Article

Global aquaculture and its role in sustainable development

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector in the world. It is developing, expanding and intensifying in almost all regions of the world. The global population is increasing, thus, the demand for aquatic food products is also increasing. Production from capture fisheries has levelled off and most of the main fishing areas have reached their maximum potential. Sustaining fish supplies from capture fisheries will, therefore, not be able to meet the growing global demand for aquatic food and aquaculture is considered to be an opportunity to bridge the supply and demand gap of aquatic food in most regions of the world. However, in our efforts to achieve this potential, the sector will face significant challenges. Key development trends indicate that the sector continues to intensify and diversify and is continuing to use new species and modify its systems and practices. Markets, trade and consumption preferences strongly influence the growth of the sector, with clear demands for the production of safe and quality products. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is placed on enhanced enforcement of regulation and better governance of the sector. It is increasingly realized that sustainable development and responsible production of aquaculture, in the long run, cannot be achieved without the full participation of the producers in the decision-making and regulation process, which has led to efforts to empower farmers and their associations and move toward increasing self-regulation. These factors are all contributing to an improvement in the management of the sector, typically through the promotion of ‘better management’ practices of producers. This review discusses the role of aquaculture, as at large a small-scale farmer driven production sector, in the quest for sustainable development, reducing poverty and improving food security on a global scale.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... MT of Pangasius (Anon, 2021) [2] . Capture fisheries production has levelled off and is no longer considered capable of sustaining the supply of fisheries products needed to meet the growing global demand (Subasinghe, Soto & Jia, 2009) [30] . Mud crab farming has the potential to support vulnerable coastal population thereby strengthening its resilience, flexibility, and adaptability in the dynamical coastal climate of Sundarban (Rahman et al., 2017) [23] . ...
... MT of Pangasius (Anon, 2021) [2] . Capture fisheries production has levelled off and is no longer considered capable of sustaining the supply of fisheries products needed to meet the growing global demand (Subasinghe, Soto & Jia, 2009) [30] . Mud crab farming has the potential to support vulnerable coastal population thereby strengthening its resilience, flexibility, and adaptability in the dynamical coastal climate of Sundarban (Rahman et al., 2017) [23] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Indian aquaculture sector plays a significant position in the socioeconomic improvement of the country, in view of its potential contribution to national income, nutritional security, employment opportunities and export earnings. The study has estimate the growth performance and decomposition analysis in area, production and productivity in aquaculture production of new exportable species in West Bengal during the period 2013-14 to 2020-21. The highest annual growth rate was found Sea Bass (91.96%) in production followed by Pangasius (87.72%) in Productivity and Sea Bass (78.12%) in area respectively. The significant development in area of culture in Tilapia by 41.44% in study period. The decomposition analysis of growth suggests that for Pangasius and Crab culture Productivity effect is the major source of growth in study period and Sea Bass and Tilapia for which area effect was the major source. That is source of output growth for Pangasius and Crab was the productivity effect; for Sea Bass and Tilapia, the growth source was the area effect. The change in mean productivity was primary source of growth in Pangasius and crab. Similarly, the change in mean area was major source of growth in Sea Bass and Tilapia in West Bengal during study period. The change in productivity variance contributed maximum to change in variance of crab production in all other aquaculture species, followed by Interaction between change in mean area and productivity variance.
... A fishing machine, whose task is primarily to solve the problem of how to elevate the target of manufacturing objects without injuring them in the offshore farming, and to reduce human work, should utilize classification equipment, machine vision, and other technologies to automatically filter the finished fish based on monitoring system data, fish growth model, fish volume, and so on [65]. The use of mollusc production to increase carbon sequestration and seaweed culture in coastal locations to reduce aquatic nutrient loadings are also important examples of how aquaculture methods can be environmentally friendly while also contributing to socioeconomic development [66]. Antonucci and Costa [67] stated that some technologies, such as acoustic and optical sensing technology, which provide feeding control and sizing system solutions, are still ready to be adopted or commercialized for precision aquaculture. ...
... According to Haramina [2], the total amount of produced fish after two years was 5,030,000 kg. contributing to socioeconomic development [66]. Antonucci and Costa [67] stated that some technologies, such as acoustic and optical sensing technology, which provide feeding control and sizing system solutions, are still ready to be adopted or commercialized for precision aquaculture. ...
Article
Full-text available
Higher energy efficiency and lower environmental impact have become very important aspects in the evaluation of the design and operation of technical systems. The same goes for the fish farming sector, which continuously aims to reduce its environmental footprint as well as its operating costs. This paper reviews the energy needs of the fish farming sector and their impact on the environment, and discusses the possibilities of improving the environmental friendliness of this sector by employing a higher share of renewable energy sources. The fish farming process is divided into its constitutive phases: fish breeding with associated activities, transportation, and handling of grown fish, together with relevant processes; and final processing and distribution to the customers. For these phases, the energy consumption and associated emissions, depending on the energy source, have been assessed. The parts of the process with the highest potential for the integration of alternative powering options and consequent environmental improvements are identified. The case study deals with the fish farming process in Croatia, for which a set of alternative powering options has been proposed, considering the existing energy supply, i.e., import of fossil fuels and current Croatian electricity mix, as well as renewable energy potential, which is reviewed in the paper.
... The biodiversity of the seas and oceans is threatened by well-known factors such as climate change, pollution and overfishing of resources (Coll et al., 2010). Within this context, aquaculture is seen as a viable and more sustainable economic alternative to traditional fishing as it is capable of diversifying economies and providing a source of wealth and employment for fishermen who are forced to stop fishing (Bostock et al., 2010;Subasinghe et al., 2009). ...
Article
The search for sustainable alternative food sources has led to the expansion of aquaculture, with the proliferation of marine farms in more and more places, some of them very touristic. The installation of these farms in the waters of consolidated Sun and Beach tourist destinations represents a planning challenge, which requires consideration of the potential environmental and economic impacts of those activities on tourism attractions. This article critically analyzes the implementation of marine farms in the Costa Blanca (Alicante), one of the most consolidated Sun and Beach tourist destinations in the Mediterranean. The case study shows that the environmental impact studies and other documentation accompanying these projects do not include tourism aspects, which represents a deficiency that jeopardizes the economic and social sustainability of the projects.
... The current global human per capita fish consumption is estimated at 20.5 kg annually, of which aquaculture contributes 46% of the total production and 52% of fish consumed by humans (FAO, 2020). However, the current fish production from aquaculture has not met the demand due to challenges such as food safety, trade and markets, and governance (Subasinghe et al., 2009), diseases, climate change and the use of wild fish for feed production (Naylor et al., 2021) and increasing population . Therefore, aquaculture is imperative to increase production while ensuring sustainability of the industry. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Insects have been proposed as potential alternative animal protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM), which is expensive and has limited availability for fish feed formulation. However, studies on the effects of replacing FM with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSF‐L) on growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry, water quality and economic benefits are currently limited. This study determined the effects of replacing 100% FM, 75% FM, 50% FM, 25% FM and 0% FM with cheap BSF‐L meal, hereafter referred to as BSF‐L0, BSF‐L25, BSF‐L50, BSF‐L75 and BSF‐L100 diets, respectively for rearing all‐male Nile tilapia fry produced by YY technology. The study further determined the optimum percentage of BSF‐L meal for maximum growth of Nile tilapia fry. A total of 2400 visually healthy Nile tilapia fry weighing 0.001 g were randomly stocked into 20 plastic tanks (120 fry per tank, four replicates per treatment) and fed the BSF‐L diets for 12 weeks. The BSF‐L75 diet increased significantly specific growth rate, total weight gain, Zihler's index of fry and nitrate in the culture water but reduced feed conversion ratio of diet and total suspended solids in the culture water (p
... World aquaculture has coped up tremendously during the last ten years becoming an economically important industry Subasinghe et al. (2009). It is the fastest growing foodproducing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food FAO (2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Effect s of ant ibiot ic on t he bact erial microflora in t wo commercially import ant cat fish species, Claria… Syed Ariful Haque Download a PDF Pack of t he best relat ed papers  The study was aimed to outline the anti biogram profiling of oxytetracycline against usual ecological bacterial flora of culture ponds of L. rohita. After applying pelleted feeds treated with oxytetracycline (OTC) at 2gm/kg the physicochemical parameters of water like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate were recorded weekly: 28.99 to 31.09°C, 7.58-7.95 ppm, 5.36-5.86 mg/L, 86.31-111.99 mg/L, 0.20-0.30 mg/L and 0.11-0.17 mg/L, respectively. The total viable counts of bacteria were found 4.9±1.03×10 3-5.75±1.0×10 3 cfu/mL in pond water, 5.62±1.0×10 7-6.60±1.02×10 7 cfu/g in sediments, 6.77±1.0×10 6-7.57±1.0×10 6 cfu/g in gills, 6.02±1.02×10 7-8.32±1.0×10 7 cfu/g in gut of L. rohita in control ponds. After OTC treatment the total viable count of bacteria ranged from 3.1±1.19×10 3-3.1±1.20×10 3 cfu/mL in water, 3.1±1.13×10 6-4.27±1.10×10 6 cfu/g in sediment, 2.82±1.25×10 5-3.09±1.19×10 5 cfu/g gill, 2.69±1.12×10 6-4.68±1.12×10 6 cfu/g in guts of L. rohita respectively, indicating reduction of overall bacterial load below 1 log in sediment, gills and guts of L. Rohita significantly (P<0.005).
... World aquaculture has coped up tremendously during the last ten years becoming an economically important industry Subasinghe et al. (2009). It is the fastest growing foodproducing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food FAO (2006). ...
Article
Effect s of ant ibiot ic on t he bact erial microflora in t wo commercially import ant cat fish species, Claria… Syed Ariful Haque Download a PDF Pack of t he best relat ed papers  The study was aimed to outline the anti biogram profiling of oxytetracycline against usual ecological bacterial flora of culture ponds of L. rohita. After applying pelleted feeds treated with oxytetracycline (OTC) at 2gm/kg the physicochemical parameters of water like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate were recorded weekly: 28.99 to 31.09°C, 7.58-7.95 ppm, 5.36-5.86 mg/L, 86.31-111.99 mg/L, 0.20-0.30 mg/L and 0.11-0.17 mg/L, respectively. The total viable counts of bacteria were found 4.9±1.03×10 3-5.75±1.0×10 3 cfu/mL in pond water, 5.62±1.0×10 7-6.60±1.02×10 7 cfu/g in sediments, 6.77±1.0×10 6-7.57±1.0×10 6 cfu/g in gills, 6.02±1.02×10 7-8.32±1.0×10 7 cfu/g in gut of L. rohita in control ponds. After OTC treatment the total viable count of bacteria ranged from 3.1±1.19×10 3-3.1±1.20×10 3 cfu/mL in water, 3.1±1.13×10 6-4.27±1.10×10 6 cfu/g in sediment, 2.82±1.25×10 5-3.09±1.19×10 5 cfu/g gill, 2.69±1.12×10 6-4.68±1.12×10 6 cfu/g in guts of L. rohita respectively, indicating reduction of overall bacterial load below 1 log in sediment, gills and guts of L. Rohita significantly (P<0.005).
... World aquaculture has coped up tremendously during the last ten years becoming an economically important industry Subasinghe et al. (2009). It is the fastest growing foodproducing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food FAO (2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Effect s of ant ibiot ic on t he bact erial microflora in t wo commercially import ant cat fish species, Claria… Syed Ariful Haque Download a PDF Pack of t he best relat ed papers  The study was aimed to outline the anti biogram profiling of oxytetracycline against usual ecological bacterial flora of culture ponds of L. rohita. After applying pelleted feeds treated with oxytetracycline (OTC) at 2gm/kg the physicochemical parameters of water like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate were recorded weekly: 28.99 to 31.09°C, 7.58-7.95 ppm, 5.36-5.86 mg/L, 86.31-111.99 mg/L, 0.20-0.30 mg/L and 0.11-0.17 mg/L, respectively. The total viable counts of bacteria were found 4.9±1.03×10 3-5.75±1.0×10 3 cfu/mL in pond water, 5.62±1.0×10 7-6.60±1.02×10 7 cfu/g in sediments, 6.77±1.0×10 6-7.57±1.0×10 6 cfu/g in gills, 6.02±1.02×10 7-8.32±1.0×10 7 cfu/g in gut of L. rohita in control ponds. After OTC treatment the total viable count of bacteria ranged from 3.1±1.19×10 3-3.1±1.20×10 3 cfu/mL in water, 3.1±1.13×10 6-4.27±1.10×10 6 cfu/g in sediment, 2.82±1.25×10 5-3.09±1.19×10 5 cfu/g gill, 2.69±1.12×10 6-4.68±1.12×10 6 cfu/g in guts of L. rohita respectively, indicating reduction of overall bacterial load below 1 log in sediment, gills and guts of L. Rohita significantly (P<0.005).
... Now a days aquaculture has become an economically important industry as it is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food (FAO, 2006;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Disease is the major threat in the fishery sector due to increasing trend of intensification and commercialization of the production (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms (especially fish) that has acquired a special position in the global economic and livelihood panorama. The importance of the fishery sector grows days by day as its demand increases for human consumption. Therefore several types of artificial feed are applied for accelerating the growth and increasing the production rate. Now-a-days, probiotics (live microorganisms) are used in aquaculture for increasing the disease resistance power and improving the water quality. This review article summarizes the use of different types of probiotics in the aquaculture sector.
... Over the past few decades, aquaculture has developed rapidly from a small-scale 'traditional' industry, into the fastest growing food production sector in the world (Edwards, 2015;Naylor et al., 2021). Aquaculture's rapid expansion has seen it surpass wild capture fisheries as the largest source of all seafood consumed globally (Campbell & Pauly, 2013;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Production from aquaculture reached 73.8 million tonnes in 2014, worth an estimated $160.2 billion USD, with 16.1 million tonnes worth $19 billion USD coming from the farming of molluscs alone (FAO, 2016). ...
... In recent years RAS has become more popular because of increasing scarcity of water resources as well as concerns over environmental pollution management (Ahmed and Turchini, 2021). However, application of RAS is faced by several limitations, including high generation of nitrogen compounds in the systems (Subasinghe et al., 2009). Nitrogenous compounds can be removed from fish production systems by processes that may be mechanical, physicochemical or biological (Kaleta et al., 2007;Zhu et al., 2008;Zubrowska-Sudol and Walczak, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Plastic is commonly used as biofilter media in recirculating aquaculture systems. Because plastic is relatively expensive and may erode and emit microplastics to the environment, efforts are being made to test and develop more sustainable materials. Five alternative locally available biofilter media were compared with commercial plastic media and evaluated in duplicate in 1 m³ two pilot scale Recirculation aquaculture system. Ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite were added to the systems for 4 weeks followed by stocking 20 kg of Nile tilapia in each system. Volumetric total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite and oxygen conversion rates were assessed for ten weeks. All biofilters with local media matured and reached full capacity after six weeks, while commercial plastic biomedia matured after seven weeks. This study found that the performance of commercial plastic biomedia was similar to performance of coconut shells in terms of volumetric TAN conversion rate (VTR), volumetric nitrite conversion rate (VNR) and volumetric oxygen conversion rate (VOCR). The highest VTR recorded in this study was 599 ± 15.8 g TAN/m³/d from coconut shells while the lowest was 343 ± 8.9 g TAN/m³/d from cattle horns. Biofilters with commercial plastic media had the highest VNR (704 ± 50.3 g NO2–N/m³/d) while media made of cattle horns was the lowest (457 ± 46.1 g NO2–N/m³/d). Biofilters containing coconut shells demonstrated the highest oxygen consumption around 3.0 g/m³/d and biofilters containing charcoal consumed less than 1.0 g/m³/d of oxygen. This study suggests that coconut shells can be used in place of plastic materials in simple recirculation aquaculture system biofiltration. This study also recommends further studies on comparing coconut shells with other biomedia and assessing its effects on water quality parameters and durability.
... Aquaculture (intensive and super-intensive systems) provides nutritious food for humanity and generates employment opportunities that contribute to the economic and social growth of the population (Subasinghe et al., 2009). In several regions of the world, densification conditions and inadequate handling practices are common in these production systems Lopes et al., 2019) and can harm the growth and welfare of aquatic species. ...
Article
Plant essential oils can benefit fish growth and health when incorporated into fish diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of essential oil from Lippia sidoides (EOLS) on growth performance, hematological and biochemical variables, and digestive enzymes in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) juveniles. Five diets with different levels of EOLS—0.0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50 mL kg diet⁻¹— were evaluated for 60 days. Carvacrol was the major chemical compound (44.50%) of EOLS. Supplementation of 0.50 mL EOLS kg diet⁻¹ improved growth performance and increased hematocrit, hemoglobin rate, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, plasma glucose, liver, and muscle glycogen values in juveniles. The tambaqui fed a diet supplemented with 1.00 or 1.50 mL EOLS kg⁻¹ increased plasma triglycerides, albumin, lysozyme, and alanine aminotransferase levels, in addition to intestinal amylase and lipase activity. As the EOLS concentration in the diet increased, intestinal alkaline protease activity was reduced. In conclusion, the addition of 0.50 to 1.00 mL EOLS kg diet⁻¹ is a promising alternative for tambaqui juveniles, as it has been shown to improve growth, metabolism, hematological parameters, and plasma lysozyme and intestinal amylase and lipase activity.
... Gulf mariculture is an important source of aquatic products, which has been developed rapidly over the past four decades (Subasinghe et al., 2009). Global mariculture products have increased six-fold since 1990, reached 57.9 million tons in 2019. ...
Article
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of health concern due to formation and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) during its biogeochemical cycle. Coastal areas are important regions in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg (Liu et al., 2017), where often-occurring natural and anthropogenic perturbations affect Hg transport and transformation and the associated health risk from Hg. The rapidly growing mariculture associated with the rising global demand for food may have a profound effect on coastal Hg cycling, due to the environmental alterations (e.g., resuspension and sedimentation) caused by maricultural activities (e.g., bottom sowing and harvesting). Through simulating the effect of water scouring, a common harvesting method, this study investigated Hg migration and distribution in particulate and dissolved phases in Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, China, where mariculture exists extensively. Particulate total and methyl Hg (PTHg and PMeHg) in water (expressed as ng/L) increased sharply due to the resuspension of sediment, but decreased rapidly after a one-off scouring event. When normalized by particle mass, PTHg and PMeHg (ng/g) in suspended sediment particles were significantly higher than that in the initial sediment, suggesting a higher distribution coefficient and higher affinity to bind Hg in the suspended particles. This may be due to the smaller particle sizes, and higher contents of organic matter and Fe/Mn of suspended sediments compared to the initial sediment. While the concentrations of dissolved THg (DTHg) in water column showed minimum changes or decreased, dissolved MeHg (DMeHg) concentrations increased sharply after the perturbation, due to the possible release of MeHg from porewater and potential Hg methylation during the event. These results provide fundamental information needed for ecological and health risk assessment of Hg in mariculture, and highlights the increased mobility and bioaccumulation of MeHg during anthropogenic perturbations in these areas.
... Contaminants in the water were usually related to human activities. Aquaculture water system is a kind of water system prominently affected by human activities (Subasinghe et al., 2009), and almost all aquaculture activities are inseparable from the natural water bodies. Pond aquaculture is one type of aquaculture activity currently widely used and closely related to the surrounding natural water bodies (Belton and Azad, 2012;Ren et al., 2019). ...
Article
Aquaculture activities have been considered to be important sources of microplastics to the water. Microplastic contamination closely related to aquaculture activities has been found in mariculture areas as well as in there nearby natural water bodies. However, for freshwater bodies with complex connectivity, it remains to be revealed how aquaculture activities affect microplastics in neighboring natural water bodies. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of microplastics of a water system consisting of aquaculture ponds, rivers, and lakes in June and December, which represented different aquaculture stages. The average microplastic abundances in June were 167 (67–367) items/m³, 129 (67–233) items/m³, and 372 (100–1167) items/m³, respectively in the lake, river, and aquaculture ponds, while in December, those were 533 (200–933) items/m³, 311 (200–600) items/m³, and 429 (200–600) items/m³, respectively. Microplastic abundance in ponds was significantly higher than in the river in June, while there was no significant spatial difference of microplastic abundance in December. Microplastics abundances in both river and lake were significantly higher in December than in June. The characteristics of morphology, size, color, and polymer type of microplastics were also different among different water bodies in June. However, the differences became smaller in December. The results of this study implied that the drainage of aquaculture ponds might increase the microplastics abundances of natural water in the water system predominated by aquaculture ponds. Further studies of the environmental fate of microplastics in ponds would be beneficial for understanding and controlling microplastics in the whole water system.
... The available evidence clearly indicates that microbial contaminant is one of the major causes of food borne illnesses (Matthews et al. 2017). Nowadays, fish diseases emerging due to the increase in commercial-scale aquaculture operations have become a major limiting factor in aquaculture (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 2005;Kesarcodi -Watson et al., 2008;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Major bacterial pathogens leading to fish diseases are Aeromonas salmonicida (Furunculosis), Yersinia ruckeri (enteric red mouth disease), Vibrio anguillarum (vibriosis), Aeromonas hydrophila (minor surface lesions, septicemia, internal bleeding) and Lactococcus garvieae (hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis) (Öztürk and Altınok, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to evaluate the freshness of two Omani fishes; Thunnus tonggol (Longtail Tuna) and Caranx sem (Blacktip trevally), marketed in the fish market of Muscat, through the characterization of the bacterial community as an indicator for fish quality. Therefore, 15 fishes from each type were collected from Muscat fish market during the period between September 2019 and October 2021. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Ten grams of each fish were cut from skin surface under aseptic conditions. The cut samples were homogenized and diluted in sterile water. Samples were then cultivated and identified by routine biochemical identification tests and confirmed by the identification system EPI20E when appropriate. A total of 13 bacterial species were detected including A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, C. freundii, E. piscicida, E. tarda, H. alvei, L. garvieae, S. marcescens, Y. ruckeri, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Among the thirteen bacterial specie, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be common in all collected samples.
... Over the past two decades, aquaculture in the world has developed tremendously and has become an economically important industry (FAO, 2008). Nowadays more than 50% of the consumed fish in the world is coming from farmed fish (Subasinghe et al., 2009 andFAO, 2020). Millions of people in developing countries depend on aquaculture for food and livelihoods (Dighiesh, 2014 andWally, 2016). ...
... The key characteristics of environmental practices include effective effluent management and water quality control, efficient fishmeal use, and minimizing the adverse impacts on wildlife and biodiversity (Tsagaraki et al., 2010). Intensive development of the aquaculture practices has caused an increase in adverse environmental impacts (Bull et al., 2021) which have received a high degree of attention over the past two decades (Alam et al., 2021;Giri et al., 2021;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Reduction of waste loads from fish farms is increasingly demanded by various segments of public and regulatory communities (MacMillan et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Trout farm effluents are among the important sources of water pollution by nutrients, organics, and suspended solids. This research study was conducted to investigate and manage the impacts of trout farm effluents on Esen Stream water quality, which is located at the southwest of Turkey. A water quality monitoring program was conducted for a period of 1 year at 21 stations to determine river hydraulics and water quality characteristics. Monthly water quality analyses were conducted for inflow and outflow of a number of selected farms to determine their characteristics and contribution to water pollution. About 1460 t of suspended solids, 230 t of nitrogen, and 46 t of phosphorus were annually discharged into Esen Stream from the farms. A dynamic water quality simulation model developed by the US-Environmental Protection Agency, WASP8, was applied to Esen Stream to predict and manage pollution from trout farms and the tributaries. The calibrated and verified model was used to evaluate the impacts of different management scenarios on stream water quality. Solid removal with a rotating micro-screen, establishment of a partially recirculated system and increasing production capacities of farms were among the simulated scenarios. The best management practice was the combined application of solids removal and reuse of treated farm effluents in a partially recirculated system, which provided significant improvements in the receiving stream water quality. This study showed that dynamic water quality models are powerful tools for basin-scale management of land-based aquaculture for capacity planning, assimilation capacity estimation, sustainable operation, and environmental impact assessment.
... The thesis is dedicated to the scholars and scientists whose contacts Global aqua-protein source has been shifted from wild capture to confined culture in 21 st century (Gomes Ferreira et al., 2019) and thereby, aquaculture is prophesied to supply majority of dietary aqua-protein by 2050 . Provision of multidisciplinary knowledge and worldwide availability of compliances have made the aquaculture industry one of the fastest growing (FAO, 2016;Gad Hussein et al., 2020), most intensified (Subasinghe et al., 2009) and irreplaceable (Belton and Thilsted, 2014) animal protein sector towards the nutrition security (Gui et al., 2018;Zahran et al., 2018;Dawood et al., 2020a), especially for underprivileged Asian and African countries (Chan et al., 2019). The dramatic growth of global aquaculture was characterized by three main features: 1) significant increase in production volume and widened value chain, 2) advances in genetics, health management, and nutrition and 3) extensive culture of bivalves and seaweeds (ibid). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
With the aim of investigating the effects of silica nanoparticle (NP) on nutrition and physiology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, an eight-week experiment was designed. Highly pure, activated silica NP at different levels (0, 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg diet) were incorporated into 30% proteinous diet. Healthy fish of 6.52 (±0.20) g were assigned randomly in triplicate tanks maintaining for each treatment in a recirculatory aquaculture system and fed with their respective diets from July 02 to August 26, 2019. Throughout the study period, effects of silica NP on length gain, survival, dry matter digestibility, blood cells count, hemoglobin level, condition factor and final product composition (moisture, ash and crude protein) except lipid content were found insignificant (p>0.05). Results showed that growth parameters (WG, PWG, SGR, DGC) and feed efficiency increased significantly with the increasing level of silica NP up to 200 mg/Kg and then decreased. This favor was gained because of the highest apparent protein digestibility with strong significance (p<0.001) took place while fish were fed with silica NP at 200 mg/Kg diet. However, fish at early stage showed better performance in all dietary groups than later. Blood glucose content and histology of kidney revealed that fish got stressed when silica NP at 300 mg/Kg diet was used and adapted energetically through excessive excretion via elongated glomerulus. Though no significant (p>0.05) effect on villi length was observed however, silica NP widened the villi of midgut (p<0.001) and increased goblet cells in the intestine significantly (p<0.05) in T2. Bioaccumulation study of silica interprets that incorporation of silica NP in fish feed might not be able to compromise human health safety upon consumption. Conclusively, incorporation of silica at 100 and 300 mg/Kg diet though exposed some improvement in growth and final product quality, 200 mg/Kg silica NP is obviously the best performer in regards of all indicators.
... Now a days aquaculture has become an economically important industry as it is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food (FAO, 2006;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Disease is the major threat in the fishery sector due to increasing trend of intensification and commercialization of the production (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms (especially fish) that has acquired a special position in the global economic and livelihood panorama. The importance of the fishery sector grows days by day as its demand increases for human consumption. Therefore several types of artificial feed are applied for accelerating the growth and increasing the production rate. Now-a-days, probiotics (live microorganisms) are used in aquaculture for increasing the disease resistance power and improving the water quality. This review article summarizes the use of different types of probiotics in the aquaculture sector.
... Catfish farming, like many other agricultural and aquacultural sectors, has faced challenging production and marketing situations over time and has evolved continuously through on-farm and market adaptations (Engle, 2003;Engle, Hanson, et al., 2021;Olaussen, 2018;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Being price takers, economic efficiency at farm levels can only be achieved by increasing farm revenues by increasing land productivity (kg/ha) while controlling costs (Bastola & Engle, 2012). ...
Article
The U.S. catfish industry is evolving by adopting intensive farming practices such as intensively aerated ponds and split-pond systems. The functional relationship between fish yield and key production inputs in these intensive systems was analyzed based on commercial catfish production data from 143 pond observations (2010−2018). A Cobb-Douglas production function was employed for the intensively aerated ponds and a modified translog production function was used to define the production relationships in split ponds. Results indicated that the size of fingerlings at stocking, stocking density, aeration rate, feeding rate, survival, and harvest size of the fish were statistically significant variables influencing fish production in intensively aerated ponds. Initial fingerling stocking biomass (interaction of stocking size and stocking density), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate, and pond size were the most important variables influencing production in split-pond systems. Feed fed, as well as stocking biomass, were the significant variables found in both models. Both production functions indicated further scope for improvement in the use of inputs to increase production, especially in feed management.
... Catfish farming, like many other agricultural and aquacultural sectors, has faced challenging production and marketing situations over time and has evolved continuously through on-farm and market adaptations (Engle, 2003;Engle, Hanson, et al., 2021;Olaussen, 2018;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Being price takers, economic efficiency at farm levels can only be achieved by increasing farm revenues by increasing land productivity (kg/ha) while controlling costs (Bastola & Engle, 2012). ...
Article
The U.S. catfish industry is evolving by adopting intensive farming practices such as intensively aerated ponds and split-pond systems. The functional relationship between fish yield and key production inputs in these intensive systems was analyzed based on commercial catfish production data from 143 pond observations (2010−2018). A Cobb-Douglas production function was employed for the intensively aerated ponds and a modified translog production function was used to define the production relationships in split ponds. Results indicated that the size of fingerlings at stocking, stocking density, aeration rate, feeding rate, survival, and harvest size of the fish were statistically significant variables influencing fish production in intensively aerated ponds. Initial fingerling stocking biomass (interaction of stocking size and stocking density), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate, and pond size were the most important variables influencing production in split-pond systems. Feed fed, as well as stocking biomass, were the significant variables found in both models. Both production functions indicated further scope for improvement in the use of inputs to increase production, especially in feed management.
... al. (2011). Organic aquaculture is the answer to the urgent consumer demand for better quality seafood and sustainable use of marine resources (Subasinghe et al., 2009;Turchini et al., 2009;Tusche et al., 2011). Previous studies have shown that consumers have a preference for eco-labelled fish and seafood (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Along with growing consumer awareness about the impact of food on health, there is a trend towards increasing fresh fish consumption. At the same time, the demand for organic food is increasing in the modern market. Although fruits, vegetables and nuts have the biggest share in the organic food market in Europe, the aquaculture production of organic fish is also growing. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to explore the knowledge and perception of Croatian consumers about fresh fish from organic farming. An online and face-to-face survey was conducted on a sample of 303 respondents. Data analysis (univariate and bivariate) was performed using SPSS Statistics for Windows. Most consumers have medium and low subjective knowledge about fresh fish from organic farming, and objective knowledge about fresh fish from organic farming is low. Only half of the consumers are aware that they can buy fresh fish from organic farming in the domestic market. Half of the consumers have already consumed fresh organic fish, and half are willing to pay a higher price for fresh fish from organic farming. Compared to fresh fish from conventional farming, respondents consider fresh organic fish to be healthier, tastier and to have less fat, but also more expensive and less available.
... In addition, our results indicate the expression of C. gigas genes involved in larval shell formation is not differentially expressed between lineages selected for resilience or susceptibility to OA, but rather the timing of gene expression is different with resilient oysters expressing shell formation genes earlier due to their faster rate of development. These observations are highly relevant to the aquaculture industry, which is now the fastest food producing sector in the world (Subasinghe et al. 2009). C. gigas is one of the most important global aquaculture species (Troost 2020); however, pH and Ω aragonite in coastal waters are projected in the coming decades to decline to levels below identified biological thresholds suitable for shell formation of C. gigas larvae (Evans et al. 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean acidification (OA) adversely impacts initial shell formation of bivalve larvae. Despite many studies observing large differences in developmental success between distinct genetic populations of bivalves exposed to OA, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms that enable resilient larvae to build their initial shell in aragonite-undersaturated conditions. This knowledge is key to their ecological and economical conservation. Herein, we used a genetic-selection program for Crassostrea gigas to produce a resilient and susceptible larval lineage to OA. The resilient and susceptible larvae were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period in aragonite-undersaturated and control conditions. The susceptible lineage failed to develop a larval shell in aragonite-undersaturated conditions, whereas 52% of the resilient lineage developed to D-larvae by 24 h post fertilisation. We measured the expression of 23 genes involved in initial shell formation by RT-qPCR, which revealed significant genotype-by-time and environment-by-time interactions for the transcription of these genes. Aragonite-undersaturated conditions upregulated a single gene encoding a protein involved in ion transport, Na+ K+ ATPase, in both the resilient and susceptible lineage. These results were corroborated by a second experiment involving 25 pair-mated C. gigas families exposed to aragonite-undersaturated and control conditions. Our findings indicate C. gigas have a fixed capacity to modulate expression of genes involved in initial shell formation in response to OA. Thus, phenotypic differences to OA between the resilient and susceptible lineage are likely explained by other cellular processes, such as bioenergetics or protein translation.
... Introduction. Raising fish utilization to complete the demand of human and animal resourcing in worldwide drives researchers exploring and improving technology in aquaculture industry [1][2][3]. Based on global aquaculture production statistic database [4], the proportion of aquatic animals farmed is 55.1 million tonnes in 2009 and significantly increasing to 82.1 million tonnes in 2018. This trend indicates that aquaculture industry has to create new technique to enlarge economic scale with reducing production cost and increasing production efficiency. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Controlling fish feeding machine is challenging problem because experienced fishermen can adequately control based on assumption. To build robust method for reasonable application, we propose automatic controlling fish feeding machine based on computer vision using combination of counting nutriments and estimating ripple behavior using regression and textural feature, respectively. To count number of nutriments, we apply object detection and tracking methods to acknowledge the nutriments moving to sea surface. Recently, object tracking is active research and challenging problem in computer vision. Unfortunately, the robust tracking method for multiple small objects with dense and complex relationships is unsolved problem in aquaculture field with more appearance creatures. Based on the number of nutriments and ripple behavior, we can control fish feeding machine which consistently performs well in real environment. Proposed method presents the agreement for automatic controlling fish feeding by the activation graphs and textural feature of ripple behavior. Our tracking method can precisely track the nutriments in next frame comparing with other methods. Based on computational time, proposed method reaches 3.86 fps while other methods spend lower than 1.93 fps. Quantitative evaluation can promise that proposed method is valuable for aquaculture fish farm with widely applied to real environment.
... Aquaculture contributes only about 4% of total sh production in the country (Peart et al. 2021). This amount is low compared to the global level, where aquaculture contributes about 46% of total sh production (Subasinghe et al. 2009; Peart et al. 2021). The low production of sh raises prices, making sh less affordable for low-income households. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Demand for fish is growing rapidly in Tanzania due to population growth and rising incomes. However, as fewer wild fish are being caught, there is a gap in fish supply. Aquaculture is a viable alternative source to meet the gap in fish demand. Tanzania has the perfect climate and land for fish farming. Aquaculture in fresh and salt water has grown quickly, yet the potential is not being fully realised. Thus, the study assessed the growth of aquaculture in Dodoma, a rapidly developing semi-arid region of Tanzania, in order to determine its potential, challeges, and solutions. Thirty-six fish farmers from Dodoma urban district were visited and interviewed. The interviews gathered information about management practices, fish yield, and challenges the farmers experienced. The findings indicated that aquaculture in the region began around nine years ago when the region began to expand. The aquaculture includes small-scale pond farming of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) . Fish yield was about 1925 kg ha ⁻¹ per culture cycle, and fish customers are definitely available. The main challenges were limited supply and high prices of fish feed and seeds, and limited water supply. Use of commercial feeds, pond fertilisation, access to extension services and ownership of a borehole were related to high fish yield. Expansion of aquaculture in the region is possible with the improvement of extension services and training of farmers in proper breeding, feeding, and water management. To decrease water demands, integrated aquaculture, water recycling, and aquaponics should be encouraged.
... The concentrations of TN, TP, and LOI in the sediment of the AQ site were higher than those in the CN site for all seasons (Table S4), reflecting the effects of aquaculture on sediments. Due to the lack of fluidity, the deposition of uneaten fish feed and faecal pellet induced a lot of nutrients and organic matter into the sediment (Subasinghe et al., 2009). SBC were affected by these high contents of TN in the AQ site, which the unimodal diversity pattern of SBC along the TN gradient revealed (Fig. S2). ...
Article
Aquaculture would change the environmental condition in the lake ecosystem, affecting the structure and function of the aquatic ecosystem. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms controlling the distribution patterns of bacterial community respond to aquaculture in water column and sediment. Here, we investigated the composition, co‐occurrence patterns, and assembly processes of planktonic and sedimentary bacterial communities (PBC vs. SBC) from an aquaculture‐influenced zone of the Eastern Lake Taihu, China. We found that aquaculture activity greatly influenced the diversity and composition of SBC by inducing excess nitrogen into the sediments. Meanwhile, network analysis revealed that aquaculture activity strengthened species interactions within the SBC network but weakened the species interactions within the PBC network. Aquaculture activity also increased the importance of deterministic processes governing the assembly of SBC by heightening the importance of environmental filtering, whereas it decreased the relative importance of deterministic processes within the assembly of PBC. In addition, ecological restoration with macrophytes increased the diversity of PBC and formed a more stable PBC network by increasing the number of network keystones. Overall, our results indicated that aquaculture drove distinct co‐occurrence patterns and assembly mechanisms of PBC and SBC. This study has fundamental implications in the lake ecosystem for evaluating the microbially mediated ecological consequences of aquaculture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Capture fisheries are no longer seen as a sustainable source for supplying our ever-increasing protein demand. Therefore, aquaculture is considered the best candidate to meet our animal protein needs (Subasinghe et al., 2009). ...
... Although the development of aquaculture has been associated with high and fast economic returns, production has been relatively unstable due to the impact of low quality of inputs and post larvae (Joffre et al., 2018a), water pollution (Anh et al., 2010) and disease occurrence (Thitamadee et al., 2016). Nearly all of these production risks are either directly or indirectly attributable to the surrounding environment in which aquaculture farms are embedded (Soto et al., 2008;Subasinghe et al., 2009). ...
... Over the past two decades, aquaculture in the world has developed tremendously and has become an economically important industry (FAO, 2008). Nowadays more than 50% of the consumed fish in the world is coming from farmed fish (Subasinghe et al., 2009 andFAO, 2020). Millions of people in developing countries depend on aquaculture for food and livelihoods (Dighiesh, 2014 andWally, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the constraints facing fish farmers and affecting the profitability of aquaculture farms, this study was conducted in different regions of Egypt. The data were collected by using a semi-structured interview with a questionnaire. Data were statistically analyzed using SAS procedure. The descriptive data were tested by the chisquare procedure. Fish culture's production performance was determined based on the benefit-cost ratio (BCR). The log-linear regression model was used to determine and quantify the relations between all the independent variables and the BCR (dependent variable). The results demonstrated that about three-quarters of the respondents sold their fish production at the farm gate. More than 55% of the farmers had medium farm sizes (10-20 feddan), and polyculture was the prevailing culture type for 76% of them. The semi-intensive system (4-5 fries/m3 water) was the culture system for more than 94% of the respondents. The BCR for 85% of the selected fish farms ranged from 1.46 to 2.50. There were many problems facing the fish culture farmers. The most severe problems were the high feed price, lack of operating capital, high energy price, high fry price, lack of credit support, management problems, labor irregularity, vaccine unavailability, and the high price of vaccination and medication. The high mortality rate was a severe problem for half of the respondents. More than 71% of the respondents found there was no problem with the lack of marketing information. The study concluded that fish culture farmers in Egypt are facing many problems which affect their profitability. Using alternative feedstuff may become a possible solution to reduce the feed’s prices. Developing the existing fish hatcheries and increasing the number of hatcheries will lead to reducing the fry prices. Instantaneous actions are needed to achieve efficient production and economic returns.
... Aquaculture is becoming a crucial component of the food production sector in bridging the gap between the supply of and demand for aquatic food in most parts of the world (Subasinghe et al., 2009), especially in developing countries in Asia (Cao et al., 2015;Tezzo et al., 2021). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) statistics (FAO, 2018), the production of aquaculture overtook fisheries for the first time in 2014 and accounted for 53 % of total fish catches in 2016. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial distribution information offers a valuable resource for the growing research on evaluating and managing aquaculture and the mechanism of its interaction with the environment, especially concerning landside clustering aquaculture ponds (LCAP). However, studies aimed at obtaining data on global LCAP distribution remains limited. This study combined edge detection and the morphology implemented on Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform to produce the first global spatial distribution data of LCAP using 4,015,054 tiles of the 10-m Sentinel-2 time-series images collected throughout 2020. The study findings showed a total area of global LCAP of 55,337.03 km 2. Asia, led by China, had the highest distribution area of LCAP, accounting for 89.12 % of global LCAP. The main LCAP distribution area was the landside 30-km buffer region of coastline, accounting for 75.57 % of global LCAP. Meanwhile, the greatest proportion of LCAP (69.63 %) was located in China. Accuracy verification revealed that the precision and recall error of the results were 83.91 % and 92.49 % respectively, and F1 score was 0.88. A comparison of China, Vietnam, and India, based on data drawn from most of the existing local studies that used remote sensing methods, showed that these countries' aquaculture area differs by less than 10 %. Despite some variation from FAO statistics or official national statistics, the results of our remote sensing-based method show promise in such aspects as global coverage and temporal coherency when compared with the classical statistical method.
... Now a days aquaculture has become an economically important industry as it is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food (FAO, 2006;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Disease is the major threat in the fishery sector due to increasing trend of intensification and commercialization of the production (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms (especially fish) that has acquired a special position in the global economic and livelihood panorama. The importance of the fishery sector grows days by day as its demand increases for human consumption. Therefore several types of artificial feed are applied for accelerating the growth and increasing the production rate. Now-a-days, probiotics (live microorganisms) are used in aquaculture for increasing the disease resistance power and improving the water quality. This review article summarizes the use of different types of probiotics in the aquaculture sector.
... Aquaculture is a key method of providing high-quality food for humans, accounting for 17% of worldwide protein consumption, and the annual output of aquaculture products in China is >60% in the world. However, activities in coastal aquaculture ponds impact both the aquaculture pond sediment environment and the surrounding environmental conditions (Brooks and Mahnken, 2003;Kutti et al., 2007) due to the release of high levels of pollutants from fish food and fecal pellets (Subasinghe et al., 2009), the increased decomposition processes, and the large amount of nutrients. The above processes are microbial mediated biochemical processes, that is to say bacteria are essential regulators of sediment biogeochemical cycles (including organic matter degradation, trophic coupling and elemental transformations) across ecosystems (Chen et al., 2022;Wei et al., 2021;Yu et al., 2021). ...
Article
Sediment bacteria communities in shrimp pond are intricately linked to ecosystem function and the provision of services, such as nutrient cycling and excess nutrient metabolism in sediment. However, little is known about the main factor (assembly processes) governing abundant and rare bacterial diversity in land-based shrimp ponds. This study quantified the composition, spatial distribution, and assembly mechanisms of bacterial communities sampled from the sediment of 78 land-based shrimp ponds distributed along approximately 1700 km of the southeastern coastal zone of China. This was done using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial community similarities decreased with spatial distance. Variation of bacterial community was mostly attributed to deterministic (environmental filtering) processes. Sediment sulfate concentrations regulated the balance between stochastic and deterministic bacterial community assembly processes, as indicated by the negative relationship between the stochasticity ratio, and network analysis highlighted increasingly sparse interconnections and less frequent co-occurrences among bacterial communities under greater sulfate concentrations. Our results demonstrate the negative impacts of sulfates associated with coastal aquaculture on sediment bacterial community dynamics, community assembly, and ecosystem function.
... World population growth and increasing per-capita fish consumption have resulted in an increasing demand for fish and seafood (FAO, 2020;Subasinghe et al., 2009). The world fish consumption rate has doubled compared with population growth since the 1960s (FAO, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is the fastest growing agricultural sector in the world, and the annual aquaculture production reached 82 million tonnes in 2018. Fish feed is the most expensive component of aquaculture. The partial replacement of commercial fish feed with biofloc was evaluated as a dietary ingredient in feed for barramundi (Lates calcarifer), a high-value carnivorous fish. Biofloc was produced from the effluent of a recirculating aquaculture system under microaerophilic conditions, as part of its water treatment process, which was based on nutrient assimilation by microbial biomass. The biofloc was harvested and used in fish feed. The experimental feed was prepared by replacing 20% (w/w) of commercial barramundi feed with dry biofloc powder. Six 100 L plastic tanks were stocked with barramundi (average weight 27 ± 0.9 g) at a density of 20 kg/m³. The fish in three tanks were fed a commercial feed and the others with the experimental diet for 8 weeks, at 2% bodyweight per day. The fish were weighed weekly. At the end of the trial, the proximate body compositions and immune functions of the fish were analyzed. Fifteen fish from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio harveyi to examine their disease resistance. Weight gain was 14% higher (p < 0.05) in the control group compared to biofloc -fed group, but fish fed biofloc showed significantly higher survival rates after bacterial challenge (89% survival) compared to control (58% survival, p = 0.01). Sera of the biofloc -fed fish had higher levels of lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.001). Similarly, the expression of immune-related genes in the kidneys was significantly higher in the biofloc -fed fish than in the control (p < 0.05). These results, together with an economic evaluation, demonstrate the potential practical application of biofloc as a feed ingredient in barramundi aquaculture. Further optimization of this practice is required.
... Globally, aquaculture accounts for approximately half of the fish consumed and are considered among the quickest-growing food industries [1], with a growth rate of around 8.5% [2]. This trend is expected to continue, with aquaculture's contribution to fish food supply expected to reach 60% by 2020 [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Volume 8-Issue 2 [5]. Heavy metal pollution can have destructive effects on the environment's biological balance and various aquatic creatures [6]. Moreover, it might be accumulated in many tissues and organs of fish species [7], which can enter into the human metabolism through consumption, causing serious health risks. Because of the nutritional value of fish, it is necessary to define the level of heavy metals in aquatic organisms and its suitability for human utilization [8,9]. Antibiotics used in treating animal diseases and promoting animal growth are extensively used in fish feeds, and their presence is rising. For instance, sulfonamides and tetracycline are two classes of antibiotics generally utilized in aquaculture to treat infections in fish [10]. The excessive use of anti-microbials in aquaculture leads to antibiotic residue in consumed fish and fish products. This results in the undetected intake of antibiotics by the consumers with the probable changing of their normal flora which raises their vulnerability to infectious diseases by bacteria and to choose for Abstract Due to the increasing concern of consumers about farmed fish contamination, in this study, different wild and farmed fish species (Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), gray mullet (Mugil cephalus), and thin lip gray mullet (Liza ramada) commonly consumed in Egypt, were chemically analyzed for the presence of heavy metals, antibiotics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides residues, hormones and microbiologically evaluated for total counts of aerobic and coliform bacteria. Moreover, the influence of traditional cooking methods (i.e., grilling, frying, and baking) on these parameters were estimated. The results revealed that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hormones were not detected in the fish species. However, heavy metals; cadmium, lead, nickel, cobalt, zinc, and mercury) were found in ranges of 0.014-0.35, 0.064-0.358, 0.027-0.875, 0.058-0.750, 0160-1.345 and 0.062-0.426 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the organochlorine pesticides residues (p,p 1-DDE, p,p 1-DDT, and Chlorpyrifos) in the studied fish samples ranged between 0.02-2.13 mg/kg in the marine sites only. The thermal treatments via grilling were the most effective cooking method followed by baking to decrease the heavy metals concentrations in the fish species. Also, all detected pesticide residues and antibiotics in different fish species were decreased by cooking methods. Generally, the studied cooking methods significantly (p<0.05) decreased the total bacterial count and coliform counts in all treated samples by %. The frying method was the most effective cooking method in decreasing bacterial counts. In addition, neither Escherichia coli nor Vibrio spp was detected in the fish samples. Moreover, the studied cooking methods seemed to be suitable for decreasing the studied contaminants. Consequently, the farmed and wild fish species in the studied sites in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, were safe and suitable for human consumption. Periodical monitoring of all sites for pollutants is highly recommended to ensure consumer protection.
... Since agriculture is extremely vulnerable to variability in rainfall, climate change affects both irrigated and rain-fed farming in a variety of ways. To fulfill the food demand, aquaculture is an alternate option since aquaculture is a fast-growing sector by the end of the 20th century (Rohana et al., 2009;Merino et al., 2012;Krag et al., 2015). ...
Article
Seaweed cultivation is an emerging sector of food production that can full fill the future food demand of the growing population. Considering the importance, Asia is home to seven of the top ten seaweed-producing nations, and Asian countries contributed 99.1% of all seaweed cultivated for food. Besides, it can reduce the carbon budget of the ocean through seaweed farms and act as a CO2 sink. In the context of climate change mitigation, the seaweed culture is the energy crop, and during its entire life cycle can serve as a bio-filter and bio-extractor. The climate change effect can be reduced by farming seaweed on a commercial scale and it will protect the coastal area by decreasing the physical damage through damping wave energy. The seaweed can reduce eutrophication by removing excess nutrients from water bodies and releasing oxygen as a byproduct in return. The cultivation of seaweed plays an important role as the source of bioenergy for full fill the future energy requirement and it will act as clean energy through the establishment of algal biorefinery along with the seaweed cultivation site. Thus, the marine energy industrial sector moves further toward large-scale expansion of this sector by adopting energy devices to offer power for seaweed growth for biofuel operation. The current reviews provides the evidence of seaweed farming methodology adopted by different countries, as well as their production and output. To mitigate climate change by direct measures such as carbon sequestration, eutrophication risk reduction, and bioenergy, as well as through indirect measures like supplying food for cattle and reducing the strain on aquaculture. The US, Japan, and Germany lastly suggest the large-scale offshore commercial farming as a feasible climate change mitigation strategy.
... As a result, the primary issue for policymakers and development agents is to establish an enabling environment for the aquaculture industry that is capable of ourishing while satisfying societal demands and conserving the natural resources it requires. is environment has many facets and needs strong political will, long-term policy, public sector assistance, and investment [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although Nepal is a landlocked country, it has abundant water resources that enhance its potential for fisheries and aquaculture activities. But, only a few percentages of the total water resources have been utilized properly. Despite a satisfactory growth in pond fish production over the last 15 years with 73,693 Mt. of fish produced in the fiscal year 2020/21, there has not been much significant advancement in the fisheries sector as expected. Some of the major challenges encountered by farmers are lack of technical knowledge, lack of capital, scarcity of good quality fingerlings, quality feed, diseases, and lack of good market infrastructure. We recommend government authorities to address the problems as aquaculture and fisheries are important sectors that contribute to nutrition for rural people and employment opportunities for many individuals.
... The dietary trends that have been formed in the last decades have strongly upgraded the role of seafood globally, making the aquatic products a vital part of several diets, worldwide [1]. The increasing demand for seafood has forced the aquaculture industry to rapidly increase production [2] in order to meet market needs and thus ensure its viability and growth. There are several fish species produced worldwide, each of which possesses a particular socio-economic significance for the producing country, it being closely linked to the economy, regional tradition and local diet. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present work, the profiles of bacterial communities of whole and filleted European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), during several storage temperatures (0, 4, 8 and 12 °C) under aerobic and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) conditions, were examined via the 16S rRNA High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) approach. Sensorial attributes were also assessed to determine prod-ucts' shelf-life. Results indicated that shelf-life was strongly dependent on handling, as well as on temperature and atmosphere conditions. HTS revealed the undisputed dominance of Pseudomonas from the very beginning and throughout storage period in the majority of treatments. However, a slightly different microbiota profile was recorded in MAP-stored fillets at the middle stages of storage , which mainly referred to the sporadic appearance of some bacteria (e.g., Carnobacterium, She-wanella, etc.) that followed the dominance of Pseudomonas. It is noticeable that a major difference was observed at the end of shelf-life of MAP-stored fillets at 12 °C, where the dominant microbiota was constituted by the genus Serratia, while the relative abundance of Pseudomonas and Brochothrix was more limited. Furthermore, at the same temperature under aerobic storage of both whole and filleted fish, Pseudomonas almost co-existed with Acinetobacter, while the presence of both Erwinia and Serratia in whole fish was noteworthy. Overall, the present study provides useful information regarding the storage fate and spoilage status of whole and filleted European sea bass, suggesting that different handling and storage conditions influence the shelf-life of sea bass by favoring or delaying the dominance of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs), affecting in parallel to some extent the formation of their consortium that is responsible for products' sensorial deterioration. Such findings enrich the current knowledge and should be used as a benchmark to develop specific strategies aiming to delay spoilage and thus increase the products' added value.
... Also, increasing concerns regarding heavy metal contamination of marine resources (Lloret et al., 2016) has led to a need for the development of these sources. Fish farming or aquaculture, the fastest growing agricultural sector for the past 40 years, has been largely responsible for making more fish available (Subasinghe et al., 2009). Estimates suggest up to 120 billion farmed fish are slaughtered for food every year (Brijs et al., 2018). ...
Thesis
Since the suitability of BSFL as animal feed depends on the nutritional composition of their rearing substrate and it is possible to modify the nutrient composition of BSFL by adjusting their rearing substrate. Five experiments were conducted and the main conclusion is listed below: 1.Using 50% Schizochytrium microalgae residue as the substrate increased the amount of DHA in BSF pre-pupae. 2.BSFL decreased the amount of olive pomace waste with retention of lauric acid and protein in their bodies, BSFL and 75% will be the optimal percentage of this waste to use as the cheapest rearing substrate for BSFL. 3.Using bird manure as a substrate for BSFL are better than mammal manure to increase the amount of PUFAs and other chemical compositions of BSF pre-pupae. Using manure made EAAI of BSF pre-pupae satisfying source for fishes and shrimps than fishmeal and soybean meal. 4.The optimal percentage of using quail manure as a substrate for BSFL was 40%. Using 100% quail manure as a feeding media for BSFL decreased the amount of total fat and saturated FAs with accumulating the amount of MUFAs, especially OA and biosynthesize POA of BSF pre-pupae. 5.Applying Se-rich silkworm pupae residue for feeding BSFL raised the amount of ALA by hundred times than using 50% Schizochytrium microalgae residue. Moreover, using Se-rich silkworm pupae increased the amount of protein in BSF pre-pupae, but the Se content kept constant in the body of BSFL. Finally, all the organic wastes evaluated in this study could be used as rearing substrates for BSFL to achieve a sustainable circular economy by replacing the source of protein (fishmeal and soybean meal), source of lipid (fish oil), or both of them. * Innovative points of the study 1.The present study found that the composition of BSFL could be manipulated with the adjustment of the rearing substrate, such as Schizochytrium microalgae residue and Se-rich silkworm pupae residual, which makes it possible to produce high-quality BSFL product intentionally. 2.The present study found that bird manure rather than mammal manure could be a good rearing substrate for BSFL production with better nutritional value.
... Capture fisheries are no longer capable to cover the increasing demand of the world population, estimated to reach 9 billion in 2050 (UN-WPP, 2019). The aquaculture industry may provide sustainable solutions for the increasing consumer demands (Subasinghe et al., 2009;Golden et al., 2017;López-Mas et al., 2021) with high quality protein for human beings (Stankus, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study evaluated the health status of rainbow trout (30.24±5.34 g) acclimated to high-saline water (28‰). Among adaptation procedures, gradually-acclimated (for 48 h) fish showed best performance, which were then introduced to the offshore cage-farm for further monitoring of fish health in marine environment over a long-term period of 100 days, until harvest weight of 319.9±48.51 g. Fish health and welfare was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters (viscerasomatic index, hepatosomatic index, mesenteric fat index, and spleen somatic index), hematological parameters (serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin), and immune parameters (lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst and potential killing values). Gradual acclimation to high-saline water did not show any adverse effects on health parameters. No significant differences were found in biometric measures (P>0.05). However, a time-dependent increase was recorded in hematology markers (P<0.05) after seawater transfer, and the health status improved over long-term from March 7 to June 14, 2018. All serum biochemical markers, except the total protein showed significant alterations (P<0.05) in long-term but without detrimental influence by day-100. Therefore, it seems possible to expand trout farms from brackish water sites to higher saline environments up to 28‰ salinity, with no detrimental impacts on fish health, that in turns may significantly contribute to the extension of potential aquaculture sites to wider areas.
... Aquaculture of food fish is considered a major sector of the aquaculture industry (De silva, 2012;Rahmati-Holasoo et al., 2022b;Subasinghe et al., 2009). Iran is one of the most important producers of freshwater rainbow trout (Ahmadivand et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is known as one of the most contagious systemic viral diseases in salmonids which can lead to significant mortality rates and negative impacts on the salmonid farming industry. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was first detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Iran in 2003. Objectives: We conducted the present study to determine the detection of IHN genotypes in rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in farms in the central parts of Iran, using molecular and phylogenetic techniques. Methods: Samples were collected from fries exhibiting clinical signs such as darkening of the skin, abdominal swelling, and loss of appetite. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by the neighbour-joining method, using MEGA 5.1 software. For phylogenetic analysis and genotyping of IHNV from central parts of Iran, the sequences of the glycoprotein gene were determined for two Iranian isolates (Jahad-UT1 and Jahad-UT2). Results: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the detected strains (Jahad-UT1 and Jahad-UT2 isolates) are closely related (97.23%-100%) to European isolates within genogroup 'E'. Conclusions: This finding indicates that Jahad-UT1 and Jahad-UT2 isolates have been widely transferred to Iran from European countries. Moreover, the nucleotide diversity of these Iranian isolates showed a close relationship with the North American and Asian isolates, although the Iranian isolates were collected from a smaller geographical area and within a shorter time period between 2014 and 2015.
... Sustaining fish supplies from catch fisheries will not be sufficient to meet the expanding worldwide demand for aquatic food. Aquaculture is seen as a way to bridge the supply and demand gap in most parts of the world (Subasinghe et al, 2009). Fisheries and aquaculture sector have the remarkable and augmenting role in delivering food, nutrition and employment to the people. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was formulated to find out the effect of supplementation of Agaricus bisporus on growth performance and survival in Litopenaeus vannamei. The experiment was conducted during the study period from March to May 2022. Six experimental diets were prepared with 35% protein level. The control diet was prepared without supplementation of white button mushroom (WBM) powder, while the treatment diets were prepared with supplementation of WBM powder at the rate of 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%. L. vannamei post larvae (average weight 0.012g) were stocked at a density of 20 nos. in each 24 aquarium tanks (35 litres) and fed with treatment diet for 60 days. The data pertaining to growth, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of L. vannamei were recorded and evaluated. The result of this study shows that supplementation of 3% WBM powder in diet significantly improved mean weight gain (4.152 ± 0.05 g), SGR (6.91 ± 0.06), FCR (1.66 ± 0.01) and PER (1.71 ± 0.01). The highest survival rate (98.75%) was recorded in the same treatment. The result of present study recommends a dietary supplement of WBM at 3% level that significantly affected the mean weight gain, SGR, FCR, PER and improved survival in L. vannamei.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Indian Ocean is fundamentally related to the diverse economies, safety, reliability, and availability of jobs of its littoral zones. Notwithstanding, the amelioration in the financial and feasible issues in the edge are especially hard and tough whereas the nations, with varied political frameworks, advancement status, and plans, are home to 33% of the total populace that is widely dependent on marine resources for food. The chapter investigates the momentum administration structure of marine assets of the executives in the Indian Ocean and digs into the difficulties occurring in the blue economy improvement and prescribes approaches to propel blue economy administration to notify pressures and guarantee practical advancement in the locale, and it additionally investigates the flow administration design for blue economy and its substantial potential existing in the Indian Ocean district, especially with regards to fisheries, ecological security, and environmental change impacts.
Article
Full-text available
Marine heatwaves (excessive seawater temperature increases) pose high risk to bivalves’ health and farming. The seawater temperature increase is responsible for various pathogen population expansions causing intense stress to marine organisms. Since the majority of knowledge so far derives from laboratory experiments, it is crucial to investigate stress responses in field conditions in order to understand the mechanisms leading to bivalves’ mortality events after exposure to temperature extremes. Thus, we evaluated the pathophysiological response of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis originating from mortality events enhanced by intense heatwaves in Thermaikos Gulf, north Greece, along with Marteilia refrigens infection. Mussels that have been exposed to high environmental stressors such as high temperature were examined for various molecular and biochemical markers, such as hsp70, bax, bcl-2, irak4 and traf6 gene expression, as well as the enzymatic activity of the hsp70, hsp90, bax, bcl-2, cleaved caspases, TNFa and ll-6 proteins. Furthermore, histopathology and molecular positivity to Marteilia sp. were addressed and correlated with the gene expression results. Our findings elucidate the molecular and biochemical pathways leading to mortality in farmed mussels in the context of Marteilia infection, which according to the results is multiplied by heatwaves causing a significant increase in pathophysiological markers.
Article
Sürdürülebilir kalkınma kavramı ekosistemin ve çevrenin görmüş olduğu zararların ciddi boyutlara ulaşması sebebiyle özellikle 1970’lerden itibaren dünya gündemine oturmuştur. Sürdürülebilir kalkınmanın temeline dayanan, deniz ve okyanuslardan ekonomik olarak yararlanmanın yanı sıra, denizlerin, okyanusların ve kıyıların çevresel sürdürülebilirliğinin sağlanması gerektiğini ifade eden mavi ekonomi 2008 Küresel Ekonomik Kriz sonrası öne sürülmüş bir kavramdır. Mavi ekonomi, su ürünleri yetiştiriciliği ve balıkçılık, deniz turizmi, gemi yapımı, deniz yolu taşımacılığı, deniz enerjisi vb. faaliyetleri kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’nin mavi ekonomi durumu değerlendirilmekte olup, aynı zamanda ekonomik faaliyetlerin deniz ve okyanuslarda yol açtığı sorunlar tartışılmaktadır. Özellikle deniz turizmi ve su ürünleri yetiştiriciliği ve balıkçılık Türkiye ekonomisi açısından potansiyel olduğu görülmektedir. Ancak ekonomik faaliyetleri gerçekleştirirken, denizlere ve çevreye verilen zararların azaltılması ve önlenmesi için çevreye uyumlu politikaların daha da geliştirilmesi ve uygulanması önem arz etmektedir.
Article
The activation of cryopreserved sperm with solutions containing L-carnitine can improve sperm quality after thawing, owing to its involvement in several metabolic pathways. Sperm movement and viability for fertilization, hatching, and larval normality were assessed in Rhamdia quelen thawed sperm activated with L-carnitine solutions. Sperm from 24 males were cryopreserved in 0.25 mL straws. After thawing, the sperm movement was assessed by CASA (Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis) in samples activated with distilled water containing 0.0 (control), 47.8, 96.2, 144.5, 192.3, and 240.7 mM L-carnitine, and another one with 79.9 mM D-fructose (control). Sperms from another 24 males were cryopreserved in an identical manner and used in the fertilization assays. Considering the sperm movement, fertilization assays were carried out using 0.0, 96.2, and 144.5 mM L-carnitine, and 79.9 mM D-fructose solutions. Greater motility and velocity were achieved with 144.5 mM L-carnitine at 28 and 18 s after activation, respectively. Linearity was not affected by time. The greater mean motility was provided by 144.5 mM as well as the greater mean velocity and linearity by 192.3 mM L-carnitine. Fertilization and hatching were not influenced; however, 144.5 mM L-carnitine and 79.9 mM D-fructose solutions produced more normal larvae. In summary, the L-carnitine solution increased sperm movement and maintained larval quality and production, similar to a conventional fructose activation solution.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aquaculture is one of the world's fastest-growing food-producing sectors, mainly driven by the need to meet the rising demand for fish amidst declining fish stocks and stagnant production from capture fisheries. Aquaculture production in Uganda, for example, which ranges from small-scale to large-scale commercial fish production, has continued to grow as a percentage of total fish production in the country since the 1980s. The majority of farmed species are native, and farmers utilize various types, sizes, and numbers of fish culture systems depending on production scale. Extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive production practices are all available. In this assessment, we present Uganda's aquaculture sector, focusing on farmed species, production systems and patterns, challenges, and the sector's potential to mitigate them.
Article
Full-text available
An intensive pond aquaculture system is much like a running water raceways system where the ammonia was eliminated during the circular flow of the water
Article
The field of geography has long contributed crucial insights to our understanding of food systems; however, this scholarship has focused predominantly on terrestrial food production, even though over a third of the global population relies on seafood to meet their dietary needs. While geographers have identified aquaculture (the farming of aquatic species) as a fruitful field of study, there has been little consideration for how the varied environments in which aquaculture is produced, from freshwater ponds to open ocean net pens, can and should shape specific research questions and disciplinary pursuits within the broader aquacultural geography discourse. As such, we present the case for a ‘maricultural geography’ that engages with the distinct dynamics and tensions of farming in the sea. We evaluate geographers’ existing contributions to the mariculture literature and identify emerging discourses within political economy, political ecology, and science and technology studies. We then outline three pathways for further disciplinary engagement focused on food geographies, feminist geographies, and social studies of science. Geographers can offer valuable analyses of mariculture’s position within existing sociocultural food structures, present alternative pathways for postcapitalist production, and explore the mechanization of a fluid world through technoscientific systems. In return, the ocean context provides novel opportunities for thinking geographically about our food systems and reimagining terrestrial ontologies of governance and regulation, development and urbanization, and sustainability and innovation.
Preprint
Full-text available
We assessed the distribution of alien fishes in one of the most ecologically and economically important aquatic ecosystems in Iran, the Karun River Basin. Fish samples were collected from 35 sites in the Karun River Basin during the low-flow period from November to December 2018. We documented the occurrence of 37 species of fishes from nine orders and 14 families. Amongst these, 10 species were alien (986 individuals; 15.7%). The relative abundance of native, endemic, and alien species estimated as 54.8%, 29.5% and 15.7%, respectively. Total length of alien species ranged from 0.4 to 25.5 cm and their total weight from 0.17 to 350 g. The ten alien species belonged to seven families including, Cyprinidae, Cichlidae, Xenocyprididae, Gobiidae, Poeciliidae, Gobionidae, and Salmonidae. Carassius gibelio , Oreochromis aureus , and Coptodon zillii were found to be the most abundant alien species in the downstream region. We applied redundancy analysis (RDA) as a direct stressor method to identify the extent of changes in alien fish assemblages with environmental parameters. The first two axes (RDA1 and RDA2) accounted for 36.24% and 25.33% of the variation of five alien species, respectively. Altitude, depth, electrical conductivity, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and river width were the most significant parameters affecting the distribution of alien species. Our results propose that management practices are needed in the downstream sections of the Basin to recover native and endemic species. Monitoring of presence and extent of alien species is a key to measuring the success of these efforts.
Preprint
Full-text available
Atlantic salmon aquaculture is expanding, and with it, the need to find suitable replacements for conventional protein sources used in formulated feeds. Torula yeast ( Cyberlindnera jadinii ), has been identified as a promising alternative protein for feeds and can be sustainably cultivated from lignocellulosic biomasses. The present study investigates the impact of torula yeast on the growth performance and the gut microbiome of freshwater Atlantic salmon. Both a marine protein base diet and a mixed marine and plant protein base diet were tested, where conventional proteins were replaced with increasing inclusion levels of torula yeast, (0%, 10%, 20%). This study demonstrated that 20% torula yeast can replace fish meal without alteration to growth performance while leading to potential benefits for the gut microbiome by increasing the presence of bacteria positively associated with the host. However, when torula yeast replaced plant meal in a mixed protein diet, results suggest 10% inclusion of yeast produced the best growth performance results and at the highest inclusion level, potentially negative changes were observed in the gut microbial community, such as a decrease in lactic acid bacteria. This study supports the continued investigation of torula yeast for Atlantic salmon as a partial replacement for conventional proteins.
Article
Full-text available
Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry slightly more than 2 kg of concentrate. Fish or crustaceans require less than 2 kg of grain concentrate for each kg produced, making them the most efficiently producing animals in terms of feed-associated water use. Non-feed-associated water use can also be considerable, and a comparison was made in total water use between aquatic and terrestrial animals. On-farm water use for terrestrial animals, including drinking, but excluding water for cooling animals or cleaning their sheds is only 1% of feed-associated water use. However, on-farm water use in aquaculture can be very high, attaining values of up to 45 m3 per kg produced in ponds. Intensification of aquaculture reduces on-farm water use per kg product, and only intensive aquaculture production systems are equally water-efficient as terrestrial animal farming systems. Within existing aquaculture pond systems reductions in water use can be achieved through (1) selection of feed ingredients that need little water to be produced; (2) enhancement of within-system feed production through periphyton-based technology; and (3) integration of aquaculture with agriculture. Still, these approaches will not make pond aquaculture more water-efficient than terrestrial animal production systems. That can only be attained in recirculating aquaculture systems and systems producing fish as a by-product of wastewater treatment. Currently, the most promising approach is to concentrate on further development of brackish and marine aquaculture, as such systems use small or negligible amounts of non-feed-associated fresh water
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistical Database Available from URL: http://www.fao.org/fishery/ statistics/global-aquaculture-production/en
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007d) FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistical Database. Available from URL: http://www.fao.org/fishery/ statistics/global-aquaculture-production/en. FAO, Rome.
FAO Agriculture Statistical Database Available from URL
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006g) FAO Agriculture Statistical Database. Available from URL: http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx. FAO, Rome.
Building an Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. FAO ⁄ Universitat de les Illes Balears Expert Workshop Available from URL
  • D Soto
  • J Aguilar-Manjarrez
  • N Hishamunda
Soto D, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Hishamunda N (eds) (2008) Building an Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. FAO ⁄ Universitat de les Illes Balears Expert Workshop, 7–11 May 2007, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceeding, No. 14. Available from URL: ftp:// ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0339e/i0339e.pdf. FAO, Rome.
Comparative assessment of the environmental costs of aquaculture and other food production sectors: methods for meaningful comparisons
  • D M Bartley
  • C Brugère
  • D Soto
  • P Gerber
  • B J Harvey
Bartley DM, Brugère C, Soto D, Gerber P, Harvey BJ (2007) Comparative assessment of the environmental costs of aquaculture and other food production sectors: methods for meaningful comparisons. FAO Fisheries Proceedings No. 10. FAO ⁄ WFT Expert Workshop, pp. 25-36; 24-28 April 2006, Vancouver, Canada. FAO, Rome.
Regional Review on Aquaculture Development . 1. Latin America and the Caribbean –
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006c) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 1. Latin America and the Caribbean – 2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006d) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 7. North America – 2005. FAO, Rome.
A review of cage aquaculture: sub- Saharan Africa Cage Aquaculture – Regional Reviews and Global Overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 498
  • P Blow
  • Leonard S Halwart
  • M Soto
  • D Arthur
Blow P, Leonard S (2007) A review of cage aquaculture: sub- Saharan Africa. In: Halwart M, Soto D, Arthur JR (eds) Cage Aquaculture – Regional Reviews and Global Overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 498, pp. 188–207. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006a) State of World Aquaculture: 2006. FAO, Rome.
A review of cage aquaculture: sub-Saharan Africa
  • P Blow
  • S Leonard
Blow P, Leonard S (2007) A review of cage aquaculture: sub-Saharan Africa. In: Halwart M, Soto D, Arthur JR (eds) Cage Aquaculture -Regional Reviews and Global Overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 498, pp. 188-207. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006a) State of World Aquaculture: 2006. FAO, Rome.
Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 1. Latin America and the Caribbean-2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006d) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development
  • Fao
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006c) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 1. Latin America and the Caribbean-2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006d) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 7. North America-2005. FAO, Rome.
Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 2. Near East and North Africa-2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006g) FAO Agriculture Statistical Database
  • Fao
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006f) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 2. Near East and North Africa-2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006g) FAO Agriculture Statistical Database. Available from URL: http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007a) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 6. Western Europe-2005. FAO, Rome.
Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 5. Central and Eastern Europe-2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007c) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006. FAO Fisheries Department
  • Fao
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007b) Regional Review on Aquaculture Development. 5. Central and Eastern Europe-2005. FAO, Rome. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007c) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006. FAO Fisheries Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture
  • D Soto
  • J Aguilar-Manjarrez
  • N Hishamunda
Soto D, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Hishamunda N (eds) (2008) Building an Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. FAO ⁄ Universitat de les Illes Balears Expert Workshop, 7-11 May 2007, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceeding, No. 14. Available from URL: ftp:// ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0339e/i0339e.pdf. FAO, Rome. Verdegem MCJ, Bosma RH, Verreth JAV (2006) Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture. Water Resources Development 22: 101-113.
Study and Analysis of Feeds and Fertilizers for Sustainable Aquaculture Development
  • Hechtt Hasanmr
  • S S Desilva