Chemoautotrophic Symbionts in the Gills of the Bivalve Mollusc Lucinoma borealis and the Sediment Chemistry of its Habitat

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 5.05). 03/1986; 227(1247):227-247. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1986.0021


Lucinoma borealis has enlarged gills, which contain numerous prokaryotes in specialized cells (bacteriocytes) in the subfilamentar region. The gills also contain high concentrations of elemental sulphur and of a c-type cytochrome. Homogenates of gill tissue show ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase activity; they also show activity for adenylylsulphate reductase, an enzyme concerned in the oxidation of sulphur, and will phosphorylate ADP on the addition of sulphite or sulphide. Fixation of bicarbonate by gill tissue from starved animals is enhanced in the presence of 100 µM sulphide. The sediment in which the animals live contains 1-6 $\mu $g atoms per litre of dissolved iron and hence there is very little dissolved sulphide, 200 nM, or less (80 nmol dm-3 sediment). Thiosulphate concentrations are also low, 300 nM, or less (120 nmol dm-3 sediment). In contrast, there are acid-labile sulphide concentrations up to 14 mmol dm-3 and elemental sulphur concentrations up to 4 mg atom per cubic decimetre of sediment. The mean sulphate reduction rate in the sediment varied seasonally with temperature over the range 1640-4920 nmol sulphate reduced per hour per cubic decimetre. L. borealis was usually found below the region of maximum sulphate reduction. Hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide concentrations were all 160 nmol dm-3, or less. Despite the low levels of dissolved sulphide the association between prokaryote and host appears to be able to exploit this habitat by the oxidation of reduced sulphur species; ways in which the bivalve may be able to extract these from the sediment are discussed. The bivalves may obtain half their carbon from the autotrophic prokaryotes.

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    • "idae and Nuculanidae . Others , such as Limopsis minuta ( 0 . 22% ) and Lucinoma borealis ( 0 . 34% ) were relatively uncommon . Lucinoma borealis has enlarged gills , which contain numerous prokaryotes in specialised cells ( bacteriocytes ) in the sub - filamentar region and which are responsible for the chemoau - totrophic oxidation of sulphur ( Dando et al . , 1986 ) . More collectively common were representatives of the Tellinidae and Psammobiidae , especially Tellina pygmaea ( 4 . 11% ) , which are typically considered to be surface deposit feeders ( Yonge , 1949 ) . Most of the other bivalves present in the sample , save for Cardiomya costellata , congenerics of which are predators typically of"
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    ABSTRACT: The Azorean seabed is depauperate in terms of bivalve species richness, there being only between ~70 and 80 recorded to date, most being sub-tidal and generally lacking of specialists. Analysis of large numbers (>3200) of Azorean bivalve shells has revealed that, overall, each species is only ~50% the shell length size of Mediterranean conspecifics. Thus, although Azorean bivalve size may be a consequence of decreasing latitude (Bergmann's Rule), the islands are located at approximately the same latitude as the Mediterranean (and are influenced by those waters) where larger conspecifics occur. Hence, the main reason for bivalve dwarfism in the archipelago appears to result from low oceanic productivity (Foster's Rule). This, in turn, is associated with low diversity, possibly resulting from past extinctions and isolation, and low population sizes, except for Ervilia castanea, which here overwhelmingly occupies higher-energy inshore habitats and associated higher productivities. Nevertheless, this species too is dwarfed by mainland conspecifics. Similarly, the introduced Venerupis decussata, found solely within the lagoonal environment of Fajã de Santo Cristo on São Jorge, is somewhat smaller than its mainland conspecifics, although it is abundant enough to warrant artisanal exploitation. This study therefore, supports Foster's Rule and argues for the role of nutrient deficiency in regulating Azorean species richness and individual maximum size. In waters of locally higher productivities, however, population densities increase, but not size.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK
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    • "The presence of such symbiotic bacteria has been demonstrated for at least 30 species of Lucinidae (Dando et al. 1986;Frenkiel et al. 1996; Taylor and Glover 2000). According toDando et al. (1986), it appears that the gill symbionts obtain energy for the fixation of carbon dioxide by oxidation of reduced sulphur species, and the use of this energy may extend the period of nutrition and reduce dependence on short inputs of organic matter from the planktonic and benthic algae. Considering only the ability to exploit suspended material for food, and based on the works of Allen (1958) and Narchi and Farani Assis (1980), D. punctata, C. costata, C. orbiculata, and L. pectinata were classified as suspension-feeders. "
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    ABSTRACT: The feeding guilds of four communities of molluscs living in the intertidal zone of Enseada in Caraguatatuba Bay and Barra Velha and Ara beaches along the So Sebastio Channel were identified. Three-letter codes were assigned to each feeding guild, identifying the feeding habit, mobility patterns related to feeding, and food-capturing structures. Data were obtained from qualitative analyses of the digestive tract contents and from observations on the feeding behaviour of the gastropod Olivella minuta and the bivalves Tagelus plebeius, Macoma constricta, Tellina lineata, and T. versicolor. These data were complemented by published information on the feeding of congeneric or confamilial species. Six feeding guilds were identified. The SDS (suspension-feeder, discreetly motile, inhalant siphon and ctenidia) and DDS (deposit-feeder, discreetly motile, inhalant siphon and ctenidia) groups were more abundant. Suspension-feeding bivalves showed higher Trophic Importance Index (TI) values in all the study areas. Deposit-feeders showed high TI values only at Barra Velha beach. The species in the SDS feeding guild tended to occur in areas with lower salinity and moderately to well-sorted sediments with very fine sand predominating. The distribution of the feeding guilds correlated best with salinity, particle size distribution, and the contents of silt-clay and organic matter in the sediment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Marine Biology
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    • "Dando et al. (1985) have found that Lucinoma borealis, Myrtea spinifera (Montagu, 1803) and Thyasira flexuosa (Montagu, 1803), living in a community with the pogonophoran Siboglinum fiordicum Webb, had enzymes characteristic of the symbiosis in their ctenidia. Subsequentely, Dando et al. (1986) studied the gills of L. borealis and observed the presence of numerous prokaryotes in specialized cells (bacteriocytes) in the subfilamentar region of the gills, together with high concentrations of elemental sulphur and of a c-type cytochrome. Recently, Gros et al. (2000) "
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    ABSTRACT: Lucinoma kazani, a new deep-water species of Lucinidae from the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, is described and illustrated. The material was collected in the Anaximander Mountains, between Rhodes and Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean. The first living specimens were collected during the Dutch ANAXIPROBE project in the Kazan volcano, at a depth of 1709 m. Later, during the MEDINAUT programme, both living specimens and shells were collected from several mud volcanoes at different depths in the Anaximander Mountains.This bivalve holds symbionts in the ctenidia, as do all previously studied Lucinidae. The type of habitat of this new species is gas-saturated mud, with high levels of methane, which diffuses upwards into a low-oxygen deep-water. Therefore, we consider this as evidence of a living cold seep community in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers
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