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Needing to connect: The effect of self and others on young people's involvement with their mobile phones

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Abstract

The present research was a preliminary examination of young Australians' mobile phone behaviour. The study explored the relationship between, and psychological predictors of, frequency of mobile phone use and mobile phone involvement conceptualised as people's cognitive and behavioural interaction with their mobile phone. Participants were 946 Australian youth aged between 15 and 24 years. A descriptive measurement tool, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, was developed. Self-identity and validation from others were explored as predictors of both types of mobile phone behaviour. A distinction was found between frequency of mobile phone use and mobile phone involvement. Only self-identity predicted frequency of use whereas both self-identity and validation from others predicted mobile phone involvement. These findings reveal the importance of distinguishing between frequency of use and people's psychological relationship with their phone and that factors relating to one's self-concept and approval from others both impact on young people's mobile phone involvement.

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... The ESS was previously shown to be valid and reliable among the Arabic population, with few modifications (Cronbach's alpha= 0.89; intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.86) (Ahmed et al., 2014). The extent of mobile phone usage was assessed using the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ) developed by Walsh et al. (2010). The MPIQ consists of eight items designed to evaluate the cognitive and behavioral aspects of mobile phone addiction, including cognitive and behavioral salience, interpersonal conflict, conflict with other activities, euphoria, loss of control, withdrawal, and relapse and reinstatement. ...
... More than half of 370 female students at Jouf University were found to engage in problematic Internet usage based on Young's IAT (49.5% and 1.9% had moderate and severe IA, respectively) (Abdel-Salam et al., 2019). A (Young, 1998); MPIQ by (Walsh et al., 2010); ESS by (Johns, 1991); X 2 : Chi-square test; t: independent t-test; P: Probability; SD: Standard Deviation. a Participants who scored 5 or higher out of a possible 7 on the MPIQ were classified as being highly involved with their mobile phone, while participants who scored <3 were not involved with their mobile phone. ...
... In this study, IA and mobile phone involvement had negative effects on sleep quality and daytime alertness for both the Egyptian and Saudi participants. Further, two-thirds of the Egyptian participants and more than half of the Saudi participants were found to have (Walsh et al., 2010); ESS by (Johns, 1991) Alamer et al. (2020) found that more than two-thirds of Saudi nursing students had poor sleep quality. The study also found that IAT and MPIQ scores were positively correlated with ESS scores for all participants. ...
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Introduction The widespread availability of Internet access and increasing rate of electronic device usage has helped enlighten the world community through copious applications, information resources, and other benefits. However, both the lack of controlled behavior and excessive Internet usage have resulted in a variety of difficulties that can hinder user achievement in many areas. Objectives This study investigated the prevalence of Internet and electronic device addiction among Egyptian and Saudi nursing students, with the aim of identifying any effects on sleep and academic performance. Methods A cross-sectional comparative research design was employed among a systematic random sample comprised of 920 Egyptian and Saudi female nursing students. All participants completed the Young-Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results Severe Internet Addiction (IA) detected in 42.69% and 10.31% of Saudi and Egyptian participants, respectively. However, Saudi participants were more likely to report high rates of mobile phone usage ( P < 0.001), while Egyptian participants tended to score higher on the ESS (17.47 ± 3.99 vs. 16.8 ± 3.83; P = 0.024). For all participants, IAT and MPIQ scores were correlated with ESS results, while IA was specifically associated with poor academic performance. Finally, MPIQ scores were inversely correlated with academic performance for Saudi participants. Conclusion Smartphone and Internet addiction were notable problems for the Egyptian and Saudi nursing students investigated in this study. Importantly, these conditions adversely affect academic performance and other activity engagement in addition to inducing excessive daytime sleepiness.
... We identified 11 scale validation studies on related constructs. Most scales assessed a similar psychological construct, namely one's dependence on their mobile device through addiction-like symptoms, such as excessive use, abstinence syndrome, and difficulty controlling the amount of time spent using their device (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005; Ch oliz, 2012; Kwon et al., 2013;Walsh, White, & Young, 2010;Yen et al., 2009). Some measures focus on specific smartphone behaviors, such as text-messaging (Igarashi, Motoyoshi, Takai, & Yoshida, 2008;Rutland, Sheets, & Young, 2007), but still exist within an addiction paradigm. ...
... Many problematic phone use measures were founded on addiction literature (e.g. Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Ch oliz, 2012;Walsh et al., 2010;Yen et al., 2009). Of note, Young's (1998) Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) forms the basis of several mobile/smartphone addiction scales. ...
... Items reflected behaviors related to maintaining connections, attitudes towards remaining connected to others, affective reactions to interrupted connections, and expectations of one's availability. Twenty pool items were adapted from existing measures (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Kwon et al., 2013;Seo et al., 2015;Trub & Barbot, 2016;Walsh et al., 2010;Yildirim & Correia, 2015). These items were slightly modified and reworded for clarity, and to better capture the underlying construct. ...
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Research into problematic smartphone use is growing as people are increasingly dependent on technological connections – a situation highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, current research has been limited by measurement validity issues and a lack of construct clarity. In response, this study developed and validated the Smartphone Connectivity Stress Scale (SCSS) for adolescents and adults. An online survey included an item pool, based on previous research and existing scales, as well as several psychosocial measures (N = 814; aged 14–80 years; 59% female). Iterative exploratory factor analyses, classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses produced a unidimensional six-item scale of smartphone connectivity stress – from a perceived obligation to be constantly connected with others. Two-week test-retest reliability was assessed through a follow up survey (n = 190). SCSS factor structure and reliability were strong for adolescents (aged 14–18) and adults (aged 19–80). The SCSS demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.87, ωt = 0.91); test-retest reliability, r = 0.82; and all items captured significant information across the latent trait. The SCSS demonstrated no differential item functioning by sex, age, ethnicity or urban/rural residence. The SCSS was positively correlated (ps < .001) with anxious attachment style and psychopathology symptoms (stress, anxiety, depression, suicidality). This is the first measure of smartphone connectivity stress and included valuable IRT analyses. The brief public domain SCSS provides reliable measurement, with reduced error, of a validated construct, and is suitable for use with adolescents and adults.
... As can be seen from these statistics, a mobile phone (MP) is one of the most prevalent external objects owned and used by individuals in modern society. When the relevant literature is reviewed, it is seen that most of the previous research has focused on the time spent using the MP and problematic phone use (Walsh et al., 2010). However, few studies have focused on the non-problematic aspects of the relationship between individuals and their phones. ...
... If people have control over an object, the brain incorporates it into the body diagram and accepts it as a part of the body. If an object reflects the identity of the owner, it is perceived as an extended-self and individuals want to stay close to this object (Belk, 1984;Walsh et al., 2010). ...
... Participants also reported that the MP was perceived as a part of the self and the sense of self declined during the separation from the phone (Clayton et al., 2015). Similarly, it was found that self-identity predicted frequency of MP use (Walsh et al., 2010;Walsh & White, 2007). ...
Article
The main aim of this study was to adapt the Mobile Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ) to Turkish culture. It was also aimed to investigate whether mobile phone attachment (MPA) exists in Turkish university students and whether it has the main characteristics of interpersonal attachment. This study also aimed to investigate the MPA's relationship with nomophobia, smartphone addiction and materialism, and to examine the predictive power of them on MPA. The study group consisted of a total of 242 university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine the structural validity of the MAQ-TR. The goodness of fit/home/prx indices met the model fit requirements for the four-factor 13-item MAQ-TR. Reliability analyses results provided high internal consistency coefficients. Correlation analyses results showed that individuals highly attached to their phones experienced more severe symptoms of nomophobia and smartphone addiction and materialists were more likely to accept their phones as attachment object. Regression analysis showed that nomophobia, smartphone addiction and materialism were significant predictors of MPA. Given that MPA is an understudied concept, this study provides a starting point for future researches on problematic and non-problematic phone use.
... Additionally, the preservice teachers recorded higher nomophobia levels for the "not being able to access information" factor and the "not being able to communicate" factor. This result attests to the significance of communication and information access for the preservice teachers, and the finding is in line with several studies Sevim-Cirak & Islim, 2020;Argumosa-Villar et al. 2017;Yildirim et al., 2016;Pavithra et al., 2015;Dixit et al., 2010;Walsh et al., 2010) which identified moderate to higher levels of nomophobia among adolescents (Anshari et al., 2019) and youth as well as students in higher education institutions Darvishi et al., 2019;Ahmed et al., 2019;Aguilera-Manrique et al., 2018). As a result, it can be stated that nomophobia is a rising concern among smartphone users, particularly adolescents and that the phenomenon constrains special investigative consideration, essentially developing strategies to lessen and prevent nomophobia. ...
... Based on the NMP-Q scores, females have demonstrated higher nomophobic behaviour compared to males. This finding supports studies conducted on preservice teachers Sevim-Cirak, N., & Islim, 2020;Yildirim et al., 2016;Billieux et al., 2015;Walsh et al., 2010). Notwithstanding, Farooqui et al. (2018), SecurEnvoy (2012) and Güzeller and Coşguner (2012) studies go contrary to the present study's findings. ...
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The present study aimed at investigating nomophobia prevalence, thus, recurrence of anxiety without a smartphone, with preservice teachers in the Colleges of Education, Ghana. An actual sample of 345 preservice teachers responded to a 20-item questionnaire on nomophobia (NMP-Q). A one-way MANOVA between different groups statistics was applied in determining the differences in nomophobic behaviours among preservice teachers based on non-technology-related variables (gender, age, specialism, subjective economic status, sleep/rest hours, and religion) and technology-related variables (number of smartphones owned, smartphone ownership duration, active internet services, and daily internet usage time). The results evidenced that the vast majority of preservice teachers had mild to severe nomophobia, and their most significant anxiety was related to access to information and communication. Besides, non-technology-related variables in gender, sleep hours, and subjective economic status significantly impacted the preservice teachers’ nomophobia. Technology-related variables that significantly influenced the nomophobic behaviour of preservice teachers included the number of smartphones owned, smartphone ownership duration, and active internet service. A sizable majority of the preservice teachers showed signs of mild to severe nomophobia. The present study provides prefatory support for the prevalence of nomophobia among the Ghanaian preservice teachers.
... [12] The present study showed that 67% of the participants have mild behavioral changessuch as irritability, temper, and restlessness due to excessive time spent on the mobile phone. Walsh et al. [14] found that those participants who spent more time with mobile phones lead to more behavioral changes. Basu etal. ...
... The present study shows a positive correlation between mobile dependency with negative behavioral changes with significant P < 0.000 and shows a negative relationship with academic performance <0.022. Hossain [14] in this study found a considerable correlation between selected variables and academic performance. Another study did by Kuhdasht stated academic burnout due to excessive use of mobile phones. ...
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BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are one of the excellent gifts of technology in the 21st century, which is most popular among adolescents. Today, mobile phones have infinite resources that have multiple benefits and applications. Its excessive use may impact adolescents in the form of behavioral changes and diminish the academic performance. This study explores the relationship between mobile phone usage with behavioral modifications and educational achievement among adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive correlational study was conducted among adolescents (n = 285 –male-210, female-75) at selected schools of Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. The test of mobile dependence was used to assess the mobile phone dependence, and a behavioral Likert scale to evaluate the behavioral changes through the self-report method. The academic performance was observed by school records; percentage of the last two examination results was considered. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The study shows that 156 (54.70%) participants had a low mobile dependency, 191 (67%) participants had negative behavioral changes, and 125 (43.90%) participants had shown reduced academic performance due to overuse of the mobile phone. A significant relationship was seen between mobile phone dependency with behavioral changes (P < 0.001) and academic achievement (P < 0.035) seen among adolescents. Regression analysis predicted 49% of the differences among adolescents with selected variables due to the overuse of mobile phones. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that mobile dependency changes adolescent's behavior as well as reduces their academic performance due to the overuse of the mobile phone.
... Notably, this perspective has been implicitly or explicitly incorporated into early and ongoing research on the psychology of mobile device use (e.g., Cumiskey & Ling, 2015). For example, Walsh and colleagues (Walsh & White, 2007;Walsh et al., 2010) examined self-identity, or "the extent to which performing a behavior forms part of the individual's self-concept" (Walsh & White, 2007, p. 2415). This work found that self-identity predicted heavy mobile phone usage and mediated the effect of prototypical identity -a person's similarity to a prototypical phone user -on phone usage, corroborating our focus on self-perceptions of identity. ...
... Compared with people who viewed their smartphones as crucial to their personal goals, those who viewed their phones as integral to their personal identities were more likely to have their devices at the top of their minds (i.e., salient). Such thoughts may be beneficial due to the perceived importance of the device (Reinecke et al., 2018), but also turn into detrimental rumination (Walsh et al., 2010), helping to explain the stronger association between identity and problematic usage (see Freytag et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
Given its role as a constant companion, the mobile phone has long been thought of as an extension of the self. However, the psychology of smartphone self-extension has received relatively little attention through empirical research. By explicating theorized facets of self-extension, we explore the dimensionality of smartphone self-extension and examine how established psychological orientations map onto these dimensions. Results provide support for a two-dimensional structure of self-extension. Specifically, we found that self-extension can be delineated on the extent to which the smartphone is viewed as (a) functional for personal goals and (b) integral to personal identity. Across two studies, habitual usage predicted the functionality dimension and problematic usage predicted the identity dimension. In addition, Study 2 revealed that the two dimensions of self-extension corresponded to different dimensions of smartphone vigilance. We discuss the importance of conceptualizing smartphone self-extension as a perceptual construct, as well as the challenges of measuring the psychological connection that exists – or is thought to exist – between self and phone.
... The Facebook Intrusion, developed by Elphinston and Noller (2011), follows a questionnaire format. The eight questions are based on addictive behaviour (Brown, 1997) and attachment to mobile phones (Walsh et al., 2010). The studies conducted using this measure revealed that Facebook Intrusion is associated with relationship issues and problems. ...
... This article provides an understanding of social media addiction from specific to general platforms. The scales employed to examine addictive behaviour or problematic use of social media are often anchored in the studies that measure factors like internet addiction (Young, 1998), problematic use of mobile phones (Ehrenberg et al., 2008;Walsh et al., 2010), videogame dependence (Charlton & Danforth, 2007) and also behavioural addiction (Brown, 1997;Griffiths, 2005). Some of these constructs are based on a particular condition of addiction, whereas others have tried to assess just a few addiction dimensions, excessive usage or even habitual affinities (Andreassen, 2015). ...
Article
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This work endeavours to present the important measures of social media addiction in the existing academic literature. It outlines the evolution of social media addiction measures in the last 10 years from specific to broader platforms. It discusses the important works and postulations referring to the concerned topic. This work also offers suggestions to future scholars on eliminating the deficiencies in the existing scales on social media addiction. It also offers directions on testing the existing scales in different regions of the world.
... Collectively, these studies suggest that exploring mobile phone use on college campuses and in classes without taking into consideration larger sociocultural contexts can result in an incomplete picture. Prior studies [22,34,35], including our own [5,6], suggest that mobile phones are not only means of electronic communication but are also linked to users' identities. In this sense, understanding what a phone means for an individual person, and in the wider sociocultural context, becomes important. ...
... Additionally, the continuum and fluidity of gender identification, as well as sexual orientation, were not considered nor were the race/ethnicity of the participants. Finally, although we constructed the questionnaire based on prior studies and our ethnographic observations, our data, like all self-reports (see [34] for a discussion), contain accounts of behavior that may or may not match actual practices. Therefore, to gain a more nuanced understanding of how, when, and why students, and professors, use mobile phones, future studies should focus on detailed, ethnographically based case studies. ...
Article
p>The unprecedented expansion of wireless technologies and the global pandemic of 2020-2021, which forced many educational establishments out of traditional face-to-face and into online instructional environments, have created an urgency for achieving a better understanding of the various education-related uses of mobile phones, and students’ attitudes toward them, worldwide. We conducted a questionnaire-based study to explore college undergraduate students’ perceptions and uses of mobile phones, with a focus on instructor-student communication and classroom use, across three diverse cultural contexts: Ukraine, Oman, and the United States. Based on our findings, we suggest that conceptualizing mobile phones as cultural tools and situating their use within cultural discourses illuminates how – and explains why – mobile phones are not “the same” tools for all students. The findings offer insights into students’ (developing) perspectives on uses of mobile phones, and provide grounds from which to formulate productive, and culturally appropriate, means of using them for educational purposes. </p
... Neste sentido, Walsh recorre ao modelo das adições comportamentais de Brown (1997( , citado por Walsh et al., 2008b para avaliar o envolvimento com os smartphones, uma vez que este modelo se revelou heurístico para a avaliação de outras adicções comportamentais com tecnologias, entre as quais, por exemplo, a utilização de computadores e os jogos on-line. A escala, construída especificamente com este referencial, foi posteriormente usada, por um lado, para explorar a relação entre a frequência do uso e o grau de envolvimento dos jovens com os smartphones e, por outro, para avaliar as variáveis psicológicas que influenciam a utilização dos aparelhos (Walsh et al., 2010). ...
... A escala de envolvimento com os smartphones foi construída para avaliar as interacções comportamentais e cognitivas das pessoas com os seus telefones móveis (Walsh et al., 2010), a partir da conjectura de que o uso intensivo destas tecnologias de comunicação pode gerar adições comportamentais, com características semelhantes às adições mais convencionais. Nesse sentido, os itens foram desenhados a partir do modelo conceptual de Brown (1997, citado por Walsh et al., 2008b, segundo o qual as adições são reconhecidas a partir da saliência cognitiva e comportamental, dos conflitos com a execução de outras actividades, dos conflitos nos relacionamentos interpessoais, dos estados psicológicos de euforia, dos processos de perda de controlo, dos estados de afastamento ou de isolamento e dos processos de recaída ou de reinstalação recorrente dos comportamentos aditivos. ...
Article
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Nos últimos anos, o acesso aos smartphone generalizou- se e em consequência produziram-se alterações importantes no comportamento dos seus utilizadores, as quais são classificadas por diferentes autores como adições ou como usos excessivos. Este artigo apresenta alguns estudos de validade sobre uma versão portuguesa da escala de envolvimento com o smartphone de Walsh et al. (2010) e explora a associação entre esta medida e os tempos de utilização desta tecnologia de comunicação. As conclusões vão no sentido de evidenciar as qualidades psicométricas da escala e a análise dos dados converge com as conclusões de outros estudos, onde o envolvimento com o smartphone varia em função da idade e do sexo.
... De este modo, nuestros avatares, perfiles, contactos, comentarios y mensajes que circulan por las redes sociales, emails, etc., se han convertido en parte de nuestro «yo» interno (Belk, 2016), cambiando nuestros procesos de autopresentación y autocontrol que implica el Internet. Esta realidad online influye en la configuración del autoconcepto e identidad propia (Carter y Grover, 2015;Davis, 2013;Walsh et al., 2010) de maneras que aún intentamos comprender. ...
Article
the aim of this study was to establish the most relevant health outcomes to asses opioid substitution treatment programs in patients with opioid use disorder in Spain
... Hence, the number of studies conducted into nomophobia is increasing rapidly in the literature. To investigate the factors leading to and reveal the variables associated with nomophobia, academic studies have frequently analyzed demographic features (Burucuoğlu, 2017;Yildirim, Şumuer, Adnan & Yildirim, 2016;Farooqui, Pore & Gothankar, 2018;Yildiz Durak, 2019;Guler and Veysikarani, 2019;Gurbuz & Ozkan, 2020), one's different ways of using one's smartphone (Walsh, White and Young, 2010;Kalaskar, 2015;Bivin, Mathew, Thulasi & Philip, 2013;Gezgin, Şahin & Yıldırım, 2017;Gezgin, Şumuer, Arslan & Yıldırım, 2017;Hoşgör et al., 2017;Yıldırım et al., 2016;Sirakaya, 2018), nomophobic behaviour patterns (Dixit et al., 2010;Bragazzi and Del Puente, 2014;Kaplan Akıllı & Gezgin,2016;Tavolacci et al., 2015) and psychological problems (King et al., 2013;Uysal, Özen & Madenoğlu, 2016;Yıldız Durak, 2018;Gezgin, Hamutoglu, Sezen-Gultekin & Ayas, 2018;Ozdemir, Cakir & Hussain, 2018;Yaman & Kavuncu, 2019;Kara, Baydemir & Inceman-Kara, 2019;Apak & Yaman, 2019;Buyukcolpan, 2019;Kirac, 2019). In the light of information obtained through these scientific studies, some conclusions have been drawn about nomophobia. ...
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This research was conducted to measure the relationship and effects of social and emotional loneliness levels of university students to nomophobia levels. The sample of this study consisted of 692 university students who attended Trakya University in Edirne province of Turkey. The findings obtained in this study showed that it was observed that there was a significant relationship between the level of nomophobia of the university students and the loneliness in the familial relations, one of the sub-dimensions of social and emotional loneliness Scale. In addition, no significant relationship with nomophobia was observed regarding loneliness in social and emotional relations. In conclusion, an increase in the sense of loneliness experienced by university students in familial relationships may suggest that it increases the risk of nomophobia.
... In the face of this increasing phenomenon, several instruments have been developed to assess nomophobia or related constructs, such as the Cellular Phone Dependence (Toda et al., 2004), the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005), the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (Jenaro et al., 2007), the Mobile Phone Addiction Scale (Leung, 2008), the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (Walsh et al., 2010), the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (Kwon et al., 2013) and the Problematic Use of Mobile Phone Scale (Merlo et al., 2013). Other studies used questionnaires specifically developed for the assessment of nomophobia but no psychometric properties are available (e.g. ...
Article
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Nomophobia can be defined as a digital age phobia consisting of an excessive fear of being without a smartphone. Nomophobia negatively impacts physical and mental health, particularly in children and adolescents. This study aimed to test the factor structure and psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the Nomophobia Questionnaire for Adolescents (NMP-Q–A). Sample 1 comprised 338 adolescents (58.6% girls), with a mean age of 13.55 (SD = 2.07) years old, and was used to examine the factor structure of the NMP-Q–A, its psychometric properties and the association with other constructs. Sample 2 included 193 adolescents (53.9% boys), with a mean age of 13.61 (SD = 0.80) years old and was used to further test the NMP-Q–A factor structure. One higher-order factor with four lower-order factors structure revealed a good fit to the data in both samples. The NMP-Q–A showed good reliability, construct and concurrent validity. Girls showed higher nomophobia. Adolescents showing more nomophobia revealed more smartphone addiction and psychopathological symptoms and lower quality of life. The NMP-Q–A showed to be a valid and reliable measure to be used in clinical and educational settings.
... A smartphone is a good gadget for self-identity expression (Walsh et al., 2010). Smartphone brands have specific characteristics that support the owners' identity (Lam et al. (2010). ...
Article
Finding out the antecedents of brand loyalty is an interesting topic. The paper’s target is answering the question “Do consumer value and consumer-brand identification lead to consumer’s loyalty with the brand and positive electronic word of mouth in the context of smartphone market in Ho Chi Minh City?”. The authors used the PLS-SEM (Partial least squares structural equation modeling) to verify the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables using data collected from 320 smartphone users. The study shows that proposed antecedents have influences on dependent constructs. Such discoveries have both theoretical and practical implications. In theory, they support the theory of consumer value and the approach of brand identification. In practice, smartphone producers should provide gadgets with excellent performance and unique identity to keep consumers’ loyalty. As a result, companies will have active ambassadors for their brand.
... A few other precise definitions on the requirement uniqueness led by age and gender in demography-based segmentation. According to several studies, young users are more likely to be heavily involved in smartphone use, whereas older people only use smartphones to communicate with family members (Walsh et al., 2011). ...
Smartphones, as an integral part of human life, can now assist researchers in forecasting human behaviour patterns. Recently, the spread of COVID-19 increased people's reliance on their smartphones, and the resulting lockdown revealed them engaging in a variety of pro-social or virtue-based behaviours. Using the extended self-theory, previous research examined the effects of objects on the human mind and cognitive behaviour in order to identify behavioural segments in smartphone markets. Subsequently, scholars examined smartphone-based (iPhone vs. Android) virtue traits such as honesty and humility. However, other virtues such as compassion and altruism have received little attention in this regard. Thus, this study aims to bridge this gap by analysing the predictability of consumers' compassion and altruism in relation to their smartphone type (iPhone vs Android) and usage. A total of 509 completed questionnaires were received from participants in the United States, Europe, and Asia. According to the findings, iPhone users are more compassionate and altruistic than Android users. This study offers implications for marketers, retailers, and brands in developing strategies based on smartphone user behaviour.
... For example, 93% of people living in the United Kingdom own a smartphone and spend 20 hours per week utilizing them (Kuss et al., 2018). Mobile phone addiction is considered non-chemical behavioural addiction that can be characterized by many adverse consequences, such as craving, inability to control impulse, tolerance (diminished response to the same number of hours), withdrawal, escape from other problems, in addition to negative consequences upon daily life on familial, social, educational, and professional levels (Çağan, Ünsal, & Çelik, 2014;Chóliz, 2012;Walsh, White, & Young, 2010;C.-F. Yen et al., 2009). ...
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Mobile phone use has dramatically increased worldwide, and there is a growing debate whether the overuse of mobile phones can be defined as a form of behavioural addiction with physiological impact on young adults. In this study, we are going to investigate the prevalence of mobile phone addiction among Arabian young adults in Jordan and its psychological impact, as well as the relationship between specific patterns of mobile phone utilization with mental health issues. This study is a cross sectional descriptive study, which used an online base self-reported questionnaire. The results revealed that most of the participants 70% experienced more than five mobile phone addictive behaviours. Depression incidence was significantly associated with and predicted by mobile phone addictive behaviours.
... SPA, despite the lack of a universally accepted definition, may be described as a behavioral disorder causing an individual to suffer in physical, behavioral, emotional, or social ways as a result of the excessive use of a smartphone in an uncontrolled way (Billieux, 2012;Duke and Montag, 2017;Jun, 2016;Walsh et al., 2011). Put it differently, SPA can be defined as the obsessively overuse of smartphones (Aljomaa et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2014;Walsh, White, and Young, 2010;Yang et al., 2019). Additionally, addicted individuals are inclined to display obsessive behaviors such as always keeping their smartphones with themselves, thinking of their smartphones even when they are not being used, and frequently checking their smartphones even when there are no notifications (Mei et al., 2018). ...
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Background The relationship between smartphone addiction (SPA) and loneliness is examined in several studies, however, the mediating effects of the variables related to narcissism and the family on the relationship between SPA and loneliness are not yet available in the literature. Objective The present study investigates the role of SPA on loneliness and the moderating effects of narcissistic personality and family belonging on loneliness. Participants and Setting Data required for research were obtained via an online survey from undergraduate students (n = 500) studying at a public university. Methods In the study, the relationship between the variables was determined by path analysis. Results The results of the path analysis show that there is a significant positive relationship between SPA and loneliness. According to the model, no significant relationship was found between narcissistic personality and family‐belonging level. There is a negative and significant mediation effect between SPA and narcissistic personality traits. There is a positive and significant mediation effect between SPA and family belonging. The results of the research are discussed with regard to university students and future directions. Conclusions According to these research results, SPA predicts loneliness. As the level of family belonging decreases, SPA increases. The relationship between university students and their families and environments is among the variables that should be considered when evaluating SPA.
... Firstly, for reasons of standardization, the participants did not use their own smartphones. This may have minimized the size of the effect because evidence suggests that many people feel a strong psychological attachment or involvement towards their personal mobile phone (Fullwood et al., 2017;Walsh et al., 2010) and therefore may pay more attention to their own smartphone. Secondly, most of the participants were psychology students (58.1%) with very good Abitur school leaving grades, who may not be representative of the general population of university students. ...
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In this study, we investigated whether the use of smartphone games while reading a text reduces learning performance or reading speed. We also examined whether this is affected by push notifications. Ninety-three students were randomly assigned to three learning conditions. In the gaming group (G), participants played a game app for 20 s at 2-min intervals while reading. In one subgroup, the game app sent push notifications (GN+); in the other subgroup, no notifications (GN−) were sent. In the control group (C), participants did not play a game. After the reading, participants took a multiple-choice quiz. We compared quiz scores and reading times of the groups (G) and (C) and within the gaming group (GN+, GN−) and observed no differences. Since the statistical non-significance of these tests does not entail the absence of an effect, we conducted equivalence tests, which did not demonstrate equivalence either. The experiment ensured high internal validity, yet remained inconclusive. Reasons for the similarity of performance in all groups could be non-specific exercise effects (all participants owned a smartphone), low similarity between the tasks, low variance of participants’ ability and motivation (high achieving, low ADHD scores) or low game complexity. Future research should address these questions.
... Smartphone Dependence. The Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ) is an 8-item measure for assessing respondents' dependence on their phones [19]. Items such as "I often think about my phone when I am not using it" were rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). ...
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Although research suggests that phone usage during academic activities is problematic for learning and performance, little is known about high school students’ digital multitasking during homework. This exploratory descriptive study surveyed 135 students from four public U.S. high schools to investigate teenagers’ attitudes towards digital distraction, smartphone use during homework, cell phone dependence, and motivations for digital multitasking. Our findings suggested that teens were distracted during homework about 38% of the time, and both mind-wandering and the use of digital devices contributed to this distraction. Of the students surveyed, 64% believed that they should focus more during homework than they currently did, and most were willing to try strategies such as silencing their phone or putting it out of sight. However, many were not currently using such strategies, and our data suggested that students may be spending approximately 204 h per year trying to complete homework but unintentionally distracted from it. We explored their current motivations and beliefs as a necessary first step for the creation of future interventions to help teens reduce their digital multitasking during homework.
... In terms of gender, women were more likely to use their smartphones while crossing roads than men, which suggested that women might be more dependent on their smartphones. Previous studies have also confirmed the dependence of women on smartphones and attributed the phenomenon to their preference for social networks, in which reception and response to messages in a timely manner are necessary [23][24][25]. ...
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Objective: This was a large-scale multicenter study with two objectives. One was to study the factors influencing pedestrian smartphone use while crossing roads, and the other was to study the effect of combined visual and auditory intervention on smartphone zombies (smombies) at crossroads. Methods: This study was conducted in four different Chinese cities. By observing pedestrians crossing intersections, the weather, time, and characteristics of the pedestrians were recorded by four researchers. Then, its influencing factors and the effects of the intervention were studied in two consecutive periods. Results: A total of 25,860 pedestrians (13,086 without intervention and 12,774 with visual and auditory intervention) were observed in this study. Logistic regressions showed that gender, age of the pedestrians, weather, and time were the factors influencing smombies crossing roads. The number of smartphone users decreased from 4,289 to 3,579 (28.1%) (χ 2 = 69.120, p < 0.001) when the intervention was conducted. Conclusion: Based on large-sample, multicenter research, this study revealed the factors influencing pedestrian smartphone use while crossing roads, contributing to our understanding of the current situation of smombies in China. Furthermore, the effect of visual and auditory intervention was demonstrated, providing a new paradigm for global prevention of smombie behavior.
... Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ): The eightquestion MPIQ was designed to assess problematic mobile phone use as reported by adolescents. 22 Examples include "I interrupt whatever else I am doing when I am contacted on my phone" and "I lose track of how much I am using my phone." Likert-type scale responses ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
Article
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Objective: To determine sociodemographic correlates of problematic screen use (social media, video games, mobile phones) among a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population-based sample of 10-14-year-old early adolescents. Study design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (Year 2, 2018-2020; N = 8753). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity, primary language, household income, parental education) and adolescent-reported problematic video game (Video Game Addiction Questionnaire), social media (Social Media Addiction Questionnaire), and mobile phone use (Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire). Results: Boys reported higher problematic video game use while girls reported higher problematic social media and mobile phone use. Native American, black, and Latinx adolescents reported higher scores across all problematic screen measures compared to non-Latinx white adolescents. Having unmarried/unpartnered parents was associated with higher problematic social media use. Although higher household income was generally protective against problematic video game use, these associations were weaker for black than white adolescents (p for interaction <0.05). Conclusions: Given the sociodemographic differences in problematic screen use, digital literacy education strategies can focus on at-risk populations, encourage targeted counseling by pediatricians, and adapt family media use plans for diverse backgrounds. Impact: While sociodemographic differences in screen time are documented, we examined sociodemographic differences in problematic screen use in a large, diverse sample of early adolescents in the US. Boys reported higher problematic video game use while girls reported higher problematic social media and mobile phone use. Native American, black, and Latinx adolescents reported higher scores across all problematic screen measures compared to non-Latinx white adolescents. Although higher household income was generally protective against problematic video game use, these associations were weaker for black than white adolescents. Beyond time spent on screens, pediatricians, parents, and educators should be aware of sociodemographic differences in problematic screen use.
... Our literature review showed that young users' excessive involvement with mobile phone applications could negatively impact their general well-being (Hawi and Samaha, 2017;Masthi et al., 2015;Taylor, 2020). Specific addiction symptoms related to users' mental health, such as withdrawal and distraction, are commonly linked to increased engagement with social media platforms (Walsh et al., 2010). Jeri-Yabar et al. (2019) revealed that young users' excessive social media use could be linked to depressive symptoms, especially amongst users who prefer Twitter over Facebook and Instagram. ...
Article
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Purpose Social media addiction has been an ongoing topic of debate for platform developers, well-being and mental health experts. There is a limited understanding of the factors leading to the addiction of young social media users, the consequences of experiencing addiction, and the measures/mechanisms used by parents and platform providers to limit/prevent problematic social media use amongst young users. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature concerning these issues. Design/methodology/approach The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) protocol was used to evaluate and present the results. A total of 45 studies were screened and independently reviewed against predetermined criteria for eligibility. Findings The results revealed four categories of young users' addiction to social media networks (social, technological, behavioural and mental). Several prevention approaches directed at parents and platform providers were discussed. Originality/value This study offers important insights for health policy makers, platform providers, parents and researchers on designing interventions addressing social media addiction amongst young users. It also provides an in-depth understanding of the conceptualization of social media addiction and suggestions on possible actions to prevent it.
... The Cronbach's alpha for reliability was within the range of 0.85-0.90. [13] Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire [14] is an 8 item measure, using a Likert scoring schedule for the assessment of mobile phone involvement based on both behavioral and cognitive addiction components. It included items measuring withdrawal, cognitive and behavioral salience, euphoria, loss of control, relapse and reinstatement, conflict with other activities, and interpersonal conflict, and was specifically worded to relate to mobile phone behavior. ...
Article
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Background: Early identification for the addictive use of smartphones would enable timely intervention to minimize suffering from compromised functioning and associated psychological problems. This study is the first such attempt to develop a test for addictive/excessive use of the mobile phone in the Indian context. The present study aims to develop and validate the mobile phone use screening test (MUST) for the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: Five hundred individuals aged 18–40 years, residing in the South Indian city of Bangalore participated in the study. The sociodemographic datasheet and the newly developed test were administered on these individuals to gather demographic information and patterns of excessive mobile phone use. Results: The developed test has 18-items which use a self-report Likert-type scale format. The test–retest reliability was 0.93 and the Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.86. The scoring criterion for the overall score was: <30 = mild use; 31–49 = moderate use; and 50 and above = excessive/addictive smartphone use. The scale has four components: craving, loss of control, coping, and consequences. Conclusions: The MUST can be used for the identification of addictive/excessive use of mobile phone among adolescents and young adult groups.
... Parents were asked not only to prohibit their child from using the device, but also to keep it away from his/her sight and touch. This is due to the strong impact of the cellular's presence even when it is not actually being used, and the place it holds in the adolescent's consciousness (Walsh et al., 2010). ...
Article
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A number of studies have sought to understand how mobile phones affect time practices, and beyond them, the experience of time in users’ daily lives. This article is a further effort in that direction, employing the deprivation study method. We conducted a field study of 80 adolescents, or “cellular natives,” separating them from their cellphones for 1 week. The findings indicate that the cellphone’s absence indeed had a dominant impact on a variety of adolescents’ time-related practices and experience, that yielded in turn both negative and positive feelings. We propose three main axes for understanding the cellphone’s implications for the time experience: The mobile’s flexible time v. Rigid time, its ritual time v. Linear time, and its fragmented time v. Continuous time. In all these dimensions, we point to distinct features of the time experience associated with the mobile phone, and also try to relate it to the emotional state and state of mind of today’s teens. In conclusion, we propose that a broad understanding of the cellphone’s role need to include the aspect of time, at least as it is experienced by adolescents in our current media climate.
... Mobile phone dependency may also adversely influence interpersonal relations. 5 Phubbing is a term which stands for "phone snubbing". It is described as an act of snubbing someone in a common place or social gathering by looking at your phone instead of paying attention to them. ...
Article
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Mobile phones and similar gadgets are increasingly being used owing to the massive growth in internet and advancement in digital device technology. Learning via mobile phones and similar gadgets has become one of the most popular and useful teaching tools used by different class of students across the world. But any new technology has some drawbacks also which should be addressed in timely and efficiently to reduce its ill effects. A multipronged approach may be utilised to curtail the ill effects of mobile phones and similar gadgets.
... Secondly, all participants used the same smartphone. Previous research found that people feel psychological involvement towards their own mobile phone (Fullwood, Quinn, Kaye, & Redding, 2017;Walsh, White, & Young, 2010). Using their own phone in a real lecture may induce students to pay more attention to the smartphone (and therefore a disruptive effect would be more likely). ...
Article
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Many university students use mobile phones during study tasks for unrelated activities. It is known that using social networking while studying reduces the learning performance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether using smartphone games during a lecture reduces the learning performance, and whether this is influenced by receiving push notifications. Ninety-three students were randomized to three conditions: In two gaming conditions (G), participants played a custom-made gaming-app (20 s) at 2-min intervals while watching a video mimicking a lecture. In one subgroup (GN+), the game app sent push notifications; in the other (GN-), no notifications were sent. Participants in the control group (C) watched the lecture without playing. Subsequently, participants answered multiplechoice questions and estimated their own quiz performance. Comparing the quiz scores and subjective performance estimates of the three groups showed that the learning performance in GN+ was lower than in C (d = 0.51); no other differences were observed. Participants’ subjective performance estimations remained unaffected by the experimental condition. Possible implications of the divergence of the subjective estimate and objective performance are discussed, as well as limitations, such as the low complexity of the game used and the short lecture duration, not reflective of typical lectures.
... To explain in detail, existentially dependent individuals experience intense anxiety, restlessness, and distress when they are not able to use the MP (Park, 2019). For such individuals, the need to develop a social identity and connect to social identity are the main social and psychological drivers of MP dependency (Walsh et al., 2010). If connectedness and social identification encourage dependence on the MP (Kaviani et al., 2020), they may suffer from nomophobia especially due to the fear of being disconnected from their online identity. ...
Book
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In the modern world, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of modern life. On the one hand, the mobile phone allows maintaining interpersonal contacts and fulfilling work or school duties regardless of time and location. It enables individuals to plan their daily routines and their free times. On the other hand, a mobile phone is a tool that can cause several psychological and physical problems. Nomophobia, which is considered the phobia of the modern era, is only one of these problems. In the simplest terms, nomophobia is the fear of being without a mobile phone and the intense anxiety and distress experienced in the absence of a mobile phone. Although technological addictions such as smartphone addiction and internet addiction have been studied extensively in the psychology literature, it is striking that nomophobia is a neglected psychological problem. However, nomophobia is emerging as a common phenomenon among young adults, as most young adults use the mobile phone for about 5 hours a day. Some users define the mobile phone as a friend and the meaning of life. More importantly, prevalence studies have revealed that about half of young adults suffer from nomophobia. Since nomophobia causes many serious consequences such as physical pain, social problems and a decrease in academic achievement, nomophobia studies are important and beneficial especially for the younger generation. This book has been written to emphasize the importance of nomophobia and to provide detailed information about the diagnosis, treatment, prevalence, predictors and symptoms of nomophobia. In addition, this book aimed to conceptualize nomophobia theoretically. Also, based on the theoretical conceptualization, psychological structures that can cause nomophobia have been identified. The theoretical conceptualization has been tested and validated using scientific methods. This book, which contains a comprehensive literature review and scientific research, can shed light on researchers for future nomophobia studies. I also believe that this book will make valuable contributions to the clinical field by providing a better understanding of the factors that should be considered in prevention programs and treatment interventions developed for nomophobia. I hope that scholars, clinicians, and students from a variety of disciplines will find my efforts helpful.
... The Nomophobia Questionnaire and Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire(Walsh, White, & Young, 2010;Yildirim & Correia, 2015) consisting of 7 indicators with a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 -does not affect me at all to 5 -affects me a lot. The internal consistency of the tool was 0.802. ...
Article
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Nomophobia and Phubbing are negative phenomena linked to the proliferation of smartphones as well as unlimited Internet access. Individual and social changes in behaviour determined by the ubiquity of smartphones necessitate an analysis of these two types of problematic Internet use. Both types of behaviour are particularly noticeable among adolescents. The aim of this article is to show the extent of nomophobia and phubbing among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to link these phenomena to wellbeing and the influence of the family on the style of smartphone use among young people. The research was conducted in the first half of 2021 among adolescents aged 12-18 years (N=1083) using a triangulation of survey questionnaires such as NMP-Q The Nomophobia Questionnaire and Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, Phubbing scale, and the Wellbeing level, as well as new media parenting style in the family. From the data collected, it was noted that: 1) Thinking about the phone while bored and not being able to 'keep in contact with members of the social circle are the most common factors of nomophobia; 2) About 1/3 of the respondents declare having symptoms of nomophobia; 3) More than 2/3 of teenagers have a phone in their environment all of the time; 4) Every fourth teenager very often receives negative comments from their immediate peers due to the style of smartphone use; 5) Smartphone use in the vicinity of other people is the norm for teenagers - an acceptable behaviour in contrast to the perception of this situation among some groups of adults; 6) Only 9.87% of adolescents have a high saturation of phubbing; 7) Most indicators related to nomophobia and phubbing are more frequent among girls than boys; 8) Only 16.43% of parents use dialogue methods related to education about new media; 9) Over 60% of parents do not employ any methods to reduce selected forms of problematic use of smartphones; 10) Parents are more active in educating younger than older adolescents about new media; 11) Satisfaction with activities in the offline sphere is a protective factor for phubbing.
... Dolayısıyla, COVID-19 salgını, bireylerin ruh sağlığını etkileme özelliğiyle duygusal bir pandemiyi de beraberinde getirmektedir (Dong ve Bouey, 2020). Bireylerin COVID-19 la birlikte artan kaygıları, pandeminin getirdiklerinden olumsuz etkilenen ruh sağlıkları, özellikle de bu süreci evde, sosyal ilişkilerden uzak geçirmek durumunda kalmaları onları, yakınlarıyla iletişim sağlamak, sosyal medya kullanmak, internet üzerinden alışveriş yapmak gibi yaşamın her alanında kullanılmaya başlanan ve tek tık ile işlerini kolaylıkla halledebildikleri akıllı telefonlara bağlı hale getirmiştir (Chen ve diğerleri, 2016;Walsh, White ve Young, 2010). Günümüzde bilgisayar ile telefon özelliklerini birleştiren akıllı telefonlar, cep telefonlarının yerini almıştır ve dünya üzerinde hızla yayılmaya devam etmektedir. ...
... There are many international questionnaires to measure the degree of mobile phone dependence, but because of the excessive items and to save time, this paper selects a simple version of the Mobile Phone Dependence Questionnaire (MPIQ) [27,28]. MPIQ is based on a one-dimensional eight-item questionnaire, which evaluates the subjects' cognition and behavior on mobile phones. ...
Article
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Based on the theory of rational action (TRA), overconfidence theory (OT), and deterrence theory (DT), this study explores the reasons for mobile phone use by Chinese students riding electronic bicycles (e-bikes) in Fuzhou City. We tested the reliability and validity of an extended TPB, OT and DT questionnaire (with 531 eligible responses) and constructed a structural equation model of mobile phone use behavior while riding e-bikes, based on the improved model. The structural equation model (SEM) is used to evaluate the relationship between the internal factors of mobile phone riding behavior. The results show that the correlation among mobile phone dependence, punishment mechanism, attitude, and controllable operation impacts e-bike riders’ behavior when using mobile phones while riding.
... La directionalité est basée seulement sur les arguments théoriques et la littérature qui les défend. L'échelle de dépendance problématique au smartphone construite et testée initialement par Walsh et al. (2010) en Australie est fondée sur les composantes de comportement addictif décrits par Brown (1997) : domination de la vie des personnes par l'activité addictive, perte de contrôle, euphorie et manque, rechute malgré des périodes d'abstinence, conflits avec ses propres responsabilités et avec autrui. L'euphorie n'est pas specifique à un comportement addictif (Charlton & Danforth, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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La dépendance problématique au smartphone considère la dépendance comme un comportement qui a des conséquences négatives et sévères pour l'individu qui en souffre. Cherchant à expliquer cette dépendance dans la population des actifs en France, population très peu étudiée dans la littérature sur l'addiction au smartphone, cette recherche conçoit cette dépendance comme un comme phénomène comportemental qui s'explique en partie de façon cognitive (Davis, 2001). Elle propose un modèle issu de la théorie des usages et de la gratification d'une part et de la théorie de la cognition duale d'autre part qui postule que la régulation du comportement par la réflexion peut devenir dysfonctionnel. Les résultats testés sur 874 personnes suggèrent que les pratiques de méditation favorisées par le MBSR, des applications spécifiques et des retraites, mais aussi l'usage des textos et du téléphone modérent la dépendance, tandis que le matérialisme et l'usage des réseaux sociaux et du web, ainsi qu'un fort usage le weekend le renforce. Au-delà de cette contribution empirique à la littérature, la perte de contrôle du comportement apparaît bien comme le fruit d'une obsession des pensées conduisant à des impulsions mentales dictant le manque et entrainant cette perte de contrôle dont l'impact à des conséquences sérieuses sur l'individu.
Article
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e Background: mobile phones today have grown to be an important section ofour techno-culture mostly on more youthful human population. Discomfort, anxiety,nervousness, or distress caused by moving away from the cell phone is called "Nomophobia".Objective: this study was conducted to identify and assess the nomophobia and somevariables that have a relationship and influence the subject of the study.Methodology: assessed for nomophobia through a special questionnaire to measure. Thequestionnaire consisted of (20) question. Each question consists of seven levels of answeraccording to the Likert scale. The ratings of each element were classified and the gradeswere classified into "mild "21-59", "moderate" "66-99", and "severe "more than 100"degrees. A study was conducted on random sample of one hundred individuals fromdifferent age groups. A tool was used to measure nomophobia in the participating sample.The information analyzed by applying descriptive statistical measures in addition toinferential statistical measures.Results: The results showed that the highest participation rate was 52% in males for the sex,whereas urban area was 54% and 53% were unemployed. The percentage of young peoplewas the highest by 81% and the percentage of unmarried was the highest by 64%, as well asthe proportion of recipients of university degree is the highest by 70% This confirms that theproportion of unemployed graduates are the highest in the sample as well as the age group(15-30) is highest share of research. The severe nomophobia is 70% and the lowestpercentage is mild nomophobia by 9% and the moderate nomophobia rate is 21%.Conclusion: mobile phones and new technology formed our daily life, several aspects, themost important negative and positive.Recommendations: The study recommended practical tips to reduce the disadvantages ofrelying on mobile phone, which is to spend time with family at the end of the week withoutusing technology and not take the phone to the bedroom because it is harmful to humanhealth and do not use the phone in the indoor, such as car or elevator and Do not talk in themobile phone while charging and keep the phone away from you while you sleep, eat, sitwith family members, do not use some social applications everyday unless necessary, receiveurgent messages and set up centers and sanatoriums to reduce addiction and phobia inchildren and young people.
Article
This study investigates the impact of tourists’ travel experience sharing via mobile social media (MSM) on perceptions of smartphone usage-based travel experience improvement and tourists’ post-trip evaluations of their travel experiences. We also examined how two self-enhancement tendencies, self-promotion and self-protection, moderate the relationship between tourists’ MSM travel experience sharing and their perceptions of smartphone usage-based travel experience improvement as well as post-trip evaluations of their travel experiences. A moderated moderation analysis revealed that MSM involvement can condition how tourists’ tendencies for self-promotion moderate the effect of tourists’ travel experience sharing via MSM on their perceptions of smartphone usage-based travel experience improvement. This moderated moderation pattern was similar for the relationship between travel experience sharing via MSM and tourists’ post-trip evaluations of their travel experiences. Theoretical and managerial implications are provided based on the findings.
The study examined dependency, satisfaction, and psychosocial characteristics as correlates of cell phone use by library and information science (LIS) undergraduate students. Using survey, 253 undergraduates represent the sample for the study. Five research questions were developed and answered. The results of the psychosocial characteristics' correlation with the cell phone use reveal that self-efficacy had the highest correlation with the cell phones use (r = 0.74), followed by self-esteem (r = 0.69), entertainment (r = 0.37), and social interaction (r = 0.33). Anxiety had the lowest correlation (r = 0.23), but still correlates positively with LIS students' cell phones use. Self-efficacy contributed most to the prediction of LIS students' cell phone use (Beta value =.299), followed in declining order of strength by dependency (Beta = .292), self-esteem (Beta =.182), satisfaction (Beta =.177), social interaction (Beta = .111), and entertainment (Beta = .106).
Article
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Objectives: To normalize the instrument for the appraisal of WhatsApp Addiction Test, to build up the dependability, legitimacy and other psychometric properties of the WhatsApp habit Test and To produce the standards for the instrument for the evaluation of WhatsApp Addiction Test. Methods: On the off chance that the respondents score lies between 24 to 36, they are deciphered to have Moderate/marginal degree of WhatsApp Addiction. If the respondents score lies from 33 to 69, they are deciphered to have Clinically Significant degree of WhatsApp Addiction. Results: This shows that they are feeling the squeeze in utilizing their WhatsApp, these people do not have control in their utilization, other than any place and at whatever point it is. They get so genuinely joined to the WhatsApp that even a little change in their utilization will influence their life. Conclusion: Score 0-23: Insignificant/Appropriate WhatsApp utilization, Score 24-46: Marginal/Borderline degree of WhatsApp Addiction and Score 37-69: Clinically Significant degree of WhatsApp Addiction. Keywords
Article
Due to their ubiquity, compulsive mobile phone use (CMPU) should include cognitive, psychological, and behavioral dimensions. This study has two main objectives-(a) explicate a multidimensional measure of CMPU and examine individual differences in the various dimensions and (b) conceptualize mobile phone self-efficacy and examine its relationship with CMPU. A survey with 446 U.S. adults was conducted in which respondents completed assessments related to CMPU, mobile phone self-efficacy, and mobile phone use frequency. Results showed the presence of a three-dimensional factor structure for CMPU. While gender, age, and mobile phone activity were associated with CMPU, mobile phone self-efficacy was not. The relevance of the findings is discussed along with implications for future research.
Conference Paper
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Günümüzde teknolojinin gelişmesi ve ucuzlamasıyla teknoloji hayatımızın birçok alanına girmiştir. Özellikle cep telefonlarının sunduğu imkânların gelişmesi ve çeşitliliğinin artması ile birlikte akılı cep telefonları hayatımızın vazgeçilmezleri haline gelmeye başlamıştır. Hatta bu durumun bağımlılık seviyesine kadar ulaşıldığı görülmüştür. Bu çalışma öğretmen adaylarının akıllı cep telefonlarını kullanım alışkanlıklarını belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bir başka deyişle, bu çalışmada üniversite öğrencilerinin akıllı cep telefonlarını nasıl kullandıklarını betimsel olarak sunulmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesine kayıtlı öğrenciler örneklem olarak seçilmiştir. Araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan anket öğrencilere dağıtılmış ve 152 erkek 263 kadın toplam 415 öğrenciden dönüş alınmıştır. Veriler IBM SPSS 21 paket programıyla analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucu çalışmaya katılan öğretmen adaylarının büyük bir çoğunluğunun akıllı telefona sahip ve internet erişimlerinin olduğu görülmüştür. Akıllı cep telefonu kullanmayı isteme sebepleri arasında ilk sıralarda diğer arkadaşlarının akıllı telefon kullanması ve aileleriyle rahat iletişime geçebilmeleri yer almıştır. Telefonun özelliklerinin ve markasının öğretmen adaylarının akıllı telefon seçmelerinde en önemli etkenler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Katılımcıların yarısına yakını, akıllı cep telefonlarını 1-2 saat aralıksız kullandıklarını belirtmiştir. Çalışmada, katılımcıların birçoğunun interneti en çok iletişim ve sosyal medyaya bağlanmak amacıyla kullandıkları görülmüştür. Katılımcıların yarıdan fazlası akıllı cep telefonlarından vazgeçemeyeceklerini belirtmişlerdir. Yapılan bu çalışma öğretmen adaylarının akıllı telefon kullanım durumları ve teknoloji-özellikle akıllı telefon-bağımlılığı konusunda alan yazına katkıda bulunmaktadır.
Article
Nomophobia (no-mobile-phone phobia) is a relatively new term that describes the growing fear and anxiety associated with being without a mobile phone. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nomophobia among the undergraduate students of Pakistan, and to determine its correlation with age and gender. It also aims to determine the contributory factors of nomophobia. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey from March 25 to April 25, 2021. The snowball sampling technique was used for data collection. The Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) developed by Yildirim and Correia was circulated among the target population. It was a 7-point Likert Scale that was analyzed on the basis of age and gender using IBM SPSS version 22 and MS Excel 2007. The contributing factors were also analyzed. Of the 483 responses we received, 28 were discarded due to incompleteness and respondents being out of age under study that is, 15–25 years. Most of the respondents were women (n = 314, 69.01 percent). Men were less in number than women (n = 141, 31 percent). The ages of most of the respondents lied between 15 and 25 years. Twenty was the mode age. One hundred eighty-six (40.88 percent) had severe, 221 (48.57 percent) had moderate, and 48 (10.55 percent) had mild nomophobia. Average factor-wise scores and individual item scores were also added. Our findings reached a conclusion that the majority of the undergraduate students in Pakistan suffer from nomophobia ranging from its mild to severe form. Nomophobia can possibly be included as a recognized phobia in the DSM. Wider research on the subject to investigate it further and evaluate the clinical significance should be done.
Article
“Nomophobia” is the fear of not being able to use your smartphone and has been noted to be associated with excessive levels of smartphone dependency. For many, these devices have become an extension of ourselves, which raises hesitation on whether or not society has become addicted to smartphones. Specific diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction have yet to be settled, and even use of the word “addiction” when describing excessive usage of smartphones is controversial. We therefore utilize current measures to explore the symptoms of smartphone dependency and their hierarchy, as well as comorbidities including social anxiety, self-esteem, and distracted driving. A total of 159 adults from a research-intensive university in the Midwestern United States completed an anonymous online survey. Through factor analytic and Rasch modeling methods, it was found that based on a single measure for one's level of nomophobia, the degree to which smartphone use interferes with daily life can be qualified. The relationship between nomophobia and social anxiety supports the hypothesis that smartphone addiction can be magnified by personality traits and other psychiatric comorbidities. Both multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses found that phone usage while driving and being female were found to be significant positive predictors of smartphone dependency. It is apparent that technology addiction and smartphone addiction need to be studied among a greater population, especially among women and those who use their smartphones while driving.
Article
The purpose of this study was to use item response theory to assess a brief measure of problematic smartphone use among high school students, using the 2017-18 California Student Tobacco Survey (CSTS) collected from 119,981 students who own a smartphone across 256 high schools in California. An exploratory factor analysis supported two factors that represented problematic smartphone use and concurrent behavioral issues, explaining 47% of the variance. Item response modeling demonstrated good item discrimination for problematic smartphone use (a > 1.15) and valuable test information for respondents within two standard deviations of the sample mean. Students who reported a score of 3 (somewhat agree) or 4 (agree) on each problematic smartphone use item accounted for 22% (n = 25,997) of the student population who owned smartphones in our sample. Concurrent and criterion validity were found as problematic smartphone use significantly predicted smartphone use instead of sleep (b = 0.35, 95% CI [0.34, 0.36], p < .05), smartphone use instead of work (b = 0.31, 95% CI [0.30, 0.32], p < .05), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.34, 95% CI [1.31, 1.37]), and loneliness (b = 0.18, 95% CI [0.16, 0.18], p < .01). Implications for screening and identifying appropriate cut-off criteria for problematic smartphone use are discussed.
Article
Purpose With the rise in adverse impact of excessive technology use, such as smartphone; the issue of smartphone addiction has gained the attention of researchers in recent years. Therefore, this study undertakes to review the literature on smartphone addiction research by identifying the current state of research in this domain and the future avenues that need to be addressed. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive bibliometric analysis was conducted on 652 articles extracted from SCOPUS database. Publications were extracted from Scopus by performing a keyword search of “Smartphone Addiction” OR “Problematic smartphone use”. Bibliometric methods such as performance analysis and science mapping were used to perform the overview of smartphone addiction research. In addition, VOSviewer software was used to organise, analyse and present the data. This study identifies the most prolific authors, journals, documents, collaborative work, major research themes, potential research avenues in this field of research. Findings The result shows that the research on smartphone addiction has increased recently, the dominance of research is found in few countries only. There is preponderance of research in this domain in Asian countries, particularly South Korea and still there is a significant scope for future research in this area, which is presented in detail in this study. The research on smartphone addiction has been mainly conducted in the field of medicine and psychology; the other subjects lack behind by a significant margin in terms of research publications in this domain. The findings suggest Elhai (US) is the most influential researcher in this field, and US has shown high collaboration in smartphone addiction research with other countries as well as with authors within its domestic territory. Thematic map obtained from R software presents the evolution of themes. It shows that quality of life, social support, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression are major variables studied over the period. Respondents in most of the studies were university students, as the young generation is technology-savvy and is more attracted to gadgets such as smartphones. Research limitations/implications This study provides an overview of research on smartphone addiction through an exhaustive bibliometric analysis to organise the fragmented literature on smartphone addiction and provide structure for future research in the domain. This is the first study of its kind on the subject. This study has found important future research avenues in the domain, which need to be addressed. Also, it will provide guidance to stakeholders from different backgrounds like, manufacturers, marketers, regulators, policymakers, consumers and academicians to contribute in controlling this problem as a part of their social responsibility. Originality/value This paper is unique in the sense that it, for the first time, attempts to provides valuable insights on the current status of research on smartphone addiction and also provides guidance for potential future agenda through bibliometric and content analysis techniques.
Chapter
It has been argued that consuming social and micro-targeted digital content rapidly and continuously arouses the brain into an impulsive, dopamine-fueled, ‘automatic’ flow state that leads to excessive and unhealthy smartphone use. The ubiquity of advertising-based products that exploit users’ vulnerabilities to maximize engagement is leading to detrimental impacts on well-being and widespread addiction symptoms. In the UK, about 40% of adults think they spend too much time online, 60% consider themselves ‘hooked’ and 33% find disconnecting difficult. The current digital solutions quantify and block app usage. However, guilt and self-coercion are unhealthy motivators, digital interventions rapidly desensitize users, and experiences of varying quality may occur on one app. Here we introduce Holdable devices, biofeedback-based tangible interfaces that sense when smartphones are used inattentively or compulsively from the motion of the hand behind the phone and gently alert users to regain mindfulness through haptic feedback and abstract visualization. We describe our design process and a pilot study with three prototypes that evaluated user preferences and the intervention’s impact on psychological factors related to problematic smartphone use. Results reveal the potential for beneficial impacts on cognitive and behavioral metrics and inform scopes for future designs.
Article
Smartphones are among the most important non-drug addictions today. Nowadays, young people spend most of their time sharing content in the virtual world, living in line with their impulsive thoughts, following their friends, and updating their status. This causes young people to be isolated from the real life and have sleeping problems, brings about psychological problems and leads to academic failure. This study aims to determine the levels of nomophobia among nursing students studying at university and detect influencing factors. The individuals participating in the study were applied the 9-item introductory information form and the 20-item, 7-point Likert-type Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q), which is used to determine the level of the fear of being without smartphone. The Nomophobia Scale was detected as X±SD 74.88±28.91. Moreover, when the introductory characteristics and the total nomophobia score were examined, the association between checking phone as soon as waking up, carrying a charger, spending time with phone before sleep, and daily frequency of phone use were detected to be statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Although no significant difference was detected between the total nomophobia score and the variable of sex, when the mean score was compared across sexes, it was seen that males got 73.28 while females got 75.97 and that females were more nomophobic than males.
Article
Aim To quantify and characterise sexual assaults occurring after 12–17-year-old children connect with an alleged offender online (technology-facilitated sexual assault: TFSA) examined at a paediatric forensic medical service in Melbourne, Australia between 2014 and 2020. To compare these findings to a previous 7-year audit (2007–2013) to determine if there has been an increase in TFSA over the last 14 years. Methods A retrospective audit was undertaken of medical records of children aged 12–17 who underwent forensic medical examinations at the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service following an allegation of sexual assault, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2020. Cases identified as being technology facilitated were further analysed. Results from 2014 to 2020 7-year cohort were then compared to an existing audit over the preceding 7-year period (2007–2013). Results Of 515 sexual assault cases between 2014 and 2020, 70 (14%) victims reported connecting with the offender on a technological platform, compared to 4% of cases between 2007 and 2013. In 2019 and 2020, TFSA comprised almost one-fifth of caseload. Of the 70 TFSA cases, the majority occurred at the first face-to-face meeting following a variable period of online communication. Approximately one-third of TFSA's occurred at the offender's residence, and another third in a public place (park, public toilets). Technological platforms used evolved over the 14-year study period. Conclusions The proportion of TFSA caseload seen at an Australian paediatric forensic medical service increased over the last 14 years, with common characteristics to these sexual assaults suggested.
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Cultural evolutionary theory has identified a range of cognitive biases that guide human social learning. Naturalistic and experimental studies indicate transmission biases favoring negative and positive information. To address these conflicting findings, the present study takes a socially situated view of information transmission, which predicts that bias expression will depend on the social context. We report a large-scale experiment (N = 425) that manipulated the social context and examined its effect on the transmission of the positive and negative information contained in a narrative text. In each social context, information was progressively lost as it was transmitted from person to person, but negative information survived better than positive information, supporting a negative transmission bias. Importantly , the negative transmission bias was moderated by the social context: Higher social connectivity weakened the bias to transmit negative information, supporting a socially situated account of information transmission. Our findings indicate that our evolved cognitive preferences can be moderated by our social goals.
Article
This meta‐analysis examines the relations between social media addiction and Big Five traits, together with moderating effects on the associations. Sixty‐three studies comprising 74 samples (N = 32,032) were identified. The correlations between social media addiction and neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness are r¯ = .17, .03, −.03, −.07 and −.15, respectively. The findings indicate that neuroticism is a risk factor for social media addiction, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness are protective factors. The moderating effects of the country studied and measures of Big Five traits and social media addiction are mixed, whereas those for mean age and gender composition of the sample are not significant.
Thesis
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As digital media infiltrate an increasingly greater proportion of our lives, concern about the possibility of various forms of technology addictions has emerged. For technology addiction, researchers have developed a variety of self-reported scales in areas such as Internet, smartphones, videogames, social network sites (SNS) or television. However, no uniform criteria or definition exists for technology addiction. Utilized dimensions of technology addiction, to measure specific outcomes, lack a conceptual standard. Therefore, linkages between technology areas dimensions have not been examined in a broader way by the research community, in order to develop a uniform technology addiction scale. In this regard, firstly, a theoretical model was developed in order to extract common technology dimensions. Secondly, a systematic literature review in the areas of Internet, smartphone, video games and SNS was conducted in order to extract the dimensions used. To identify relevant studies, nine databases (GoogleScholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, EmeraldInsight, Wiley, SpringerLink, ACM, iEEE and JSTOR) were searched, producing 4698 results, and 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirdly, the developed theoretical model was utilized in order to determine the dimension in each of the identified scales. Based on analysis of the dimensional distributions, the findings suggest that there are common dimensions across areas of technology such as “compulsive use” and “negative outcomes” but also differences in dimensions across areas such as “social comfort” and “mood regulation”, which are more used in the area of SNS. Moreover, new dimensions such as “cognitive absorption” or “utility and function loss" for technology addiction were extracted, which should be considered as these have not yet been researched in a broader way. In addition, no gold standard for the conceptual criteria or definition for technology addiction has been developed yet. Keywords: Systematic Review, Technology Addiction Scales
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of gender and impulsive decision making on social networking site (SNS) use in college students. Participants completed a delay-discounting task with hypothetical monetary rewards, in which they made repeated choices between a larger amount of money obtained later and an equal or lower amount of money obtained immediately. Based on the reported hours spent for SNS use, the participants were first grouped into the high or low SNS use group. They were then grouped by gender. The results show that, in females, the high SNS users did not differ significantly from the low SNS users in terms of rates of delay discounting, whereas in males, the high SNS users discounted delayed monetary rewards at greater rates than the low SNS users. These findings support the conclusion that gender acts as a moderating variable in the relation between SNS use and impulsive decision making. The present study contributes to the literature by providing implications for developing effective intervention strategies for excessive/problematic SNS use.
Article
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This study aimed to assess pathological Internet and cell-phone use in college students, and to identify psychological, health, and behavioral correlates. A cross-sectional design was utilized to gather data from 337 students. We developed two measures, termed the Internet Over-use Scale (IOS), and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS). Additional measures utilized were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Results provide support for internal consistency of the IOS and the COS (α = 0.88 and α = 0.87, respectively) as well as for construct validity. Logistic regression analyses indicated that heavy Internet use is associated with high anxiety; high cell-phone use is associated to being female, and having high anxiety and insomnia. The developed measures seem to be promising tools for assessing these new behavioral addictions.
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Within mainstream social psychology, consumer behavior has been explained mainly in terms of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Recently, some authors suggested that self-identity dimensions can explain different types of intentions. To compare the predictive power of a tentative new model of self-expressive consumer behavior with that of the TPB, three studies were conducted in which, besides the classical variables of the model of TPB, variables concerning self-identity were also taken into account. Three independent samples (N1= 257, N2= 214, N3= 298) were recruited to study the intention to buy fashionable watches, trendy backpacks, and cellular telephones in relation to the aforementioned variables derived from TPB and from identity theory. Data analyses, based on structural equation modeling, show that identity variables contribute significantly to the explanation of purchase intention.
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Data from surveys and personal interviews were used to analyze gendered patterns and contexts of the mobile phone use of Israelis. The findings suggest that the mobile phone has become an everyday, highly regarded, multipurpose interpersonal communication device rather than a working tool. Both men and women discussed their perceptions of the role of the mobile phone in their lives in quite a traditional gendered manner—activity and technological appropriation for men and dependency and domesticity for women. At the same time, the actual phoning habits and attitudes of users point to a pattern of domestication of the mobile phone and even feminization of its consumption.
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The paper reports on an empirical study of the connection between consumption patterns and mobile phone use. The data stem from a survey of Finnish young people aged 16–20. The results indicate that young people's relationship to the mobile phone is consistent with their general consumption styles. An "addictive" use of the phone was related to "trendy" and "impulsive" consumption styles and prevalent among females. Technology enthusiasm and trend-consciousness was linked to impulsive consumption and "hard" values and prevalent among males. A frugal mobile phone use was not related to gender but to environmentalism and thrifty consumption in general. The traditional gender division in mobile phone use styles that could be observed is interesting in the light of conjectures that genders are becoming more alike in their use of new technology. Technology enthusiasm, usually regarded as a "typically male" thing, was also linked to "female" consumption styles. This may reflect young men's changing relationship to consumption.
Chapter
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This chapter explores public mobile communication technology as frontstage and back-stage phenomena. We explore the design aesthetics of the mobile phone from the standpoint of its commercial origins and public re-interpretation, emphasizing fashion and identity in the co-creation and consumption of mobile communication technology. The mobile phone in this context is analyzed as both a physical icon and an item of decorative display related to fashion and design. We begin by noting how the early telephone, because it enabled people to communicate efficiently over distance, served as a status symbol. We then highlight the role of fashion and display to show how the symbolic meaning of telecommunication has been evolving. In terms of fashion, we look at the way in which fashion and style have been used to promote the mobile phone by industry. In terms of display, we look at the collateral promotion of other products by reference to the mobile phone and body–technology relationship. Finally, we examine co-constructions that extend beyond the narrow, utilitarian purposes for which the mobile phone was originally designed to show how novel links are forged to deeper psychological and existential processes. That is, the mobile phone is strongly connected with ingrained human perceptions of distance, power, status and identity. A few words concerning formal theory may be in order. Among the most prominent and influential sub-perspectives of the functionalist school are the “domestication” and “uses and gratifications” perspectives. They have been frequently employed by earlier researchers on mobile
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Research on self-esteem has focused almost exclusively on level of trait self-esteem to the neglect of other potentially more important aspects such as the contingencies on which self-esteem is based. Over a century ago, W. James (1890) argued that self-esteem rises and falls around its typical level in response to successes and failures in domains on which one has staked self-worth. We present a model of global self-esteem that builds on James' insights and emphasizes contingencies of self-worth. This model can help to (a) point the way to understanding how self-esteem is implicated in affect, cognition, and self-regulation of behavior, (b) suggest how and when self-esteem is implicated in social problems; (c) resolve debates about the nature and functioning of self-esteem; (d) resolve paradoxes in related literatures, such as why people who are stigmatized do not necessarily have low self-esteem and why self-esteem does not decline with age; and (e) suggest how self-esteem is causally related to depression. In addition, this perspective raises questions about how contingencies of self-worth are acquired and how they change, whether they are primarily a resource or a vulnerability, and whether some people have noncontingent self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
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This study aims to improve our understanding of why drivers use their mobile phones while driving and to inform campaigns designed to address this behaviour. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to investigate factors relating to mobile phone use while driving. Study 1 (N = 47) elicited behavioural, normative, and control beliefs towards mobile phone use while driving and assessed situational factors affecting this behaviour. Study 2 (N = 801) examined how attitudes, normative pressures, and control factors influenced intention to use a mobile phone while driving in general, and in four scenarios manipulating driving condition (moving versus stationary) and drivers motivation (in a hurry versus not in a hurry). In addition, the research explored the effects of age, gender, driving purpose, perceived risk of apprehension, perceived risk of crashing, and addictive tendencies towards mobile phone use. Differences in the underlying beliefs held by participants with strong and weak intentions to use a mobile phone while driving were also assessed. Participants’ attitudes towards mobile phone use while driving were the only consistent predictors of the intention to engage in this behaviour in the future. Drivers with strong intentions to use a mobile phone while driving perceived that this behaviour had more advantages, greater approval from others and were less affected by factors deterring them from using a mobile phone while driving, than drivers with weak intentions. The perceived risk of apprehension, or crashing did not have much impact on participants’ intention to engage in this behaviour. People with addictive tendencies towards mobile phone use were more likely to use their mobile phone while driving. Drivers were more likely to use their phone when waiting at traffic lights than when driving at 100 km/h. Results of the study improve our understanding of why drivers use their mobile phones while driving by highlighting factors which influence driver’s decisions to engage in this behaviour. The findings from this study can inform campaigns designed to reduce this unsafe driving practice.
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Our possessions are a major contributor to and reflection of our identities. A variety of evidence is presented supporting this simple and compelling premise. Related streams of research are identified and drawn upon in developing this concept and implications are derived for consumer behavior. Because the construct of extended self involves consumer behavior rather than buyer behavior, it appears to be a much richer construct than previous formulations positing a relationship between self-concept and consumer brand choice.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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Generalising from some previous analyses of addiction and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focused on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management," we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety, and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state." A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strong significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.
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Compulsive buying is an understudied, but growing, dysfunctional consumer behaviour with harmful psychological and financial consequences. Clinical perspectives treat it as a psychiatric disorder, whereas recent proposals emphasize the increasing endorsement of materialistic values as a cause of uncontrolled buying (e.g. Dittmar, 2004b; Kasser & Kanner, 2004). The present research aims to improve understanding of compulsive buying through examining gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as key predictors in three UK questionnaire studies, which sampled individuals who had contacted a self-help organization and residentially matched 'controls' (N = 330), consumer panelists from a multinational corporation (N = 250), and 16- to 18-year-old adolescents (N = 195). The results confirmed previously documented gender differences, and showed that younger people are more prone to compulsive buying. The central findings were that materialistic value endorsement emerged as the strongest predictor of individuals' compulsive buying, and that it significantly mediated the observed age differences.
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In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward identifying major research themes and findings. Research on adolescents' relationships with parents, siblings, other relatives, peers, and romantic partners, and adolescents' involvement in community and society is reviewed. Future directions in research on adolescent development are discussed.
Book
Has the cell phone forever changed the way people communicate? The mobile phone is used for "real time" coordination while on the run, adolescents use it to manage their freedom, and teens "text" to each other day and night. The mobile phone is more than a simple technical innovation or social fad, more than just an intrusion on polite society. This book, based on world-wide research involving tens of thousands of interviews and contextual observations, looks into the impact of the phone on our daily lives. The mobile phone has fundamentally affected our accessibility, safety and security, coordination of social and business activities, and use of public places. Based on research conducted in dozens of countries, this insightful and entertaining book examines the once unexpected interaction between humans and cell phones, and between humans, period. The compelling discussion and projections about the future of the telephone should give designers everywhere a more informed practice and process, and provide researchers with new ideas to last years.
Article
This study is focused on the long-term changes in identity revealed by the accounts of people who have managed to quit their addictive behaviours. The views of Rom Harre (1983, Personal being. Oxford: Basil Blackwell) are used as the theoretical frame of reference in analysing these accounts. According to Harre, there are two central projects in identity formation. One involves the appropriation of a social identity that secures an honourable position among fellow human beings. The other one involves finding and defending one's unique personal identity. This qualitative study aims to display the relevance of these processes in the recovery from addictive behaviours. The subjects (n = 76) were media-recruited individuals who had managed to quit their addictions and maintain the change for more than three years. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to gather data on their recovery. The relevance of social and personal identity projects in their recovery is displayed in case descriptions. Similar trends are also identified in other subjects. Differences between treated and untreated recovery and the following identity work are also discussed. The results of the study suggest that the changes in identity are not limited only to the resocialisation or normalisation of former addicts but they also involve attempts to rind more personally satisfying and authentic modes of being in the world. It is suggested that the observed identity work might be essential for solidifying the change and providing meaning for a sober lifestyle.
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Providing the first comprehensive, accessible, and international introduction to cell phone culture and theory, this book is and clear and sophisticated overview of mobile telecommunications, putting the technology in historical and technical context.
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As people integrate use of the cell phone into their lives, do they view it as just an update of the fixed telephone or assign it special values? This study explores that question in the framework of gratifications sought and their relationship both to differential cell phone use and to social connectedness. Based on a survey of Taiwanese college students, we found that the cell phone supplements the fixed telephone as a means of strengthening users’ family bonds, expanding their psychological neighborhoods, and facilitating symbolic proximity to the people they call. Thus, the cell phone has evolved from a luxury for businesspeople into an important facilitator of many users’ social relationships. For the poorly connected socially, the cell phone offers a unique advantage: it confers instant membership in a community. Finally, gender was found to mediate how users exploit the cell phone to maintain social ties.
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This article discusses the development, reliability, and validity of real-time measures of mobile phone use by means of Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology, in comparison with traditional questionnaire-generated recall measures. The sample consisted of 211 Israeli adult mobile phone subscribers subdivided by gender and by the amount of airtime that they normally use. The measurements were applied to three questions to which the participants responded via IVR following their incoming and outgoing mobile phone calls during a five-day period: the identity of the person with whom they spoke; their location during the call; and the urgency of the call. These data were compared with recall measures obtained earlier from questionnaires. The article discusses the merits of the IVR real-time data versus those obtained from traditional recall questions asking for past or habitual behaviors.
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The nature and extent of computer use in an Australian regional sample of adolescents was examined in relation to individual characteristics and parental control. High engagement with computers, problematic use of computers, and the use of computers for different purposes were related to general behavioural tendencies of approach and avoidance represented by the behavioural inhibition system (BIS)/behavioural activation system (BAS) measures and to measures of parental control provided by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results indicated that age, gender, and the BIS/BAS measures were useful constructs in explaining variation in computer use generally, and in explaining the diversity of reasons for computer use. Parental control was only weakly related to outcome behaviours. It was concluded that problematic computer use and hours spent at the computer show some similarities with substance use except for the strength of the relationships and the role of the BIS.
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Mobility, immediacy, and instrumentality are found the strongest instrumental motives in predicting the use of cellular phones, followed by intrinsic factors such as affection/sociability. Subscription to functionally enhanced services such as call transfers and caller ID appears to be important predictors for overall cellular phone use, especially for those who are on the go. As expected, the use of cellular phones on buses, cars, and trains or in malls and restaurants is strongly linked to mobility and immediate access gratifications. Further, young and less educated women tend to talk longer on each call. Finally, talking to co-workers and business partners via cellular phones appears to be for instrumental reasons, while talking to immediate family members is for mobility and showing affection.
Article
Has the cell phone forever changed the way people communicate? The mobile phone is used for â?real timeâ coordination while on the run, adolescents use it to manage their freedom, and teens â?textâ to each other day and night. The mobile phone is more than a simple technical innovation or social fad, more than just an intrusion on polite society. This book, based on world-wide research involving tens of thousands of interviews and contextual observations, looks into the impact of the phone on our daily lives. The mobile phone has fundamentally affected our accessibility, safety and security, coordination of social and business activities, and use of public places. Based on research conducted in dozens of countries, this insightful and entertaining book examines the once unexpected interaction between humans and cell phones, and between humans, period. The compelling discussion and projections about the future of the telephone should give designers everywhere a more informed practice and process, and provide researchers with new ideas to last years.
Article
The purpose of this book is to describe and explain methodology and research design in clinical psychology. The book elaborates the methods of conducting research and the broad range of practices, procedures, and designs for developing a sound knowledge base. It also focuses on the underpinnings, rationale, and purposes of these practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
identity theory takes as its central proposition that commitment structures identity structures role performance / that 'formula' emerges from an attempt to develop the traditional symbolic interactionist framework by introducing into that framework a viable conception of interactional structure compatible with its premises, by finding ways of conceptualizing the impact of large-scale societal structures on interactional structures again in ways compatible with its premises, and by finding ways to state its propositions to permit reasonably rigorous tests / such an attempt responds to major criticisms of the symbolic interactionist framework appearing over the years in the literature (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Provides an account of core knowledge in the field of addictions for students, academics, professionals and trainees in psychology, psychiatry, social work and related health disciplines. Topics include the origins and processes of addiction to the ways in which people overcome addictions, the implications for interventions, accounts of the different forms of addiction, including alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, gambling, eating and sex, and a psychological model of addictions which challenges former models. A comprehensive review of the research literature with a large reference base is also included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Ostracism has a powerful negative effect on individuals. Face-to-face (i.e., social) ostracism is not necessary for these effects to emerge; they occur also in Internet ball toss games and within chat rooms. In previous research, ostracized individuals observed the interaction between other members of a group. In this experiment, the authors tested whether imagined ostracism is sufficient to inflict psychological pain. They used a triadic cell phone text-messaging method such that after initial inclusion in a conversation, participants either continued to be included or received no further messages from the others (and saw no messages between the others). Ostracized participants reported worse mood; reported lower state levels of belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence; and wrote more provoking messages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The question of whether behaviours can be addictive in the same sense as psychoactive substances has been debated in psychology for some time. Increased understanding of the brain reward system tends to support this notion. The way in which behaviours may modulate that system, coupled with self-report and behavioural analysis, suggests three characteristics of substances or behaviours that may lead to addictions. The reward system must register a relatively rapid and substantial improvement in hedonic state, the user unable to find alternative ways of obtaining this improvement, and the performance of the addictive behaviour leads to maladaptive functioning and a state of chronic dysphoria. Cognitive and social factors may also influence the development and maintenance of addiction.
Article
This study considered whether the distinction between core and peripheral criteria for behavioral addiction, previously drawn with respect to computing activities in general, applies in the specific area of Massively Multiplayer Online Game playing. Questionnaire items were administered over the Internet to 442 game players. Factor-analysis of the data supported the previous findings for computing in general. An addiction factor loaded on items tapping previously identified core criteria (conflict, withdrawal symptoms, relapse and reinstatement and behavioral salience) and a (non-pathological) engagement factor loaded on items tapping previously identified peripheral criteria (cognitive salience, tolerance and euphoria). Analysis of response frequencies supported the existence of a developmental process whereby peripheral criteria are met before core criteria. Players who might be considered addicted using a monothetic classification system involving only the core criteria were shown to spend a significantly greater amount of time playing per week than those endorsing only the peripheral criteria. It is concluded that the study supports the idea that it is inappropriate to use some of the previously used criteria for addiction when researching or diagnosing computer-related addictions. Implications of the present findings for Internet-mediated data collection methodologies are also discussed.
Article
Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the expected use, which is more task-oriented. Over time, due to the quick habituation of the new mobile communication device important, initial gratifications, like permanent access and social interaction, appear to be less manifest reasons for using the mobile communication device and become more latent, while gratifications like fashion/status and entertainment appear to become more dominant. Moreover, the boundary between work and personal life slowly disappears as people can easily use mobile communication technology simultaneously for personal and business purposes in both social and work-related contexts.
Article
Today's mobile phone is a pervasive tool. It has become such an important aspect of a user's daily life that it has moved from being a mere 'technological object' to a key 'social object'. This paper explores the societal and human implications of advances in mobile technology, and notably the increasingly personalized nature of the mobile device. It argues that human and identity and social interaction have not been untouched by the mobile phenomenon.
Article
Mobile phone use is a prevalent behaviour amongst youth; however, there is little research to determine psychological influences on mobile phone use. This paper reports the results of a qualitative exploration into social psychological factors relating to young people’s mobile phone use. Focus groups were conducted with 32 participants, aged between 16 and 24 years. Three major themes, connectedness, belonging, and social identity, were explored in relation to young people’s mobile phone use. Easy contact with others when using a mobile phone facilitated connectedness between people. A need to remain connected emerged in participants’ descriptions of their mobile phone use. Consequently, data were analysed for factors underpinning people’s desire to be connected. It emerged that mobile phones were used to enhance feelings of belonging amongst youth. Additionally, group norms influenced mobile phone behaviour indicating that social identity processes are related to mobile phone use. Results in the study provide a foundation upon which to investigate further the relationship between mobile phone use and psychological factors impacting on young people’s social development.
Article
This study examined the effect of and relationship between self- and prototypical identity influences on high-level mobile phone use from a theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective. Participants were 252 university students who completed 2 questionnaires, 1 week apart. The first questionnaire assessed the standard TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control), as well as self- and prototypical identity influences. The second questionnaire assessed level of mobile phone use in the previous week. Support was found for the TPB in predicting high-level mobile use intentions and behavior. Self-identity and prototype similarity, but not prototype favorability, also significantly predicted intentions. The effects of prototype similarity on intentions were mediated via self-identity processes.
Article
Mobile phone use is a highly prevalent behaviour, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults; however, there is little research investigating psychological factors influencing mobile phone use. This study adopted a theory of planned behaviour belief-based framework to investigate whether young adults who engaged in high and low level mobile phone use differed in their behavioural, normative and control beliefs in relation to mobile phone use.
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We examined the role of personality and self-esteem in university students' (N = 200) use of communication technologies. More disagreeable individuals spent increased time on calls, whereas extraverted and neurotic individuals reported increased time spent text messaging. More disagreeable individuals and those with lower self-esteem spent increased time using instant messaging (IM). For addictive tendencies related to communication technologies, more neurotic individuals reported stronger mobile phone addictive tendencies, while more disagreeable individuals and those with lower self-esteem reported stronger IM addictive tendencies.
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The aim of the present study was to examine further the role that self-identity plays in the theory of planned behaviour and, more specifically, to: (1) examine the combined effects of self-identity and social identity constructs on intention and behaviour, and (2) examine the effects of self-identity as a function of past experience of performing the behaviour. The study was concerned with the prediction of intention to engage in household recycling and reported recycling behaviour. A sample of 143 community residents participated in the study. It was prospective in design: measures of the predictors and intention were obtained at the first wave of data collection, whereas behaviour was assessed two weeks later. Self-identity significantly predicted behavioural intention, a relationship that was not dependent on the extent to which the behaviour had been performed in the past. As expected, there was also evidence that the perceived norm of a behaviourally relevant reference group was related to behavioural intention, but only for participants who identified strongly with the group, whereas the relationship between perceived behavioural control (a personal factor) and intention was strongest for low identifiers.
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Evidence supporting the application of Brown's (1991, 1993) conception of behavioural addiction to computing behaviour is presented. Questionnaire items tapping Brown's addiction criteria were factor-analysed along with others, including computer apathy-engagement and computer anxiety-comfort items of Charlton and Birkett (1995). Items relating to some of Brown's criteria (tolerance, euphoria, and cognitive salience) were found to be complex, an Addiction factor loading upon them but an Engagement factor loading more highly. Items tapping other criteria (conflict, withdrawal, behavioural salience, and relapse and reinstatement) were shown to be factor pure, with only the addiction factor loading highly upon them. It is concluded that Brown's conception of behavioural addiction can be applied to computer-related behaviour, although the relationship of milder facets of addiction, which are also merely indicative of high engagement, to computer-related addictions is non-unique. It is also concluded that classifying individuals as exhibiting pathological computer use using checklists based upon adaptations of DSM criteria for pathological gambling is likely to overestimate the number of people addicted to computing activities.
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Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.
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The main goal of this study is to investigate social influences of adolescent smoking and drinking. These social influences include social motives, parental attitudes, communal mastery and peers' substance use patterns. Literature suggests that communal mastery (as a form of social competence) may be related to adolescent substance use. In addition, gender differences may be hypothesized in the social influences of adolescent substance use. Data were collected in a middle and high school student population (N = 634, 50.6% males, age range: 11-19, mean: 15.6, S.D.: 2.0) in Szeged, Hungary. The instruments contained questions on sociodemographics, smoking and drinking, social influences, social motives, and communal mastery. Results showed that high levels of communal mastery was an important protective factor against adolescent boys' smoking and drinking. For girls, communal mastery did not play such a role. The role of social motives, friends' and best friend's substance use and parental approval also were justified.
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In Australia, youth are the most prolific users of mobile phones, however, there is little research investigating this phenomenon. This paper reports a qualitative exploration of psychological factors relating to mobile phone use amongst Australian youth. 32 participants, aged between 16 and 24 years, took part in focus group discussions. Thematic data analysis focussed on identifying the psychological benefits arising from mobile phone use and whether mobile phone addiction was occurring amongst this group. Mobile phone use was believed to provide numerous benefits to users and is an intrinsic part of most young people's lives. It emerged that some young people are extremely attached to their mobile phone with symptoms of behavioural addiction revealed in participants' descriptions of their mobile phone use. The study provides a solid foundation for further work investigating addictive patterns of mobile phone use amongst youth.