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An empirical examination of posttraining supplements for enhancing the effectiveness of interpersonal skills training

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Abstract

This study examined the impact of 2 posttraining on-the-job supplements to a training program focused on interpersonal skill development for newly hired managers—self-coaching and upward feedback. Utilizing a sample of 87 trainees from 75 units of a national restaurant chain, the impact of these supplements was assessed by examining posttraining performance across 4 training conditions in a quasi-experimental framework: (1) classroom training only, (2) classroom training with self-coaching, (3) classroom training with upward feedback, and (4) classroom training with self-coaching and upward feedback. The results demonstrated that both supplements are useful extensions to formal classroom training for enhancing trainees' interpersonal performance. These findings are discussed along with directions for future training effectiveness research.

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... In addition, there are scholars who called it transfer of training improvement strategies (Tziner, Haccoun, & Kadish, 1991), which are defined as behavioral techniques relevant to specific trainee characteristics to enhance transferability. Other scholars called it post-training supplements (Tews & Tracey, 2008), defined as an additional complement beyond training classroom environment that may motivate and promote transfer. Drawing on a range of definitions, we view post-training transfer interventions as a set of guidance or procedures that is implemented after a training program to help trainees transfer their newly learned skills into workplace context. ...
... Drawing on a range of definitions, we view post-training transfer interventions as a set of guidance or procedures that is implemented after a training program to help trainees transfer their newly learned skills into workplace context. RP and GS are supplemental meta-cognitive techniques that can help trainees to strengthen their awareness about the environment stimuli and use this stimulation to structure, understand, and manipulate their own cognitive processes (Tews & Tracey, 2008;Wexley & Baldwin, 1986). We include these interventions in our review article because, although these interventions have dominated post-training transfer interventions literature, these interventions, either when examined separately or taken as a whole, are rife with inconclusive empirical result and lack of mechanism explanation (Brown & McCracken, 2010;Hutchins & Burke, 2006). ...
... The abandonment of mediating variable is a key concern because, in most situations, a post-training transfer intervention is unlikely to have a direct and immediate, that is, unmoderated, effect on the transfer of training. Tews and Tracey (2008) suggested that "the inability to demonstrate these mediating influences could be attributed to limitations of the measures" (p. 396). ...
Article
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This article reviews the effect of two post-training transfer interventions (relapse prevention [RP] and goal setting [GS]) on trainees' ability to apply skills gained in a training context to the workplace. Through a review of post-training transfer interventions literature, the article identifies a number of key issues that remain unresolved or underexplored, for example, the inconsistent results on the impact of RP on transfer of training, the lack of agreement on which GS types are more efficient to improve transfer performance, the lack of clarity about the distinction between RP and GS, and the underlying process through which these two post-training transfer interventions influence transfer of training. We offer some recommendations to overcome these problems and also provide guidance for future research on transfer of training.
... The present study focuses on analysing the variables that are implicit in training policy development and leaves aside other factors, such as the individual characteristics of trainees or the instruction methods used, which also play a relevant role in training effectiveness as some authors have already shown (Colquitt et al., 2000, Tews andTracey, 2008). Furthermore, only the effect of the "training" variable on organisational results was contrasted here despite our awareness of the EJTD 37,4 fact that an important synergic effect can derive from considering the joint action of a consistent human resource practice system (configurational perspective). ...
... On the other hand, our paper has contributed to identifying the key training policy aspects that contribute to the existence of the aforesaid correlation. In this respect, the research initiative presented here stems from a new development framework for research into training and performance which seeks to overcome the restrictions faced in other publications when trying to make some progress in the search for more specific connections between human resources and performance (Á lvarez et al., 2004;Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001;Tews and Tracey, 2008;Ng and Dastmalchian, 2011;Guest and Conway, 2011). This paper represents an attempt to complement different theoretical models which has as its main purpose to explain the relationship between training and organisational performance. ...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This was the basis for the approach to contrast hypotheses. The paper used a sample of Spanish companies and the method of analysis was regression. Findings: The results obtained in this paper do suggest that the training policy positively correlates with organisational performance, both using objective result measures (productivity and financial performance) and in the subjective measure of perceived financial performance and in intermediate result measures. Research limitations/implications: The study was confined to the analysis of a single Spanish region, and specifically referred to its hotel industry, which means that the results obtained must be situated within that specific context examined. To this must be added that the data were collected from a single source (CEOs) and, of course, it would have been more appropriate to use data from multiple sources. Originality/value: From an academic point-of-view, the research initiative presented here is placed within the new line of development for research into training and performance that tries to overcome the restrictions faced in other publications, trying to go one step further in the search for more specific connections between human resources and performance. From a practical viewpoint, this research work could help hotel entrepreneurs in two ways: first, by providing evidence that the resources allocated by hotel firms to the training of their staff have a positive impact on their profit levels; and second, by showing which variables should be considered to achieve this relationship.
... From an academic point of view, the research initiative presented here is placed within the new line of development for the research into training and performance which tries to overcome the restrictions faced in other publications trying to go one step further in the search for more specific connections between human resources and performance (Salas and Cannon-Bowers 2001;Alvarez, Salas and Garofano 2004;Tews and Tracey 2008;Guest and Conway 2011;Ng and Dastmalchian 2011). This paper represents an attempt to complement different theoretical models seeking to explain the relation between training and organisational performance. ...
... The present study focused on analysing the variables which are implicit in training policy development, leaving aside other factors such as the individual characteristics of trainees or the instruction methods used which, as some authors have shown (Colquitt, Lepine and Noe 2000;Tews and Tracey 2008), play a relevant role in training effectiveness. Furthermore, only the effect of the variable 'training' on organisational results was contrasted here, although we are fully aware of the important synergic effect that can derive from considering the joint action of a consistent human resource practice system (configurational perspective), which is actually beyond the scope of the present study. ...
Article
There is currently a general agreement about the importance of training as a tool to help companies in the development of sustainable competitive advantages based on their human resources. Staff qualification is not an option in the tourism industry; human capital training actually becomes a determining factor to be able to achieve a differential positioning within the sector. In Spain, where the tourism sector is a strategic element, it becomes essential to analyse the training policy applied by tourism enterprises with the aim of assessing its quality and effectiveness. The objective sought in this study is to identify the main factors related to training policy that have an impact on performance. The study carries out an empirical research into the effects that training practices cause on performance levels in the Spanish hotel industry using a sample of 110 hotels.
... En outre, le système de Kraiger (2002) n'est pas jugé utile puisque les éléments centraux de la proposition sont la pratique réflexive ainsi que le coaching. Dans cette perspective, la notion de transfert entre les connaissances apprises et les nouvelles façons de réaliser son travail est automatique (Tews et Tracey, 2008). ...
... Cette exploration pourrait permettre de mieux comprendre comment l'amélioration des compétences projet peut s'inscrire dans les approches prédictives et celles adaptatives. En terminant, les nouvelles pistes de recherche en lien avec le cadre systémique en soutien à l'amélioration des compétences des MEP sont davantage liées à son implantation, son évolution, sa réelle prise en charge par les MEP, ses répercussions dans l'organisation en général, et en ce qui a trait aux relations entre les échelons supérieurs ainsi que son impact sur les résultats des projets et la performance des EP.La notion de transfert de connaissances pourrait également être davantage explorée puisqu'à ce jour, dans le cadre de cette recherche, il est évoqué avec les travaux deTews et Tracey (2008).Lien avec les objectifs de la rechercheObjectif général : Comprendre la manière dont l'organisation municipale et les équipes de projet peuvent contribuer à l'amélioration des compétences de leurs membres. Objectifs spécifiques :1. ...
Thesis
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Proposition d'un cadre systémique en soutien à l'amélioration des compétences des membres des équipes projet : le cas d'une organisation municipale à structure matricielle faible par France Desjardins Sous la direction de : Éric Jean, Ph. D., professeur agrégé au Département des sciences économiques et administratives, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Christophe Leyrie, D. Sc., professeur titulaire au Département des sciences économiques et administratives, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Thèse présentée à l'Université du Québec à Chicoutimi en vue de l'obtention du grade de doctorat en management de projets (DMP)
... By describing coaching as a way to influence individuals' normative expectations, Wageman implicitly framed coaching with a prevention orientation. Tewes and Tracey (2008) developed an on-the-job posttraining supplement that required managers to coach themselves to reinforce earlier interpersonal skills training. The self-coaching program required them to set goals to either continue or start effective behaviors, as well as to set goals to reduce the frequency of ineffective behaviors. ...
... Accordingly, supervisors as well as employees in the organization had received training from the company about using coaching as a way to relate to each other on a daily basis. We did not assess the supervisors' specific coaching behaviors or their impact since previous research has examined the association between specific coaching behaviors and performance (Carson et al., 2007;Tewes & Tracey, 2008;Wageman, 2001) and our research interests was on the regulatory framing of coaching rather than on the behaviors per se. ...
Article
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Consistent with the arguments of regulatory focus theory, an experiment revealed that a promotion coaching orientation relative to a prevention coaching orientation had a more positive effect on the performance of recipients following coaching. Moreover, in support of regulatory fit theory, a prevention coaching orientation had a more positive effect on the performance of recipients with implicit fixed beliefs about ability than for those with implicit incremental beliefs. The robustness of these results was supported through replication in a lagged, correlation field study of employees in the production facility of a global company. In addition, in the field study, there was a significant additive component in the effects for promotion-oriented coaching, due to better regulatory fit for employees with incremental beliefs.
... interventions could strengthen the prescription-event link. For example, requiring employees to complete action plans and follow-up reports detailing how they intend to use or have used trained skills could be valuable (Tews & Tracey, 2008). Interventions such as these could signal to trainees that transfer is important and motivate individual effort toward applying new knowledge and skills. ...
... Richman-Hirsch (2001) illustrated that goal-setting training focused on action planning within the formal classroom resulted in better customer service performance for trainees who participated in this supplement compared to those who received classroom training only. Furthermore, Tews and Tracey (2008) demonstrated that a selfcoaching program designed to improve the transfer of interpersonal skills for managers resulted in higher post-training performance and self-efficacy beliefs for trainees compared to those who received classroom training only. This intervention involved trainees completing written selfassessments in which they reflected on their performance and established learning and performance goals for several weeks after completing the formal training. ...
... Although the number of factors studied has been growing (e.g. Cheng & Hampson, 2008;Kontoghiorghes, 2004;Tews & Tracey, 2008;Velada & Caetano, 2007), the current study suggests that practitioners perceive a wider set of factors than is currently examined in research. ...
Article
Considerable expenditure on human resource development (HRD) has not necessarily resulted in a significant impact on organizational performance, and research suggests that the failure to transfer learning may be an important explanation. The search for factors affecting transfer has been extensive, as shown in Grossman and Salas's article in this issue, but, as they also show, more research is needed. The purpose of the present study is to ascertain the views of HRD practitioners (in Ireland) about the factors that they believe are relevant to the transfer of learning in the workplace. The aim is to discover whether practitioners have identified potential factors which researchers have not explored or not explored sufficiently. This group of practitioners was chosen because of the considerable control they wield over significant tranches of organizational resources. The method first involved engagement with 28 senior HRD practitioners in a workshop setting to create a transfer inventory based on their expert opinion. The initial inventory was then responded to online by a group of 314 practitioners indicating the relevance of the items to the question of transfer. Factor analysis was used to achieve parsimony among items, and 21 potential factors were identified. This study focused on the 15 factors adjudged by practitioners to be most relevant. It is concluded that trainer effectiveness, organizational linkage and training event climate, all deemed relevant by practitioners, may justify further research.
... Besides computer support, also individual research findings on collaboration and its effects on learning processes are heterogeneous. This is documented in the wide range of correlation estimates between pre-training self-efficacy and transfer for studies with collaboration (ranging from 0.08 reported in Tews & Tracey, 2008, to 0.42 reported in Gibson, 2001 and without collaboration (ranging from 0.15 reported in Towler & Dipboye, 2001, to 0.41 reported in Martocchio & Judge, 1997. These heterogeneous findings can be interpreted as a need for research synthesis to examine how self-efficacy and transfer are influenced by conditions for CSCL. ...
Article
This meta-analysis (29 studies, k = 33, N = 4158) examined the longitudinal development of the relationship between performance self-efficacy and transfer before and after training. A specific focus was on training programs that afforded varying degrees of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Consistent with social cognitive theory, results suggested positive population correlation estimates between self-efficacy and transfer before (ρ = 0.31) and after (ρ = 0.39) training, and thus a small but positive increase. Three boundary conditions were estimated. First, effect sizes were higher in trainings with rather than without computer support. Second, effect sizes were higher in trainings without rather than with collaboration. Third, time lag had marginal effects. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of complex social and computer-mediated learning environments and their practical significance for scaffolding technology-enhanced learning and interaction.
... It can also involve training that has no significant impact on productivity (Holden, 2001). In on-the-job training (OJT), the work itself becomes an integral part of the training provided (Bas, 1989; Tews & Tracet, 2008). 70% of Chinese managers receive on-the-job training as compared with under 55% in North America, 45% in Great Britain and 21% in France (Cegos Group, 2011, 2012). ...
Article
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This article aims to identify the concept of human resource training and to emphasize strategies, theories and kinds of training. The organizational strategy and training are very essential to show the benefits of using strategic view and perception of training, since by linking this strategy with human resource actively, particularly on training and development, it will contribute to the success and enrichment of the organizations. Training and development are also considered as continuous improving process that should be up to date to face the dynamic changes in workplace and to adopt training as a competitive advantage of the organization. Theories are important in choosing and implementation of training process approach on professional way. In the same time in this article we will focus on training kinds and development of these kinds which including E-learning and learning management system (LMS) as a methods of training delivery
... Interpersonal skills training has received a great deal of investment from employers and attention from researchers, albeit with mixed evidence about its effectiveness (cf. Tews and Tracey, 2008). One important conclusion about such training is that it is impossible and likely undesirable to remove all forms of conflict from the workplace. ...
Article
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Nurse conflict has numerous detrimental outcomes for healthcare organisations, patients and nurses themselves. Although past literature has advanced general understanding of conflict and aggression, much of it is limited in its explanation of negative interactions between nurses themselves. To address this, we used a mixed-method approach to identify and describe characteristics of conflict between nurses using content analysis of qualitative descriptions and associated quantitative ratings from practicing registered nurses over 12 weeks of a weekly work experience survey administered online. We found six reliable themes describing the nature of nurse conflict including such characteristics as feeling unfairly treated, others' irresponsible behaviours and work disagreement. Conflicts containing perceived unfair treatment as well as negative emotion and rude behaviour between nurses were rated very negatively. Results suggest that a comprehensive workplace conflict prevention strategy should include multiple types of policies tailored to address each aspect of nurse conflict. Our findings reinforce the idea that healthcare organisations seeking to reduce nurse conflict should pay attention to promoting fair and courteous treatment among nurses as well as adopt policies to improve features of the work environment such as staffing and training. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
... Our study focuses on the analysis of variables which are implicit in the development of training policies and neglects other factors, including the individual characteristics of workers or the teaching methods used, which also play a relevant role in training effectiveness, as some authors have already shown (Colquitt et al., 2000;Tews and Tracey, 2008). Moreover, only the effects of the 'training' variable in organizational performance are contrasted in the present paper even though, to our mind, a significant synergistic effect derives from considering a HR practice system consistent (configurational perspective). ...
... Our methodological approach also differs from prior research on coaching (Smither & Reilly, 2001) and informal training more generally (Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). Although the coaching research has tended to focus on newly hired employees (e.g., Lefkowitz, 1970;Tews & Tracey, 2008) or executive coaching (Olivero, Bane, & Kopelman, 1997;Smither, London, Flautt, Vargas, & Kucine, 2003), with studies often using managers in MBA courses as subjects (Hall, Otazo, & Hollenbeck, 1999;Hollenbeck & McCall, 1999), the subjects of our study are incumbent workers doing standardized, routine service work. In addition we examine individual performance over time rather than cross sectionally or as a relationship between training and different individuals' behavior or perceptions. ...
Article
This multilevel study examines the role of supervisors in improving employee performance through the use of coaching and group management practices. It examines the individual and synergistic effects of these management practices. The research subjects are call center agents in highly standardized jobs, and the organizational context is one in which calls, or task assignments, are randomly distributed via automated technology, providing a quasi-experimental approach in a real-world context. Results show that the amount of coaching that an employee received each month predicted objective performance improvements over time. Moreover, workers exhibited higher performance where their supervisor emphasized group assignments and group incentives and where technology was more automated. Finally, the positive relationship between coaching and performance was stronger where supervisors made greater use of group incentives, where technology was less automated, and where technological changes were less frequent. Implications and potential limitations of the present study are discussed.
... Multiple regression analyses were employed to test each of the research hypotheses (Hammer, Kossek, Anger, Bodner, & Zimmerman, 2011;Tews & Tracey, 2008). The intervention condition was dummy coded, with "0" representing the control group and "1" representing the intervention group. ...
Article
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[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 21(1) of International Journal of Stress Management (see record 2014-05163-003). In the article, the following Editor’s note was missing: Sheena Johnson served as the action editor for this article.] Drawing on the job demands-resources model, this research presents a quasi-experimental evaluation of an organizational intervention aiming to enhance upstream organizational resources via a leadership-development program. Repeated-measures data for perceptions of work-related characteristics, attitudes, and outcomes were collected four months before (Time 1/baseline) and seven months after (Time 2) the leadership-development intervention. Results indicated a positive effect of the leadership-development intervention on perceptions of work characteristics and well-being for the immediate subordinates of the leadership-development intervention participants, compared with a control group. Analysis of mediated effects indicated that the leadership-development intervention had a positive effect on subordinates’ perceptions of work-culture support and strategic alignment, which in turn had a positive effect on their job satisfaction and work engagement. This research successfully demonstrated that organizational interventions aiming to enhance upstream organizational resources (via leadership development) can effectively improve the psychosocial working environment for employees. Furthermore, this research addressed commonly cited limitations of intervention research, including the dearth of organizational-level interventions, lack of research focusing on positive outcomes, and failure to address mediating effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
... Self-management training is a cognitive-behavioral strategy that encourages trainees to identify obstacles and strategies to overcome said obstacles, and it is related to relapse-prevention interventions that were originally advocated in the treatment of addictions (Marx, 1982). Both goal setting and self-management interventions have been found to be effective in promoting retention in training on negotiation, customer service, and supervisory skills (Gist, Stevens, & Bavetta, 1991;Hutchins & Burke, 2006;Noe, Sears, & Fullenkamp, 1990;Richman-Hirsch, 2001;Tews & Tracey, 2008). Wang et al.'s (2013) meta-analysis provides similar support for the effectiveness of relapse interventions. ...
Chapter
With a focus on its intersection with the expertise literature, a number of conclusions arise from the present review of the skill/knowledge decay and retention literature. First, decay is more a matter of interference rather than simply the forgetting of information and processes through the passage of time. Second, decay is highly dependent on task and situational factors. Third, decay on complex tasks appears to be smaller than that observed for simple tasks. Fourth, retention is generally stronger with more practice, elaborative rehearsal, and greater mastery-expertise-of the task. Fifth, although related, retention, reacquisition, and transfer are meaningfully distinct. Sixth, there is very limited empirical research that integrates the study of expertise in the context of skill acquisition with the study of decay, adaptable performance, and enhancing retention (or mitigating loss) in complex real-world performance domains. Intersecting these rich yet separate literatures would be of great theoretical and practical value and warrants future research attention.
... Diary studies could also be conducted to gain more insight into the match between both situations, the applicability of new competencies, and the amount and variety of learning that is transferred over time (Saks and Belcourt, 2006). Since learning and transfer environments will never be fully similar, future research could also establish the role of post-training supplements for transfer and further skill development (Tews and Tracey, 2008). Further, research is needed on when specific instructional design strategies (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose ‐ Focusing on management training, the purpose of this paper is to establish whether identical elements in a training program (i.e. aspects resembling participants' work situation) can improve training transfer and whether they do so beyond the contribution of two well-established predictors ‐ motivation to learn and expected utility. In an effort to establish mechanisms connecting identical elements with training transfer, the authors aim to propose and test motivation to transfer as a mediator. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Data were collected online from 595 managers who participated in a management training program. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model. Findings ‐ Identical elements, expected utility and motivation to learn, each had a unique contribution to the prediction of training transfer. Whereas motivation to learn partially mediated these relationships, identical elements and expected utility also showed direct associations with training transfer. Research limitations/implications ‐ Identical elements represent a relevant predictor of training transfer. In future research, a longitudinal analysis from different perspectives would be useful to better understand the process of training transfer. Practical implications ‐ Participants may profit more from management training programs when the training better resembles participants' work situation. Organisations and trainers should therefore apply the concept of identical elements in their training, to increase its value and impact. Originality/value ‐ This study contributes to the training literature by showing the relevance of identical elements for transfer, over and above established predictors.
... If the individuals who deliver the innovation (service providers) are to implement it with quality, they will need professional development (PD) to acquire the skills necessary to achieve the program's goals. While most PD in schools is provided in the form of one-shot workshops or training sessions, research provides clear evidence that one or two training sessions are very seldom sufficient for ensuring the transfer of knowledge and skills into actual practice (Tews & Tracey, 2008). To further ensure the transfer of knowledge and skills, ongoing, job-embedded technical assistance and follow-up support are necessary (Richman-Hirsch, 2001). ...
... In addition, important insights about the learning process have been generated from studies that have examined behavioral modeling (Taylor et al., 2005) and error management methods (Keith and Frese, 2008), as well as procedures beyond the learning context (e.g. post-training feedback and self-coaching activities) that may be integrated into the training design process to facilitate additional learning and the application of new knowledge and skills on the job (Tews and Tracey, 2008). The results demonstrate the need for broader and more integrative approaches to designing, implementing and assessing training and development programs. ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to present a review of the human resources (HR) research that has been published over the past ten years in discipline-based and hospitality-specific journals and identify key trends and opportunities for advancing future research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form of a critical review of the extant literature in the general HR management and hospitality HR management fields. Findings – A comparison of the findings shows a substantial degree of overlap in the themes and results that have been generated to date. However, several hospitality studies have identified a number of variables that appear to be particularly relevant for labor-intensive, service-focused settings. As such, context-specific factors should be considered in efforts to advance our understanding about the ways in which hospitality HR systems may impact a wide array of individual and organizational outcomes. Originality/value – The results offer a foundation for advancing future hospitality HR research.
... includes the design and delivery of the program such as practice, feedback, and coaching (Tews and Tracey 2008). What the training literature suggests is that training effectiveness is affected by individual and organizational as well as programmatic factors. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine the link between training and the perceived contribution of training to enhanced productivity or cost reduction. Using data from 92 Canadian organizations, the results show that organizations with higher percentage of trained employees are likely to perceive training to be beneficial. In addition, the results indicate that perceived benefits of training are further enhanced by the presence of human resources management practices that either encourages employees to undertake training (the motivation bundle) and/or provides a systematic assessment of post-training effectiveness (the assessment bundle). The evidence however also shows that open climate as measured by autonomous work systems nullifies the benefits of training, suggesting that under such a structure, employees are unlikely to put in practice the skills they acquired during training.
... In particular, beginning with the research of Marsick and Watkins (2003), the authors highlight the importance of organizational, team and individual learning as dimensions to be considered to analyse the learning outcome of a training. Training climate has been defined (Tews and Tracey, 2008) as a short-time variable, instrumental in preparing individuals for formal development activities and in achieving desired learning objectives, constituted by work-related factors that may influence training success and failure and the effectiveness of formal and informal training activities. Organizational culture is, instead, a long-term dimension, quite stable and not easy to modify (Schein, 1984). ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to present the Expero4care model. Considering the growing need for a training evaluation model that does not simply fix processes, the Expero4care model represents the first attempt of a “quality model” dedicated to the learning outcomes of healthcare trainings. Design/Methodology/Approach – Created as development of the Expero model (Cervai et al. , 2013), the Expero4care model has been tailored for workplace learning in the healthcare sector and tested in six organizations across Europe. The model has been validated through the review of an international team of experts and its approval as QualiCert standard. Findings – Expero4care allows the evaluation of the quality of learning outcomes focusing on competences, impact in the workplace, transferability, participation and credits. The evaluation process involves different categories of stakeholders (learners, trainers, colleagues, managers, internal or external bodies that can benefit the training’s results, i.e. final users of the service, such as patients and citizens), and it is based on a systematic data collection and comparison among expectations and perceptions. The implementation of the Expero4care model gives the opportunity to start a continuous improvement process of the trainings in the healthcare service. Research limitations/implications – Expero4care has been tested in both university courses and organizational trainings dedicated to professionals in the healthcare sector. The initial sample is not wide enough to cover all the countries and the types of trainings, so a larger implementation is needed to validate its appropriateness. Social Implication – Expero4care is the first model created specifically for organizations providing training in the healthcare sector. The implementation of the Expero4care model – adaptable to different kind of organizations and trainings – means that it is possible to highlight the value of the training considering its impact on the workplace and on the citizens. Originality/value – As the most commonly used tools to assess the quality of trainings consist of questionnaires submitted to participants at the end of the training and considering that quality models have not been utilized to analyse learning outcomes in healthcare, Expero4care represents the first quality model dedicated to training in healthcare service.
... Many interpersonal and social skills training sessions for employees occur in formal classroom environments. However, a meta-analysis has shown that the post-training results of these trainings are modest (Taylor, Russ-Eft, & Chan, 2005), and it has been argued (Kozlowski & Salas, 1997;May & Kahnweiler, 2000) and found (e.g., Tews & Tracey, 2008) that greater benefits can be gained from these trainings if they are supplemented outside of the classroom. Political skill is one such construct that would benefit greatly if formal trainings were supplemented outside of the classroom because the complete development of political skill requires individuals to interact within the political landscape of an organization and to receive feedback regarding their behavior. ...
Article
Given the variability in personality's relationship with leadership and the use of personality measures in leader selection and assessment, we examine the joint influence of leader trait inquisitiveness and leader political skill on subordinate perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness. Findings indicate a positive main effect of political skill on charisma, the positive relationship between inquisitiveness and charisma is moderated by heightened political skill, and charisma mediates the relationship between the inquisitiveness by political skill interaction and perceived effectiveness. The moderated mediation results of our study suggest that organizations should not only select creative and imaginative leaders, but also select those who are politically skilled or provide political skill training.
... We also tentatively gleaned from the literature some relationships on other personality variables. Tews and Tracey (2008) included the Big Five as control variables in studying the effects of on-thejob supplements. Several weeks after a managerial training, managers reported the degree to which they felt efficacious to manage employee performance. ...
... Even though coaching and training are both goal-directed interactions between a manager and one or more employees (D'Abate, Eddy, & Tannenbaum, 2003), coaching as a management practice differs from a training program. Tews and Tracey (2008), for example, argued that coaching is a practice used to enhance post-training transfer, namely, after a trainee has returned to the job following training. This is an important distinction because empirical evidence suggests that formal training by itself does not necessarily play a significant role in the development of project-based teams (Aramo-Immonen et al., 2011). ...
... Hypothesized model. Tracey, 2008). We expect that drivers who are motivated to learn are more ready to embrace the information provided during the defensive driving training. ...
... We also recognized ability differences may influence managers' training transfer. Sparse research on MIPS training indicates it can be effective (Tews and Tracey, 2008). Training design should account for potential individual differences that may impact skill acquisition. ...
Article
Purpose – Managerial interpersonal skills (MIPS) are widely considered important for management development, yet the nature of MIPS has eluded researchers. The purpose of this paper is to propose five MIPS core skills, giving attention to the role of context, the relationship of MIPS to traits, and implications for training design, assessment and evaluation. Design/methodology/approach – The authors interweave a discussion forum of domain experts (Hillary Anger-Elfenbein, Timothy Baldwin, Paulo Lopes, Bronston T. Mayes, Ronald Riggio, Robert Rubin and David Whetten) with research commentary and implications for management development. The discussion focussed on: first, how do we define MIPS? Second, how important is context for defining, assessing or developing MIPS? Third, are MIPS traits, or skills that can be developed? Findings – The authors propose MIPS include five core skills that sequentially build upon one another: managing-self, communicating, supporting, motivating and managing conflict. Although context may impact the importance of each skill across cultures, situations and jobs, the authors offer these skills as a useful starting point for MIPS assessment, training design and evaluation. Research limitations/implications – The proposed five core skill model for MIPS needs further research and psychometric validation. Originality/value – By proposing MIPS include five specific trainable skills that are relevant across contexts, this paper advances MIPS research, assessment and development.
... In this approach, a team leader or external facilitator helps trainees talk through such things as what happened during the simulation (i.e., what went right and wrong), why key events occurred, and how trainees could improve their skills going forward, all while relating the experience to the broader learning objectives of the training initiative. Similarly, trainees could be required to create action plans and post-training reports that delineate how they plan to use, or have used trained competencies on the job (Tews & Tracey, 2008). Job aids, tools designed to facilitate job performance, have also been proposed as a means of enhancing the transfer of training (Salas et al., 2006). ...
Article
The transfer of training continues to be a primary concern for organizations, yet important gaps in the literature remain. Thus, we extend recent work by Tews and Burke-Smalley (in press), which integrates accountability concepts from Schlenker (1997), along with Yelon and Ford's (1999) context-dependent transfer approach, to create a theoretical model and specific research propositions to help guide the field forward. We suggest that an accountability approach to training transfer, which simultaneously considers relevant work-context dimensions (e.g., skill type and supervision type) can be used to adopt appropriate accountability strategies that enhance trainees' transfer of learning back to their jobs. More specifically, by targeting variables that promote accountability – trainees' role clarity, ownership perceptions, and perceived control over their learning transfer – our work provides a useful theoretical model to guide scholars and practitioners in order to facilitate transfer in different workplace contexts. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.
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Purpose – This article seeks to review the current state of workplace learning evaluation, to set out the rationale for evaluation along with the barriers that practitioners face when seeking to assess the effectiveness of training and development. Finally, it aims to propose a scientifically robust and practitioner friendly approach to evaluation. Design/methodology/approach – This article is based on a multi disciplinary literature review. Findings – Despite the substantial investment in workplace learning there is a paucity of evaluation activity. There are a wide range of reasons for this including capacity and capability issues, lack of supportive organisational environment and a lack of effective measurement instruments. There is also a large research to practice gap. The starting point for evaluation approaches should be the needs of practitioners. Latest research on training suggests that effective evaluation approaches should adopt a stakeholder and systems approach and collect corroborative data. Research limitations/implications – This article presents research findings, based on a multidisciplinary literature review, on the factors that inhibit effective workplace learning evaluation, sets out a novel evaluation framework and approach, grounded in a conceptual model of workplace learning. Practical implications – The findings seek to assist practitioners such as learning and development professionals undertake more robust and efficient evaluations. The article also addresses the research to practice gap. Originality/value – This article presents a novel approach to workplace learning evaluation.
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of a training course on chemicals for occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals. The study aims were to assess the effectiveness of the course; to find out what type of training met these workers' needs best, as their role is vital in the management of safety at work; and to test a qualitative assessment method using T-LAB software for content analysis. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Together with traditional methods for assessing reactions and learning, a qualitative method based on interviews was used, whose content was then analyzed with software for content and text analysis (T-LAB). The interviews were designed to bring to light critical points, training needs and the participants' expectations of this course. Findings ‐ The questionnaires on appreciation and learning indicated that on the whole the course was appreciated and the information provided had been learned and remembered adequately. However, qualitative evaluation brought to light some specific problems: participants' main difficulty was the practical application of what they had learned. They therefore asked primarily for technical and regulatory information, particularly guidelines and procedures, but also for training in the more complex managerial and organizational skills. Originality/value ‐ Qualitative methods and tools can show up better and in more detail training needs, critical points and problems that can easily be overlooked if not specifically sought. The method proposed for qualitative assessment using content analysis software gives effective, methodologically valid feedback even on small samples; it serves for assessing aspects such as the transferability and applicability of what has been learned, and its impact on work and behavior and on organization.
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Although transfer of learning was among the very first issues addressed by early psychologists, the extant literature remains characterized by inconsistent measurement of transfer and significant variability in findings. This article presents a meta-analysis of 89 empirical studies that explore the impact of predictive factors (e.g., trainee characteristics, work environment, training interventions) on the transfer of training to different tasks and contexts. We also examine moderator effects of the relationships between these predictors and transfer. Results confirmed positive relationships between transfer and predictors such as cognitive ability, conscientiousness, motivation, and a supportive work environment. Several moderators had significant effects on transfer relationships, including the nature of the training objectives. Specifically, most predictor variables examined (e.g., motivation, work environment) had stronger relationships to transfer when the focus of training was on open (e.g., leadership development) as opposed to closed (e.g., computer software) skills. Other moderators related to the measurement of transfer also influenced transfer relationships, including situations in which transfer outcomes were obtained by the same source in the same measurement context— which consistently inflated transfer relationships. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for future research and training practice.
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The field of training has been changing rapidly due to advances in technology such as videogame-based adaptive training. Videogame-based adaptive training has provided flexibility and adaptability for training in cost-effective ways. While this method of training may have many benefits for the trainee, current research has not kept up to pace with its implementation. This research closes this gap by testing four competing feedback and training theories. The ACT-R theory and the feedback intervention theory provide different recommendations for the frequency (frequent or infrequent) that feedback should be provided during training. Self-efficacy theory and control theory provide different recommendations for the appropriate feedback sign (positive or negative) that should be provided during training. Research was conducted in which the frequency of feedback and feedback sign were manipulated in a videogame-based adaptive training environment. MANOVA results indicate that frequent negative feedback and infrequent positive feedback were beneficial to trainee performance. The role of feedback orientation was also examined as a moderator of the relationship between feedback and performance, but was not supported. The findings serve as a framework for practitioners in determining the necessary type of feedback needed when designing videogame-based adaptive training.
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Introduction This paper describes implementation results as part of a larger three-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial that compared two curriculum interventions to prevent teen pregnancy with a control condition. The intervention of focus is an enhanced version of Reducing the Risk to Prevent Pregnancy, STD and HIV (Kirby et al., 1991, Langley et al., 2015), which is a comprehensive sex education program appropriate for youth ages 14–19. Method In order to standardize the delivery of this teen pregnancy prevention education curriculum to high-risk youth across 39 presentations, in 23 different community-based organizations, by dyads involving 16 facilitators, researchers utilized two implementation frameworks to guide program delivery and developed several fidelity measurement tools to assess adherence, dosage, quality of intervention delivery, participant responsiveness, and program differentiation. Results These efforts resulted in high fidelity to the curriculum. There also were high levels of youth engagement as indicated both by self-reports and observed by facilitators who created cohesive groups. Results also found that training quality, alliance with facilitators and group cohesion positively impacted attitude change and gains in knowledge. Discussion Issues related to balancing adherence to evidence-based curricula and being responsive to youth needs are discussed.
Article
Purpose: Research on transfer of training has been characterized by a lack of precision in distinguishing between the ability to transfer (i.e., ''can do''), and the motivation to transfer (i.e., ''will do''). Drawing from job performance research that has made this distinction, we argue that transfer of training can fall along a maximum/typical continuum, with one end reflecting how much trainees could potentially transfer (maximum) and the other capturing how much trainees will transfer (typical). Design/Methodology/Approach: A meta-analysis was conducted to identify relationships among four learning outcomes (declarative knowledge, skill acquisition, post-training self-efficacy, and motivation to transfer), three stable antecedents (cognitive ability, conscientiousness, and workplace support), and transfer of training. 144 papers provided input for a meta-analytic correlation matrix, which formed the basis of regression analyses for hypothesis testing. Findings: Maximum and typical transfer were only weakly correlated and, as hypothesized, were predicted by different antecedents. Specifically, ability factors including declarative knowledge, skill acquisition, and cognitive ability were stronger predictors of maximum transfer, whereas motivation factors including posttraining self-efficacy, motivation to transfer, conscientiousness, and workplace support were stronger predictors of typical transfer. Additional mediation analyses revealed that learning outcomes mediated the effects of stable antecedents differently on maximum/typical transfer. Implications: These findings refine the understanding of the transfer construct space and suggest that future work on transfer should explicitly consider the maximum/typical continuum. Originality/Value: This is the first paper to demonstrate the maximum/typical transfer distinction, thus offering potential explanation to inconsistent findings and high-lighting the need for increased precision in transfer measurement.
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Existing research on informal learning has been largely descriptive, anecdotal, and relatively limited regarding its antecedents. This study represents a step forward towards addressing this gap in the training and development literature by examining the relationships of work–family conflict and core self-evaluations with informal learning among managers. The sample included 225 managers companywide from a casual-theme restaurant chain in the United States. The results demonstrated that time-based work interference with family conflict (WIF) had a negative relationship with informal learning, but core self-evaluations had a positive relationship. Further, core self-evaluations moderated the WIF–informal learning relationship. Counter to the hypothesized relationship, managers higher in core self-evaluations engaged in less informal learning as work–family conflict increased. This study broadens the nomological network of informal learning and highlights that organizations need to limit time demands at work that cause work–family conflict to facilitate managers’ informal learning.Practitioner pointsLimit work–family conflict so managers have the time to invest in informal learning in addition to their family and own recovery.Provide managers with skills in time management and goal setting and provide support necessary to encourage informal learning.
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To achieve competitiveness and to improve supply chain performance, supply chain coordination (SCC) is considered as a key challenge by the companies to satisfy their customers. In today’s turbulent economic environment, SCC is a topic of great significance among business houses because SCC creates understanding, molds human behavior and improve competitiveness. As observed from literature that the dynamics of global market has resulted in serious pressure and distraction to activities of various supply chain entities i.e. suppliers, manufacturer, distributors, wholesaler, retailers and customers, which ultimately affects the SC performance. Thus, supply chains are exposed to risks due to uncertain and turbulent economic environment. To overcome these challenges, authors in this study developed a conceptual framework for knowledge management based on Six Sigma and ISM which can be used to study various supply chain dimensions be it human, process or quality dimensions. The main advantage of this framework is that it not only helps to understand information regarding the strength and weaknesses of various supply chain entities in a supply chain but also helps to determine the structural relationship among key dimensions of interest. The proposed framework can be applied by industries to model and analyze their processes effectively, compare their performance both within and outside their industry segment and thus improve competitiveness by following knowledge management practices.
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Two experiments investigated the effect of forming implementation intentions on transfer of training in two training programs. In the first experiment (N = 37), trainees who formed implementation intentions implemented active listening skills sooner, and to a greater degree, than those in the control group. In the second experiment (n = 28), conducted in the field, trainees who formed implementation intentions received a higher performance score for implementing the trained behavior compared with those in the control condition. Results from both experiments provide empirical evidence suggesting that forming implementation intentions at the end of a training program increases the likelihood of using the newly acquired skills.
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To achieve competitiveness and to improve supply chain performance, supply chain coordination (SCC) is considered as a key challenge by the companies to satisfy their customers. In today's turbulent economic environment, SCC is a topic of great significance among business houses because SCC creates understanding, molds human behavior and improve competitiveness. As observed from literature that the dynamics of global market has resulted in serious pressure and distraction to activities of various supply chain entities i.e. suppliers, manufacturer, distributors, wholesaler, retailers and customers, which ultimately affects the SC performance. Thus, supply chains are exposed to risks due to uncertain and turbulent economic environment. To overcome these challenges, authors in this study developed a conceptual framework based on Six Sigma and ISM which can be used to study various supply chain dimensions be it human, process or quality dimensions. The main advantage of this framework is that it not only helps to understand information regarding the strength and weaknesses of various supply chain entities in a supply chain but also helps to determine the structural relationship among key dimensions of interest. The proposed framework can be applied by industries to model and analyze their processes effectively, compare their performance both within and outside their industry segment and thus improve competitiveness by following various supply chain management practices.
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The underutilization of immigrants’ skills, particularly the skills of ethnic and religious minorities, is of considerable concern to policy makers because of its economic and social costs. Recent research suggests that discrimination may be contributing to this well-documented unemployment and underemployment of skilled minority immigrants. In particular, the ambiguity of immigrants’ foreign-acquired skills and personal characteristics may provide a cover for the expression of bias toward immigrants who are religious and ethnic minorities. Experiments controlling for all other variables show that discrimination may influence both the hiring of minority immigrants and reactions to claims of employment discrimination by minority immigrants. Also, factors that reduce the ambiguity of minority immigrants’ credentials and factors that suppress the expression of bias reduce these effects. These findings point to policy interventions that have the potential to improve the labor-market outcomes of skilled immigrants and contribute to host nations’ economic and social outlooks. Interventions should focus not only on skilled minority immigrants and reducing the ambiguity of their credentials and skills but also on members of the host society and their motivation to control prejudiced reactions to minorities.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to amend and extend the emerging research that has utilized an employee-focused approach to examining the service recovery process. In doing so, we examine the influences of supervisor and coworker support for error management on two measures of employee service performance: service recovery performance and helping behaviors during service failure and recoveries. Specifically, this study examines the linear and non-linear interaction effects of supervisor and coworker support for error management on the outcome variables. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the proposed relationships, we conducted a field study that utilized survey data from a sample of 243 restaurant employees and their immediate supervisors. Employee ratings of supervisor and coworker support for error management were matched with the data gathered for the two dependent variables (i.e., supervisory ratings of service recovery performance and helping behaviors). Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the linear interaction effects on the outcome variables. To examine the non-linear interaction effects on the outcome variables we utilized polynomial regression and response surface modelling. Findings: The results showed that the interaction effects of supervisor and coworker support for error management was significantly positively related to both service recovery performance and helping behaviors. In addition, an alternative analysis of the shape of the interaction effects using polynomial regression and response surface modeling showed that the moderating effects may be better conceptualized as non-linear. Originality/value: These findings offer new insights about the roles and impact of various forms of support in the service recovery process. First, the current study focuses specifically on supervisor and coworker support for error management and the impact on employees’ service recovery performance and helping behaviors. Second, this research investigates the interaction effects of these two forms of support on service recovery performance and helping behaviors. Third, along with linear interaction effects, the current work examines non-linear interaction effects. These relationships examined in this study have not been tested before. Thus, the findings of this research make a unique contribution to research in service management. The findings of this study provide more prescriptive insights about the means to prevent and respond effectively to service errors. Paper type: Empirical study Keywords: error management, supervisor support, coworker support, service recovery performance, helping behaviors
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This chapter introduces the framework and causal model of occupational satisfaction, trainee reactions, perception of learning, and perceived training transfer. It argues that dimensions of occupational satisfaction, trainee reactions, and perception of learning have mediated positive effect on perceived training transfer. Perception of learning positively mediates the relationships between occupational satisfaction and perceived training transfer and between trainee reactions and perceived training transfer. Furthermore, the author hopes that understanding the theoretical constructs of occupational satisfaction, trainee reactions, perception of learning, and perceived training transfer through the use of the framework and causal model will not only inform researchers of a better design for studying occupational satisfaction, trainee reactions, perception of learning, and perceived training transfer, but also assist in the understanding of intricate relationships between different factors.
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Follow-up methods for improving and maintaining effects of off-the-job training for railroad workers were investigated in the present study. A training program was designed to produce an active transformation of attitudes about making announcements regarding problems in the transport system, using goal-directed behavior instead of conventional behavior. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent, pre-post test design with 4 groups was used. The participants (N=543) were employees of a railroad company in a metropolitan area. During training, a DVD was used to show them the teaching material. Then, the participants were presented with 1 of the following 4 conditions: (a) goal setting (GS): the participants were required to set a goal just after watching the DVD, (b) feedback (FB): 3 months after they watched the DVD, the participants were shown data on changes in the consciousness and behavior of colleagues between the pre- and post-DVD presentations, c a combination of goal setting and feedback, and (d) a control condition with no follow-up. Using a questionnaire that was administered multiple times, the following psychological variables were assessed: attitudes toward goal-directed behavior, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions, as well as the execution of goal-directed behavior. The analysis compared the data from pre-training and 6 months post-training. The results indicated that (a) scores on the psychological variables increased significantly in both the goal setting and feedback groups, compared to the control group, (b) the rate of executing goal behavior increased more in the feedback group than in the other conditions, regardless of whether or not the goal behavior had been decided before the training. The results of the present study suggest that feedback is more effective for promoting learning in railroad employees at psychological and behavioral levels. Therefore, the discussion recommends that educational methods for improving the effects of feedback should be promoted.
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This research is an outcome of trainings conducted and their implementation to use content authoring tools in e-learning environment. Male and female faculty members from Saudi Arabia's Northern Border University (NBU), with varied levels of awareness and exposures into e-learning system, represented different colleges and campuses. They were encouraged to create and practice authoring tools after the advanced trainings. Dramatic improvement was observed among the participants to develop resourceful courses. Evaluation was done to record improvements for changes in the competency level. This paper assesses how trainings changed their awareness level and skills to use designing tools to develop coursers for e-learning. They found it as an innovative tool to create the courses. This paper highlights the general awareness and skills of faculty members towards e-learning and course designing tools. It assesses awareness and skills of users for their adaptability towards course designing and the use of respective tools after trainings.
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Based on a review of the literature on post-training transfer interventions, this paper offers a conceptual model that elucidates potential mechanisms through which two types of post-training transfer intervention (relapse prevention and proximal plus distal goal setting) influence the transfer of training. We explain how the application of post-training transfer interventions enhances trainees’ readiness and motivation to use newly trained skills in the workplace, which in turn helps trainees to retain and apply the new skills to the job. Explaining this process provides a better insight into how training transfer performance is affected by post-training transfer interventions and trainee attitudes.
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Training is considered an important element in the organization, as it heavily influences people to learn how to be more effective at work by modifying knowledge, skills or attitudes through the learning experience to achieve a successful performance. Likewise, training is a long term allegiance to all employees because they have to learn new skills and knowledge which become a turning point for their success in the workplace, moreover the behavior modifications will occur after the training process because they have to come forth with a novel style of managing things. For instance, employees have to apply safe manual handling techniques to ascertain all the processes of the work completed manually. Instead the training involves two-way communication between the trainer and the person learning. However, training does not mean sitting in a room while listening to the speaker otherwise simply watching a video for our reference to implement own selves whatever we had seen in a video. Parenthetically, training can be formal or informal otherwise off or on the job. Training is widely understood as a communication directed because training focuses on what needs to be known to attain the purpose of developing skills, changing behavior, and increasing competence. As a result of this study, employees and employers are likely to deliver a better understanding in recognizing the importance of training that reveals in the employee’s work commitment and performance. Future research should further explore the same independent variables and its effect on trainers’ performance for postgraduate studies at University. Another future research could look at the effects of training on public and private school teachers (specific course outlined). Human Resource Management should be aware of this because applicable training can help employee’s to develop their career, while they can commit to the work to increase their performance. As a long term measure to ascertain the effectiveness of the training, performance monitoring system should be set up to work after continuous training to enable an organization to identify the effectiveness of the training to the participants and to identify the basic needs of training in time will come. This study examined the effect of training on the work commitment, job satisfaction and job performance. The four components of training such as training commitment, training needs assessment, training contents and delivery approaches and training evaluation are important in human resource management One hundred and eighty employees in Malaysia were surveyed for the psychoanalysis. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. The techniques employed in examining the data included descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The outcomes demonstrated an alpha value of all variables are well above 0.80, which is considered a dependable indicator of national consistency. The correlation coefficients indicate the hard point of the connector between the variables, where a coefficient is considered significant if the p – value is less than 0.05. Overall, the results from this work revealed that training commitment, training needs assessment, training contents and delivery approaches, and training evaluation positively and significantly influence the employee’s work commitment, job satisfaction and job performance.
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The increasing pressure on organisations to innovate more effectively in what they deliver and how they work means there is a distinct need for interventions that enhance the innovation capabilities of employees. This paper therefore describes insights from the development, delivery and impact evaluation of a research-based innovation training model (CLEAR IDEAS) designed to improve both the idea generation and idea implementation competencies of trainees. How key findings from the creativity and innovation literature were turned into a practical model and its operationalisation in practice are first discussed. This is followed by presenting a longitudinal evaluation of the training intervention with 151 public sector leaders. Findings showed that the model was well received, led to significant improvements in innovation competencies and resulted in certain trainees undertaking a range of actions to introduce innovations back in the workplace while others failed to apply their learning. Longer-term data provided several examples of subsequent notable ultimate impacts on organisations’ functioning and public service delivery. Finally, reflections on key training, trainee, task and work environment facilitators and inhibitors of innovation training impact are offered.
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Despite extensive statements about the importance of possessing good interpersonal skills, little quantitative evidence has been brought forth to investigate these claims. At the same time, training in soft, or interpersonal, skills continues for organizational managers, customer service representatives, and members of formal work teams. Based on these considerations, the current research was guided by five broad questions. First, are gender and the Big Five personality variables important predictors in the use and effectiveness of interpersonal skills? Second, what is the relationship between various interpersonal skills and important personal and workplace outcomes? Third, given that training in interpersonal skills is prevalent in organizations today, does this training work? Further, and perhaps more importantly, under what conditions do these training interventions result in optimal outcomes? Lastly, does job complexity moderate the relationship between interpersonal skills and outcomes? To answer these questions, a series of meta-analytic investigations was conducted. The results of these analyses provided evidence for the existence of meaningful antecedents of interpersonal skills. In addition, relationships between interpersonal skills and outcomes were identified, with hypotheses in this area confirmed. The results of this research demonstrate the beneficial impact of interpersonal skills training for improving interpersonal skills. Finally, in line with predictions, job complexity was identified as a moderator of the relationship between interpersonal skills and outcomes. The current document concludes with recommendations both for researchers interested in furthering the science of interpersonal skills research, and for practitioners charged with improving the interpersonal skills of their workforce.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This meta-analysis (114 studies, k = 157, N = 21,616) examined the relationship between self-efficacy and work-related performance. Results of the primary meta-analysis indicated a significant weighted average correlation between self-efficacy and work-related performance, G (r+) = .38, and a significant within-group heterogeneity of individual correlations. To account for this variation, the authors conducted a 2-level theory-driven moderator analysis by partitioning the k sample of correlations first according to the level of task complexity (low, medium, and high), and then into 2 classes according to the type of study setting (simulated–lab vs. actual–field). New directions for future theory development and research are suggested, and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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Presents methods for assessing agreement among the judgments made by a single group of judges on a single variable in regard to a single target. For example, the group of judges could be editorial consultants, members of an assessment center, or members of a team. The single target could be a manuscript, a lower level manager, or a team. The variable on which the target is judged could be overall publishability in the case of the manuscript, managerial potential for the lower level manager, or a team cooperativeness for the team. The methods presented are based on new procedures for estimating interrater reliability. For such situations, these procedures furnish more accurate and interpretable estimates of agreement than estimates provided by procedures commonly used to estimate agreement, consistency, or interrater reliability. The proposed methods include processes for controlling for the spurious influences of response biases (e.g., positive leniency and social desirability) on estimates of interrater reliability. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Training researchers and practitioners have typically focused their attention on one type of transfer, the transfer of tasks that require trainees to learn and apply a prescribed standard procedure. Further, researchers and practitioners have examined this type of transfer in situations where supervisors hold trainees accountable for applying the trained knowledge and skill, Performance professionals have developed theoretical frameworks, training principles, and training guidelines to improve transfer based on this conception of transfer. In contrast, this paper presents a multidimensional perspective to training transfer. One dimension concerns task adaptability-a continuum from relatively closed tasks, where task steps are highly prescribed, to relatively open tasks, where the task steps can be adapted to varying circumstances of the job. The other dimension concerns worker autonomy-a continuum from heavily supervised to highly independent work. Based on this expanded perspective of transfer, for each combination of variable, we offer principles for effective transfer as well as specific problems which must be solved to achieve the best results. We also provide suggestions for evaluating training success and derive research propositions that deserve attention.
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This meta-analysis (114 studies, k = 157, N = 21.616) examined the relationship between self-efficacy and work-related performance. Results of the primary meta-analysis indicated a significant weighted average correlation between self-efficacy and work-related performance, G(r+) = .38, and a significant within-group heterogeneity of individual correlations. To account for this variation, the authors conducted a 2-level theory-driven moderator analysis by partitioning the k sample of correlations first according to the level of task complexity (low, medium, and high), and then into 2 classes according to the type of study setting (simulated-lab vs. actual-field). New directions for future theory development and research are suggested, and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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This study examined the underlying structure of transfer climate and those aspects of transfer climate that were related to pre-training self-efficacy, pre-training motivation, and post-training transfer implementation intentions. Positive and negative affectivity (PA and NA) were also measured in order to better understand the relationship of these variables to trainees’ perceptions of the transfer climate and the other training-related variables. Transfer climate was best represented by two underlying constructs, although these were correlated. After controlling for PA and NA, none of the transfer climate variables were significantly related to pre-training self-efficacy, while only positive reinforcement was significantly related to pre-training motivation. Pre-training self-efficacy was also a significant predictor of pre-training motivation, even after controlling for PA and NA. Negative affectivity was the only significant predictor of post-training transfer implementation intentions. Further research needs to clarify whether PA and NA are contributors to the trainees’ perceptions of the transfer climate or are a product of these perceptions.
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Criminologists are often interested in examining interactive effects within a regression context. For example, “holding other relevant factors constant, is the effect of delinquent peers on one's own delinquent conduct the same for males and females?” or “is the effect of a given treatment program comparable between first-time and repeat offenders?” A frequent strategy in examining such interactive effects is to test for the difference between two regression coefficients across independent samples. That is, does b1= b2? Traditionally, criminologists have employed a t or z test for the difference between slopes in making these coefficient comparisons. While there is considerable consensus as to the appropriateness of this strategy, there has been some confusion in the criminological literature as to the correct estimator of the standard error of the difference, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of coefficient differences, in the t or z formula. Criminologists have employed two different estimators of this standard deviation in their empirical work. In this note, we point out that one of these estimators is correct while the other is incorrect. The incorrect estimator biases one's hypothesis test in favor of rejecting the null hypothesis that b1= b2. Unfortunately, the use of this incorrect estimator of the standard error of the difference has been fairly widespread in criminology. We provide the formula for the correct statistical test and illustrate with two examples from the literature how the biased estimator can lead to incorrect conclusions.
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Transfer of training is of paramount concern for training researchers and practitioners. Despite research efforts, there is a growing concern over the "transfer problem." The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the existing transfer research and to suggest directions for future research investigations. The conditions of transfer include both the generalization of learned material to the job and the maintenance of trained skills over a period of time on the job. The existing research examining the effects of training design, trainee, and work-environment factors on conditions of transfer is reviewed and critiqued. Research gaps identified from the review include the need to (1) test various operationalizations of training design and work-environment factors that have been posited as having an impact on transfer and (2) develop a framework for conducting research on the effects of trainee characteristics on transfer. Needed advancements in the conceptualization and operationalization of the criterion of transfer are also discussed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
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The influence of the work environment on the transfer of newly trained supervisory skills was examined. Participants were 505 supermarket managers from 52 stores. The work environment was operationalized in terms of transfer of training climate and continuous-learning culture. Climate and culture were hypothesized to have both direct and moderating effects on posttraining behaviors. Accounting for pretraining behaviors and knowledge gained in training, the results from a series of LISREL analyses showed that both climate and culture were directly related to posttraining behaviors. In particular, the social support system appeared to play a central role in the transfer of training. Moderating effects were not found. Implications for enhancing the transfer of training are discussed.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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A newly developed personality taxonomy suggests that self-esteem, locus of control, generalized self-efficacy, and neuroticism form a broad personality trait termed core self-evaluations. The authors hypothesized that this broad trait is related to motivation and performance. To test this hypothesis, 3 studies were conducted. Study 1 showed that the 4 dispositions loaded on 1 higher order factor. Study 2 demonstrated that the higher order trait was related to task motivation and performance in a laboratory setting. Study 3 showed that the core trait was related to task activity, productivity as measured by sales volume, and the rated performance of insurance agents. Results also revealed that the core self-evaluations trait was related to goal-setting behavior. In addition, when the 4 core traits were investigated as 1 nomological network, they proved to be more consistent predictors of job behaviors than when used in isolation.
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The authors compared a feedback workshop with both a no-feedback control group and a comparison group of managers who received a feedback report but no feedback workshop. The multisource feedback was based on ratings of a manager's influence behavior by subordinates, peers, and bosses. Managers in the feedback workshop increased their use of some core influence tactics with subordinates, whereas there was no change in behavior for the control group or for the comparison group. The feedback was perceived to be more useful by managers who received it in a workshop with a facilitator than by managers who received only a printed feedback report.
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The interrater reliabilities of ratings of 9,975 ratees from 79 organizations were examined as a function of length of exposure to the ratee. It was found that there was a strong, nonlinear relationship between months of exposure and interrater reliability. The correlation between a logarithmic transformation of months of experience and reliability was .73 for one type of ratings and .65 for another type. The relationship was strongest during the first 12 months on the job. Changes in reliability were accounted for mostly by changes in criterion variance. Asymptotic levels of reliability were only about .60, even with 10-20 years of experience. Implications for estimating reliabilities in individual and meta-analytic studies and for performance appraisal were presented, and possible explanations of the reliability-variance relationship were advanced.
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Although organizations invest heavily in training programs to enhance managerial effectiveness, little attention is paid to the transfer of such training from the workshop to the workplace. This paper describes a cognitive-behavioral model that offers a systematic approach to the maintenance of behavior. Relapse prevention strategies are discussed, and implications for management training and research are considered.
Article
The experience sampling method is used to measure variance over time in events, moods, and behaviours in the work setting via palmtop computers in a sample of 41 employees. Theoretical propositions about event–mood–behaviour relations are derived from Affective Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and tested using within- and between-persons variance. The experiment found 56% of the variance in hedonic tone of mood was within- rather than between-persons. Hedonic tone was significantly related to both positive and negative work events in expected directions. The relationship between negative events and mood was approximately five times stronger than that between positive events and mood, even though positive events were reported three to five times more frequently than negative events. Hedonic tone was positively related to engaging in work withdrawal and negatively related to engaging in work tasks. Implications of these findings as well as the use of experience sampling for the study of dynamic workplace variables are discussed.
Article
The ALS is a theoretically driven approach to the design of integrated-embedded training systems that is highly flexible and offers ease of implementation. It operates by exerting leverage on foci of the self-regulation system, which recent research has demonstrated to be central to learning and performance for difficult, complex, and dynamic tasks. The training strategy incorporated in the ALS constructs instructional interventions by combining specific training components that affect different aspects of the SRS. By designing synergistic combinations, instructional interventions can be tailored to the developmental progress of trainees and can enhance learning, performance, and adaptability.Our research will target those training components that offer the greatest practical and theoretical potential for improving complex skill acquisition, and the enhancement of adaptive capabilities. By building on existing principles of training design (e.g. mastery goals, sequencing), and examining promising new ideas (e.g. information, interpretation) that are likely to be key capabilities of the next generation of advanced technology systems, the research is expected to yield new principles of training design uniquely suited for the design of integrated-embedded training systems.
Article
We propose that individual differences in personality should be studied during periods of environmental change because these periods provide an opportunity to discern the general mechanisms that govern the functions and processes of personality. We delineate the circumstances wherein personality differences are accentuated and then specify the conditions whereby change is produced. Personality differences are likely to be revealed during transitions into unpredictable new situations, when there is a press to behave but no information about how to behave adaptively. Dispositional differences are thus accentuated as each person seeks to transform novel, ambiguous, and uncertain circumstances into familiar, clear, and expectable social encounters. Our theory also accounts for turning points in behavioral development: Systematic change is likely to occur during transitions into new situations, when there is a press to behave and when previous responses are actively discouraged while clear information is provided about how to behave adaptively.
Article
This article presents a review of the skill retention and skill decay literature that focuses on factors that influence the loss of trained skills or knowledge over extended periods of nonuse. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to a total of 189 independent data points extracted from 53 articles. Results indicate that there is substantial skill loss with nonpractice or nonuse, with the amount of skill loss ranging from an effect size (d) of -0.01 immediately after training to a d of -1.4 after more than 365 days of nonuse. Most of the study's hypotheses for moderators were supported. Physical, natural, and speed-based tasks were less susceptible to skill loss than cognitive, artificial, and accuracy-based tasks. Additionally, certain methodological variables, such as using recognition tests, using similar conditions of retrieval at retention, and using behavioral evaluation criteria, resulted in less skill loss over time. Implications of the results for training and future research are discussed.
Article
The interrater reliabilities of ratings of 9,975 ratees from 79 organizations were examined as a function of length of exposure to the ratee. It was found that there was a strong, nonlinear relationship between months of exposure and interrater reliability. The correlation between a logarithmic transformation of months of experience and reliability was .73 for one type of ratings and .65 for another type. The relationship was strongest during the first 12 months on the job. Changes in reliability were accounted for mostly by changes in criterion variance. Asymptotic levels of reliability were only about .60, even with 10–20 yrs of experience. Implications for estimating reliabilities in individual and meta-analytic studies and for performance appraisal were presented, and possible explanations of the reliability–variance relationship were advanced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses mediation relations in causal terms. Influences of an antecedent are transmitted to a consequence through an intervening mediator. Mediation relations may assume a number of functional forms, including nonadditive, nonlinear, and nonrecursive forms. Although mediation and moderation are distinguishable processes, with nonadditive forms (moderated mediation) a particular variable may be both a mediator and a moderator within a single set of functional relations. Current models for testing mediation relations in industrial and organizational psychology often involve an interplay between exploratory (correlational) statistical tests and causal inference. It is suggested that no middle ground exists between exploratory and confirmatory (causal) analysis and that attempts to explain how mediation processes occur require specified causal models. (57 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assigned a total of 22 female and 5 male managers in a medical center to 1 of 2 managerial training programs or a no-treatment control group. One program involved role playing, together with delayed appraisal sessions and assigned goal setting; the other involved role playing with delayed appraisal sessions, assigned goal setting, and immediate reinforcement via telecoaching. Measures of managerial behavior and subordinate satisfaction were collected 60 days after the completion of training. Results indicate that the training programs were statistically more effective than no treatment in improving the consideration and integration skills of managers and reducing the absenteeism of their subordinates, although the programs were not statistically different from each other. The success of both treatments was accomplished without any undesired reduction in the managers' general level of initiating structure or production emphasis. The program involving delayed appraisal sessions and assigned goal setting was most effective in increasing subordinate work satisfaction. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Added a relapse prevention (RP) module to a 2-wk training program to evaluate its impact on posttraining transfer. Locus of control, as well as Ss' self-perceptions of the degree to which the work milieu would support their application of the skills taught, were also measured. The outcome (dependent) variables, measured for the 81 training participants (aged 19–23 yrs) included reactions, knowledge, and on-the-job skill usage, with the latter being obtained from both the trainees and their immediate supervisors. Results indicate that, as compared to 36 controls, knowledge acquisition and the extent of strategy utilization was significantly higher for the 45 Ss who participated in the RP. A main effect on transfer of training was not found for the locus-of-control and the work-environment factors alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A longitudinal quasi experiment tested the effects of a relapse prevention and transfer enhancement posttraining intervention on the self-efficacy, transfer behavior, and performance of a sample of nurses who attended a two-day training program on the McGill Model of Nursing. ANCOVA results failed to support the effectiveness of the intervention; in fact, participants in the transfer enhancement condition had the lowest transfer behavior and performance except when it was combined with relapse prevention. However, all trainees showed significant increase in self-efficacy, behavior, and performance. Results are explained based on training program effectiveness, organizational context, and transfer system. A positive transfer climate and factors in the transfer system likely contributed. Implications discussed include the need to conduct a transfer of training needs analysis (TTNA) and a contingency approach to posttraining transfer interventions.
Article
This study examined the effect of relapse prevention (RP) training on the maintenance of learned knowledge and skills. After a session on assertive communication, ninety trainees were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions: a full RP group, a modified RP group, and a control group. The results showed that both of the RP operationalizations significantly affected the trainees' ability to transfer and desire to transfer, although in different ways; neither RP condition significantly affected retention of course content, use of transfer strategies, or use of trained skills; and (3) cognitive and behavioral transfer strategies significantly affected use of trained skills. This paper discusses implications of the findings for practice and future directions for research.
Article
The organizational literature has suggested that all management actions send signals to employees that affect perceptions and influence behavior. This study investigated the effects of three pretraining signals—course information provided to trainees, accountability to supervisor, and program status (mandatory or voluntary)—on subsequent intentions to transfer program learning. Data collected from 193 trainees in the engineering group of a manufacturing firm indicated that trainees reported greater intentions to transfer learning to the workplace when they (1) received information prior to the training program, (2) recognized that they would have some accountability for learning with their supervisor, and (3) perceived a program as mandatory.
Article
This study describes the development and investigation of the concept of organizational transfer climate and discusses whether it influences the degree to which trainees transfer behaviors learned in a training program to their job situations. The study was conducted in a large franchise that owns and operates over one hundred fast-food restaurants in a large metropolitan area. Analyses indicated that when manager trainees were assigned to units that had a more positive organizational transfer climate, they were rated as better performers of the behaviors previously learned in training. As was predicted, it was also found that manager trainees who learned more in training performed better on the job. It was concluded that, in addition to how much trainees learn in training, the organizational transfer climate of the work situation affects the degree to which learned behavior will be transferred onto the actual job. This research suggests that organizational transfer climate is a tool that should be investigated as a potential facilitator for enhancing positive transfer of training into the work environment.
Article
The intention of this study was to improve behavioral modeling's effectiveness by substituting managers for professional trainers and to evaluate the effect on 44 male supervisors using Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation: reaction, learning, behavior on the job, and performance. Twenty-two supervisors were trained with six behavior modeling modules and the effect was compared to a control group consisting of 22 supervisors. The research also examined the effects of trainees’ self-esteem and the perceived power of the trainers. The results showed that behavior modeling resulted in favorable reactions and an increase in learning, but did not produce behavior change on the job, or improved performance results. Power and self-esteem did not moderate the training effectiveness. The findings are compared with previous behavior modeling research. The discussion concludes with a recommendation for researchers to identify more complete theoretical models which explain behavioral change on the job (e.g., Maltz's theory of psycho-cybernetics) as opposed to relying solely on Bandura's social learning theory.
Article
This study employed a pretest-posttest control group design in a field setting with 38 supervisors and managers to test the effect of a theory-based mastery practice design for interpersonal skills training. The mastery practice protocol was drawn from recent research in cognitive and educational psychology on complex skill acquisition. Dependent measures included knowledge retention, behavioral skill demonstration, and far transfer to the workplace based on a multirater 360-degree survey instrument. In addition, qualitative data were collected using a semistructured interview process. Comparison of the mastery practice design to conventional behavior modeling workshop practice indicated improvements in retention and behavioral demonstration measures but failed to document any effect on transfer. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Article
This study examined the effects of self-efficacy and a two-stage training process on the acquisition and maintenance (i.e., retention) of complex interpersonal skills. In stage one, all participants received basic training in negotiation skills; behavioral measures of negotiation performance were taken following this training. During stage two, alternative post-training interventions (goal setting and self-management) were offered to facilitate skill maintenance. Six weeks later, behavioral measures of performance were repeated. Results indicated that pre-test self-efficacy contributed positively to both initial and delayed performance. While training condition contributed to skill maintenance, self-efficacy also interacted with post-training method to influence delayed performance. Specifically, self-management training attenuated the self-efficacy performance relationship, while goal-setting training accentuated performance differences between high and low self-efficacy trainees. Implications of these findings are discussed for researchers and practitioners concerned with interpersonal skills training.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
This study contrasted goal setting and self-management training designs for their effectiveness in facilitating transfer of training to a novel task. Behavioral measures of performance were used to assess transfer in terms of skill generalization, skill repetition and overall performance level. Skill generalization was more limited among the goal-setting trainees as compared to the self-management trainees. While goal-setting trainees generalized fewer skills to the novel task context, these skills tended to be used more repeatedly. In contrast, self-management trainees exhibited higher rates of skill generalization and higher overall performance levels on the transfer task, even after the effects of outcome goal level were controlled. Implications are discussed for future research on training transfer.
Article
A field experiment of 68 full-time employees studied the effects of performance feedback and cognitive playfulness (that is, cognitive spontaneity in human-computer interactions) on microcomputer training performance. In addition, this research examined the impacts of performance feedback and cognitive playfulness on software efficacy perceptions and on a variety of affective outcomes, including satisfaction with feedback, satisfaction with training, and positive mood. The findings suggest that positive feedback generally results in higher test performance and more positive affective outcomes, than does negative feedback. Similarly, employees higher in cognitive playfulness demonstrated higher test performance and more positive affective outcomes than those lower in cognitive playfulness. Finally, a significant feedback × playfulness interaction on test performance was found. Specifically, employees lower in cognitive playfulness benefited more from the positive feedback than did those higher in cognitive playfulness. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Article
The study reported on in this article examined the effectiveness of two posttraining interventions—goal-setting and self-management training—and moderating effects of the work environment on improving training transfer. The findings indicate that training in goal-setting was effective in improving the extent to which trainees applied their skills to the job. Further, both interventions were found to be more effective in supportive work environments. Implications for training research and human resource practices are discussed.
Article
We review evidence showing that multisource feedback ratings are related to other measures of leadership effectiveness and that different rater sources conceptualize performance in a similar manner. We then describe a meta-analysis of 24 longitudinal studies showing that improvement in direct report, peer, and supervisor ratings over time is generally small. We present a theoretical framework and review empirical evidence suggesting performance improvement should be more likely for some feedback recipients than others. Specifically, improvement is most likely to occur when feedback indicates that change is necessary, recipients have a positive feedback orientation, perceive a need to change their behavior, react positively to the feedback, believe change is feasible, set appropriate goals to regulate their behavior, and take actions that lead to skill and performance improvement.
Article
Training effectiveness is often reduced because trainees are unable to deal with work environment and interpersonal constraints. Incorporating relapse prevention strategies into training programs has been suggested as a method to increase training effectiveness. This study evaluates the impact of including a relapse prevention component in a supervisory skills training program. The results suggest that relapse prevention strategies may be valuable for increasing trainees' awareness of situations where new skill usage is relevant and facilitating managers' involvement in the development of new skills.
Chapter
Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
Article
The meaning of correlated measurement errors is discussed within a hierarchical framework of error terms provided by true score, first-order factor, and second-order factor models: random error, indicator specific error, and group specific error, respectively. Group specific error can be represented either as extraneous first-order factors or as unwanted components of first-order factors that define a second-order factor. The uncritical use of correlated measurement errors without theoretical justification is shown to lead merely to more acceptable fit while obfuscating a more meaningful theoretical structure.
Article
A meta-analysis of 117 studies evaluated the effects of behavior modeling training (BMT) on 6 training outcomes, across characteristics of training design. BMT effects were largest for learning outcomes, smaller for job behavior, and smaller still for results outcomes. Although BMT effects on declarative knowledge decayed over time, training effects on skills and job behavior remained stable or even increased. Skill development was greatest when learning points were used and presented as rule codes and when training time was longest. Transfer was greatest when mixed (negative and positive) models were presented, when practice included trainee-generated scenarios, when trainees were instructed to set goals, when trainees' superiors were also trained, and when rewards and sanctions were instituted in trainees' work environments.
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