Article

First notification on the presence of brucellosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Mexico by serological tests

African journal of microbiology research (Impact Factor: 0.54). 05/2012; 6(13):3242-3247. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR11.1630

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of three farms located in the south of Veracruz, México. Card test and rivanol were used in serial for detection of antibodies against Brucella spp. From a total of 565 buffaloes, 99 were tested and the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 13% by card test and 7% by rivanol. By farm, seroprevalence was 2.94% for farm 1. 4% for farm 2, and 12.5% for farm 3. Brucellosis seroprevalence showed an increasing trend with age, with adult cattle (>6 years) recording the highest seroprevalence (11.1%), but differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In two farms, buffaloes shared grazing land and water sources with bovine cattle, so 75 head were tested for brucellosis resulting negative. Because clinical signs suggestive of brucellosis were not observed, isolation was not attempted. This is the first known report on the presence of brucellosis in water buffalo in Mexico; thus, public awareness and further epidemiological studies of the disease in wildlife, livestock, and humans in the study area are of great importance.

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Available from: José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés
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    • "Toxoplasmosis in humans may be a severe disease affecting the lymph nodes, eyes, and central nervous system and can be life-threatening mostly in immunocompromised patients. Water buffaloes are important to the economy of many countries and in Mexico they represent an emerging alternative for diversified livestock production [2]. In Asia, water buffaloes are the major source of milk and milk products, and their meat is consumed by humans in several countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Seroprevalence association with general characteristics of buffaloes and their environment was also investigated.ResultsAntibodies to T. gondii were found in 165 (48.7%) of the 339 buffaloes with MAT titers of 1:25 in 104, 1:50 in 52, and 1:100 in 9. Bivariate analysis showed that seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was similar in buffaloes regardless of their general characteristics i.e., age, sex, and breed. In contrast, the seroprevalence in buffaloes varied significantly with environmental characteristics including altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall of the municipalities studied. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in buffaloes was associated with a mean annual rainfall between 1266¿1650 mm (OR =1.84; 95% CI: 1.15-2.94; P¿=¿0.01).Conclusions Results indicate that environmental characteristics may influence the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes in Mexico. Further research is needed to assess the risk for infection in humans associated with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat from buffaloes infected with T. gondii.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: Brucellosis causes serious economic losses and is an important zoonosis [1-5]. Buffaloes in many countries are known to be affected with Brucella abortus [6-8] and less frequently with Brucella melitensis [9,10]. Similar to cattle Brucella infections are known to result in late gestation (6-9 months) abortions [11-14], infertility [15-17] and latent infection of mammary gland lymph nodes with shedding of organisms in the milk [10], yet abortions are less common in buffaloes [4] with the disease being endemic in most buffalo raising countries. Shedding of Brucella in milk creates a potential threat to human health particularly for consumers using unpasteurized milk and milk products [10]. Diagnostic evaluations of Brucella infections in buffalo have utilized approaches employed in cattle with nearly similar or a slightly lower efficiency [18,19]. Isolates of Brucella from water buffalo were less virulent compared to those from cattle [19] suggesting some degree of resistance in buffalo towards Brucella abortus. Even in buffalo herds heavily infected with Brucella abortus, 20% of the animals remain negative by serologic tests and presumably uninfected at all times [20]. Identification of specific genotypes (Nramp11 BB) amongst buffalo populations [21] with resistance towards Brucella abortus infection have not only confirmed the presumptive lower morbidity with Brucella abortus in buffalo against cattle but have also offered opportunities to control this disease by genetic selection. A slightly lower incidence of brucellosis has been recorded in buffaloes compared to cattle in studies that simultaneously evaluated the serologic presence of brucellosis in these two species [15,22-24], however, in other studies a higher incidence of the disease was recorded in buffaloes compared to cattle [25-27]. Thus, it can be presumed that buffaloes are differentially affected with Brucella abortus. The preventive measures for eradication or control of the disease in buffalo raising countries are similar to those employed in cattle and there has been increased reporting of the disease during the last few years. In this chapter, the history, etiologic agents, diagnosis, distribution, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, necropsy findings, clinical signs, immune response, sampling, prophylaxis and zoonoses of brucellosis in buffalo are mentioned.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jun 2014