on social media, and these media messages can positively influence other millennials' travel motivations. To fully understand the attraction of mountain tourist destinations to millennials, this study analyzed their landscape preferences using images posted on social media. As a case study, we analyzed the landscape resources in Western Sichuan Plateau Mountain Areas (WSPMA). We found that differences in genders, modes of transportation, and travel patterns of the millennials influenced their preferences for mountain landscapes. Our results broaden the current knowledge on mountain tourism from the perspective of millennials through social media data. Moreover, studying the landscape resources in WSPMA can facilitate the analysis of regional advantages. This will ultimately enhance tourism publicity and integrate various resources for tourism management and planning in more targeted and attractive ways.
... Specifically to graduation tourism, Cheng (2019) found that a sense of self-validation from sharing one's travel experience after returning home through photographs and stories is a critical motivation. Another aspect of self-validation is mastery of new skills (Xu, Morgan, & Song, 2009). Mastering social skills and skills that allow youths to function independently were important outcomes (Wu et al., 2021) in the family tourism context. ...
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Graduation travel, or a trip taken after completion of undergraduate studies, is a niche phenomenon. Given the dearth of research on graduation travel, this study is first to investigate the stage-specific identity formation when a sense of self is initially established. Underpinned by the dual-cycle theory, the study considered two dimensions of identity consolidation - exploration in-depth and identification with commitment. Based on the survey with 393 Chinese university graduates, five benefits sought emerged: Social Fulfillment, Self-efficacy Improvement, Escape/Relaxation, Interest Pursuit, and Self-esteem Enhancement. Social Fulfillment and Self- Esteem had a positive effect on Exploration in-Depth, while Self-esteem Enhancement and Self-efficacy Improvement positively influenced Identification with Commitment. Tourism industry over-delivers on Escape/Relaxation and under-delivers on other benefits.
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The growth of Chinese outbound tourism over the past two decades is attracting great attention among researchers. After an initial stage where this market was analyzed as a whole, the number of studies focusing on segmentation is on the rise. This paper carries out a systematic review of 171 articles published between 1995 and 2020 in top-tier tourism journals that either focused on a specific segment or established segments of mainland Chinese outbound tourists. The literature review reports an analysis of publication outlets, chronological evolution, destinations, research methods, segments, and main findings. It also identifies research gaps and suggests potential future research avenues.
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Kültür tanımlaması zor bir kavramdır. Kültür öğrenilir, miras alınmaz. Kişinin genlerinden değil, sosyal çevresinden türer. Kültür, bir yanda insan doğasından ve diğer yanda bir bireyin kişiliğinden ayırt edilmelidir, ancak insan doğası ile kültür arasındaki ve kültür ile kişilik arasındaki sınırların tam olarak nerede olduğu bir tartışma konusudur (Bruner, 1996: 3-5). Gelişen ve değişen çevrede farklı kültürlerin bir arada yaşaması gerekebilmektedir ve bunun sonucunda farklı kültürlerin etkileşim içinde olması kaçınılmazdır (Birukou vd., 2009: 4-5). Kültür aynı zamanda bir köprü gibidir ve geçmiş ve gelecek arasında bireylere aktarım sağlayan bir iletişim aracıdır.
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Much of the research on motivation for leisure in developing countries have focused on other aspects of the concept, creating a dearth of research on tertiary student motivation for leisure travel. The study used 300 tertiary students sampled at the Kakum National Park and the Cape Coast Castle. ‘Escapist motive’ was the most dominant motivation for leisure travel. Males were found to be influenced by social motives than females; those aged between 20-25 years as well as those above 30 years were influenced by escapist motive whilst older students were influenced by social motives. First year students were influenced by social motives. Implications for students’ motivation for leisure travel are discussed.
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Potential travelers need to anticipate their vacation experiences when making their travel destination choices. Advertisements are used as external stimuli to support the process of consumption vision elaboration by evoking emotions and communicating specific experience dimensions. Using a generic experience economy framework, this paper differentiates between travel experiences with passive and active participation, as well as between those with immersion and absorption experiences. The findings show that the effects of advertisements on arousing travelers' visit interest and fulfilling their information needs depend on the specific type of envisioned travel experience. Travelers’ emotional response to advertisements has a partially mediating effect on their effectiveness. Suggestions are provided for marketing practitioners and effect modelers.
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The importance of outbound markets to a host country has increased scholars' interest in understanding motivational factors. Motivation is a basic determinant of tourists' behaviour and has a fundamental role in tourism. The awareness of motivational differences among tourists from main generating markets is a prerequisite for effective and successful destination marketing programs. However, cross-cultural motivation comparisons of tourists from different cultural backgrounds has received relatively little research attention. In addition, there has not been a content analysis undertaken on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine and synthesise previous studies on cross-cultural tourist motivation comparison, reveal the gaps in the literature and indicate the future research trends. A review of 71 publications covering a period of 30 years, from 1988 to 2017, was conducted. This study focuses on both subject areas and research methods used. The findings of this content analysis identified a recent growth in cross-cultural comparison studies. The analysis also revealed an increase in more advanced analysis including multiple variables such as motivations, satisfaction, segmentation of visitors, intention behaviours, and information search behaviour. The analysis of nationalities compared in the reviewed studies indicated the shift of research interest towards Asian countries. In the case of research methods, quantitative design is more common for cross-cultural motivation studies.
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National culture can affect consumer behaviour, but there is limited empirical evidence to establish the exact magnitude of this effect in particular consumption contexts and in specific consumption markets. This paper contributes to knowledge by exploring and comparing the extent to which national culture may contribute to pro-environmental behaviour of tourists in the UK and China. By drawing upon the five dimensions or values of national culture proposed by Hofstede, Schwartz and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (Individualism, Power distance, Long-term Orientation, Harmony and Indulgence) and by applying the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, the study establishes the causal relationships between the cultural backgrounds of tourists, their environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behavioural intentions. The implications for policy-making, management and future research are discussed.
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Purpose Using a cross-cultural perspective, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural difference and travel motivation on event participation and how cultural difference may influence the relationship between travel motivation and event participation. The paper highlights the importance of culture in tourism research. Design/methodology/approach The research was conducted by using a secondary data set (n=24,692) commissioned by Destination Canada (formerly the Canadian Tourism Commission). Both descriptive statistics (e.g. frequency analysis) and inferential statistics (e.g. hierarchical regressions) were calculated. Findings First of all, the results indicated that travel motivations and cultural difference can impact event participation. For example, those who were more motivated by knowledge and competence (e.g. knowing history and culture) were more likely to participate in art festivals and cultural events. Also, the research recognized that Asian-Canadians were more likely to visit ethnic or religious festivals than Anglo-Canadians, whereas Asian-Canadians were less likely to attend farmers’ market in comparison with Anglo-Canadians. Last, the effect of cultural difference can moderate the relationship between travel motivation and event participation. Originality/value These findings emphasize that travel motivations and cultural difference are key factors to be considered for festivals’ marketing. Particularly, the moderating effect of cultural difference reinforces that the important role played by culture for effective festival marketing should not be ignored. The research also provides valuable insights for destination managers who are interested in Asian markets. Moreover, using a secondary data set prepared by the Canadian Government largely increased the results’ representativeness, trustworthiness, and generalizability.
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Previous research has shown that visitor satisfaction varies across nationalities, that tourists from some countries are more loyal than others, and that visitor satisfaction enhances destination loyalty. However, the relationships between nationality, satisfaction, and loyalty have not been examined together in the past. In this study, we fill this research gap by examining the mediating effect of visitor satisfaction on the relationship between nationality and destination loyalty. For this purpose, we use a joint modeling regression approach. Statistical testing favors this estimation strategy, and the results uncover substantial direct effects of nationality on loyalty. Satisfaction-mediated, or indirect, impacts are not visible in most of the cases (with the exception of Danish travelers). The study offers some practical managerial implications.
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Urban tourism is a worldwide form of tourism and is one of the most important social and economic impetus for urban development. The urban tourism market has been increasingly dominated by the demand for personalized experiences. Accordingly, this study aims to design personalized itineraries with hotel selection for multi-day urban tourists. A two-level heuristic approach is proposed, which embeds genetic algorithm, variable neighborhood search, and differential evolution algorithm into the structure of memetic algorithm. A case study in Xiamen, a coastal city in Southeast China, is carried out to evaluate the performance of our approach. Results of paired sample t-tests show that our proposed approach is remarkably superior to existing methods. In addition, compared with previous methods, our approach can design more reasonable and personalized itineraries for tourists.
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Ethical tourism is considered as a sustainable solution for an industry that holds much importance worldwide and for some countries, presents economic survival. The aim of this research is to identify French youth travel market perceptions of an ethical tourist destination by examining the informational factors used for shaping this image. This was primarily achieved by adopting a qualitative approach. The results demonstrate that the major influencing factors on youth’ perception of an ethical tourism destination are linked to the major sources of information that they rely on, to construct the image of that destination. Those sources are mainly: internet and the social media. Then, comes the Media and the Macro-Environment (which included the Socio – cultural elements). Finally, Word of Mouth that appears to be very significant. Our results provide important implications for strategic image management and can aid in designing and implementing marketing programs for creating and enhancing ethical tourism destination images.
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This study aimed to identify the motivations that lead a particular sub-group of the millennial generation, namely, university students, to choose mountain areas as tourism destinations both in winter and summer. Through a focus group and a questionnaire survey targeting Italian millennial students (n = 2292), we first identified the main motivations that drive this choice. Second, we identified the level of importance for each motivation during both seasons. The findings revealed that millennials are guided by six main motivations in choosing mountain areas as travel destinations, each of which play different roles according to the considered season. The only exception is represented by the category of food and beverage, which is not influenced by seasonality. The results contribute to the literature on tourism and millennials, giving insight on the motivations that drive millennials’ choices. Moreover, the results are relevant from a managerial point of view by providing important indications to managers and policy makers on the determinants of millennials’ decisions.
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In 2018, the Magic Kingdom at Disney World in Florida was the world's most-visited theme park, with nearly 20.8 million visitors. The influence of Disney is only growing, as Disneyland attendance was up 2% in 2018, drawing an average of more than 51,000 people a day. This study will argue that Disney's success, in part, draws on the ability to create authentic nostalgia tourism experiences for its guests. After situating the Walt Disney Company and its experiences in the literature on cultural tourism and memorable tourism experiences (MTEs), this study will explain the significance of nostalgia tourism and offer specific examples from the Walt Disney World theme park model. This includes examples from the six Disney resorts and 12 Disney parks globally.
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This study aims to explore how Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) are perceived by the young generations, and to see if NBS are capable of attracting young visitors to a specific area. Young generations are generally considered as being more sensitive towards nature and sustainability issues. In this context, planning and developing NBS may prove to be a powerful instrument to raise the interest of young people towards formerly degraded urban and peri-urban areas and ecosystems. The results of a survey focused on a specific NBS site and involving 1543 university students demonstrate that gender is the factor that most influences the perception of NBS. Females tend to have a good knowledge and a positive perception of NBS, and they are keen to visit sites where NBS are present; in contrast, males emerge as a very heterogeneous group, with different levels of knowledge and perception of NBS among them, as well as different attitudes towards visiting NBS sites. The results of this study are expected to help decision-makers plan the development of NBS sites and target potential visitors. Further research on the topic is finally recommended.
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Academic tourism of university staff has been developing in a large part within the Erasmus programme, now known as Erasmus Plus (Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013) since its renaming on the 1st of January 2014. Such trips have been beneficial both for the travelling staff and the destination institutions that host programme participants. The benefits have been listed in the “Report on benefits achieved through Erasmus Plus—a comparative analysis of current practices in Erasmus Staff mobility at European HEIs” (2018), according to which the vast majority of participants were satisfied to have achieved all their set goals during their mobility, whilst the remainder reported partial achievement of their goals. Overall, 99% of those who went on a trip thought that their participation in the Erasmus staff mobility programme had met their expectations to the full. In terms of impact, mobility most strongly affected their professional development. In practice, mobility opened up a new platform for teaching observation, provided research opportunities and exposed academic staff to different management systems. On the other hand, the benefits for the hosting institutions not only broadened intellectual horizons (exchanging knowledge, experience, boosting innovations, etc.), but also brought specific economic benefits through participants’ expenditure on goals connected with their travel and stay.
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Zamierzeniem autorów jest ukazanie zróżnicowania wielkości stopy aktywności turystycznej młodzieży akademickiej, zarówno w ujęciu społecznym, jak i w przestrzennym. Wykorzystując kwestionariusz ankiety na przełomie marca i kwietnia 2012 r. przeprowadzono badanie sondażowe mające charakter eksploracyjny. Grupę respondentów stanowili studenci Wydziału BiNoZ UMK w Toruniu. Analizie poddano: krajowe i zagraniczne kierunki zrealizowanych i preferowanych wyjazdów turystycznych, cele podróży oraz ich sposób organizacji, wybierane formy i rodzaje turystyki oraz źródła potrzeb turystycznych. Uzyskane wyniki badań jedno-znacznie wskazują, iż młodzież akademicka preferuje aktywny wypoczynek realizowany na obszarze kraju pochodzenia. Stwarza to szansę na wzmocnienie i wykorzystanie potencjału turystycznego kraju w przyszłości i jednocześnie stanowi czynnik ożywienia lokalnej gospodarki turystycznej. The purpose of this article is to identify diversity of tourist activity rate of students, both in terms of social as well as in space. A questionnaire survey, which included a chosen randomly group of students (n = 645) Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, representing 5 courses (full-time and part-time studies I° and II°) at the Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences has been conducted. The analysis contained: national and international destinations of realized and preferred tourist trips, their way of organization, selected forms and types of tourism and tourist needs sources. The obtained results clearly confirm that university students are charac-terized by a high rate of tourist activity (Gryszel i in. 2008, Biernat 2011b, Buchta, Skiert 2012) and implements and prefer active holidays in the country (Gołembski i in. 2002, Latosińska, Ludwicka 2010). It should be recognized that the interests of academic youth take some of the leading places in the structure of all the interests that students exhibit (Bro-jek, Bochenek 2012). By participating in tourism, they seek to accomplish several goals most of recreation, entertainment, and learning about the world. Full understanding of the needs of tourism services consumption characterized them. This creates an opportunity to strength and utilizes tourism potential of the country in the future and simultaneously constitutes a recovery factor of the economy of local tourism.
Article
China has been recognized as one of the world’s largest tourism markets. However, relatively little attention has been given to this market as potential sources of adventure recreation (AR). Based on in-depth interviews of 31 AR enthusiasts, a pilot online study, and a final survey of 202 Chinese AR enthusiasts, an AR Participating Motivation Scale (PMS) for the Chinese market was developed for the first time and five distinctive motivation factors were identified. The similarities and differences between Chinese and Western AR motivation were discussed. It is hoped to highlight a useful approach to understand Chinese enthusiasts’ diverse psychological demand.
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Little information is available regarding the consensual sexual activity of young adults on holiday. Both academic and popular press coverage of sex and travel has tended to focus on commercial sex. This study examines the sexual activity, alcohol and drug use of US college students during ‘Spring Break’ at a popular Florida beach destination. The results suggest that students engaged in more sexual activity and had more new sexual partners during their holiday than in the previous month. Students were also found to engage in heavy alcohol consumption and some drug abuse, placing them at higher risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Those motivated to visit this destination by its ‘party reputation’ consumed significantly more alcohol, compared to those with other motivations. The results suggest implications for health education, tourism marketing, and public policy decisions.
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In the United States, spring break travel for college students has become a significant business for many tourism destinations. The purpose of the study was to investigate college studentsメ online travel behavior in vacation planning through selected travel web sites. This exploratory study found that the respondents generally leaned toward satisfaction with their online travel planning experiences. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that the easiness of meeting the vacation budget and comfortability of providing credit card information increase the probability of college studentsメ satisfaction with the online vacation planning process, while the more time used to search for an online vacation the less likelihood of achieving higher level of satisfaction. Business implications pertaining to online consumer behavior, especially marketing implications, were also discussed.
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The college spring break tourism phenomenon conjures up images of outrageous student behavior on hot sandy beaches. This study begins to examine the reality of what students actually do over spring break as opposed to the popular myths. The exploratory study reports on the characteristics and travel patterns of the spring break travel market at the University of Wisconsin-Stout.
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The authors investigated the influence of gender and religion on health-risk behavior potentials and destination-related expectations of college students on spring break vacation using a random sample of 534 students from two U.S. universities. Results indicated that gender and religion had a significant impact on students’ potential to engage in health-risk behaviors during spring break as well as their choice of spring break destinations and their expectations for hospitality service quality and characteristics of the destinations. Important social marketing and public policy implications for the tourism and hospitality industry are discussed.
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This study compares U.S. international pleasure travelers’ images of four Mediterranean destinations—Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy—for both visitors and nonvisitors. The image construct was conceptualized as having three components: cognitive, affective, and overall image. MANOVA analysis indicated that significant differences exist in all image components between the four destination countries. The findings revealed strengths and weaknesses of the four competing destinations and implications for positioning in the U.S. international pleasure market as well as product development and promotion strategy for the destinations.
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Discusses the globalisation of markets and questions the assumption that economic development would result in the converging needs of consumers and standardisation of marketing and advertising. Claims that consumers’ values are strongly rooted in history and tradition and that with the convergence of incomes, people have more freedom to express themselves and this is done through their own specific value patterns. Outlines Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture. Investigates consumer behaviour across different nationalities for a sample of products and services.
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Describes cross-cultural study of conversational interaction as means to explain how much talking people do, when, why and how they talk and the topics they feel appropriate in conversation. Suggests conversational behavior from nonnative speakers reflects a difference in communicative style transferred from another language and culture. (Author/BK)
Article
This article focuses on managing motivated engineers means having to tell them it is time to stop tinkering with one design and move on to the next. Managing means knowing when to say what, as after all, the equipment will never meet the engineers’ exacting specifications. Volunteers sometimes travel to a location to figure out how a piece of equipment might be used. Oftentimes, however, the budget doesn't allow for overseas trips. Committees meet monthly, and during the interim, committee members experiment alone or in groups with parts of a project. Management is best accomplished when a project with a particular need is attached to a competent volunteer who has an interest in that need. Projects sound easy in execution: highly trained engineers and food scientists—many with an illustrious career are worth of experience to contribute—volunteer to design fairly straightforward tools. But sometimes the simplest tools are the most difficult to design.
Article
The purpose of this study lies in the conceptual adjustment of the travel career ladder (TCL) approach to travel motivation. In this context, the study examined the relationship between patterns of travel motivation and travel experience. This research was conducted through two studies: an interview phase to guide the further conceptual development of the travel career approach and a major survey phase for further empirical exploration of the ideas. Overall results suggested that host-site-involvement motivation (e.g., experiencing different cultures) and nature-related motivation (e.g., being close to nature) were more important factors to the more experienced travelers, whereas motivations such as stimulation, personal development, relationship (security), self-actualization, nostalgia, romance, and recognition had a higher priority for the less experienced ones. Importantly, a core of travel motivation factors including escape, relaxation, relationship enhancement, and self-development seem to comprise the central backbone of motivation for all travelers.
Article
Although research on international travelers abounds in the literature, international travel by students remains a neglected area of research. This article reports the findings from a survey of 370 university students in New Zealand. The survey identified student motives for undertaking international travel, the planning process, and the preferred destinations and methods of financing international trips. Logit models were developed and estimated for two important aspects of international travel by students. In addition, the study also included cross-cultural comparisons of travel behavior. The findings indicate that students traveling overseas represent a distinct market with specific needs and preferences. Travel behaviors vary significantly for different cultures and the article shows that it is possible to model such behaviors.
Article
This study examines the college market segment by comparing recess vacation travel of Clemson foreign students to that of Clemson domestic students. Findings indicate substantial differences and some surprising similarities between habits and preferences of these groups and their use of travel services. Important conclusions for destination locations, travel agents, package sellers, and cruise lines are suggested.
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This research note presents a test of Plog's model of tourism destination preferences. Data are reported for seven nations in terms of destinations preferred by allocentric, mid-centric, and psychocentric tourist types. The data reported fail to confirm an association between personality types and destination preferences.
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Research concerning travel motivation has frequently assumed that tourists are both able and willing to articulate their travel needs. The present study adopts a different point of view by arguing that indirect inferences about travel motivation from tourists' actual experiences may provide fresh insights. Using nearly 400 travel episodes and employing a five-fold classification of travel motivation based on Maslow's analysis of needs, a wide range of travel experiences were accommodated successfully in the coding scheme. Results indicated that positive and negative tourist experiences were not the inverse of one another but highlighted different need structures. Further, it was demonstrated that there is a "motivational career in travel," with more experienced travelers reporting experiences containing more higher order needs. Female travelers also recorded slightly more self-actualization needs than men. It is argued that the tourist motivational literature could be well-served by this kind of indirect motivational coding scheme.
Article
Are all tourists perceived to be alike regardless of nationality, or does nationality make a difference? To answer this question, a group of British tour-guides were administered a questionnaire soliciting their opinions on behavioral characteristics of Japanese, French, Italian, and American tourists on guided tours. The results indicated that in 18 out of 20 behavioral characteristics there was a significant perceived difference between the four nationalities. Tour guides perceived the Japanese to be the most unique among the four, and the Italians as the most similar to others. A pair-comparison found the Italians and French to be perceived as the most similar to each other. The least similar were perceived to be the French—American pair.
Article
To understand the behavior of tourists from different cultures, a cross-cultural study was conducted to examine Japanese and American college students' travel preferences. A psychographic approach based on value orientations was used to understand the relationship between travel preferences and students' cultural tendencies of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. The study confirmed previous findings that Japanese and American college students have different cultural tendencies and travel preferences. In addition, horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism significantly correlated with several travel preferences among Japanese and American college students.
Article
This study analyzed the effects of the combined psychological characteristics of risk-taking and sensation seeking on the travel behavior and preferred tourist activities of young adults on leisure trips. The results of this cross-cultural study, which was conducted among 1,429 students at 11 universities located in 11 different countries, found that respondents with high combined risk-taking and sensation seeking (RSS) scores differed significantly in their travel behavior, mode of destination choice, preferred tourist activities and demographics, from those who had low RSS scores. The study also discovered a significant difference between nationalities on RSS scores.
Article
The focus of this study was to identify travel characteristics of international students in general and the longest trip taken in the last 12 months, along with demographic characteristics. Information sources among international students were also studied. Results indicated the majority of international students traveled during their study in U.S., and they planned their trips in advance. Maps, family/friends, and past experiences were the most often used travel information sources. This study was exploratory in nature. Findings of the study may stimulate further investigation of this fast-growing market segment.
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Presents a meta-analysis of cross-cultural comparisons of cognitive test scores published between 1973 and 1994. Larger performance differences were found in cross-national than in intranational (cross-ethnic) comparisons. There was a strong age bias, with an overrepresentation of primary-school-age children. Five models to explain cross-cultural differences in cognitive performance were examined. First, these differences showed a positive relationship with differences in affluence of the cultural groups. Second, performance differences increased with chronological and educational age. Third, only in intranational studies were performance differences positively related to the complexity of stimuli. Fourth, performance differences were larger on common Western tasks than on locally developed non-Western tasks. Finally, performance differences were not larger for abstract thinking than for other cognitive domains. Cross-cultural performance differences were better predicted by task characteristics in intranational comparisons and by population characteristics in cross-national comparisons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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A study conducted among 1429 university students in eleven countries discovered that Hofstede's cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance (UA), masculinity/femininity (MF) and individualism/collectivism (IC) had an effect on the subjects' choice of active vs. passive tourist activities. First, it was found that subjects from low UA cultures preferred more dynamic and active tourist activities than those coming from high UA cultures. Second, subjects from masculine cultures preferred more dynamic and active tourist activities than those coming from feminine cultures. Third, subjects from individualist cultures preferred more dynamic and active tourist activities than those coming from collectivist cultures.
Article
Tourism has become a large (and growing) industry in many countries-both the number of trips and the amount of money spent by US travelers have increased consistently (US bureau of Census, 1993). Moreover, tourism marketing is an ever-evolving industry (Hsu & Sung, 1997). However, relatively little is known about travel preferences of college students. Our study replicates the Hsu and Sung study, but assesses student travel preferences in three different countries: the US, South Africa, and Israel. We identify numerous differences between the three groups of students. These differences are used to derive research and managerial implication for scholars and practitioners in the travel and leisure industries.
Article
The topic area of “travel talk” was addressed within the framework of recent findings in the social psychological literature on self-disclosure. The structure of the stories was of particular interest Using 10 structured travel stories, a study of the frequency with which people would disclose travel episodes was undertaken. One hundred and fifteen experienced travellers sampled from Australian travel agent listings in five cities were used as subjects. In the first study, subjects were asked to indicate whether they would tell no-one, a select few, or everyone, about a particular holiday episode. Both the valence (positive or negative orientation) and the implicit motivation (coded on a 5-point Maslow-based scale) of the episode were shown to affect disclosure. The second study, nested within the first, concentrated on the characteristics of the travellers' audiences when they nominated that they would tell only a “select few”. Using two ANCOVA analyses, it was shown that clear relationships existed between the structure of the holiday episode (valence, motivation) and the desire to impress an audience. Negative stories in particular were shown to be disclosed only when the audience would be very impressed by the travel tale. Those stories with a higher Maslow-based motivational level also required that the audience would be particularly impressed by the tale before subjects were prepared to disclose that story.
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The objective of this study was to examine leisure motivation and to develop an instrument for assessing it. The instrument assesses the psychological and sociological reasons for participation in leisure activities and is divided into four subscales. The four subscales, consisting of 12 items each, were entitled: Intellectual, Social, Competence-Mastery, and Stimulus-Avoidance. The items developed were subjected to an intensive procedure of trial administration, empirical analysis using conventional item and test analysis, and factor analysis. Finally, the revised instrument was administered to 1205 individuals. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were around. 90.
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"Culture and personality" was a focus of anthropology and psychology in the first half of the 20th century. It was concerned with traditional and preliterate societies and drew many of its constructs from psychoanalysis. In this article, we note that taxonomies of personality traits and cultural values developed independently since 1980 have created new possibilities for exploring the topic. The Five-Factor Model of personality is a universally valid taxonomy of traits. The IBM study (conducted by Hofstede) dimensions of culture represent a well-validated operationalization of differences between cultures as manifested in dominant value systems. In reanalyses of recently reported data, mean personality scores from 33 countries were significantly and substantially correlated with culture dimension scores. We discuss environmental and temperamental explanations for these associations and suggest directions for future research, including replications, experimental simulations, acculturation studies, and research on the interaction of traits and culture in shaping human lives.
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Crompton, John L., “Motivations for Pleasure Vacations,” Annals of Tourism Research, October/December 1979, VI(4):408–424. The study is concerned with identifying those motives of pleasure vacationers which influence the selection of a destination. It also seeks to develop a conceptual framework capable of encompassing such motives. Empirically nine motives were identified. Seven were classified as socio-psychological, namely: escape from a perceived mundane environment, exploration and evaluation of self, relaxation, prestige, regression, enhancement of kinship relationships, and facilitation of social interaction. The two remaining motives, novelty and education, formed the alternate cultural category. The latter were noted to be at least partially aroused by the particular qualities that a destination offered. By contrast socio-psychological motives were found to be unrelated to destination attributes. Here the emphasis shifted from the destination itself to its function as a medium through which socio-pschological needs could be satisfied. The research data suggest that the tourist industry may usefully pay greater attention to socio-psychological motives in developing product and promotion strategies.
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Dann, Graham M. S., Tourist Motivation: An Appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research 1981, VIII(2):187–219. Tourist motivation has been treated in a number of ways by researchers. This essay surveys the recent literature and highlights seven different, though sometimes interdependent, uses of the expression. The paper also examines various allied terms, often employed as synonyms for tourist motivation, pointing out areas of similarity and difference. Explanation for lack of consensus over definition is attributed to multidisciplinary of treatment and plurality of theoretical perspective within a given discipline. In order to overcome some of the above difficulties, a description of the phenomenon is offered. Finally a methodological problem is investigated which deals with the unwillingness or inability of tourists to disclose their motivation to researchers.RésuméDann, Graham M.S., “La Motivation touristique: Une Evaluation.” Annals of Tourism Research 1981, VIII(2):187–219. Les chercheurs ont traité le thème de la “motivation touristique” de bien des façons. Cet essai met à l'étude la littérature récente et souligne sept usages différents, mais quelquefois interdependents, de cette expression. L'article examine aussi les divers termes analogues, souvent utilisés comme synonymes pour la motivation touristique, en indicant les similarités et les differénces. Le manque d'accord quant à la définition est attribué au traitement multidisciplinaire et à la pluralité théorique en ce qui concerne une discipline spécifique. Pour surmonter les difficultés qui se présentent, comme mentionné ci-dessus, on fait une description détaillée du phénomène. Finalement on examine un problème méthodologique concernant la répugnance ou l'impuissance des touristes pour révéler leur motivation aux chercheurs.
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This study reports a cluster analysis derived from the Leisure Motivation Scale of Beard and Ragheb as applied to a sample of 1,127 UK holidaymakers. In a pilot study of the full Scale the factors of the original research were replicated and an abbreviated version was then used to enable a gap analysis to be undertaken between items thought important and perceptions of the last holiday, while based on this a cluster analysis was undertaken. Clusters had different appreciations of holiday destination attributes.RésuméL'application au tourisme d'une échelle de motivation des loisirs. Cette étude rapporte une analyse par groupes tirée de l'Échelle des Motivations des Loisirs et appliquée à un échantillon de 1.127 vacanciers du Royaume-Uni. Dans une étude pilote de l'échelle entière, on a reproduit les facteurs de la recherche initiale. Puis on a utilisé une version abbréviée pour faire une analyse d'écart entre les éléments considérés comme importants et les perceptions des vacances précédentes. En général, les vacanciers étaient satisfaits des possibilités pendant leurs vacances de détente physique, qu'ils ont jugée importante. L'échelle a permis une analyse par groupe, et on a trouvé que les groupes avaient des évaluations différentes des attributs des destinations.
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