Article

Effects of Typographic Factors in Advertising-Based Persuasion: A General Model and Initial Empirical Tests

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Abstract

Advertisers are constantly seeking ways to increase the persuasive power of their ads. To that end, advertisers are encouraged to match their advertising's executional elements (e.g., spokespersons, visuals, etc.) with their consumer's motivation, opportunity, and ability (MOA) to process brand information from advertising. A less-considered approach is to select executional elements that will increase consumer motivation, opportunity, and ability. Following this approach, the current study examines typography, a potentially critical but relatively underinvestigated executional element. Typography is a major executional element of word-driven advertising (e.g., print and internet), and has the potential to significantly influence motivation, opportunity, and ability to process advertising messages. Given the potential importance of typography, it is surprising how little research has been conducted to examine its effects in a persuasion context. One reason for this paucity of research may be the lack of an organizing framework delineating the macrolevel relationships between typographic dimensions, typographic outcomes, and the effects of those outcomes on consumer MOA to process advertising. Therefore, the current study develops a general model of typographic effects in advertising-based persuasion and then tests select portions of that model empirically. The findings indicate that not only is typography capable of affecting consumer ability to process ad-based brand information, but that the effects of various typographic characteristics are highly interactive. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... In marketing, the fonts that a company chooses not only influence the readability of the text (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh, 2002), but more importantly, affect consumers' perception of brand warmth (Peracchio and Meyers-Levy, 1994), personality (Grohmann et al., 2013), innovativeness (Hagtvedt, 2011) and even brand gender (Grohmann, 2016). In the marketplace, many companies use cute brand logos or fonts to capture consumers' attention and create good will (e.g. the pink logo of Hello Kitty). ...
... Mackiewicz (2005) proved that letters with rounded corners represent friendliness, simplicity and perfection. Additionally, thickness (Schroll et al., 2018), spatial distance between letters (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993), logo completeness (Hagtvedt, 2011), hand-written font (Schroll et al., 2018), serif (McCarthy andMothersbaugh, 2002), font size (Peracchio and Meyers-Levy, 1994), word clarity/completeness (Hagtvedt, 2011), word frame (Fajardo et al., 2016) and letter shapes (Jiang et al., 2016) are all potential determinants of consumers' brand perception and attitude. It is therefore essential for managers and scholars to pay attention to the implicit influence (the unconscious activation of memory nodes that have impact on consumers' brand attitude) (Belboula et al., 2019) of text-based brand logo designs. ...
... First, our research proves that the influence of height-towidth ratio of letters goes beyond its aesthetic value. In prior research, most scholars see type fonts as a single-dimensional construct that directly influences consumers' brand preference (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh, 2002). Yet in our research, we particularly focus on the mental association of the font. ...
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Purpose This study aims to test the possible correlation between the letter height-to-width ratio and consumers’ perception of cuteness. Design/methodology/approach Through the design of three groups of experimental questionnaires, this paper carried out experiments on subjects with different professional backgrounds. Findings The result shows that perceived cuteness is only beneficial for consumers who adopt communal relationship (rather than exchange relationship) with the brand. Compared to consumers who adopt communal relationship with brands, letters of lower height-to-width ratio are perceived as cuter and thus more preferable than thinner ones, whereas for consumers who adopt exchange relationship with brands, thinner letters are preferred. Research limitations/implications To rule out interference, this study focuses only on the height-to-width ratio of the letters. In the future, researchers can pay more attention to the mobility of brand relationships, consumers’ reading strategy and logos’ visual elements that influence consumers’ brand perception (besides height-to-width ratio). Practical implications The research reminds scholars that the height-to-width ratio of letters/logos is not only of aesthetic value but also imposes a great impact on consumer perception. And the result of this research explains the contradiction in consumers’ preference for wide vs thin letter shapes and provides evidence for the interaction between brand relationship norms and letter preferences. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to explore the influence of letter height-to-width ratio in marketing.
... In marketing and communication activities, it is important to find ways to increase the persuasive ability of ads or make consumers engaged with the messages anticipating their behavioral responses. Accordingly, marketers and advertisers are encouraged to design the ads' executional elements (e.g., typefaces, spokesmodels, colors, etc.) to target the consumers' perception, motivation, opportunity, and ability to process all information from advertising (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002). As examined in previous research (MacInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski 1991;Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann 1983), the motivation, opportunity, and ability of consumers to process various executional elements can influence ad information processing and persuasion. ...
... As examined in previous research (MacInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski 1991;Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann 1983), the motivation, opportunity, and ability of consumers to process various executional elements can influence ad information processing and persuasion. For example, when consumers' motivation toward information processing in an ad is low, non-substantive elements such as emotion-evoking music, typefaces, humor, and spokesmodels become appealing or attractive (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002). While elements such as music and spokesmodels have been the focus of recent studies (Iyengar and Valentino 2000;McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002;Vermeulen and Beukeboom 2016;Yoon and Tinkham 2013), typeface remains a relatively under-investigated executional element, one that has potential importance but has received less attention. ...
... For example, when consumers' motivation toward information processing in an ad is low, non-substantive elements such as emotion-evoking music, typefaces, humor, and spokesmodels become appealing or attractive (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002). While elements such as music and spokesmodels have been the focus of recent studies (Iyengar and Valentino 2000;McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002;Vermeulen and Beukeboom 2016;Yoon and Tinkham 2013), typeface remains a relatively under-investigated executional element, one that has potential importance but has received less attention. Limited empirical research has been conducted to understand the effect of typeface, which is considered one of the executional elements or critical cues to enhance ad effectiveness by interrelating with other elements in advertising (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002). ...
Article
As one of the visual elements in advertising, typefaces elicit psychological associations that might have an impact on ad effectiveness. The current study is aimed at understanding the interrelation between typefaces and advertising’s other executional cues, and the influence of typeface on advertising when it is employed along with visual elements such as spokesmodels in ads considering the congruence effect of perceived power and the associations with typefaces. The purpose of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism of whether typefaces elicit perceived power through psychological perceptions and then, it leads to more engagement and desirable consumers’ responses. This study also explores the congruence effect between typefaces and the perceived power of communicator (i.e., spokesmodels) in ads on attitude toward ads, engagement, and purchase intention. Two experiments were conducted to explore the interrelations between typefaces and the associated factors in the case to use typeface (Study 1) and to investigate the congruence effect of typeface along with a spokesmodel’s power in an ad on ad attitude, engagement, and purchase intention (Study 2). The results will extend our theoretical and practical understanding of typefaces in ads.
... Typography is the art or skill of designing communication via the printed word (Childers and Jass 2002) and constitutes a major executional element of word-driven advertising (e.g., print and online). McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) presented a broad framework encompassing three typographic dimensions in advertising, namely typeface, spacing, and layout. Relevant research has provided empirical evidence suggesting that semantic associations from typography can shape consumers' brand perceptions, as the visual characteristics of written materials may convey connotative meanings beyond the text's actual semantic content (Doyle and Bottomley 2006;Childers and Jass 2002;Celhay, Boysselle, and Cohen 2015;McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002;Henderson, Giese, and Cote 2004). ...
... McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) presented a broad framework encompassing three typographic dimensions in advertising, namely typeface, spacing, and layout. Relevant research has provided empirical evidence suggesting that semantic associations from typography can shape consumers' brand perceptions, as the visual characteristics of written materials may convey connotative meanings beyond the text's actual semantic content (Doyle and Bottomley 2006;Childers and Jass 2002;Celhay, Boysselle, and Cohen 2015;McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002;Henderson, Giese, and Cote 2004). Celhay, Boysselle, and Cohen (2015) posited that a word written in a typeface conveys two meanings: denoted and connotative. ...
... For instance, highly structured texts with precise columns may be correlated, via prior experience, with highly informative materials (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh 2002). Thus, McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) suggested that brands may use a formal layout to establish a serious, professional image. Consistent with this perspective, we anticipate that, in terms of brand/product descriptions, the historical feeling induced by traditional vertical writing may affect consumers' product/brand perceptions in the time dimension (e.g., a product being antique or modern). ...
Article
Language plays an important role in consumers’ perceptions and behavior. East Asian languages, such as Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, are unique in that they can be written horizontally and vertically. In this research, we take China as a case example and explore the downstream consequences of writing direction on Chinese consumers’ time-related perceptions and brand/product evaluations. Using three studies, we find that a description presenting context from the past is perceived as having a longer past temporal distance when written in a vertical (versus horizontal) orientation. In advertising, writing direction can serve as an effective cue to invoke Chinese consumers’ specific time-related perceptions of brands/products. A brand/product is perceived to be more traditional and antique (versus modern and contemporary) when its description is written vertically (versus horizontally). In addition, we demonstrate that an advertisement presented in a vertical (horizontal) direction results in enhanced persuasiveness and more favorable brand/product attitudes when matched with a traditional (modern) brand/product. Our findings enrich theories and implications of language studies in different cultures and elucidate the effects of writing direction in Asian advertising.
... McCarthy and Mothersbaugh [25] define typography as the art of arranging typefaces, selecting the style, line spacing, and layout. They investigated the role of typography in manifesting the advertising message and its effects on the audience and found that various typography characteristics affected consumer appraisal of the advertisement. ...
... Concerning the inability of the audience to identify the types of fonts used in the video advertisements, there are past studies which illustrated similar findings. McCarthy and Mothersbaugh [25] reported in the video advertisements pertaining to persuasion-based advertising, the audience did not recognize the fonts used. On the same note, Donev [27] reported that the audience was not only unable to identify the fonts but also believed that they are insignificant to the advertisements. ...
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... Since the first reported study in 1920 by Berliner (as cited in Davis & Smith, 1933), the connotative role of typography has been a frequentlyresearched topic in business, psychology, design, and education. According to the psychologists, typography is defined as the "art of using typeface, layout, and color to convey the meaning of text" (Smart et al., 2000), or as "the form, spacing, and layout of words and sentences in the text of a written or displayed communication message" (McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). In general, typography is the tool that creates words from characters for example 26 basic in English on paper or screen. ...
... The first sub-aspect is the selection of the font type. The choice of font type affects the level of the text legibility (McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). The font type must be clearly legible or not an art font type, such as the Jokerman or Mistral font types, which really need high focus to be legible. ...
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... Researchers reviewed serif fonts, like Times New Roman, more legible due to their serifs that put more information on the readers' eyes (Geske, 1996). These serifs also improve the text's legibility by assisting the readers to distinguish the words and letters easily (McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). Font size 10 or 11 is the smallest font size that must be utilized for books, according to the majority of the publishers (Tarasov et al., 2015). ...
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Content and accuracy evaluation of textbooks is important as it provides quality assurance to both teachers and learners, especially in the new normal where modular instruction is used. This research aimed at evaluating biology textbooks used by Senior High School STEM Science teachers (n=15) in terms of content, presentation, and learning strategies. Content analysis and Collaizzi’s descriptive phenomenology approach were employed in this study. Results showed that all evaluated textbooks have unique, distinct content, presentation, and learning strategies. Most topics were also aligned with the minimum curriculum requirement for SHS STEM, but topics such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and control checkpoints were not discussed in some books. Learning outcomes were not indicated in some books, and few textbooks did not reach synthesis and evaluation level. However, a comparative approach of cell division across the 5-kingdom system is observed but not explained well, and some misleading statements in the cell division mechanism were present. Considering that cell division precedes the discussion of cancer cell division and metastasis, content enrichment through learner-friendly visuals and diagrams is recommended to facilitate learning, improve retention, and avoid misconceptions.
... According to Henderson, Giese, and Cote (2004), typeface is an important visual tool for creating positive impressions (pleasing, engaging, reassuring, etc.) and for making messages stand out more prominently. Research has revealed that the physical features of the typeface (font style and size) affect readability, memorizing, and responses to advertising (e.g., Amar, Droulers, & Legohérel, 2017;Childers & Jass, 2002;McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). However, only a few studies have investigated the effects of the typography in an online environment (e.g., Bernard et al., 2001;Cyr et al., 2006). ...
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... Typography is a critical executional element of marketing communications, and the selection of typography has been shown to have a significant impact on the effectiveness of marketing communications (for a review, see McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). It is widely accepted that a readable type or font encourages people to continue reading, improves comprehension, and influences consumers' reactions through processing fluency (for a review, see Oppenheimer, 2008). ...
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Contrary to conventional belief and the existing literature, recent research has shown that difficult‐to‐read fonts on marketing communications may evoke perceptual disfluency and enhance consumer evaluation toward unique, complex, or security‐related products. However, no research has examined the psychological mechanism that underlies the positive effects of perceptual disfluency. The current research presents five experiments to address this study gap. Specifically, Studies 1 and 2 provide empirical evidence that perceptual disfluency may lead to perceived novelty and in turn evoke the feeling‐of‐interest, perceived innovativeness, and intention to try a product. Studies 3 and 4 replicate these findings and show that such an indirect effect of perceptual disfluency is mitigated by the presence of salient novelty cues and prior product knowledge, providing further support for the hypothesized disfluency–novelty–interest relationship. Study 5 extended these findings by showing that digital ad banners with disfluent text may enhance click‐throughs in a natural viewing task of a news website. The current findings empirically demonstrate a mechanism that not only underlies the positive effects of perceptual disfluency but also aligns with the fluency–familiarity–liking relationship found in the existing literature.
... Furthermore, the differential findings by text suggests that the emotional and persuasive aspects of fonts are not straightforward effects; rather they form one element in the apperception of the reader which then interacts in an idiosyncratic manner with the style and content of the printed passage. This interaction effect is consistent with the model proposed by McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) in which the semantic associations with the appearance of the font interact with the text's semantic content to create combined connotations. 'Taflinger, R. F. (1996) Taking advantage. ...
Article
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... It is more likely for brands to attract attention and arouse emotional reactions if their logos are more easily recognized by consumers (Müller et al., 2013;Jun et al., 2008;Morrow, 1992;Aaker, 1991). There are many elements and features in a logo design which will influence consumers' perceptions, including color (Labrecque & Milne, 2012), shape (Walsh, Winterich, & Mittal, 2011), space (Sharma & Varki, 2018;Hagtvedt, 2011), and fonts (Doyle & Bottomley, 2004Henderson et al., 2004;Childers & Jass, 2002;McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). The spillover effect suggests that consumers will pass on the perception of the company's visual elements to the brand (Hagtvedt, 2011;Balachander & Ghose, 2003). ...
Article
A substantial body of research suggests that letter cases (uppercase and lowercase) impact consumers’ perceptions. However, these insights have yet to be fully explored in the marketing field. Three studies were conducted that shed new light on letter cases’ impact on consumers’ perceptions of brand logos. Study 1 demonstrates that uppercase letters will lead consumers to perceive a brand to be more competent, whereas lowercase letters will lead consumers to perceive a brand to have more warmth. The mechanism underlying this effect is identified in Study 2, suggesting that psychological distance (far vs. close) ultimately impacts consumers’ perceptions of brand letter cases. Study 3 discusses the changes in letter cases’ effects on consumers’ perceptions under different levels of power distance belief at the individual and national levels and further investigates how consumers’ competence and warmth perceptions impact their brand attitudes. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
... Typography deals with the visual transcription of verbal signs (i.e., words) (Drucker, 1994) and therefore encompasses the form, boldness, orientation, size, spacing, and layout of words and sentences in the text of a written message (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh, 2002). Typography in general and typeface design in particular occupy a central place in business communication. ...
... By selecting the appropriate font, the visual tone and character of the text can be determined. This lack of guidance led McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh, 2002) to conduct research and create a set of principles that link the characteristics of the typeface to the impressions they create. Part of this model has been empirically tested by researching how common typographic characteristics can affect the perception of an advertisement. ...
Conference Paper
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Certain characteristics specific for typeface design initiate different impressions on observers, but here arises a research problem where we cannot identify what specific or universal characteristics of the typeface initiate the impressions on certain attributes. A common problem encountered in previous researches is that fonts may vary in many variables and at the same time differ in width, weight, contrast, and structure. Therefore, it is difficult to determine and isolate which universal and specific characteristics of the typeface affect the impression. The subject of this paper is the isolation of the weight variable and the investigation of its relationship with typeface personality attributes. The main goal of this paper is to provide empirical support for theoretical assumptions, building on previous researches on the typeface personality and typographic rhetoric to show how specific typographic characteristics influence the experience of writing itself.
... Readers infer meaning from changes in font, style, and case of written words (Doyle & Bottomley, 2009). In particular, emphasized written words may lead to more visual processing, awareness of, and retention of emphasized words (Fraundorf, 2012;Fraundorf et al., 2010;Margolin, 2013;McAteer, 1992;McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002;Sanford et al., 2006). Sanford et al. (2006) found, for example, that participants were better able to notice and report changes in text when the changes were italicized, suggesting they more deeply process italicized text. ...
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Questionnaire design texts commonly recommend emphasizing important words, including capitalization or underlining, to promote their processing by the respondent. In self-administered surveys, respondents can see the emphasis, but in an interviewer-administered survey, emphasis has to be communicated to respondents through audible signals. We report the results of experiments in two US telephone surveys in which telephone survey questions were presented to interviewers either with or without emphasis. We examine whether emphasis changes substantive answers to survey questions, whether interviewers actually engage in verbal emphasis behaviors, and whether emphasis changes the interviewer-respondent interaction. We find surprisingly little effect of the question emphasis on any outcome, with the primary effects on vocal intonation and the interviewer-respondent interaction. Thus, there is no evidence here to suggest that questionnaire designers should use emphasis in interviewer-administered questionnaires to improve data quality. As the first study on this topic, we suggest many opportunities for future research.
... It provides prove that text or typography provide an essential effect in predicting effectiveness. This is also consistent with findings from McCarthy and Mothersbaugh (2002) where highly interactive effect of typographic effects influences the reading ability of the audience thus directly correlated and positively related to the effectiveness. Another findings by Stone (2005), basic setting of typographic inside advertisement creates visual attraction that will definitely increase reading capability resulting the positive relating to the effectiveness of advertising. ...
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... And fonts recommended for 'clumsy' are non-regular weighted display font en7 Broadway; bolded display font jp8 HGPSoeiKakupoptai which is intended for POP displays; and bolded display font mm3 AyarNayon which has a distinctive look but less easy to read and eye-straining for readers. It can be observed that similar to findings of previous papers for English and Japanese fonts [9], typographic elements that add to the ornateness of word appearance could be counterproductive and impact Myanmar fonts' functionality and readability ...
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Typefaces play an important role in business communication as they are found to shape consumers’ perceptions and impressions towards products. One way typefaces shape perception is by carrying connotative meanings which are often difficult to identify. Since connotative meanings are implicit, incorrect choice of typefaces can ruin the effectiveness of communication. This study tried to build typeface recommendation guidelines for 3 languages - English, Myanmar, and Japanese - through subjective evaluation. Results could pinpoint suitable typefaces for each of the 36 Kansei adjectives, and also find 5 clusters of adjectives and types. Findings that are consistent with prior studies on English and Japanese typefaces are derived for Myanmar language where no such study exists. In addition, points of caution regarding relying on originally specified font-weight, and how using fonts with ‘exciting’ Kansei can impact readability are also noted.
... However, besides curvature, other physical characteristics of typefaces like weight, expansion, con- nectivity (Leeuwen, 2006) remains unexplored. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of other typeface features and their holistic impact since a specific typeface design always consists of several physical features that work together and influence each other(McCarthy & Mothersbaugh, 2002). ...
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Characters with a variety of typefaces are ubiquitous in our daily lives. How do typeface characteristics influence consumers’ preferences toward different kinds of products? The current research identifies the effect of an important design characteristic of typefaces—curvature on consumers’ preferences toward hedonic products. Our four experiments reveal that when consumers are exposed to hedonic products whose advertisements or packaging use round typefaces (high curvature), they show greater preferences toward them. This phenomenon is induced by the implicit associations between round typefaces and hedonic products which automatically initiate consumers’ mental simulation of experiences related with the products. This simulation process triggers pleasant feelings which eventually enhance preferences. We conclude with the implications of these findings for marketers, such as for their typeface choices in marketing actions. Theoretically, we contribute to a growing body of research examining the congruity between typeface characteristics and product type.
... There are scientific papers in which the relationship between color selection and fonts [43,44], as well as their impact on consumer preferences have been studied. A detailed study of the impact on screen and paper reading performance and the effect of the font size, the spacing between words and rows is rendered in [45,46]. However, there are very few articles related to the users' opinions poll regarding the interface elements. ...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays, software development methods have undergone a number of changes. The most preferred development environments proved to be rapid application development software and their application has been increasingly used in various software developments. However, developers not always have a clear idea of the requirements of the targeted users. They often try to make their applications with as much functionality as possible putting all their experience and practical knowledge into them. On the other hand, software engineering research offers increasingly interesting and innovative approaches to software development which are not always fully applicable in practice. Software development pursuant to the requirements of a particular operating system can result in the limitation of potential users. The wide distribution of software can be supported only when it is available on the Internet. This article will present a Common Design-Model for web-based application development for a personal electronic schedule and an address book that uses modern scientific methodologies for software development, practical knowledge and experience, and users’ preferences. As a result of this study, a database, a conceptual model and a prototype of the web-based application is presented.
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Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit »Leichter Sprache« – einem Bereich der Wissensvermittlung, der bis jetzt wenig Aufmerksamkeit der angewandten Typografie erfahren hat. Die Ursachen für diese Nichtbeachtung sowie die Bedeutung von Typografie für den Erfolg von Kommunikation mit »Leichter Sprache« werden aufgezeigt. Ich beschreibe den Stand der Forschung zu »Leichter Sprache« und skizziere den Aufbau des geplanten linguistischtypografischen Forschungsprojektes.
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Resumo: A literatura sobre a influência da cor e da tipografia tem revelado alguma contradição e nem sempre é objeto de reflexão na área editorial. Esta pesquisa tem como principal objetivo contribuir para a perceção relativa à cor e tipografia em capa de livro. Foram analisadas as emoções (positivas e negativas), atratividade e intenção de compra, em relação a capas de livros digitalmente manipuladas. De acordo com os participantes (n=166), cores quentes e cores complementares induziram a maior atratividade e intenção de compra. Quanto à tipografia, os resultados foram menos conclusivos, embora as fontes preferidas tenham sido as serifadas, ornamentais e não helvéticas. Finalmente, discutiram-se implicações práticas para designers gráficos e marketers. Palavras-chave: Design; Cor; Tipografia; Intenção de compra; Atratividade. Abstract: Literature on the influence of color and typography has revealed some contradiction and its conclusions are seldom applied in the editorial area. The main goal of this research is to contribute to the perception of color and typography on book covers. Emotions (positive and negative), attractiveness and purchase intention for digitally manipulated book covers were analyzed. Participants (n=166) revealed both warm colors and complementary colors induce higher attractiveness and purchase intention. As for typography, results were less conclusive, although the preferred font types were serif, ornamental and non-helvetic ones. Finally, practical implications for graphic designers and marketers were discussed.
Chapter
As long as the text on commercial websites is omnipresent, managers are brought to make decisions concerning the typography in terms of typeface characteristics, spacing and layout. This research is particularly interested in the effect of text’s interline spacing of commercial websites. The results of an experimental study, conducted on 122 buyers, show that Internet users who visited a site with a wide spacing experience felt a stronger sensation of well-being than those who visited it with narrowed spacing. The wide interline spacing also allows to arouse better perceived aesthetics of the website. However, the effect of interline spacing on behavioral intentions is not direct. These intentions depend, on the one hand, on the simple mediation of well-being and, on the other hand, on the multiple mediation of the perceived aesthetics and then on the perceived ease of use of the website.KeywordsTypographyInterline spacingEmotionsPerceived ease of usePerceived aestheticsOnline store atmospherics
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This chapter discusses the increased use of screen-based reading in education and in daily life generally, noting that readers usually have the option of printing off screen-based material to be read on paper. Some existing typefaces were taken over for use in computer systems, while other serif and sans serif typefaces were developed specifically for on-screen use. The chapter discusses the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces projected using older technology such as slide projectorsSlide projectors, overhead projectorsOverhead projectors, and PowerPointPowerPoint. Finally, the chapter describes some of the technical issues concerning the way that images are displayed using cathode-ray tubesCathode-Ray Tubes (CRTs) and liquid crystal displays.
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Any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces might become more apparent in readers whose visual systems are challenged as the result of disablement. Some researchers have focused on children in special educationSpecial education. In particular, children with visual impairment might be more sensitive to typographical factors. It has been suggested that the effects of congenital visual impairmentVisual impairment, congenital might be different from those of acquired visual impairmentVisual impairment, acquired. Finally, a majority of people with aphasiaAphasia also exhibit an impairment of reading, while other people without aphasiaAphasia may exhibit the specific disorder of reading known as dyslexia.
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As novice readers, young children may be disproportionately affected by different typefaces. The use of different typefaces may also affect how readily children acquire the ability to read. Research by Burt and Kerr[aut]Kerr, J. is often cited in support of the idea that serif typefaces are more legible. Zachrisson[aut]Zachrisson, B. provided a more thorough account of the role of typographic variables in reading among children of different ages using various research methods. It has been known for more than 100 years that children tend to confuse letters that are mirror images of each other (such as p and q), and this may in principle be affected by the presence or absence of serifs. Older readers tend to suffer from visual problems which may depend on typographical factors. This is of practical importance, as in the design of labels for medication containers.
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This chapter concludes Part I by summarising and discussing the key findings. Are there any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate printed material? Are there any differences in readers’ preferences and connotations between serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate printed material? Where does this leave previously stated assumptions about the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces? The chapter concludes by assessing the position adopted in the latest edition of the American Psychological Association’sAmerican Psychological Association, Publication Manual Publication Manual.
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This end-piece considers lessons that can be learned from this review. Some researchers have put forward reasons why serifs might render typefaces more legible. Others have suggested that the presence or absence of serifs is a proxy for some other property of typefaces. In fact, there seems to be no difference in the legibilityLegibility of serif typefaces and sans serif typefaces either when reading from paper or when reading from screens. The most important lesson is that assertions to the effect that “everybody knows” that such-and-such” should be regarded simply as conjectures that might be subject to refutation through carefully designed research.
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AReading textreading from papernumberComprehending textreading from paper of studies have evaluated the role of typographic variables (including the presence or absence of serifs) in reading continuous text. Asking participants to read continuous text allows less scope for experimental control, and so some researchers have instead focused on participants’ comprehension of written material. Subjective impressions of the legibilityLegibility of different typefaces can be regarded as one aspect of their connotative meaningConnotative meaning, and other researchers have asked participants to evaluate typefaces on different dimensions using single rating scales or semantic differentialsSemantic differential. The chapter concludes by considering the role of such connotative variables in the legibilityLegibility of text printed in different typefaces.
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This chapter concludes Part II by summarising and discussing the key findings. Are there any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate material on computer monitors or other screens? Are there any differences in readers’ preferences and connotations between serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate material on computer monitors or other screens? Where does this leave previously stated assumptions about the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces on computer screens?
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Research onComprehending textreading from screensreading textReading textreading from screens presented on computer screens has enabled investigators to use other forms of technology such as eye-tracking equipment. As with research on reading from paper, asking participants to read continuous text provides less opportunity for researchers to impose experimental control over their reading behaviour. Some researchers have instead focused on their participants’ comprehension of material. A particular device that has been investigated is the presentation of letters, words, or groups of words one at a time at the reader’s point of fixation. This was originally thought to compensate for the limitations of handheld devicesHandheld devices. It has tended to be assumed that sans serif typefaces are more legible than serif typefaces when used on handheld devicesHandheld devicesor smartphonesSmartphones. Finally, this chapter describes research on the connotations of different typefaces when presented on computer screens.
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It has been arguedContext that the context of reading is a primary determinant of the legibilityLegibility of different typefaces and the readers’ expectationsExpectations of the legibilityLegibility of what they are reading. Newspaper headlinesHeadlines have been used as a specific contextContext in which researchers have studied the legibilityLegibility and connotations of different kinds of text. Wheildon[aut]Wheildon, C. presented an extensive programme of research on the legibilityLegibility of different kinds of text. However, his research has come under extensive criticism and suffers from further issues that have not been noted in previous research. Several researchers have subsequently considered the effect of variations in typefaces and the expectationsExpectations of readers in different kinds of situations.
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This chapter introduces Part I by summarising the attitudes of 20th-century typographers, who almost without exception considered that serif typefaces were easier to read than sans serif typefaces when printed on paper. In the twenty-first century, any dissenting voices have mainly come from journal editors, who have tended to recommend the use of sans serif typefaces without providing any supporting evidence. This chapter also considers but dismisses the idea that serifs are purely decorative and superfluous to the task of identifying individual letters.
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As mentioned in Chap. 8, any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces might become more apparent in readers whose visual systems are challenged as the result of disablement. Relatively few studies have been carried out into the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces by people with disabilities when the material is read on computer monitors or other screens. In principle, visual impairment can arise from a variety of causes, but research has focused on readers with dyslexia and readers with age-related macular degenerationMacular degeneration.
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As with readingLegibility from print, the earliest research on the legibilityLegibility of different typefaces when reading from screens was concerned with recognising individual letters and words under different conditions. Here, too, visual confusions were originally considered to be a primary determinant of the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces.
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This chapter distinguishes between typefaces and fontsFonts versus typefaces and between legibilityLegibilityand readabilityLegibility versus readability. A variety of objective methods have been developed for measuring the legibility of printed material, and many have been taken over into research on reading from screens. Researchers have also collected subjective reportsSubjective reports from participants regarding the legibilityLegibility and other properties of presented material. This chapter also describes how typographers define the size of typefacesSize of typefaces and which aspects are likely to affect the legibilityLegibility of material.
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This chapter discussesInternet browsers whether serif and sans serif typefaces differ in their legibilityLegibility when saved in HTML and viewed on-screen through web browsers. This includes material saved in a local workstation as well as material retrieved from the internet. In addition to a variety of individual studies, the chapter describes a research programme that was carried out by Bernard and colleagues at Wichita State University. Further research has been carried out into the use of different typefaces for various online purposes.
Article
This study aimed to examine role of fonts as a vehicle in linking identity to perception of selected brands. Fonts are crucial constituent in the entire gamut of visual communication of brands. They communicate a brands’ identity through two means: explicit and implicit. Explicit aspect consists of physical dimensions such as weight, contrast, stress, x-height etc. Implicit aspect implies semiotics exuded by fonts formed at sub-conscious level and vary with change in identity a brand intends to communicate. The examination of symbiotic relationship connecting specific dimensions of font evaluated on basis of their ability to make text more readable and attractive with specific semiotics and how does such association vary with brand identity was the main focus of this study. This was achieved by conducting two experiments. Secondly, influence of explicit and implicit means of communication on linking identity with perception was examined through mediation analysis. Results showed direct effect of explicit aspect to be significantly reduced with inclusion of semiotic impact emphasizing importance of their congruency. Such inference is important in logo design, as it indicated that a brand communicating a message should use font with specific dimensions reflecting particular semiotics so as to influence customers’ perception of brand favourably.
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The literature has shown that user-generated content (UGC) and marketer-generated content (MGC) simultaneously influence consumers' decision-making process. Yet it is unclear how UGC and MGC jointly affect the overall market reaction, when digital content is freely available to all consumers. To fill the gap, we integrate the UGC and MGC literature and research of determinants of physical exercise to develop a comprehensive conceptual model. Using a dataset collected from a leading online fitness brand, we find that both UGC and MGC affect a free fitness video's incremental view count. We further categorize UGC into three dimensions, where favorability represents the normative dimension, various textual features represent the informational dimension, and reply-density of the self-organized reviewer community represents the social dimension. While both normative and social UGC are positively associated with online fitness videos' view count increase, the impact of informational UGC is insignificant. More importantly, product features, such as exercise intensity, moderate the impacts of UGC and MGC on free digital content consumption. When facing strenuous exercises, the consumer group relies more on peer users and less on marketers to make their content consumption decisions. The findings provide insightful implications to understand how consumers decide their engagement with free digital content delivered via social media channels.
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This research investigates the introduction of innovative designs through content and semiotic analyses of the visual codes of two wine regions: one known to be traditional (Bordeaux) and the other to be innovative (Barossa Valley). The content analysis indicates that the Australian wines differentiate themselves by choosing various themes and styles of illustration, while still conforming to the dominant visual codes for the layout, composition, typefaces and colours. Furthermore, the semiotic analysis shows that the themes and styles of illustration introduced in the Barossa category carry 'signifieds' that are relevant to the product category. Thus, the results indicate that the Barossa wineries fulfil two conditions suggested by the literature: moderate novelty and 'ideal incongruence' (unexpected but relevant). More importantly, by analysing the meanings of the visual codes used in the two wine regions, this work decodes the elements of graphic design language for the wine category, thus elucidating how it is possible to create a wine label that is unexpected but relevant. Finally, the research allows the identification of four main strategies for brand positioning and indicates how to express them through label graphic design.
Book
This book is an introductory roadmap to the advertising process. Advertising is explored as a creative communication message from a brand, created by advertising agencies and distributed across different media to target the right consumers. The book provides an understanding of the benefits of advertising, its role in the economy and, even more so, acknowledges that advertisements are not only about selling but also about effectively communicating a message. The creative and conceptual approach towards the communication process is discussed, and insight is presented into the dynamics within the industry and the different stakeholders involved, while recognising how different creative elements in advertisements are consciously selected to make them appealing. Finally, it considers how to analyse and measure an advert’s effectiveness and looks ahead to future ideas and technologies arising in advertising. Effectively combining theory with practical insight, each chapter begins with learning objectives and ends with key learnings. International case studies feature throughout, including insights from British Gas, WPP, Audi and KFC, as well as other examples from smaller organisations and the non-profit sector. Taking students step by step through the advertising process, it is important reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying Advertising, Brand Management, Marketing Communications and Media Planning.
Chapter
We have many different types of languages and alphabets in the world, but the alphabet of each language has its own unique design. We tried to bridge between the two countries/languages by reflecting the differences in the alphabet in another language by highlighting its distinctive features. By using the two most commonly used languages like English & Arabic. Here the transformation process of flavors one into another language has been introduced by replication. The alphabet has the same characteristics in the alphabet of the two languages and reflected in other languages. In this study, we have completed the task of transforming the character flavor of English and Arabic as well as the Arabic language in English. The process is finding characteristic patterns and connecting to any other language alphabet to achieving new tastes.
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In this thesis, usage of corporate visual identity (CVI) in employer branding is investigated with regard to the concept of centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA). The purpose of this study is to conceptually and empirically explore current usage of corporate visual identity within the field of the creative industry and, show potentials and challenges of CVI in employer branding. Previous research shows that corporate visual identity and corporate design have an influence on perceptions of corporate identity, also, perceived value of visual aesthetics (CVPA) has an impact on brand choice the realm of consumer branding. However, literary review also indicates that a postmodern conceptualisation of CVI and the usage of CVI in employer branding has been a somewhat neglected field of research, especially in the german-speaking area. This thesis aims to contribute to existing research and provide new insights in the field of visual communication in employer branding, the relative importance of CVI for employee identification and co-creation processes through involvement in activities related to visual identity. For this purpose the study interviewed eight individuals working in the viennese creative industry (art directors, graphic designers, consultants, social media experts) to explore their understanding of corporate visual identity in relation to their role as experts in the field, as among the interviewed, most have experience related to graphic design and/or branding techniques and, on the other hand their role as employees in the creative industry. A qualitative research strategy was employed in this paper as empirical work is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with eight individuals from seven different agencies—interview transcripts were then analysed using content analysis. Perceived value of visual aesthetics of was measured by the CVPA (Bloch et al. 2003) using a standardised questionnaire. Analysis of interviews suggest that CVI in employer branding is used to varying degrees and manifests in very different ways. Individuals unanimously agreed that they perceive the usage of CVI, respectively manifestations of CVI, very important with regard to their identification with their employer, which might be related to their perceived value of visual aesthetics as all of the interviewed showed high levels of CVPA. Research indicates that CVI usage in employer branding and involvement of employees in CVI related activities has not yet been widely professionalized in the Viennese creative industry and CVI appears to be treated negligently mostly due to a lack of resources. Implications for challenges and potential usage of CVI with regard to employer branding and for future research on CVI in relation to high CVPA stakeholders are discussed.
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Brand names are signs, repeated signs which are always present in advertising messages aiming to impose associations. As all other signs, this particular sign can also be translated. This process does not take place only in the level of intericonicity, in the level of the translation of iconic visual signs, but also in the level of plasticity, of plastic visual signs such as form, color and texture, according to Groupe μ (1992) categorization. In this procedure the semiotic system of a language does not always participate. This last observation allows translation scholars to underline the dimension of creativity, without exclude the intersemiotic character of this transmutation. The paper discusses cases of translations of brand names of different environments of the Greek semiosphere: political parties, companies, banks, universities.
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Ethnic restaurant markets are proliferating due to expanding consumer demand for global flavors. This study investigated the most effective advertising formats for encouraging U.S. consumers to eat ethnic foods. This study compared the effectiveness of picture-dominant advertisements (food-focused vs. spokesperson-focused) and text-dominant advertisements with two different text lengths (short vs. long). The two experiments in this study found that the spokesperson-focused ad was more effective for customers with cultural familiarity. This study also found that a detailed description of the ethnic food was evaluated more highly in terms of cognitive understanding than the short summary. The text-dominant ads were significantly more effective than the picture-dominant ads for individuals who were unfamiliar with the culture of the cuisine’s country of origin. The results suggest that marketers need to increase customers’ attention by customizing advertising formats based on target customers with varied levels of cultural familiarity.
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Physical inter-letter dissimilarity has been suggested as a solution to increase perceptual differences between letter shapes and hence a solution to improve reading performance. However, the deleterious effects of font tuning suggest that low inter-letter regularity (due to the enhancement of specific letter features to make them more differentiable) may impair word recognition performance. The aim of the present investigation was 1) to validate our hypothesis that reducing inter-letter regularity impairs reading performance, as suggested by font tuning, and 2) to test whether some forms of non-regularities could impair visual word recognition more. To do so, we designed four new fonts. For each font we induced one type of increased perceptual difference: for the first font, the letters have longer extender length; for the second font, the letters have different slants; and for the third font, the letters have different font cases. We also designed a fourth font where letters differ on all three aspects (worst regularity across letters). Word recognition performance was measured for each of the four fonts in comparison to a traditional sans serif font (best regularity across letters) through a lexical decision task. Results showed a significant decrease in word recognition performance only for the fonts with mixed-case letters, suggesting that fonts with low regularity, such as mixed-case letters, should be avoided in the definition of new ”optimal” fonts. Letter recognition performance measured for the five different fonts through a trigram recognition task showed that this effect is not consistently due to poor letter identification.
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Considerable research suggests that advertising executional cues can influence communication effec- tiveness. Related research indicates that communication effectiveness is in part driven by consumers' motivation, opportunity, and ability (MOA) to process brand information from an ad. However, little re- search has explicitly linked executional cues to communication effectiveness via their impact on MOA and levels of processing. The authors present a framework that explicitly provides such a linkage. The framework highlights the mediational role of MOA in the relationships among executional cues and com- munication outcomes, it also provides a theoretical account that links apparently disparate cues to their common effects on motivation, opportunity, or ability. The framework is complemented by a critical re- view of current measures of MOA and proposed measures based on the review. Research issues raised by the framework and the proposed measures are discussed.
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Divides the study of human attention into 3 components: alertness, selectivity, and processing capacity. Experimental techniques designed to separate these components and examine their interrelations within comparable tasks are outlined. It is shown that a stimulus may be used to increase alertness for processing all external information, to improve selection of particular stimuli, or to do both simultaneously. Development of alertness and selectivity are separable, but may go on together without interference. Moreover, encoding a stimulus may proceed without producing interference with other signals. Thus, the contact between an external stimulus and its representation in memory does not appear to require processing capacity. Limited capacity results are obtained when mental operations, E.g., response selection or rehearsal, must be performed on the encoded information. (45 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three experiments investigated the effects of syntactic complexity on the persuasiveness of advertising. Experiment 1 showed that, in a broadcast advertising context, syntactic complexity affects recall and recognition but not the persuasiveness of the advertising. However, Experiment 2 indicated that, in a print context, persuasiveness of an advertisement is affected by syntactic complexity. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that motivation to process information interacts with syntactic complexity to determine the persuasiveness of print advertising. These results imply that the impact of syntactic complexity on advertising effectiveness is more complicated than previously thought.
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Text interpretations, two experiments, and a set of reader-response interviews examine the impact of stylistic elements in advertising that form visual rhetorical figures parallel to those found in language. The visual figures examined here--rhyme, antithesis, metaphor, and pun--produced more elaboration and led to a more favorable attitude toward the ad, without being any more difficult to comprehend. Interviews confirmed that several of the meanings generated by informants corresponded to those produced by an a priori text-interpretive analysis of the ads. However, all of these effects diminished or disappeared for the visual tropes (metaphor and pun) in the case of individuals who lacked the cultural competency required to adequately appreciate the contemporary American ads on which the studies are based. Results are discussed in terms of the power of rhetorical theory and cultural competency theory (Scott 1994) for illuminating the role played by visual elements in advertising. Overall, the project demonstrates the advantages of investigating visual persuasion via an integration of multiple research traditions. Copyright 1999 by the University of Chicago.
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Consumers watch a television ad at different levels depending on their motivation to process the ad. In this article, the fit between an ad and an evoked ad schema in memory is hypothesized to influence consumers' motivation to process. It is also hypothesized that this motivation is moderated by effects due to consumers' prior category affect and processing goals. Results from an advertising experiment suggest that ads typical of an evoked schema elicit relatively less extensive processing and evaluations, while those atypical of the schema motivate more extensive processing and evaluations. In an extension of previous research in the domain, the results imply that typicality effects are moderated by the extremity of prior category affect. Limited evidence also reveals that typicality effects may be moderated by ad-processing goals. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
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Mandler theorized that the level of congruity between a product and a more general product category schema may influence the nature of information processing and thus product evaluations. Products that are moderately incongruent with their associated category schemas are expected to stimulate processing that leads to a more favorable evaluation relative to products that are either congruent of extremely incongruent. Data from three experiments conducted in new product contexts are consistent with Mandler's hypothesis and serve as a basis for theorizing about the process. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
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A bipolar adjective scale, the Personal Involvement Inventory (PII), was developed to capture the concept of involvement for products. The scale successfully met standards for internal reliability, reliability over time, content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. Tests of construct validity demonstrated that the scores were positively related to perceived differences among brands, brand preferences, interest in gathering information about the product category, and comparison of product attributes among brands.
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The examination of individual differences in consumer information processing is an emerging area of research within both marketing and consumer behavior. In this article, we report on two studies that focus on ability versus preference for imaginal or visual processing. The first study assesses the psychometric properties of frequently used measures of imaginal processing ability and preference; the study's results were somewhat supportive of the two ability measures but not supportive of the preference measure. The second study proposes and tests a new measure of processing preference—the Style of Processing (SOP) scale—which exhibits internal consistency as well as discriminant and criterion validity.
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Undergraduates expressed their attitudes about a product after being exposed to a magazme ad under conditions of either high or low product involvement. The ad contained either strong or weak arguments for the product and featured either prominent sports celebrities or average citizens as endorsers. The manipulation of argument quality had a greater impact on attitudes under high than low involve- ment, but the manipulation of product endorser had a greater impact under low than high involvement. These results are consistent with the view that there are two relatively distinct routes to persuasion.
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How should information in print ads be presented to facilitate memory for the three major components—the brand name, the copy, and the picture? Using associative network models of memory as a framework, we demonstrate that relations among the components facilitate memory. Specifically, in Experiment 1, ads containing relations among ad components were better remembered than ads presenting unrelated components. Moreover, ads with relations among all three ad components resulted in better unaided recall than ads with relations between only two ad components, and relations involving pictures were better recalled than those involving only words. Experiment 2 demonstrated that, under both high and low task involvement, ads with lexical relations between copy and brand name are remembered better than ads with only conceptual relations. Experiment 3 replicated this effect for high issue involvement, but not for low issue involvement.
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This book is for writers and graphic designers who create the many types of documents people use every day at home or school, in business or government. From high-tech instruction manuals and textbooks to health communications and information graphics, to online information and World Wide Web pages, this book offers one of the first research-based portraits of what readers need from documents and of how document designers can take those needs into account. Drawing on research about how people interpret words and pictures, this book presents a new and more complete image of the reader—a person who is not only trying to understand prose and graphics but who is responding to them aesthetically and emotionally. Dynamics in Document Design features: • Case studies of documents before and after revision, showing how people think and feel about them • Analyses of the interplay of text and pictures, revealing how words, space, visuals, and typography can work together • An informative timeline of the international evolution of document design from 1900 to the 1997
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Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the ''Big Five'' dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel research has been conducted in consumer behavior on brand personality, Consequently, an understanding of the symbolic use of brands has been limited in the consumer behavior literature. In this research, the author develops a theoretical framework of the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of dimensions of brand personality (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness). Tc, measure the five brand personality dimensions, a reliable, valid, and generalizable measurement scale is created. Finally, theoretical and practical implications regarding the symbolic use of brands are discussed.
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The visual complexity of magazine ads was found to be positively related to looking time in all set conditions. Under an "advertising study" set, ads looked at longer were better remembered, while under a "perception study" set, ads looked at longer were poorly remembered.
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34 advertising variables were defined, measured, and correlated with readership scores for 137 advertisements in the Feb., 1950 issue of the American Builder. Criteria were obtained from the Advertising Research Foundations's Continuing Studies of business magazine readership. 2 factors were found to have major loadings on Readership. They were a Pictorial-Color factor and a Size factor. They accounted for 53% of the variance in readership. Using 4 additional factors, two-thirds of the observed variance in readership scores of the advertisements was accounted for. A regression equation was developed to predict readership in other publications. Predicted readership scores were correlated with actual readership scores, and these validity coefficients ranged from .58 to .80 with an average r of .71. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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An information processing perspective is used to develop hierarchical and divergent models of how individuals process print ads. An aggregation across individuals generated related audience-level models, which were operationalized by using Starch scores and extended to incorporate specific ad characteristics. Confirmatory tests indicate that these models provide a substantial advance over previous data-driven approaches to analyzing readership scores.
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The sequence of processing steps in obtaining the classifications vowel-consonant and letter-digit were explored. The procedure involved measuring the RT to classify pairs of stimuli as “same”. Inferences were drawn from RTs to letters with the same name (e.g. Bb) and from other differences between the RT structures obtained in the two classifications. When “same” was defined as both vowels or both consonants the subjects seemed to determine the letter name and then classify the name into its superordinate category. When “same” was defined as both letters or both digits the subjects appeared to classify the visual form directly into one of the two superordinate classes without first obtaining the name. The most likely explanation for the difference between conditions is the nature of training which subjects have had while learning the classifications.
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This study examined the effect of copy length on readership and responses to industrial magazine advertisements. It was found that industrial prospects are significantly more likely to start reading ads containing long, rather than short, copy. The study also found that short copy is less effective in arousing the interest of readers. The results suggest that longer ad copy is needed to communicate the type of information sought by industrial prospects, empirically confirming beliefs held by the advertising industry.
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This study was planned to explore the effect of two typographic factors on the perceived appeal of a printed page: typeface and leading." (Author)
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Two groups of people (design students and university students) rated twelve different typefaces on a number of semantic rating scales. Analysis of the data revealed four major semantic dimensions. Comparisons between the factor scores for the two groups of people revealed both general similarities of pattern and marked discrepancies on certain factors for most of the typefaces. It was concluded that designers must be aware of the fact that their audience may perceive the semantic qualities of typefaces differently to themselves. These differences may have significant effects on the perceived appropriateness of a typeface for a given design function.
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It is proposed that the appropriateness of a typeface is partly determined by the extent to which it shares multi-modal features with the concept that it represents. Exploring a number of professions as the concepts to be represented, we offer evidence to support this hypothesis. We demonstrate that n on-specialists discriminate a variety of display typefaces and professions in terms of a common set of multimodal features. In addition, on the basis of the extent to which each typeface shares multi-modal features with each profession, we successfully predict the judged appropriateness of various typefaces to represent each profession.
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This paper reports research on the use of the semantic differential to determine the connotative meaning of ten display typefaces using laymen as subjects. There were several surprising outcomes of the study. Helvetica, the only sans serif typeface, was not perceived as differing significantly from serifed typefaces on most dimensions. Examples of different typeface classifications were also perceived as having similar connotative meanings, and two very distinctive novelty typefaces were surprisingly neutral on all factoral dimensions.
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In our present small investigation, we have tried to isolate one of the "typographical" conditions; the factor of "leading" or—more accurately—of the vertical distance between printed lines. The "leaded page" is a page in which the typesetter has inserted one or more thin metal strips, called "leads," between the successive lines. We do not here directly consider the typewritten page, where only two spaces between lines, single-space and double-space, are commonly used. The type-face used was of the style "monotype," a close approximation to "news gothic", a style which Roethlein found to stand relatively high in legibility. Results shows that the general trend of the reading-times at the various distances and with the ten leadings, 0-9, is shown upon our graphs. Here the number of leads (separation of the lines) is set down at the bottom of the sheet and the time (sec.) expended on reading the ten lines of printed matter is set upon the line of ordinates. It appears upon the evidence of the experiments that facility and rate of reading the printed page are dependent, among other factors, upon the vertical space left between the lines (leading). Under our conditions, unleaded, or closely set, matter was read with relative slowness. With increase of the interlinear space, the rate of reading increased and then rapidly declined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Ten type faces were compared with respect to their effect on reading rate. Ten groups of 90 college students were tested—a total of 900 subjects. No important differences in rate of reading text material were found when the following type faces were used: Scotch Roman; Garamont; Antique; Bodoni; Old Style; Caslon O. S.; Kabel lite; and Cheltenham. Text printed with American Typewriter type was read 5.1% more slowly than text printed with Scotch Roman type. Cloister Black type (Old English) retards speed of reading 16.5%. Type faces in common use are equally legible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The writers continue previous work, using the Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading tests. Speed of reading records obtained from 320 college students for texts set up in 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 14-point type with line length constant at 80 mm. show that 10-point type yields the fastest reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the comparative effects of form and content variables on Starch readership scores. 154 1-page advertisements selected from 6 1974–1976 issues of Newsweek and Sports Illustrated were rated by 6 judges for mechanical (e.g., number of words, page position) and message content (e.g., source, appeal) variables, and the measures were tested in multiple regressions for their ability to predict Starch scores. Results suggest that the content variables investigated offer substantial improvement in prediction over the advertising recognition obtained when only mechanical measures are used. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted an experiment to verify some predictions that can be derived from a multilevel-processing model, using 24 graduates and undergraduates. Words were presented in 2 conditions and 4 type fonts. The possibility of a 2-level process with 1 level helping the viewer to identify the style or font being used at a given time is discussed. It is suggested that the 1st process leads to the activation of a decision tree that is specialized with respect to a particular set of characteristics, while a 2nd process makes use of this decision tree to identify the letter or word being presented. Results are consistent with the model, although additional experimentation is needed to explore more fully the implications for the processing of letters and words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the effects on oculomotor behavior of variations of physical attributes of text, both typographical and psychophysical parameters, and similar effects from physical (visual as opposed to semantic) word cues processed in the reader's parafoveal vision. It is concluded that the reliability of such effects underscores the primary nature of visual discrimination in reading and that sets of data generated from typographically different stimuli suffer from serious confounding effects. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
How should information in print ads be presented to facilitate memory for the three major components—the brand name, the copy, and the picture? Using associative network models of memory as a framework, we demonstrate that relations among the components facilitate memory. Specifically, in Experiment 1, ads containing relations among ad components were better remembered than ads presenting unrelated components. Moreover, ads with relations among all three ad components resulted in better unaided recall than ads with relations between only two ad components, and relations involving pictures were better recalled than those involving only words. Experiment 2 demonstrated that, under both high and low task involvement, ads with lexical relations between copy and brand name are remembered better than ads with only conceptual relations. Experiment 3 replicated this effect for high issue involvement, but not for low issue involvement.
Article
Major hypotheses about the processes involved in word recognition are reviewed and then assessed through four experiments. The purpose of the first experiment was to examine some basic aspects of the processing of words, pseudowords, and nonwords, and beyond that, to discover basic differences in their processing that might underlie the word advantage. The second experiment was designed to assess the contribution of whole-word and letter cluster cues to the word advantage. Finally, Experiments III and IV were focused on the question of whether the word advantage can be wholly explained in terms of response bias or sophisticated guessing. Taken together, the results of these experiments were most compatible with criterion bias models. A version of the criterion bias model is suggested wherein the word advantage is attributed to interfacilitation among single letter and lexical units in memory.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Minnesota, 1997. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 127-130).
Article
Using classifiers--lexical items that depict perceptual and conceptual properties of object---six cross-cultural experiments were conducted in the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States to investigate how structural features of languages affect mental structures and, in turn, consumer behavior. Experiments 1-4 show how classifiers affect the perceived similarity between objects, attribute accessibility, and concept organization. Experiment 5 shows how classifier-based schemata result in inferences about product features. Experiment 6 provides evidence for the effect of classifiers on judgment and choice via assimilation and contrast processes and affect transfer. We discuss our findings in light of the Whorfian hypothesis and argue for the incorporation of structural components of languages into models of consumer behavior. Copyright 1998 by the University of Chicago.
Article
The research reported here comprises an empirical investigation of the phenomenon of typographic allusion. In a preliminary study, subjects rated the perceptual qualities possessed by different typefaces (e.g. heavy-light, fast-slow). The results indicated that subjects agreed as to typeface characteristics and that typefaces were distinguished by such qualities. In Expt 1, subjects undertook a speeded decision task in which they responded according to which one of four adjectives appeared tachistoscopically. Each word appeared in a typeface whose qualities were either consistent or inconsistent with its meaning. Reaction times for inconsistent stimuli were significantly slower than those for consistent trials. In preparation for Expt 2, the same rating procedure was used to elicit subjects’ judgements of the attributes of different animals. Subjects agreed as to animals’ qualities and such qualities reliably distinguished between the animals. The names of these animals were then used as targets in a binary decision task and each one appeared in a typeface possessing qualities which were either congruent or incongruent with those of the animal. Subjects responded according to whether they considered the animal presented on each trial to be heavy or light, or fast or slow moving. Responses on trials in which the animal and typeface possessed conflicting attributes were significantly slower than responses when animal and typeface qualities were congruent. These results are discussed in relation to current views regarding the processing of written English. We argue that typographic features of words are able to access a semantic code and that this code can interact with the derivation of a linguistic code specifying a word's meaning and/or with post-lexical access decision processes.
Article
Four experiments are reported which examined the size of the perceptual span in second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade children, as well as adult skilled readers. The results indicated that the perceptual span in beginning readers is slightly smaller than the perceptual span of skilled readers. Using a moving window technique, it was found that the perceptual span of beginning readers extends about 11 character spaces to the right of fixation; for skilled readers, the span extends 14-15 spaces to the right of fixation. Beginning readers apparently devote more of their processing to the foveally fixated word than more proficient readers, but their perceptual span appears to be asymmetric to the right of fixation as is the case for skilled readers. The results of the experiments also indicated that the size of the perceptual span is variable and can be influenced by the difficulty of the text. It is concluded that the size of the perceptual span does not cause beginning readers' slow reading rates.
Article
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 264 18-77 yr. old adults to determine whether the minimum legible size of lowercase Univers, found previously to be 6.6 point (pt.), generalizes to other typefaces and to printing in capitals. Times New Roman and Perpetua were found to be as legible as 6.6 pt. Univers when the "x" heights were the same, about 1.2 mm. (1 pt. = .35 mm.), i.e., when the Times was 6.6 pt., and the Perpetua was 8.6 pt. Univers capitals with a vertical space between lines equal to 60% of the letter height were as legible as 6.6 pt. lowercase Univers when they occupied about the same vertical height of paper. Reducing the height of the capitals from 1.4-1.2 mm made them reliably (p < .05) less legible than the lowercase Univers.
Article
Fifty housewives searched for particular words in paragraphs of text printed in 8-point and 9-point Times New Roman without leading in lines of 2·2 inches. To prove that they had found a word they had to write down the following word. The 9-point. print was scanned 7 per cent faster than the 8-point (p
Article
375 adults were given 90 sec. to read passages of about 450 words printed in 1 of 7 typefaces equated for size. They had then to answer 10 open-ended questions on the content. Of the typefaces without serifs Gill Medium, the letters of which were judged by typographical experts to be fairly strongly differentiated, was comprehended reliably faster than Grotesque 215 and 2 versions of Univers, in which the letters were judged to be less well differentiated (p < .05). There were no reliable differences between the serif typefaces, Bembo an old style, Baskerville a transitional, and Modern Extended Number 1, nor between the serifed and sans-serifed typefaces.