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The Impact of Industrial Design Effectiveness on Corporate Financial Performance*

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Abstract

The relationship between industrial design and company financial performance in order to assess industrial's design contribution to performance is discussed. Effective industrial design was designed by asking a panel of 138 industrial design experts to rank the industrial design effectiveness of publicly traded firms within nine selected manufacturing industries. Based upon the ranking, the firms within each industry were divided into two groups, those judged as exhibiting high design effectiveness versus those judged as low in design effectiveness. The analysis reveals that forms rated as good design were stronger on all measures except growth rate measures.

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... Other than that, it has been discussed in previous studies the importance of industrial design in an organization where a study by Hertenstein et al. [20] explained that industrial design is considered as one of the many other critical main areas to new product development together with marketing, purchasing, manufacturing, research and development and others. The study added that new product development contributed by the industrial design through improving the involvement of a product with its customers such as appearance, function and ease of use. ...
... It has been discussed in previous study the importance of industrial design in an organisation where a study by Hertenstein et al. [20] explains that industrial design is considered as one of the many other critical key areas to new product development along with research and development (R&D), manufacturing, purchasing, marketing and others. The study added that industrial design contributes to new product development by improving the involvement of a product with its customers such as appearance, function and ease of use. ...
... However, the measurement, sampling or variable of the previous studies are mostly not suitable as the condition of the scope of this study is different in cultural anthropology and ethnography. A study by Hertenstein et al. [20] mentioned that there are limited researches that tried to measure the influence of good industrial design to improve company performance, but the results were mainly based on anecdotal evidence with perception that good industrial design is profitable. Further findings found that a study by Gemser and Leenders [19] conducted a research investigating how the performance of companies affected by industrial design. ...
Conference Paper
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Industrial design has long existed in Malaysia from the making of traditional furniture to hand made craft using materials from wood, metal or fabric. Over the time, the influence of industrial design in Malaysia has slowly disappeared in the industry because some of the considerations or perceptions of whether it is able to provide returns to its designers and the perception of some people who are unaware or lack the understanding of its importance and value. Previous studies have shown that there are managers in companies who have problem in understanding whether industrial design has value to the company although there have been many researches that attempted to quantify the contribution of industrial design to improve company performance. This study chooses the Balanced Scorecard framework to explore the industrial design’s value because in order to assess how organisations manage and deliver the value to the stakeholders and customers, the organisation should be evaluated by measuring the performance. based on financial and non-financial performance measures for new product development, this study uses measures such as customer orientation, employees’ orientation, competitiveness orientation and strategic partners’ orientation for non-financial performance and growth, profitability, liquidity, efficiency and revenue for the financial performance.
... Moreover, a well working internal NPD process significantly reduces the time-to-market (Wind and Mahajan, 1997), which directly increases revenues and thus enhances financial success (Ramaswami et al., 2009). These findings are in line with studies by Gemser and Leenders (2001) as well as Hertenstein et al. (2005), which found that industrial design as a major part of the company-internal NPD process has a positive effect on the financial success of firms. Yet, prior studies also suggest that the effect of NPD process efficacy on financial success is more complex than a pure direct relationship and rather characterised by a transformative process in which the effect is delivered by important mediators. ...
... More specifically and in contrast to many existing studies (e.g., Gemser and Leenders, 2001;Hertenstein et al., 2005) we could not confirm a significant direct effect of NPD process on financial success. This result is in accordance with studies by Ramaswami et al. (2009) as well as Wolff and Pett (2006) which also did not find empirical evidence for the link between NPD process efficacy and financial success. ...
... From a theoretical point of view, a general "snapshot" of the dynamic phenomenon of IMCC that evolves through multiple stages has been made at a single point in time due to time as well as cost restrictions leaving room for more dynamic research, for example, a longitudinal study, in the future. From a statistical point of view, implementing longitudinal data could also rule out any concern about reverse causality, even if the causal chain proposed in our model is well grounded in prior literature (Gatignon and Xuereb, 1997;Gemser and Leender, 2001;Hertenstein et al., 2005). While we employed several procedural and statistical remedies to demonstrate the robustness of the results and that potential problems revolving around common method bias are limited, longitudinal data in future studies would also help in this respect and further substantiate our findings by replication. ...
Article
Cross-functional intra-firm cooperation is crucial for a firm’s new product development (NPD) process and innovation success. Nevertheless, neither current innovation nor management control literature does provide empirical evidence on whether and how the cooperation between innovation and management control departments affects outcomes of the NPD process. Thus, this paper intends to close this research gap by studying the effect of innovation-management control cooperation (IMCC) across multiple NPD process stages on NPD process effectiveness and its consequences for a firm’s innovation and financial success. A multiple-informant data set was collected including 109 dyadic data sets from employees at project and top management level and combined with secondary data assessing financial success. The results show that IMCC exerts a positive effect on NPD process effectiveness. More specifically, the effect can be best described as u-shaped, being strongest in the concept development and implementation stage, but weaker in the product development stage of the NPD process. Furthermore, our findings show that innovation success mediates the relationship between NPD process effectiveness and financial success thereby explaining the contradictory findings of past research concerning the link between NPD and financial success.
... T he insight that "Good design is good business" attributed to IBM President Tom Watson in a talk at Harvard Business School (from Hertenstein et al., 2005) has spurred increasing academic and practitioner attention towards the ways organizations can employ design as a "managed process" within firms (Bruce and Bessant, 2002, p. 38). Increasing scholarly interest has been directed toward helping organizations develop and manage the right processes, resources, capabilities, activities, skills, priorities, and corporate structures that lead to "good design" in their offerings. ...
... Secondly, F5 Symbolic/Experiential Value (e.g. "Prestige", "Status", "Luxury", "Comfort", "Sensory Appeal" information elements) aligns with findings in NPD and business strategy literature that suggests that contemporary consumers have come to expect product functionality and quality as prerequisites and that truly successful products must not only perform well but also resonate with consumers in some emotional way (Hertenstein et al., 2005). McBride (2007) connects Design Management to this drive toward distinctive product offerings through the creation of "non-material value" (p. ...
Article
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Despite the increasing attention Design Management has received from academics and practitioners a definitive conceptualization or a widely-agreed upon empirical measure of the construct does not yet exist. This paper proposes a new measurement of Design Management based on the informational elements captured in product design briefs. Exploratory Factor Analysis results suggest that Design Management is made up of eleven clusters: F1 Customer Insights; F2 Business Model; F3 Aesthetics; F4 Authenticity; F5 Symbolic/Experiential Value; F6 Functional Value; F7 Promotions/Distribution; F8 Sustainability; F9 Production/Development; F10 Project Management; F11 Risk/Safety. Our analysis describes how these factors show differing effects on measures of firm performance at the product project- and competitive advantage-levels (for example, F1, F3, and F9 are strongly and significantly positively related to both sets of measures while F4, F5, and F8 are more important to the competitive advantage of a firm than to any individual product offering). Our findings are organized and discussed using the Balanced Score Card for Design Management tool made up of (1) Customer Perspective (Design as differentiator); (2) Process perspective (Design as coordinator); (3) Learning and Innovation perspective (Design as transformer); and (4) Financial perspective (Design as good business).
... The art of designing a sketch is considered to require individual skill and does not take well to organizational efforts (Hemonnet-Goujot, Manceau, & Abecassis-Moedas, 2019; Kanki & Osanai, 2018). Thus, both being regarded as design in the broad sense is problematic (Hertenstein, Platt, & Veryzer, 2005). This paper therefore classifies design in the broad sense as (A) industrial design (ID), which determines the form of an industrial product and (B) engineering design (ED), which designs product functions (Kanki & Osanai, 2018). ...
... (1) How collaboration between ID and others related to product development affect productivity Hertenstein et al. (2005) defines the role of the ID as coordinating with other departments and working to achieve prompt agreement within the product development team regarding product design that has good production efficiency, but this investigation did not address how to improve production efficiency. ...
Article
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Interdepartmental collaboration is considered to be critical to innovation and efficiency. This paper differentiated industrial design (ID) and engineering design (ED), which differ in their nature and are handled by different departments, and reviews in the literature on the impact that interdepartmental collaboration among industrial designers and other areas involved in product development has on innovation and efficiency. We found that: (1) regarding innovation, interdepartmental collaboration has a positive effect on design innovation, and CE type interdepartmental collaboration has a positive effect on technology innovation. (2) Regarding efficiency, we found that the effect on the efficiency of the product development process was not consistent, and production efficiency was not looked into in prior research.
... Especially design management allowed Design to be practically inserted within companies, measuring and managing its results (Hertenstein et al., 2001;Hertenstein et al., 2004;Guo, 2010). Considering Design as an important actor within companies, design management expanded its focus, looking beyond its mere insertion in enterprises. ...
... It discusses the strategic role that design has in modern organizations, influenced by analyses of relationships between companies and designers from the 60's, as well as project management and innovation studies from the 70's, 80's and 90's. Nowadays, it analyses the deliberate and gradual positioning of Design in organizations(Borja de Mozota, 2003), having strategic and performance aims(Wolff et al., 2016), whose results can be managed and evaluated(Hertensteinet al., 2001;Hertenstein et al., 2004;Guo, 2010). Considering design as an important strategic actor to companies, design management expands its focus solely from the placement of design within organizations (Wolff et al., Tonetto, L. M., Meyer, G. E. C., Costa, F. C. X. & Wolff, F. (2019). ...
Article
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Strategic design was born in Italy, specifically at the Politecnico di Milano. Approaches with the same designation have been observed in other scientific communities; some of them tend to have weak theoretical backgrounds. In this paper, we present a new approach named pragmatic strategic design (PSD). The basis of PSD's pragmatist perspective is explored, and its key characteristics are described. PSD is concerned with real-life applications of Design in organizations. It privileges practice-based action, extrapolating mere technical approaches, favoring the design of product-service-systems. PSD is multidisciplinary. All variables that will be considered in a project are operationally described. It is concerned with user experience, which represents a strategic issue in many organizations. It deals with intuition through metadesign. PSD focuses on preferred outcomes, rather than likely ones.
... Todo ello, junto a la rápida difusión de las tecnologías y el ciclo de vida cada vez menor de los productos, provoca que sólo las empresas capaces de diferenciarse y adaptar sus productos a las necesidades del consumidor puedan mantener su posición u obtener ventaja sobre sus competidores (Lecuona 2004;Chirinos y Rosado 2016). El diseño industrial se considera una herramienta estratégica para su competitividad (Tresseras et al. 2005;Fernández et al. 2010;Hertenstein et al. 2005; Observatorio Diseño 2013) cuya finalidad es comunicar imagen de calidad y confianza al producto para transmitir a los consumidores un determinado concepto de marca/empresa y una imagen diferenciadora (Buil et al. 2005;Abad 2011;Ramos 2014). Es el caso de Apple, que transmite al usuario calidad, diferenciación, limpieza y sofisticación, provocando en sus productos una definición de valor elevada. ...
... Ingeniero o Graduado en Diseño Industrial y Desarrollo del Producto debe participar en el proceso completo de generación de un producto, desde la detección de necesidades hasta la comercialización, pasando por el proceso de diseño en sí o preparación para la industria. Esto significa que, durante la fase más ingenieril, deben combinarse otros aspectos más comerciales, sociales y legales para el correcto En el panorama internacional, la relación entre la aplicación de diseño industrial en la empresa y los beneficios económicos obtenidos por esta indica que las empresas que destacan por un "mejor" diseño lo hacen, de igual manera, en otros aspectos financieros (Hertenstein et al. 2005 Esta titulación, que da origen al profesional en diseño industrial en España, queda extinguida por el GIDIDP con la implantación del sistema de Bolonia en la Universidad española, y fue implantada indistintamente en escuelas técnicas y artísticas, generando grandes diferencias en un mismo título, resultando unos, quizás demasiado técnicos, y otros demasiado artísticos, debido a las tres grandes áreas señaladas con anterioridad (Arte, Ciencias Sociales e Ingeniería). Estas diferencias, se trasladan con la aparición del GDP de las Enseñanzas artísticas, por el mismo motivo, y serán estudiadas más adelante. ...
Thesis
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La presente tesis doctoral recoge el diseño de una propuesta para la Formación Dual Universitaria en Andalucía dentro del Grado en Ingeniería en Diseño Industrial y Desarrollo del Producto (GIDIDP), que promueva la colaboración Universidad-Empresa y la adaptación del Grado a las necesidades de un entorno laboral cambiante. La propuesta es adaptable a otros títulos universitarios y Comunidades Autónomas. Para su diseño ha sido necesaria una profunda revisión de la evolución del Diseño Industrial como disciplina, la Universidad y la satisfacción del estudiantes sobre ésta, así como sus legislaciones autonómica y nacional, la oferta de títulos conducentes a la profesión del Ingeniero en Diseño Industrial o similar y su evolución, y la Formación Dual en los distintos niveles formativos. A partir de esta revisión se han podido definir las competencias y conocimientos impartidas en el actual GIDIDP en las tres universidades andaluzas que lo imparten: Cádiz, Málaga y Sevilla, para el análisis posterior de su viabilidad en el capítulo 5, de cara a un mercado laboral nacional, mediante la consulta a egresados del título de entre los años 2000 y 2016 y a empresas contratantes de este tipo de profesionales, participando además, docentes y egresados de 20 de los 21 centros que imparten la titulación. Los resultados de este análisis dejan ver que tan solo el 19% de los contenidos impartidos en este título en Andalucía se adecuan a lo demandado en tiempo y forma. Con estos resultados, y toda la revisión previa, en el capítulo 6 se construye la propuesta cualitativa y cuantitativamente. Dicha propuesta se compone por una estructura base que podrá ser aplicada a cualquier grado universitario, dividiendo las materias a impartir en módulos con participación de la Empresa (única o compartida con la Universidad) y módulos con participación única de la Universidad. Esta estructura propone una distribución de créditos para títulos de grado de 240 y 300 ECTS, o para títulos de máster e 60 ETCS. El contenido sugerido para la propuesta, favorece la personalización dentro de cada Escuela o Universidad andaluza, garantizando el cumplimiento de la legislación nacional y de aquellos Acuerdos alcanzados por el Consejo de Universidades Andaluz, favoreciendo a su vez, la adquisición de conocimientos y competencias demandadas por el entorno laboral.
... In addition to the information provided, label design (front and back) is an important 'seller' of the product. In the same line, a significant body of research suggests that package design is extremely influential at the moment of decision-making (Hertenstein et al., 2005;Orth & Malkewitz, 2008;Rettie & Bruwer, 2000). In particular, package design can help in the creation of strong brands and distinguishing offerings. ...
... [26] It has been believed that companies capable of expressing a certain connotation through the esthetics of a product design can establish a competitive edge in the market and boost the product's likelihood of success. [27][28][29] Moreover, Gallan identified vital factors such as the influence of colleagues, medical representatives, medicine samples, and direct-to-patient marketing behind the prescribing behavior of health care professionals. [30] Other researchers such as Hoyer and Stokburger-Sauer, Parvin and Chowdhury examined the influence of esthetic taste and different extrinsic aspects of non-pharmaceutical products on consumer behavior. ...
Article
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The prime objective of the study is to assess the purchasing behavior of pharmaceutical products among customers in Bangladesh and their response to the diverse range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the pharmaceutical products. Multi-item measures were utilized to collect information through a questionnaire-based survey to evaluate respondents' attitudes toward the distinctive characteristics of the pharmaceutical products. Among 410 participants, 266 respondents were assessed who purchase pharmaceutical products at least once monthly in last 1 year and answered all the questions properly. Shopkeepers' suggestions, product presentation, packaging material, product visibility, and packaging quality were singled out, which significantly impacted the purchasing behavior and brand evaluation. Significant gender differences were also observed in purchasing pharmaceutical products influenced by doctors' prescriptions (χ 2 = 10.278, P = 0.016) and evaluating brand based on bitterness of the taste (χ 2 = 6.792, P = 0.034). The association of the academic level of the customers was also observed in the most deciding factor in purchasing pharmaceutical products (χ 2 = 27.039, P = 0.000) and evaluation of the brand based on company image (χ 2 = 4.076, P =0.043), color of the liquid dosage form (χ 2 = 8.562, P = 0.014), taste difference (χ 2 = 11.346, P = 0.023), and bitterness of the liquid dosage form (χ 2 = 7.245, P = 0.027). Regardless of gender and education level, the majority preferred transparent, dual packaging and strips of solid dosage forms that are marked with the days of a week.
... In support of the relevance of DT for business and management that goes beyond the traditional application to design problems, scholars showed that DT could positively influence growth and profitability (Chiva and Alegre, 2009;Clark and Smith, 2010;Collins, 2013), innovation capability (Menguc et al., 2014), stock market prices (Hertenstein et al., 2005), strategy formulation and post-merger integration (Liedtka, 2014), and shape different organizational cultures (Elsbach and Stigliani, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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When integrated within an organization, Design Thinking (DT) can be the foundation of competitive advantage. However, systematic assessments of how DT is diffused in practice have received limited scholarly attention. In this paper, we present and apply a visual model developed to assess, describe, analyze and plan the roles DT can assume within organizations based on localization and application diffusion archetypes. The application of the model to 547 organizations of different sizes and industries gives insights into the current state of the role and diffusion of DT within organizations. Patterns, current frontiers, and shifts are analyzed across all organizations by industry type and by firm size allowing for a nuanced, empirical view into the role and diffusion of DT in practice. We provide practitioners a useful tool to map and benchmark their organizations, analyze, plan and communicate the role of DT, and guide future DT researchers seeking practitioner-relevant insights.
... 4 In particular, the capacity of design to evoke an emotional response among consumers and to trigger new needs and consumption patterns (De Vries, 2008) was identified as an additional source of value for firms (Fü ller, 2010;Bogers and Horst, 2014). With this richer conceptualization, design investment Alegre, 2007, 2009), and managerial design practices (Hertenstein et al., 2005(Hertenstein et al., , 2013 have been shown to be important drivers of firm competitiveness. ...
Article
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This article provides new evidence on the relationship between design and innovation performance at the firm level. In particular, we integrate previous analyses of the link between design investments and innovation by considering the extent to which firms put design at the center of their business activities. Moreover, we distinguish between the effect of design on innovation and its effect on the success of innovation, as captured by firms’ innovative turnover. The use of the European Innobarometer survey, covering a unique set of questions on the topic, allows us to test a set of hypotheses about these relationships on a large sample of firms. The results show that a firm’s approach to design plays an important role in its propensity to innovate: the more central the role of design within a firm, the higher the likelihood it innovates. The same holds true when considering the share of turnover from innovation. However, sales associated with innovation do not increase linearly with design investments, as we find a positive effect only for firms investing intensively in design. Overall it emerges that the centrality of design is strongly associated with firms’ innovation performance, while design investment per se has a more nuanced role.
... Scholars often contextualize the effectiveness of design thinking in the light of prior research that has investigated the role of design as a strategic driver of innovation and gaining competitive advantage (e.g., Dell'Era & Verganti, 2007;Luchs et al., 2016;Verganti, 2009). Indeed, empirical studies have shown that firms' design resources positively impact organizational performance (e.g., Candi & Saemundsson, 2011;Gemser & Leenders, 2001;Hertenstein et al., 2005;Homburg et al., 2015;Swan et al., 2005). The demonstrated performance-enhancing benefits of design have sparked avid scholarly interest in the role of design as an approach for innovation, commonly known as design thinking (Bettiol & Micelli, 2014;Brown, 2008Brown, , 2009Brown & Martin, 2015;Liedtka, 2015;Noble, 2011;Seidel & Fixson, 2013). ...
Article
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Scholars have suggested that design thinking and effectuation theory may enrich each other. However, to date, we lack deeper theorizing and empirical evidence to further advance this valuable discourse for the benefit of innovation management. Our qualitative study draws on 41 in‐depth interviews with Australian designer‐founders, with the aim to provide a theoretical perspective on and empirical insights into the relationship between the behavioral practices of design thinking and the cognitive principles of effectuation. The contributions are twofold. First, our study explains how design thinking practices enable designer‐founders to enact the cognitive principles of effectuation. Uncovering these ‘entrepreneurial ways of designing’ provides an explanation for the effectiveness of design thinking for entrepreneurial innovation and new venture creation. Second, our study sheds light on the ways in which designer‐founders interpret effectuation principles through the professional values and norms embodied in design thinking. These ‘designerly ways of entrepreneuring’ resemble particular, normative interpretations of effectual action. By doing so, our study offers empirical substantiation and theoretical elaboration of the ways in which design thinking functions as an approach for entrepreneurial innovation and new venture creation. Through shedding light on the ‘entrepreneurial ways of designing’ and ‘designerly ways of entrepreneuring’ exhibited by designer‐founders, our research reveals the reciprocal relationship between design thinking and effectuation theory.
... In addition, if a designer is given a job opportunity, stable clients and the designer can charge for service provided at a premium price [25]. This represents a contribution to promoting design by increasing customers through products, product functionality and product quality [26]. ...
Article
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The complexity of the design and completion of buildings poses a challenge for the construction industry in terms of meeting user needs. Performance-based building design (PBBD) is a design concept that describes these needs as performance requirements, designing buildings according to an iterative process of translating and evaluating the performance requirements of the buildings. PBBD is a concept that is used to produce buildings with high performance. This study aims to identify which PBBD factors are applied by architect and engineers in the planning and design of high-rise residential building in Surabaya, Indonesia. Primary data were collected by a survey using observation. A questionnaire was distributed to designers who were involved in design processes. A total of 68 respondents responded to the questionnaire. A descriptive analysis through a scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Factor analysis was used for the application of the PBBD concept. Four factors were identified: the interests of occupants, building management, process of design collaboration and risk of loss. Future research is needed to measure the success model of PBBD and to integrate PBBD into BIM (building information modeling) to allow interoperability.
... Research in this area are mostly conducted in developed countries. Also, there is evidence of a positive relationship between design investment and improved business performance (e.g., Black and Baker, 1987;Sisodia, 1992;Bruce et al., 1995;Ulrich and Pearson, 1998;Slater and Narver, 2000;Gemser and Leenders, 2001;Borja de Mozota, 2002;Hertenstein et al., 2005;Kootstra, 2009). However, these studies mostly focused on direct relationships without a broader view of company performance. ...
... One of the early studies demonstrating the importance of design for differentiating new products was by Berkowitz (1987). In subsequent studies, the influence of design on the success of new products, services, or companies has been further corroborated (e.g., Candi, 2010;Candi and Saemundsson, 2011;Hertenstein, Platt, and Veryzer, 2005). Over the years, researchers have identified specific factors impacting the influence of design on performance. ...
... In addition, if a designer is given a job opportunity, stable clients and the designer can charge for service provided at a premium price [25]. This represents a contribution to promoting design by increasing customers through products, product functionality and product quality [26]. ...
Preprint
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
... Value is critical for providing sustainable competitive advantage to the firms that are adopting a design-oriented strategy for new product development (Kotler and Keller, 2009), which includes delivering innovative products that meet the customers' needs and are high-performance (Borja de Mozota, 2003). Hertenstein, Platt & Veryzer (2005) quantified the value that design produces, which resulted in economic value, added value, and percentage of sales and economic value, customer satisfaction, innovation, and creativity. Marketing is considered the organisational function through which value is delivered to the consumers (Jun, 2008) as exchange process (Borja de Mozota, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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... Aesthetics and look & feel are considered to be strategic tools for gaining sustainable competitive advantage (Kotler & Rath, 1984;Kotler, 2003;Hertenstein et al., 2005). Hence, the product designer has an essential role in the quest for commercial success, in general (Dahl, Chattopadhyay, andGorn, 1999, Srinivasan et al. ,1997) The final phase, Evaluation, is a summative assessment of the system in its natural environment. ...
... The product aesthetics and its look-and-feel are strategic tools used to gain a sustainable competitive advantage [23][24][25]. It is widely accepted that the designer has an important role in a product's success [26,27]. ...
Article
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The overall goal of the novel Functionality, Usability, Look-and-Feel, and Evaluation (FULE) user-centered methodology for product design proposed in this paper is to develop usable and aesthetic products. Comprising several product design methods, this novel methodology we devised focuses on the product designer’s role and responsibility. Following the first three formative assessment phases that define the product’s functionality, usability, and look-and-feel, the summative evaluation phase not only assesses the product, but also provide guidelines to its implementation, marketing, and support. A case study devoted to the design of an autonomous medical device illustrates how the FULE methodology can provide the designer with tools to better select among design alternatives and contribute to reducing bias and subjective decisions.
... A high aesthetic quality of product design appearance can promote commercial sales tremendously. Consequently, a large amount of investment is put into visual aesthetic design and testing of new products before they are put on the market [1], [2], since visually appealing commodities and aesthetically pleasing packaging can attract consumers to purchase from offline and online retailers. According to the research of Bloch et al., visual aesthetics were considered as the top three critical attributes in product choice [3]. ...
Article
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A visual aesthetic is a crucial determinant of product design evaluation. Through the analysis of image features, not only can we evaluate the aesthetic level, but also we can reveal the whole quality of the design proposal. We assume that it could be a potential pattern to predict the ultimate success of the proposal in product design that a visual aesthetic can be a cue for award classification modeling. Consequently, we conduct investigation on a dataset of over 10,003 design submissions in a design competition held once a year from 2008 to 2018 in order to manifest the assumption. Due to the remarkable performance of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), we compare seven deep learning methods to explore an optimal model for design award prediction based on product image analysis. The result of the experiments indicates that the proposed method achieves comparative accuracy in design award classification result predication, with the optimal classification accuracy of 70.79% using the SEFL-ResNet (Squeeze and Excitation – Focal Loss – ResNet) method.
... BI represents the 'symbolic value' of a product or services, which is the image of the product, built either by virtue of its quality/functionality or through public impression regarding the same, or both (Saxena and Dhar, 2017;Taniyev and Gordon, 2019;Runyon and Stewart, 1987). The image is formed by the interaction of a customers' personal experience with the product and the reputation of the brand (Cheung et al., 2019;Gensch, 1978), and a positive image eventually results in customers' intending to purchase the product or service of that particular brand (Ansary and Hashim, 2018;Lewalski, 1988;Yamamoto and Lambert, 1994;Bloch, 1995;Lee and Lee, 2018;Hertenstein et al., 2005). PD is one of the tools that players in a highly competitive market use to set their products apart to improve their visibility and appeal (Hsiao and Chen, 2018;Chen et al., 2018;Bloch, 1995;Rassam, 1995). ...
Article
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This study investigated the impact of product-specific features of electronic gadgets on the purchase intention of the Indian youth. The study was quantitative in nature and data was collected from 650 young electronic gadget consumers in Bengaluru, India using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used for data analysis. Brand image, product design, and country of origin are referred to as product evaluation attributes; and corporate identity was identified as the determinants of purchase intention. Respondents were neutral regarding the role of product evaluation attributes and corporate identity in their purchases but acknowledged these factors' importance. Findings implied a positive and significant influence of product evaluation attributes on the corporate identity of companies, and purchase intention of the youth. However, corporate identity did not influence purchase intention, clearly indicating that only product-specific features, such as brand, design, and country of origin are considered when youngsters purchase gadgets.
... Design enhances consumers' purchase intention and willingness to pay and has a significant impact on the corporate brand image [10,11]. Additionally, investment in design contributes to profit and is highly valued in the stock market of design-focused companies [12]. When it comes to design, although the form tends to attract the most attention, the color-matching functions (CMFs) for color, material, and finishing should not be overlooked [13]. ...
... Research in this area are mostly conducted in developed countries. Also, there is evidence of a positive relationship between design investment and improved business performance (e.g., Black and Baker, 1987;Sisodia, 1992;Bruce et al., 1995;Ulrich and Pearson, 1998;Slater and Narver, 2000;Gemser and Leenders, 2001;Borja de Mozota, 2002;Hertenstein et al., 2005;Kootstra, 2009). However, these studies mostly focused on direct relationships without a broader view of company performance. ...
Article
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This paper aims to test the relationships between design orientation and its implementation with customer orientation and, consequently, company performance. Researched model and hypotheses were tested on the Croatian market. Data were collected using the computer-assisted web interviews on the population of Croatian companies with at least three employees. The hypotheses were tested using the partial least squares based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The research results highlight the role of design as one of the important predecessors of customer orientation, and its indirect influence on company performance was confirmed.
... The integration of industrial design in business practice has been empirically examined extensively, especially over the last decade, in a range of domains: for example, (1) its impact on company performance (e.g. Gemser and Leenders, 2001;Hertenstein et al., 2001Hertenstein et al., , 2005Olson et al., 1998), (2) international performance (e.g. Ughanwa and Baker, 1989;Walsh et al., 1992), (3) management of (e.g. ...
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With the global developments in the fields of innovation and technology, the industrial design profession is continuously expanding its definition. By not only creating or enhancing products but also services, and systems; industrial design operates in mostly manufacturing related industries such as; furniture, white goods, and electronic appliances. Today, the profession’s continuously increasing importance and place in the market attract the attention of these companies. Because manufacturing companies are mainly engineer-oriented, various variables emerge in the adaptation of industrial designers to the professional environment. Thus, differences appear in the professional culture of industrial designers which acquired in the undergraduate education. This situation shapes the definition and culture of the profession. In the literature, there are many sources on the descriptions and the cultures of many professions. However, there is a gap in the literature about the professional culture of the industrial design profession. The thesis aims to explore the relation between the professional culture of industrial designers and their experiences in professional life. While doing so, the thesis also reveals industrial designers’ adaptation to professional life, their interactions with other professions, and organizational cultures of manufacturing companies that industrial designers work in. In the field study, data were collected through 15 semi-structured interviews with industrial designers who were working in large scale manufacturing companies. After a qualitative approached data analysis, concerning the professional culture of industrial designers, this thesis reveals that there are three main conclusions regarding the importance of being a community, the importance of having flexibility in space and time, and definition of industrial design profession. Keywords: Design Management, Cultural Studies, Organizational Studies, Industrial Design Culture, Industrial Design Education
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Japanese companies have a large gap between the development and design departments, and therefore, design is not utilized in corporate management. In contrast, Apple and Dyson have integrated development and design to create products and services with excellent values. The following factors are responsible for effective design use: appointment of a design manager, incorporation of design into a company-wide strategy, and strengthened authority of the design department. However, there are various cultural differences depending on the size of the company, and these factors do not take these differences into consideration. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of large and small businesses in which the design manager participates in management. The results showed that large businesses tend to employ design organizations that are responsible for formulating visions and instilling designs within the company. Conversely, small businesses tend to utilize more concrete methods, such as activating discussions with prototypes and introducing agile processes into usability testing. Thus, in order to utilize design, it is necessary to use appropriate approaches based on the scale of the organization.
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Sensory dimensions of tourist destinations have recently been recognized as a crucial component in encouraging positive tourist experience. The urban area is rich in multisensory stimuli that could assist in planning and promoting attractive tourist experiences, and engage in local sustainable development as well. Hence, this paper focuses on capturing a holistic approach of all five human senses and their role in forming meaningful sensory impressions in the context of urban tourism, the so-called urban sensescapes. Following the qualitative approach, the present study embraces eight in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders in tourism field in order to answer to research gaps in the previous literature and help to understand the role of urban sensescapes and meaning of sensory features of the city. The case study approach enables mapping of multisensory routes where urban entertainment spots are presented in the light of their sensorial and emotional features. This will further facilitate tourist’s experience of the city’s best attractions which reflect all multisensory stimuli, ie., visual, aural, olfactory, gustatory and tactile.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine how design should be managed to develop truly innovative products and services. Three management levers were examined: design leadership, design inclusion and design thinking. Design/methodology/approach The study was carried out as a survey of innovation managers in the USA. The survey measures were developed from the design and innovation literature. Over 300 managers participated in the survey, and their responses were analyzed by using multiple regressions and other statistical tools. Findings All three aspects of design that were studied – leadership, team inclusion and thinking – were found to significantly and positively impact new product and service innovativeness. Of these factors, the most important contributor to innovativeness was design thinking, with having more than three times the impact of the other two. Also, firms that are large, publicly held and technology-intensive are on average more innovative. Practical implications To increase the innovativeness – or novelty, interest in and influential – of new products and services, managers should appoint designers as leaders on innovation project, include designers in development teams and above all integrate the design thinking process in organizations. Originality/value This study determines that design leadership, inclusion and thinking increases the innovativeness of new products and services.
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Design kan vaere et strategisk verktøy for å posisjonere, skape positive assosiasjoner, forsterke og øke verdien på merker og merkevarer. Design kan reflektere og materialisere virksomhetens strategi og verdier overfor kundene. Studier viser at strategisk utvikling og bruk av design kan vaere en suksessfaktor for innovasjon og ny-skaping. Likevel utvikler mange bedrifter design løsrevet fra selskapets strategi og mål. Dermed går de glipp av potensialet som ligger i å bygge bro mellom strategi og design for å utvikle eller forsterke merker og øke merke-verdien. Med utgangspunkt i forskning fra relevante fag-områder og praksis presenterer vi designstrategi som en brobygger mellom strategi og design samt en modell i seks faser som viser hvordan bedrifter kan koble design-strategi direkte opp mot virksomhetens strategi. Selv om merkebygging som fag og praksis endrer seg som en følge av ny teknologi og digitale løsninger, er det ikke alt som endrer seg.
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Tasarımcının, kullanıcı beğenisi için ürün tasarlaması ve kullanıcının da beğendiği ürünü satın alma isteği yadsınamaz bir gerçektir. Dolayısıyla, tasarımcı-ürün-kullanıcı üçlü ilişkisinde bir estetik kaygı vardır. Bir ürünle ilişki kurarken ilk etapta görsel elemanların (form, renk, doku gibi) dikkat çekmesi, estetik ve beğeni kavramlarının analiz edilmesi gereksinimini doğurmuştur. Çalışma bu sebeple, bilgi ve beğeni kavramlarını derinleştirmeye odaklanır. Kullanıcıların estetik beğenisini anlamak için, çalışmada kullanıcıların iç dünyasına büyük etkisi olan görmeye odaklanılması ve göz hareketlerini kaydetmek üzere göz izleme teknolojisi kullanılması düşünülmüştür. Bu çalışma, göz izleme teknolojisinin tasarım disiplininde kullanılmasının yöntemsel arayışı için bir araştırma önerisi niteliğindedir. Tasarım disiplininde göz izleme teknolojisinin kullanılmasının yöntemlerini ortaya koymak planlanan “ana çalışma”, onun çerçevesini belirleyen mevcut çalışma ise yol gösterici bir “araştırma önerisi” olarak sunulmaktadır. Ana çalışmaya bir taslak oluşturması hedeflenen bu ön çalışmada seçilen ürün grubu üzerinden kullanıcı beğenisine dair bilgi elde edilmesi hedefi ve estetik yargıların genellenebilirliği sorgusuyla ürün analizleri yapılmıştır. Ürünlerin gösterim sayısı, süresi, detayı gibi bileşenlerin belirlenmesinde katılımcı yorumları ve bunun yanı sıra göz hareketlerinin verdiği sonuçların tasarım kararlarında kullanılabilme potansiyeli ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ana çalışmada elde edilecek analizler sonucunda göz hareketleri izlenerek derin katmanlı beğeni bilgisi toplama; eğer bakma, görme, algılama ve beğenme arasında nicel bir ilişki kurulabilirse, tasarım disiplini için önemli çıktılar ortaya koyma potansiyeli tartışılmıştır.
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A critical blind spot in current management theory that borrows from design theory is that, ironically, a design has not been theorized as influencing the design of the firm. Management scholars have tended to view a design as a technical matter, an outcome of the firm. The quality and production costs of a design in this view are determined by the attitudes of managers, the aesthetics of the firm, or a combination of the two. In short, design theory has not been applied to the objective of explaining the economic organization of firms. Where design theory has been conceptualized as part of organizations, the theorization remains limited to the practice of, again, the organizational design attitudes of managers, the aesthetics of firms, or a combination of the two. Thus, despite the economic importance of good designs and capabilities for design, the question remains as to whether a design is simply an outcome of the existing activities of a firm, such as research and development (R&D) or asset orchestration, or whether conceptualizing firms by starting from a design could add new thinking to the economic organization of firms. In short, is a design merely an economic outcome of a firm, or is a design a central object in the economic organization of firms?
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Increasingly, core activities—including research and development (R&D), innovation and design—are being outsourced in practice. However, the research on this trend has focused primarily on R&D and innovation outsourcing. This study considers the relatively less investigated area of design outsourcing and key aspects of its management. Interviews with design experts point to distinct objectives for domestic outsourcing and offshore outsourcing. Generally, efficiency coupled with high quality is pursued by domestic outsourcing, whereas creativity that is tailored to firm particularities is expected from offshore outsourcing. The objectives are intrinsically challenging, especially for the unmeasurable criteria including quality and creativity. This study finds that there are key aspects to be considered to accomplish the objectives: supplier selection and risk mitigation. While further exploring these factors, the study sheds light on the role of in‐house designers overseeing the selection and managing the risks. The findings of this study are an important addition to the body of literature on design management, where there has been an increasing emphasis on the critical role played by design management in corporate performance, but a paucity of understandings on the effective management of design outsourcing.
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Tez kapsamında teknoloji tabanlı işbirlikli projelerde çalışan endüstriyel tasarımcıların rolleri araştırılmıştır. Tasarımcı rollerinin tasarım-teknoloji etkileşimi ve tasarımcı-mühendis işbirliği bağlamında analiz edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Türkiye ekseninde gerçekleştirilen araştırma için ekonomi ve ticaret raporları doğrultusunda teknoloji tabanlı 3 sektör belirlenmiştir: Türkiye ekonomisini yönlendiren Motorlu Kara Taşıtları Sektörü, gelişmekte olan Elektrikli Ev Aletleri Sektörü ve devlet desteğine ihtiyaç duyan Tıbbi Cihazlar Sektörü çalışma evrenini oluşturmuştur. Sektörler Türkiye ekonomisinde sırasıyla yüksek, orta ve düşük ihracat oranları sebebiyle seçilmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında 15 kişiye pilot anket, 42 kişiye ön anket ve 55 kişiye ana anket uygulamaları yapılmıştır. Ana anket uygulamasına Motorlu Kara Taşıtları Sektöründe ürün geliştirme projeleri yapan 7 firma, Elektrikli Ev Aletlerin Sektöründen 8 firma ve Tıbbi Cihazlar Sektöründen 8 firma katılmıştır. Ayrıca ankete katılan 15 endüstriyel tasarımcı ile yapılan derin görüşmelerde görüşme formu yaklaşımı uygulanmış ve anket sonuçları temellendirilmiştir. Görüşmelere ek olarak tasarımcı ve mühendis mesleklerinden yönetici statüsündeki 5 kişi ile yeni ürün geliştirme ekipleri değerlendirilmiştir. Anket sonuçları SPSS programı ile Ki Kare bağımsızlık testinde işlenerek çapraz tablolar oluşturulmuştur. Yapılan araştırmalar endüstriyel tasarımcıların özel sektörde üstlendikleri 3 farklı rol olduğunu göstermiştir. Süreç analizleri ile tasarımcıların ve mühendislerin yeterlilikleri ve görevleri tanımlanmış, karşılaşılan problemlere akademik eğitim ve sektörel çalışmalar üzerinden çözüm önerileri sunulmuştur.
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This study examines changes in the importance of product attributes on consumer satisfaction in the smartphone market. Based on a literature review, hypotheses are formulated regarding the relationship between the importance of aspects of consumer assessment and market maturity. We especially consider the diverse dimensions of product design and attempt to identify the dynamically changing effects in product design. This study’s empirical analysis focuses on consumer reviews of smartphones over a 10-year period, and the final dataset contains 18,463 reviews for 332 brands of 32 manufacturers. We estimate the relationship employing a hierarchical Bayes model; consequently, we find that the importance of appearance aspects declines, while that of technology aspects increases with market maturity. Based on these findings, we propose the application of practical market strategies.
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Purpose Researchers have pointed out that product packaging in the food industry has a significant influence on consumer decision-making. However, the impact of package development on firm performance has not been investigated due to the limited availability of analyses on package design. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between package development and firm performance in the Japanese food manufacturing industry. Design/methodology/approach This study empirically analyzed the relationship between package development and firm performance in the Japanese food manufacturing industry by using design patents data. Findings As a result of multiple regression analysis, it became clear that the number of design patents related to packaging is significantly linked to the operating profit ratio, growth rate of sales and increase in operating profits of firms. Moreover, the results show inverse U -shaped effects between design patents and firm performance. Research limitations/implications The results imply the importance of effective package design management. Originality/value This study provides novel insight on both marketing strategy and intellectual property management in the food industry, and it also provides a new method for empirical analysis using design patent data.
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Results are presented of an extensive and objective benchmarking study to determine the critical success factors which drive new product success and to gauge how companies perform on these factors. 'Best practices' which help to drive success are also identified. The study is designed to overcome some of the traditional problems associated with benchmarking. A rather large sample study of 135 firms is considered. Rigorous research methods in the form of data collection and analysis are used to ensure validity of results. Relationships between practices and performance are explored, i.e. the impact that each practice or characteristic has on performance.
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In this research, the authors seek to advance the understanding of how marketing can facilitate the new product design process. They focus on how designers' use of a specific cognitive process, visual mental imagery, can influence the customer appeal of a design. The authors present a conceptual framework for examining how visual imagery might influence the customer appeal of a design output. This is followed by two experiments that test the hypotheses that flow from the proposed model. The experiments manipulate the type of visual imagery used and the incorporation of the customer in the imagery invoked and then examine its effects on the usefulness, originality, and customer appeal of the resulting design. Consistent with the framework and the proposed hypotheses, the findings show that including the customer in imagination visual imagery during the design process has a greater effect on the usefulness of the design produced than including the customer in memory visual imagery. The results also show that imagery based on imagination results in more original designs than imagery based on memory. Most important, the use of bounded imagination, which results from the incorporation of the visual images of the customer in imagination imagery, leads to the creation of designs that are more appealing to the customer. The findings are integrated into a discussion that clarifies the role of visual imagery in design and underscores the potential of this cognitive tool in the new product design process.
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King, Keohane, and Verba (1994, pp. 27-28) argue that we should "maximize the validity of our measurement," "ensure that data-collection methods are reliable," and make all data and analysis replicable. In an effort to improve the measurement of the events data collected by the Intranational Political Interactions (IPI) project, this extension of the project produces two new valid and reliable interval-like scales. Following Azar (1982), Goldstein (1992), and Moore and Lindstrom (1996), I produce interval-like scales of cooperative and hostile political actions based on a group of experts' judgements. The collective scaling procedure produces data suitable for use in OLS regression models as well as a standardized interval-like scale that more accurately represents the true scores of event types. The paper discusses the procedures taken to derive the new measures, proceeds to argue why the new measures are improvements over existing measures, and reports the findings of statistical analytic comparisons. The statistical comparisons demonstrate that the new scales make a difference in various statistical models using different temporal units of aggregation.
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An exploratory study was conducted to examine management control issues in new product development (NPD). The study focused on three management control aspects that NPD managers considered important: (1) position of NPD in the firm's organizational structure; (2) NPD process; and (3) NPD performance measures. Primary data were collected from NPD managers via interviews, workshops, and a questionnaire. For each management-control aspect studied, we examined current practice, recent changes, and how the control links to strategy. The NPD function reported fairly high in the organization. The need to integrate NPD and strategy encouraged higher reporting levels, and shifts in reporting from engineering to marketing. The need to integrate NPD and strategy also drove the addition of NPD/strategy steps into already well-defined, phased NPD processes. However, NPD/strategy integration was not well reflected in performance measures. The firms studied used varied financial and nonfinancial performance measures, yet relatively few firms reported that their performance measures reflected key aspects of their strategies. NPD managers generally expressed dissatisfaction with the performance measurements, and firms appeared to be searching for more effective alternatives.
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The physical form or design of a product is an unquestioned determinant of its marketplace success. A good design attracts consumers to a product, communicates to them, and adds value to the product by increasing the quality of the usage experiences associated with it. Nevertheless, the topic of product design is rarely it ever, encountered in marketing journals. To bring needed attention to the subject of product design and enable researchers to better investigate design issues, the author introduces a conceptual model and several propositions that describe how the form of a product relates to consumers' psychological and behavioral responses. After presenting this model, the author describes numerous strategic implications and research directions.
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THE BRITISH DESIGN INNOVATION GROUP is a leader in design-management research. In gathering information from a broad cross-section of companies, one of its goals has been to distill objective data on the benefits and strategic role of design in business. Robin Roy reviews two major studies he and his colleagues have completed, and proposes an agenda for the future with respect to both the content of analysis and the methodologies used for collecting and analyzing input.
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1993. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 164-170).
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Eight broad areas appear to be important for new product success in a high-technology environment: 1) market knowledge gained through frequent and intense customer interaction, which leads to high benefit-to-cost products; 2) and 3) planning and coordination of the new product process, especially the R&D phase; 4) emphasis on marketing and sales; 5) management support for the product throughout the development and launch stages; 6) the contribution margin of the product; 7) early market entry; 8) proximity of the new product technologies and markets to the existing strengths of the developing unit.
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The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) is often used to divide firms into homogeneous markets. Firms classified into the same (n + 1)-digit SIC are thought to be more homogeneous than firms sharing only the same n-digit SIC. This study measures how well the SIC succeeds at combining firms into homogeneous economic markets. Assuming that firms in more similar economic markets should display more similar sales changes, profit rates, or stock price changes than firms in less similar economic markets, the author finds that the SIC is not successful at identifying firms with such similar characteristic variables. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
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Project SAPPHO consists of a comparative analysis of ‘paired’ successful and unsuccessful technological innovations, where one half of the pair is a commercial success and the other a commercial failure. In phase I of the project twenty-nine pairs were investigated, seventeen in chemical processes and twelve in scientific instruments. Five main areas of difference between successful and unsuccessful innovators emerged which related to the innovator's understanding of user needs, efficiency of development, characteristics of managers, efficiency of communications and marketing and sales efforts.In phase II, the project has been extended to include a new total of forty-three pairs, twenty-two in chemical processes and twenty-one in scientific instruments. The results of phase I have been confirmed with the same five underlying factors emerging as strongly differentiating between success and failure and with some inter-industry differences becoming clearer. These differences, by and large, relate to the basic structural and environmental differences which exist between the two industries.Following the statistical analysis a subjective review was made of thirty-four failure cases, and those factors which contributed maximally to the individual failures were identified. The results of this exercise support the results of the statistical analysis, but they also highlight some new and significant factors. Finally, some of the more important of the many hypotheses which have been forwarded as offering explanations for innovative success were tested in the tight of the phase II SAPPHO results.
Design as a Strategic Management Tool
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July). Borja de Mozota, B. (1990). Design as a Strategic Management Tool.
The Influence of Shape on Product Prefer-ences Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Re-search
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  • Marvin
Berkowitz, Marvin (1987). The Influence of Shape on Product Prefer-ences. In: Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 14, M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson (eds.). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Re-search, 641–645.
Why Product Development Teams Need Management Accountants
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Hertenstein, J.H. and Platt, M.B. (1998). Why Product Development Teams Need Management Accountants. Management Accounting 10:50-55 (April).
Instructions for Design Experts TO: DMI Membership FROM
  • A Appendix
Appendix A. Instructions for Design Experts TO: DMI Membership FROM: Earl Powell, President
The Benefits and Costs of Investment in Design: Using Professional Design Expertise in Product, Engineering, and Graph-ics Projects. Report of the Design Innovation Group, Open Uni-versity/Umist De economische waarde van 'Goed Indus-trieel Ontwerp
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Potter, S., Roy, R., Capon, C.H., Bruce, M., Walsh, V. and Lewis, J. (1991). The Benefits and Costs of Investment in Design: Using Professional Design Expertise in Product, Engineering, and Graph-ics Projects. Report of the Design Innovation Group, Open Uni-versity/Umist, September Roerdinkholder, F.A. (1995). De economische waarde van 'Goed Indus-trieel Ontwerp.' Amsterdam: Dutch Design Institute.
Creative Accounting? Wanted for New Product Development
  • J H Hertenstein
  • M B Platt
Hertenstein, J.H. and Platt, M.B. (2001). Creative Accounting? Wanted for New Product Development. Advances in Management Accounting 10:29-75.
Design as a Strategic Management Tool
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Borja de Mozota, B. (1990). Design as a Strategic Management Tool. In: Design Management: A Handbook of Issues and Methods. M.
Recoding Algorithm: Ordered Ranks to Ordered Rank Percentages Rank Number of Companies Ranked 4
  • B Appendix
Appendix B. Recoding Algorithm: Ordered Ranks to Ordered Rank Percentages Rank Number of Companies Ranked 4