Pharmacokinetic and local tissue disposition of [14C]sodium diclofenac following iontophoresis and systemic administration in rabbits

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.59). 09/2001; 90(9):1269 - 1276. DOI: 10.1002/jps.1079


The systemic pharmacokinetics and local drug distribution of sodium diclofenac in skin and underlying tissues was studied. Iontophoresis facilitated local and systemic delivery of diclofenac sodium compared with passive diffusion. The maximum plasma concentration of sodium diclofenac was achieved within 1 h of iontophoresis, and the delivery was proportional to applied current density (371 ± 141 and 132 ± 62 μg/L at 0.5 and 0.2 mA/cm2, respectively). The in vivo delivery efficiency for diclofenac in rabbit was 0.15 mg/mA·h. The concentrations of sodium diclofenac in the skin, subcutanoeus tissue, and muscle beneath the drug application site (cathode) were significantly greater than plasma concentrations and concentrations of drug in similar tissues at the untreated sites. The results thus suggest that the cutaneous microvasculature is not always a perfect “sink” and that transdermal iontophoresis facilitated the direct penetration of diclofenac sodium to deeper tissues. No skin irritation was observed up to 0.5 mA/cm2 current density and 7 mg/mL sodium diclofenac concentration. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90:1269–1276, 2001

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    • "In contrast, most of the drug found in the SF of the treated site had been delivered by direct penetration from the dosage site, with only a small portion delivered by the systemic circulation. Similar conclusions can be found elsewhere8, 10, 14. All of these observations imply that cutaneous circulation is not always an infinite “sink,” and that a drug may not be completely removed from the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis. "
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    ABSTRACT: The potential for topical delivery of meloxicam was investigated by examining its pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and synovial fluid following oral and transdermal administration in Beagle dogs. The experiment was a two-period, crossover design using 6 Beagle dogs. Meloxicam tablets were administered orally at a dose of 0.31 mg/kg, and meloxicam gel was administered transdermally at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg. Drug concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the Topfit 2.0 program. The pharmacokinetic results showed that AUC(0-t) (23.9+/-8.26 microg.h.mL(-1)) in plasma after oral administration was significantly higher than after transdermal delivery (1.00+/-0.43 microg.h.mL(-1)). In contrast, the ratio of the average concentration in synovial fluid to that in plasma following transdermal administration was higher than that for an oral delivery. The synovial fluid concentration in the treated leg was much higher than that in the untreated leg, whereas the synovial fluid concentration in the untreated leg was similar to the plasma concentration. The high concentration ratio of synovial fluid to plasma indicates direct penetration of meloxicam following topical administration to the target tissue. This finding is further supported by the differences observed in meloxicam concentrations in synovial fluid in the treated and untreated joints at the same time point. Our results suggest that transdermal delivery of meloxicam is a promising method for decreasing its adverse systemic effects.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1060-1064; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.73; published online 8 June 2009.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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    ABSTRACT: The use of iontophoresis to enhance transdermal transport of drugs necessitates further investigations on the membrane used to simulate human skin because one of the transport mechanisms involved, electroosmosis, strictly depends on the properties of the skin (i.e., its isoelectric point, IP). The aim of this work was to characterize rabbit ear skin permselectivity by measuring the sodium transport number at different pH values. This method allowed us to estimate the skin IP. To confirm the validity of the method, mannitol flux was measured. In addition, the sodium transport number method was applied to the study of human skin and a model drug iontophoretic flux through rabbit and human skin was evaluated. The results indicate that rabbit ear skin behaves as a permselective membrane, with an IP between 2 and 3. The same result was obtained using human skin. The mannitol flux data confirm that the direction of electroosmotic flow at physiological pH is in the anode-to-cathode direction. Finally, permeation experiments performed with a model drug showed that the relative electroosmotic and electrorepulsive contributions to the total flux are the same for human and rabbit skin. It can be concluded that rabbit ear skin is a suitable model for the study of iontophoretic permeation of drugs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the antinociceptive effect produced by cathodic iontophoresis of sodium diclofenac close to an arthritic knee-joint in rats with that of systemic application. Arthritic nocifensive incapacitation was induced by LPS (1 microg) injection into a knee-joint previously (72 h) primed with carrageenan (300 microg). Diclofenac (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally 1 h after LPS injection caused dose-dependent inhibition of incapacitation. Diclofenac iontophoresis was performed by varying either the current density (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mA/cm2) or the duration of application (4, 10, 20 and 30 min) of a polyvinylpirrolydone-hydroxymethylcellulose gel containing 1% sodium diclofenac. A clear, current density-dependent effect was observed for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mA/cm2 (10 min period), which was similar to the effect observed for the intraperitoneal application of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg doses. Combining different application periods with different current densities, in a manner that resulted in the same total current (1.6 mA*min) application, did not produce similar therapeutic effects, but the antinociceptive effect was directly proportional to the current density. The ipsilateral iontophoresis (0.25 mA/cm2 x 10 min or 0.5 mA/cm2 x 4 min) of diclofenac produced an effect significantly greater than the same contralateral application (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that the therapeutic effect depends on the current density but not on the application time, and also that the iontophoretic, direct application to the inflamed knee-joint enhances the therapeutic effect probably as a result of the direct delivery of the drug.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Life Sciences
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