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Learning strategies in an ‘ideal’ computer‐based learning environment

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted with 30 postgraduate students to discover how they might go about learning from an ‘ideal’ computer-based environment. A system was created which preserved the appearance of a computer-based interaction, yet which freed itself from the constraints of current technology. The students, although not aware of this at the time, were in fact interacting with two human experts, backed up with appropriate documentation and computer files, via a computer screen. The results suggest a number of different learning strategies linked to relatively successful and less successful learning. Implications for the design of computer-based learning materials are discussed.

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... of cognitive styles and preference for display layouts. [18] (Crossland et al. 2000) Decision making in geographical information systems. [19] (Palmquist 2001) Choice of metaphor for describing the Web. [20] Author subject () Conducted an experiment with postgraduate students to discover how they might go about learning from an " ideal " database. [21] (Ellis et al. 1992) Investigated hypertext navigation by 40 postgraduate students. [22] (Chou & Lin 1998) Studied the effects of navigation map types and cognitive styles on performance by 121 university students in searches for information and cognitive map development using a hypertext system. [23] (Wang et al. 2000) Investigated cogn ...
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In today's internet world, providing feedbacks to users based on what they need and their knowledge is essential. Classification is one of the data mining methods used to mine large data. There are several classification techniques used to solve classification problems. In this article, classification techniques are used to classify researchers as "Expert" and "Novice" based on cognitive styles factors in academic settings using several Decision Tree techniques. Decision Tree is the suitable technique to choose for classification in order to categorize researchers as "Expert" and "Novice" because it produces high accuracy. Environment Waikato Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) is an open source tool used for classification. Using WEKA, the Random Forest technique was selected as the best method because it provides accuracy of 92.72728. Based on these studies, most researchers have a better knowledge of their own domain and their problems and show more competencies in their information seeking behavior compared to novice researchers. This is because the "experts" have a clear understanding of their research problems and is more efficient in information searching activities. Classification techniques are implemented as a digital library search engine because it can help researchers to have the best response according to their demand.
... This is significant as if this is happening to sighted users then there are implications for blind users. Ford and Ford (1992) found that some learners become uncomfortable when navigating in hyperspace and this may affect performance. McAteer and Shaw (1995) have carried out research in the area of multimedia and learning within the medical field. ...
... For example, we can refer to examine cognitive styles and preference for display layouts, decision making in geographical information systems (Crossland et al., 2000), the choice of metaphor for describing the Web (Palmquist, 2001), search efficiency (Kim, 2001), search performance (Kim, 1998; Palmquist, 2001), search strategies (Chen and Lin, 1998; Navarro-Prieto et al., 1999, Thatcher, 2006), interface design (Ford, 2000), information seeking behavior (Ford et al., 2002b), and how to evaluate and select information sources (Mirzabeigi et al., 2012). In addition, the information seeking context of such investigations has ranged from databases (Ford and Ford, 1992), hypertext (Ellis et al., 1992; Liu and Reed, 1994; Chen and Lin, 1998) and virtual information environments to online and Web-based searching (Ford et al., 1994; Kim, 1998; Wood et al., 1996; Wang et al., 2000; Yong and Kong, 2000; Palmquist and Kim, 2000; White and Iivonen, 2001; Kim, 2001). Not many studies have been done regarding the information searching behavior of imagers and verbalizers as well as the methods utilized for finding information on the Web (including Graff, 2005; Frias-Martinez et al., 2008;). ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of verbal-imagery cognitive styles of information searching behavior of users in using the Web. Design/methodology/approach – In all, 44 participants were recruited for this study. The participants’ cognitive styles were measured by using Riding's Cognitive Style Analysis test. Three search tasks were designed based on Kim's search task definitions. Moreover, an individual lab session was arranged and then participants’ memos were analyzed using content analysis. Findings – In all, 48 strategies in four categories of behaviors in searching the Web were identified. There were associations between users’ cognitive styles and their information searching behavior. The participants’ selection of the search initiation behaviors varied, so that imagers suffered from more varied initial behavior than verbalizers. The verbalizers tended to search in a narrow area, then broadening the area and following structured navigation and reading behavior to process information, while imagers tended to search in a general area, then narrowing down the search and adopting mixed navigational styles and mixed behaviors to process information. This study revealed that there was a difference in search performance of verbalizers and imagers descriptively, as verbalizers spent more time compared to imagers and imagers visited more nodes than verbalizers for the tasks completion. In addition, the task was an important variable influencing the search performance. Based on the key findings (search initiation behaviors, formulating search queries, navigational behaviors, information processing behaviors), a conceptual pattern of Web searching and cognitive styles is presented. Research limitations/implications – The study provides a new understanding of Web users’ information search behavior based on cognitive styles which contributes to the theoretical basis of Web search research. It also raises various questions within the context of user studies Originality/value – The paper adopted a mixed approach in the area of information searching on the Web. A valuable contribution lies in the methods developed.
... Search strategies were logged for analysis . A previous study ( Ford , Wood , & Walsh , 1994 ; Wood , Ford , & Walsh , 1992 ) had revealed significant links be - tween global / analytic differences and search behavior . Rel - atively global individuals used significantly broader search strategies than their analytic counterparts . ...
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This is the fourth in a series resulting from a joint research project directed by Professor Tom Wilson in the United Kingdom and Dr. Amanda Spink in the United States. The analysis reported here sought to test a number of hypotheses linking global/analytic cognitive styles and aspects of researchers' problem-solving and related information-seeking behavior. One hundred and eleven postdoctoral researchers were assessed for Witkin's field dependence/independence using Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis and for Pask's holist/serialist biases using items from Ford's Study Processes Questionnaire. These measures were correlated with the researchers' perceptions of aspects of their problem-solving and information-seeking behavior, and with those of the search intermediary who performed literature searches on their behalf. A number of statistically significant correlations were found. Field-independent researchers were more analytic and active than their field-dependent counterparts. Holists engaged more in exploratory and serendipitous behavior, and were more idiosyncratic in their communication than serialists.
Thesis
p>The consequences of adapting the learning style and learning strategies differences have not been thoroughly pursued by adaptive hypermedia researchers. The undesired effect of ‘ordinary’ hypermedia learning systems is that they may not effectively target the students’ learning styles. Many researchers recognise the importance of personalising hypermedia to meet students’ needs and the literature review suggests that students perform better in hypermedia based learning environments that are configured to support their learning needs. Two novel adaptive systems have been developed, based on the theory of learning styles and learning strategies. This first part of the investigation presents the findings of an evaluation of a hypermedia learning system that incorporated global and sequential learning styles. Details of the design regarding the structure of the information and linking mechanisms are presented. A review of the results obtained by evaluating the use of the system suggests that students, who use hypermedia-learning environments that supported their preferred learning style, performed significantly better. Building on this learning styles research, the study presents the concept and design involved in building an adaptive hypermedia system that supports application and use of "higher order" learning strategies, such as summarising and questioning. The system has been named ILASH, standing for Incorporating Learning Strategies in Hypermedia. The thesis presents the findings of the evaluation of the system. Students are expected to achieve significant improvement in learning outcomes while interacting with the adaptive version of the system compared to the non-adaptive version. The results obtained from the summative evaluation suggest that the adaptive features provided by the system have significantly contributed towards improved learning performance. The development of the system emphasises the fact that adaptive educational systems can match some of the students’ learning preferences and may have implications on the design of web based educational courseware.</p
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This article is taken from a position statement for a workshop I recently organised based around the following areas of interest: Psychometric (especially Personality) Assessment; Learning Methods and Theories; Online Computer Assessment of Skills; Computer-Aided Student Profiling (User modelling and the like); The Design of Technology Based Teaching Materials; Process Models of Student Answers (especially errors); Alternative Assessment/Elicitation Techniques (both psychological and subject area orientated)
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Five participants completed retrospective and concurrent verbal protocols (Think Afters and Think Alouds) to evaluate the methods for the study of the information-seeking processes of 12–15-year-old students using Microsoft Encarta 98. After a short training session in the Think Aloud Method, they completed four activities of differing complexity. The data provided support for the use of verbal protocol analysis to uncover information-seeking processes of these students. The amount of data generated during Think Alouds and Think Afters depended on the difficulty of the questions and the number of “dead ends” encountered by the students. The Think Alouds and Think Afters provided data about the behavioral, cognitive, and affective processes. Think Afters provide different data than the Think Alouds, and both are important to understanding how adolescents interact with CD-ROM encyclopedias. Participants were able to find the information to answer each of the four search activity questions but used a variety of search terms, categories, and strategies. Some participants reached a level of frustration after a number of “dead ends” and needed encouragement from the researcher. The frustration was more apparent in the younger participants. Effective reading strategies are very important to successful location and evaluation of information in CD-ROM encyclopedias.
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In spite of its importance, learning style is a factor that has been largely ignored in the design of educational software. Two issues concerning a specific set of learning styles, described by Honey and Mumford (1986), are considered here. The first relates to measurement and validity. This is discussed in the context of a longitudinal study to test the predictive validity of the questionnaire items against various measures of academic performance, such as course choice and level of attainment in different subjects. The second issue looks at how the learning styles can be used in computer‐based learning environments. A re‐examination of the four learning styles (Activist, Pragmatist, Reflector and Theorist) suggests that they can usefully be characterized using two orthogonal dimensions. Using a limited number of pedagogical building blocks, this characterization has allowed the development of a teaching strategy suitable for each of the learning styles. Further work is discussed, which will use a multi‐strategy basic algebra tutor to assess the effect of matching teaching strategy to learning style.
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Several recent studies have developed measures of qualitatively different levels of understanding texts and complex academic topics. The question of whether skills in achieving understanding and retention of information at high levels of abstraction can be taught is addressed by analyzing some of the mental processes involved, and briefly reviewing a number of attempts that have been made to induce these processes. The discussion of learning outcomes is broadened to include the critical evaluation and personal valuing of information. Conclusions are drawn for the teaching of “effective learning.”
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Previous results are reviewed and two series of experiments on learning are described, one carried out in the laboratory, and the other in educational institutions. Both series use ‘conversational’ systems which allow mental activities to be described in terms of dialogue and behaviour. Several types of result are reported: (a) the significance of understanding; (b) the existence of, and variations in, learning strategies; (c) the effect of matching and mismatching a teaching strategy to an individual's learning strategy; (d) the nature and classification of cognitive style; and (e) transfer effects and ‘learning to learn.’ A theoretical basis is developed for a classification of learning styles.
984) PRECIS, a Manual ofconcept Analysis and Subject Indexing Recent approaches to the study and teaching of 'effective learning' in higher education Review of
  • Austin
Austin, D (1 984) PRECIS, a Manual ofconcept Analysis and Subject Indexing (2nd ed) British Library Bibliographic Services Division, London Ford, N (1981) Recent approaches to the study and teaching of 'effective learning' in higher education Review of Educational Research 51 345-3 77