ArticlePDF Available

Sensory profile of a specialty Sicilian chocolate

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

In this study a sensory profile definition by a trained panel and instrumental measures deter-mination (pH, acidity, reducing sugar content) were carried out on the Sicilian chocolate known as "Modica" that is a niche cacao product spiced (cinnamon, vanilla) so as to obtain the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) branding for such a product. Sensory and instrumental data were also submitted to statistical analysis. The chocolate of Modica has shown a sensory profile differ-ent from other industrial products; in fact it is unique for the presence of sugar crystals and its gritty texture resulting from the manner of its production.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Volume XXIII
Number 1
2011
PAPER
36 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011
- Key words: chocolate, instrumental determination, sensory prole, Modica, spicy -
SENSORY PROFILE
OF A SPECIALTY SICILIAN CHOCOLATE
C.M. LANZA*, A. MAZZAGLIA and E. PAGLIARINI1
DOFATA, Sezione Tecnologie Agrolimentari, Università di Catania,
Via S. Soa 98, 95123 Catania, Italy
1DISTAM, Sezione Tecnologie Alimentari, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
*Corresponding author: cmlanza@unict.it
ABSTRACT
In this study a sensory profile definition by a trained panel and instrumental measures deter-
mination (pH, acidity, reducing sugar content) were carried out on the Sicilian chocolate known
as “Modica” that is a niche cacao product spiced (cinnamon, vanilla) so as to obtain the Protected
Geographical Indication (PGI) branding for such a product. Sensory and instrumental data were
also submitted to statistical analysis. The chocolate of Modica has shown a sensory profile differ-
ent from other industrial products; in fact it is unique for the presence of sugar crystals and its
gritty texture resulting from the manner of its production.
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011 37
INTRODUCTION
Chocolate originates from Mexico where the
Mayas, Incas and Aztecs cultivated the cacao
tree (Theobroma cacao) preparing this product
only on special occasions (COE and COE, 1996).
While we eat chocolate the pleasure centres of
our brain are activated. One typical quality of
chocolate is its melt point; it is solid at ambient
temperature but it melts in the mouth and it is
dissolved in saliva allowing a clear final assess-
ment of its texture.
Particle size distribution and ingredient com-
position of chocolate (sugar and cocoa about
70% total in a continuous fat phase) play an im-
portant role in shaping its rheological behaviour
and sensory perception (AFOAKWA et al., 2007).
In the past chocolate was seen only as a food of
sensual pleasure with negative effects on health,
however, today chocolate has been revaluated
positively, thanks to greater nutritional infor -
mation that discredits many fallacies. Despite
high lipid and sugar content, its consumption
has some beneficial effects on the human diet;
cocoa is rich in antioxidants, above all polyphe-
nols and minerals such as potassium, magnesi-
um, copper and iron, so its intake may be use-
ful in dietary deficiencies or may balance low
levels of neurotransmitters involved in the reg-
ulation of food intake (serotonin and dopamine)
(BRUINSMA, 1999). Thus it is not surprising that
chocolate has always been the most commonly
and intensely craved food in western cultures
(WEINGARTEN and ELSTON, 1990; OSMAN and
SOBAL, 2006).
Switzerland ranks first among the world’s con-
sumers of chocolate, it is a “chocolate heavy user
country” followed by Belgium and Denmark; It-
aly only ranks 12th place with a constant grow-
ing trend, in fact, the per capita consumption
passed from 3.2 kg in 1997 to 4.3 kg in 2006
(+36.4%) (BOMMEZZADRI, 2007).
In the choices of the consumer, tradition has
prevailed: as for bars, milk chocolate is always
the best seller, and there is a continuing rise in
dark chocolate sales, while white chocolate sales
are declining (BOMMEZZADRI, 2007).
Differences in the sensory characters of choco-
late can be ascribed to the use of different cocoa
types, i.e. flavour quality of chocolate usually de-
pends on the origin of the cocoa beans (JINAP et
al., 1995), variations in ingredient proportions
and in the processing methods (JACKSON, 1999)
that differ in relation to national consumer pref-
erences and producer company practices (BECK-
ETT, 2000; WHITEFIELD, 2005). In this panorama
there are niche chocolates that offer variety in
sensory characteristics. For these products it is
useful to define the standard of sensory identity
through analyzing the characteristics of locally
crafted chocolates. In this research the choco-
late of Modica has been characterized.
During the Spanish domination (1516-1713),
an Aztec recipe to prepare the “xocoatl”, cocoa
mass mixed with vanilla or cinnamon and sugar,
was transferred to the inhabitants of the county
of Modica (Sicily) as a gift of fidelity. The formu-
la of this chocolate was lost and only through
historical sources the original recipe has been
recovered. Until 1992 the chocolate of Modica
was quite unknown, it was mainly consumed at
a local level with a production of a few thousand
bars/year. Unlike other chocolate commercial
products, this type of chocolate has often been
considered as a new product (CIUFFOLETTI and
CRESTI, 2004).
Today some techniques and ingredients are
employed to prepare a primitive type of choc-
olate bar whose ancient formula may be ex-
ploited to put on the market as a new product.
Winning strategies of correct visibility regard-
ing marketing and packaging gave a new sta-
tus to the product. In fact, 300.000 bars/year
of production have entered into national dis-
tribution only in specialized shops. One of the
greatest producers of chocolate of Modica has
had a 25% growth trend in 2006 and the choc-
olate spiced with cinnamon/vanilla has been
the most sold with a 10% growth trend (BOM-
MEZZADRI, 2007).
With reference to the chocolate production
technology (roasting of cocoa beans, mixing,
conching, and tempering) the chocolate of Mod-
ica processing method is very simple.
For the production of chocolate of Modica, the
Disciplinary (2003) compiled by the Consortium
of Guardianship foresees that a mass of cocoa
heated to 45°C and mixed with sugar and spic-
es (vanilla, cinnamon, chilli) without addition
of emulsifiers is manually worked with stone
tools at a constant temperature that does not
allow the melting of sugar crystals. By subse-
quent cold tempering the cocoa butter consoli-
dates and the product is ready to be formed in
rectangular shape (www.cioccolatomodica.it).
Since there are no scientific publications
about this product and considering that the
characteristics of chocolate have been assessed
by sensory and instrumental measures (GUI-
NARD and MAZZUCCHELLI, 1999), the aim of this
study is to underline the diversity of this choc-
olate percepted by the consumers safeguard-
ing its identity. The memory of this chocolate
was lost and only through historical sources
the original recipe has been discovered. For
this ancient chocolate that is produced by a
number of craft-made producers, the definition
of the sensory profile as well as the analytical
measures of pH, titratable acidity and reduc-
ing sugar on the cinnamon and vanilla choc-
olate of Modica can constitute a fundamen-
tal step to identify the parameters that should
be included in the PGI disciplinary (Reg. CEE,
1992). This step constitutes a winning strate-
gy so that the memory becomes enterprise giv-
ing a new status to the product.
38 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sampling
Samples analyzed were: 3 craft-made choco-
lates of Modica spiced with cinnamon (Bc, DAc,
Sc), 5 craft-made chocolates of Modica spiced
with vanilla (Bv, Ev, Cv, Rv, Sv) obtained from
different producers, a craft-made chocolate of
Modica without spices (BNA), a sample of dark
chocolate by intermediate sensory character -
istics due to muscovado sugar (D), and a com-
mercial chocolate (N) (extra bitter Italian choco-
late with 72% of cocoa), indicated as Nc and Nv
in the sensory evaluation, respectively of cinna-
mon and vanilla chocolate of Modica. The choc-
olate samples were brought to room tempera-
ture (25°±0.5°C) prior to chemical and senso-
ry analyses.
Sensory evaluation
A descriptive panel of 8 judges (5 females and
3 males, aged between 25 and 40 years) select-
ed from students and university staff was uti-
lized to define the sensory profile (UNI 10957,
2003). The judges were trained in 12 sessions,
each approximately 1 h in duration, using both
commercial and Modica craft-made chocolate,
in order to develop a common vocabulary for
the description of the sensory attributes of dark
chocolate samples and to familiarize the panel-
lists with scales and procedures. Each attribute
term was extensively described and explained to
avoid any doubt about the relevant meaning. The
panel had agreed on attributes utilized includ-
ing a list of reference standards for each partic-
ipant (Table 1). These attributes correspond to
the highest intensity score on the rating scale
used, and were established according to a pre-
vious study (LANZA et al., 2004).
Experimental design
To reduce perception fatigue of the judges,
the working plan fixed the sensory evaluation of
the three cinnamon and the five vanilla choco-
late in triplicate at different times. In every ses-
sion, the set submitted to judges was composed
of four samples: the sample to evaluate and as
reference standards chocolate of Modica with-
out spices, chocolate with muscovado sugar and
commercial chocolate.
Random samples, prepared by cutting the
chocolate bar into squares were evaluated in
triplicate; this was performed by assigning to
every attribute a score between 1 (absence of cor-
responding sensation) and 9 (extremely intense)
in individual booths under incandescent white
lighting in the sensory laboratory of the DOFA-
TA Department. Within each session the design
was balanced for carry over effect among sam-
ples and session (PAGLIARINI, 2002).
Water at room temperature was used to rinse
after sample tasting. A computerized data col-
lection program was used (FIZZ Software Solu-
tions for sensory Analysis and Consumer Tests,
Biosystemes, Couternon, France).
pH and titratable acidity determination
The pH and titratable acidity were determined,
in triplicate, as described by JINAP and DIMICK
(1990): 10 g samples were pulverized in 90 mL
boiling water.
The extract was filtered and the pH was meas-
ured.
Titratable acidity was determined on the ex-
tract with 0.10 M sodium hydroxide to an end-
point of pH 8.0.
Reducing sugars
The concentration of reducing sugar was de-
termined by the Fehling titration method on the
extract after the inversion of sucrose with sul-
phuric acid (AOAC, 1990).
Statistical analysis
The sensory data for each attribute were sub-
mitted to Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA) with
samples (S), judges (J), replicates (R) and their
relevant interactions J x S, S x R, J x R as effects
by using SAS/STAT® statistical software pack-
age version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, USA).
The significance of these effects was tested with
the F test. The mean values were submitted to
the multiple comparison test using the proce-
dure LSD (Least Significant Difference) that en-
ables the determination of the attributes that
differentiate the samples.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also
applied to sensory and instrumental means data
in order to interpret differences among choco-
late samples using THE UNSCRAMBLER® sta-
tistical software package version 9.2 (Camo As,
Trondheim, Norway).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The mean values of the instrumental data are
reported in Table 2. The different values of pH
and titratable acidity among samples can be as-
cribed to the different origins of the cocoa mass
utilized by the different producers. The large
range in reducing sugar values for these prod-
ucts are indicative of the absence of a standard-
ized process for producing chocolate of Modica.
During their training period the judges pro-
duced a list of attributes that were useful to de-
fine the sensory profile. Among the terms gener-
ated, those with a percentage of elicitation great-
er than 70% are included in the evaluation card:
Colour uniformity, Bright and Presence of crys-
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011 39
Table 1 - List of sensory attributes evaluated, their definitions and corresponding standards.
Attribute Denition Reference
Appearance
Bright Perceived color of an object indicating the Dark chocolate(Perugina*®)
relationship between reected and absorbed light
Presence Amount of sugar crystals present in the surface Chocolate of Modica
of crystals of sample (appearance)
Aroma
Butter aroma Characteristic aroma of butter perceived with White chocolate (Milka®)
the sense of smell
Cocoa Characteristic aroma of cocoa perceived with Cocoa powder (Perugina)
the sense of smell
Cinnamon/ Characteristic aroma of cinnamon perceived with Dark chocolate (Perugina)
the sense of smell with 1% of cinnamon aroma
Vanilla Characteristic aroma of vanilla perceived with Dark chocolate (Perugina)
the sense of smell with 1% of vanilla aroma
Chocolate Characteristic aroma of chocolate perceived with Dark chocolate (Perugina)
the sense of smell
Taste
Sour One of the four basic tastes caused by aqueous Dark chocolate (Perugina)
solutions of acid compounds perceived with 5% of citric acid
on the tongue
Bitter One of the four basic tastes caused by aqueous Dark chocolate (Lindt**®)
solutions of bitter compounds perceived
on the tongue
Sweet One of the four basic tastes caused by aqueous Dark chocolate (Perugina)
solutions of sweet compounds perceived with 10% of sucrose
on the tongue
Flavour
Cocoa Characteristic avour of cocoa perceived Cocoa powder (Perugina)
with the swallowing
Cinnamon Characteristic avour of cinnamon perceived Dark chocolate (Perugina) with
with the swallowing 1% of cinnamon/vanilla aroma
Vanilla Characteristic avour of vanilla perceived Dark chocolate (Perugina)
with the swallowing with 1% of vanilla aroma
Chocolate Characteristic avour of chocolate perceived Dark chocolate (Perugina)
with the swallowing
Mouthfeel
Astringent Sensory perception in the oral cavity that may Dark chocolate (Perugina)
include drying sensation, and roughing with 1% of tartaric acid
of the oral tissue
Texture
Firm Strength required to compress a substance Chocolate of Modica
between the molars
Cohesive Degree of compression (between the teeth) Dark chocolate (Lindt)
obtained prior to breaking of the product
Adhesive Strength required to remove product completely Dark chocolate (Lindt)
from palate using tongue, after compression of
the sample between tongue and palate
Melting A phase change in the mouth due to the Dark chocolate (Perugina)
increasing of temperature in oral cavity
Friable Strength with which a product crumbles and akes Dark chocolate (Perugina) with
20% of cereal powder
Gritty Amount of small particles perceived in the mouth Dark chocolate (Perugina) with
when biting the sample 20% of “Pavesini”® biscuits
*dark chocolate with 60% of cocoa mass; ** dark chocolate with 99% of cocoa mass.
40 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011
Table 3 - Influence of samples (6), judges (8) and replications (3) on the nineteen descriptors for cinnamon chocolate.
F value
Attributes Samples Judges Replications SxJ SxR JxR
Colour uniformity 110.45*** 0.89 n.s. 1.90 n.s. 1.07 n.s. 1.23 n.s. 1.38 n.s.
Bright 97.10*** 1.29 n.s. 2.26 n.s. 1.12 n.s. 1.97* 0.94 n.s.
Presence of crystals 119.25*** 3.60** 0.42 n.s. 3.21*** 0.27 n.s. 0.58 n.s.
Cocoa aroma 2.52* 4.37*** 3.73* 1.67* 0.97 n.s. 0.50 n.s.
Chocolate aroma 15.60*** 1.57 n.s. 0.05 n.s. 1.65* 0.50 n.s. 0.48 n.s.
Cinnamon aroma 109.54*** 0.53 n.s. 0.42 n.s. 2.51*** 2.12* 1.40 n.s.
Butter aroma 4.12** 0.93 n.s. 0.46 n.s. 2.31** 1.04 n.s. 0.76 n.s.
Sweet 28.13*** 1.46 n.s. 0.44 n.s. 1.08 n.s. 0.42 n.s. 0.30 n.s.
Sour 7.30*** 0.68 n.s. 0.32 n.s. 3.20*** 1.44 n.s. 0.80 n.s.
Cocoa avour 0.72 n.s. 2.18* 0.62 n.s. 1.99** 1.24 n.s. 0.43 n.s.
Chocolate avour 14.51*** 3.98*** 0.73 n.s. 1.83* 1.20 n.s. 0.53 n.s.
Cinnamon avour 76.50*** 0.75 n.s. 0.36 n.s. 1.45 n.s. 1.21 n.s. 0.52 n.s.
Astringent 10.44*** 2.34* 0.39 n.s. 3.64*** 0.40 n.s. 1.43 n.s.
Firm 5.31*** 0.90 n.s. 1.33 n.s. 2.34** 0.83 n.s. 0.62 n.s.
Cohesive 8.93*** 2.68* 0.29 n.s. 1.98** 1.10 n.s. 0.52 n.s.
Adhesive 6.11*** 2.00 n.s. 1.46 n.s. 1.38 n.s. 0.49 n.s. 0.72 n.s.
Melting 2.25 n.s. 2.95** 2.09 n.s. 1.82* 0.85 n.s. 0.97 n.s.
Friable 71.12*** 4.02*** 0.09 n.s. 1.60* 0.49 n.s. 0.37 n.s.
Gritty 112.62*** 4.04*** 0.20 n.s. 3.69*** 0.54 n.s. 1.06 n.s.
*** signicant difference for p ≤ 0.001; ** signicant difference for p ≤ 0.01; * signicant difference for p ≤ 0.05; n.s. no signicant difference.
Table 2 - Instrumental means data.
Sample pH Std. dev. Tritatable acidity Std. dev. Reducing sugar Std. dev.
Meq NaOH/g g/100 g
N 5.70 ±0.18 4.30 ±0.35 28.00 ±0.05
BNA 5.92 ±0.04 2.73 ±0.02 55.44 ±3.09
D 5.51 ±0.01 4.32 ±0.00 40.97 ±0.01
Cinnamon
Bc 5.74 ±0.02 3.03 ±0.02 40.41 ±0.79
Dac 6.78 ±0.06 1.21 ±0.12 67.11 ±1.56
Sc 5.77 ±0.02 2.73 ±0.02 41.68 ±0.24
Vanilla
Bv 5.76 ±0.08 2.81 ±0.14 54.90 ±0.49
Ev 6.92 ±0.08 0.99 ±0.08 62.17 ±0.01
Cv 6.94 ±0.06 1.28 ±0.11 58.48 ±1.38
Rv 6.97 ±0.10 1.07 ±0.06 64.42 ±2.03
Sv 6.08 ±0.00 2.12 ±0.07 62.35 ±1.26
tals (appearance), Butter Aroma, Cocoa Aroma,
Chocolate Aroma (olfactive), Sour, Bitter, Sweet
(gustative), Cocoa Flavour, Chocolate Flavour
(flavour), Astringent (mouthfeel), Firm, Cohesive,
Adhesive, Melting, Friable, Gritty (texture), for
the cinnamon samples while for the vanilla choc-
olates they were classified by their vanilla aroma
and flavour, however for the vanilla samples the
judges did not elicit the attributes Colour uni-
formity, Bright, Sour, Astringent, and Friable.
The results of ANOVA for cinnamon chocolates
(Table 3) showed significant differences among
the samples for all the attributes with the ex-
ception of Cocoa flavour and Melting. The judge
effect indicated significant differences for many
attributes however the replication effect was not
significant except for Cocoa aroma attribute. The
interactions SxJ revealed significant differences
with the exception of Colour uniformity, Bright,
Sweet, Cinnamon flavour, Adhesive. The inter-
actions S x R showed a good homogeneity of the
samples during replicates, with the exception of
Bright and Cinnamon aroma, and finally, the in-
teractions J x R underlined a good reliability of
the answers furnished by the judges.
ANOVA of vanilla chocolate (Table 4) showed
significant differences among samples for all of
the attributes, except that for Cocoa aroma and
flavour and Melting. The judge effect indicated
significant differences for all attributes howev-
er the replication effect was not significant ex-
cept for the Presence of crystals attribute. The
interactions SxJ reveal significant differences,
except that for Chocolate aroma and flavour.
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011 41
The interactions S x R did not show a good ho-
mogeneity of the samples during replicates, and
finally, the interactions J x R underlined a good
reliability of the answers furnished by the judg-
es with the exception of Chocolate aroma and
Cohesive.
The mean values of the samples’ sensory data
submitted to the multiple comparison test (LSD)
were useful to determine what attributes differ-
entiate the samples (Tables 5 and 6).
With respect to the cinnamon chocolate, the
commercial sample (Nc) shows the highest mean
score as far as Color uniformity, Bright, But-
ter aroma and Astringent attributes are con-
cerned, while with respect to the vanilla samples,
the commercial sample (Nv) shows the highest
mean scores for Aroma and Chocolate Flavour,
Butter Aroma and Adhesive attributes. Even if
the samples of Modica have different rheologi-
cal characteristics (Presence of crystals, Gritty
Table 4 - Influence of samples (8), judges (8) and replications (3) on the fourteen descriptors for vanilla chocolate.
F value
Attributes Samples Judges Replications SxJ SxR JxR
Presence of crystals 131.31*** 38.64*** 4.98** 4.50*** 20.80*** 0.87 n.s.
Cocoa aroma 1.73 n.s. 5.09*** 0.71 n.s. 2.72*** 1.67 n.s. 1.35 n.s.
Chocolate aroma 22.32*** 12.29*** 1.04 n.s. 1.29 n.s. 0.80 n.s. 1.91*
Vanilla aroma 7.01*** 11.09*** 0.19 n.s. 2.58*** 2.50** 0.85 n.s.
Butter aroma 3.14** 12.80*** 1.22 n.s. 2.15*** 1.44 n.s. 0.60 n.s.
Sweet 25.03*** 27.60*** 1.64 n.s. 2.53*** 10.63*** 0.61 n.s.
Cocoa avour 1.40 n.s. 10.90*** 0.03 n.s. 2.74*** 0.99 n.s. 0.76 n.s.
Chocolate avour 10.90*** 10.38*** 0.79 n.s. 1.40 n.s. 1.16 n.s. 1.09 n.s.
Vanilla avour 9.75*** 11.82*** 1.39 n.s. 2.65*** 2.48** 0.91 n.s.
Firm 2.91** 17.98*** 0.83 n.s. 1.78** 0.62 n.s. 0.61 n.s.
Cohesive 3.33** 17.10*** 0.06 n.s. 2.17*** 0.81 n.s. 2.06*
Adhesive 5.57*** 19.51*** 0.88 n.s. 2.04** 1.25 n.s. 1.65 n.s.
Melting 1.40 n.s. 7.54*** 0.61 n.s. 2.16*** 1.92* 1.12 n.s.
Gritty 93.85*** 36.90*** 1.14 n.s. 5.26*** 10.88*** 1.14 n.s.
*** signicant difference for p ≤ 0.001; ** signicant difference for p ≤ 0.01; * signicant difference for p ≤ 0.05; n.s. no signicant difference.
Table 5 - Mean of the score among the 19 sensory attributes for cinnamon and no spicy samples (6).
Attributes Bc BNA DAc Sc Dc Nc
Color uniformity 1.60
a1
2.54
b
5.10
c
6.85
d
7.33
d
8.42
e
Bright 1.58
a
1.95
a
4.85
b
6.29
c
6.46
c
7.43
d
Presence of crystals 7.90
e
7.42
de
6.54
c
6.98
cd
4.46
b
1.00
a
Cocoa aroma 4.52
abc
5.17
c
4.06
a
4.29
ab
4.88
bc
5.07
bc
Chocolate aroma 4.10
bc
2.83
a
3.46
ab
3.90
bc
4.58
c
6.31
d
Cinnamon aroma 4.83
b
1.00
a
5.71
c
6.13
c
1.00
a
1.00
a
Butter aroma 1.85
a
2.33
a
1.92
a
1.85
a
2.33
a
3.10
b
Sweet 7.06
c
6.42
c
6.79
c
6.44
c
4.25
b
3.28
a
Sour 2.42
ab
2.88
b
2.06
a
2.73
ab
4.00
c
3.10
b
Cocoa avour 4.56 4.75 4.44 4.56 5.08 4.74
Chocolate avour 4.08
b
2.79
a
3.92
b
3.88
b
4.46
b
6.11
c
Cinnamon avour 4.42
b
1.00
a
5.52
c
6.35
d
1.00
a
1.00
a
Astringent 2.38
a
2.67
a
2.58
a
3.04
a
4.38
b
4.08
b
Firm 4.02
a
4.46
ab
5.40
c
5.50
c
5.42
c
5.07
bc
Cohesive 2.92
a
4.17
b
3.94
b
4.13
b
4.96
c
5.31
c
Adhesive 3.23
a
4.54
c
3.52
ab
4.06
abc
4.42
bc
5.57
d
Melting 4.77
4.92
5.40
5.42
5.29
5.83
Friable 6.86
d
5.63
c
6.90
d
6.71
d
3.96
b
1.39
a
Gritty 7.56
d
6.88
c
7.00
cd
6.73
c
4.33
b
1.14
a
1The values marked with different letters in the same line are signicantly different (p ≤ 0.05).
42 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011
and Friable), they are not significantly different
from commercial chocolate samples as for the
intrinsic attributes of chocolate that is Melting
and Cocoa flavour.
The next step regards the principal compo-
nent analysis of all of the sensory and instru-
mental data of the cinnamon and vanilla sam-
ples in order to identify the importance of vari-
ous attributes to discriminate among the sam-
ples obtaining a multidimensional space. Fig-
ures 1 and 2 report the principal component
score plot and the principal component load-
ing plot from chocolate sensory and analytical
data, respectively.
The variance explained by the first two prin-
cipal components was 75%. Figure 1 (score plot)
shows the position of the samples in the 3 repli-
cates. Since the distance among the replicates of
the same product is very little, it can be affirmed
that the results are reliable and that the judges
have furnished their judgments in a consistent
way. Furthermore, chocolate samples appear to
be well separated in the space.
Moving left to right along the first component
(explained variance 54%), commercial chocolate
samples (N and D) are distinct from the Modi-
ca chocolate. The second component (explained
variance 21%) distinguishes the cinnamon and
not spicy samples from the vanilla chocolate.
Principal components loading were examined
in order to identify the importance of various at-
tributes in discriminating among the samples.
Table 6 - Mean of the score among the 14 sensory attributes for vanilla and no spicy samples (8).
Attributes BNA Bv Ev Cv Dv Rv Sv Nv
Presence of crystals 7.42
e1
6.84
e
7.33
e
5.44
c
5.04
bc
4.81
b
6.31
d
1.08
a
Cocoa aroma 5.17
5.33
4.81
4.60
5.63
5.00
4.94
4.92
Chocolate aroma 2.83
a
4.60
cd
3.71
b
4.33
bc
5.00
d
4.48
cd
4.96
cd
6.58
e
Vanilla aroma 1.00
a
2.35
d
2.02
cd
2.10
cd
1.71
bc
2.25
d
2.15
cd
1.50
b
Butter aroma 2.33
a
2.38
a
2.27
a
2.56
a
2.54
a
2.29
a
2.38
a
3.54
b
Sweet 6.42
d
6.10
cd
6.42
d
5.50
b
4.29
a
5.73
bc
6.34
d
3.79
a
Cocoa avour 4.75
5.33
4.83
4.60
5.25
4.94
4.58
4.96
Chocolate avour 2.79
a
4.58
c
3.65
b
4.17
bc
4.46
c
4.54
c
4.73
c
5.54
d
Vanilla avour 1.00
a
2.19
c
1.81
bc
2.17
c
1.63
b
2.17
c
1.98
bc
1.13
a
Firm 4.46
a
5.54
c
4.81
ab
5.06
abc
5.54
c
5.46
bc
5.57
c
5.42
bc
Cohesive 4.17
ab
3.73
a
3.96
ab
4.34
b
4.13
ab
4.46
b
4.02
ab
5.17
c
Adhesive 4.54
cd
3.21
a
3.58
ab
4.04
bc
3.92
bc
4.19
bc
3.90
abc
5.13
d
Melting 4.92
5.73
5.65
5.46
5.21
5.38
5.79
5.17
Gritty 6.88
d
6.56
d
7.04
d
5.04
b
5.33
bc
4.83
b
5.65
c
1.04
a
1The values marked with different letters in the same line are signicantly different (p ≤ 0.05).
Fig. 1 - Score plot of chocolate samples.
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011 43
Figure 2 represents the plot of the sensory and
physico-chemical parameters in the plane de-
fined by the first two components.
The commercial samples (N and D) on the
left of the first PC in Fig. 1 are negatively corre-
lated to the Presence of Crystal, Friable, Gritty
and Sweet, and positively correlated to Choco-
late Aroma and Flavour, Cohesive and Astrin-
gent. The results from PCA show that the senso-
ry profile of the chocolate of Modica is very dif-
ferent from that of the other samples. In gener-
al, the second dimension makes the difference
between the chocolate of Modica and commer-
cial products.
CONCLUSIONS
The results obtained in this research show the
peculiar sensory profile of the chocolate of Modi-
ca, a fact that differentiates it from the commer-
cial dark chocolate, and principally the choco-
late of Modica’s attributes of appearance (Pres-
ence of crystals), taste (Sweet), and texture (Grit-
ty), that are a result of its production technolo-
gy. Despite its diversity, the chocolate of Modi-
ca did not lose two sensory attributes that are
typical characteristics of chocolate: melting and
cocoa flavour.
If aroma makes the difference between the cin-
namon and vanilla references, it is not clear why
some attributes (Colour uniformity, Bright, Sour,
Astringency, and Friable) of the cinnamon sam-
ples are not present in the sensory profile of va-
nilla samples. This result underlines the scarce
homogeneity among the samples examined. In
fact, each producer of the Association has “in-
Fig. 2 - Loading plot of chocolate samples.
terpreted” the original recipe, varying the ingre-
dients in their quantities and modifying some
phases of the workmanship to shorten the pro-
duction process. Therefore a follow up study is
necessary to set a range of chemico-physical and
sensory parameters to conform and standard-
ize the production, so as to achieve the identi-
fication with the PGI brand. In fact, cacao and
its products are still developing and there are
some avant-gardists with strangest tastes who
like orange, chilli, cinnamon, ginger, and even
absinthe flavoured chocolate. This study made
it possible to sort out the sensory dimensions
on an ancient chocolate helping to get relevant
and useful information to guide product devel-
opment. It is nevertheless a fact that the indus-
try and marketing must better understand the
consumer sensory development in order to sat-
isfy his needs.
REFERENCES
Afoakwa E.O., Paterson A. and Fowler M. 2007. Factors
influencing rheological and textural qualities in choc-
olate - A review. Trends in Food Science & Technolo-
gy 18:290-298.
AOAC 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the A.O.A.C.
(15th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists,
Inc., Kenneth Helrich Ed., Arlington, VA.
Beckett S.T. 2000. The Science of Chocolate. London: Roy-
al Society of Chemistry.
Bommezzadri M. 2007. Dossier Cioccolato. Food 17(10):131-
168.
Bruinsma K. and Taren D.L. 1999. Chocolate: Food or drug?.
Journal of the American dietetic Association 99:1249-
1256.
Ciuffoletti Z. and Cresti C. 2004. Dolceamaro: storia e storie
dal cacao al cioccolato. Alinari IDEA, pag. 87. Firenze, Italy.
44 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011
Coe S.D. and Coe M.D. 1996. The true history of chocolate.
New York: Thamer and Hudson Ltd.
Guinard J.X. and Mazzucchelli R. 1999. Effects of sugar and
fat on the sensory properties of milk chocolate: descrip-
tive analysis and instrumental measurements. Journal
of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79:1331-1339.
http://www.cioccolatomodica.it
Jackson K. 1999. Recipes. In: Beckett S.T. Editor. Industri-
al chocolate manufacture and use. 3rd Ed. Oxford: Black-
well Science. p. 36-56.
Jinap S. and Dimick P.S. 1990. Acidic characteristics of fer-
mented and dried cocoa beans from different countries of
origin. Journal of Food Science 55:547-550.
Jinap S., Dimick P.S. and Hollender R. 1995. Flavour evalu-
ation of chocolate formulated from cocoa beans from dif-
ferent countries. Food Control 6(2):105-110.
Lanza C.M., Pagliarini E., Mazzaglia A. and Laureati M.
2004. Sensory characterization of the typical chocolate
of Modica. European Conference on Sensory Science of
Food and Beverages “A Sense of Identity” 26-29 Septem-
ber, Firenze, Italy.
Osman J.L. and Sobal J. 2006. Chocolate craving in Amer-
ican and Spanish individuals: Biological and cultural in-
fluences. Appetite 47:290-301.
Pagliarini E. 2002. Metodi discriminanti. In: Valutazione sen-
soriale: aspetti teorici, pratici e metodologici. 1st Ed. Mi-
lano (Italy): Hoepli. p 59.
Reg. CEE n° 2081/92.1992. Gazzetta Ufficiale, n. L 208
del 24/07.
UNI 10957 2003 Sensory analysis – Method for establish-
ing a sensory profile in foodstuffs and beverage. Milano:
Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione.
Weingarten H. and Elston D. 1990. The phenomenology of
food craving. Appetite 15:231-246.
Whitefield R. 2005. Making chocolates in the factory. Lon-
don, UK: Kennedy’s Publications Ltd.
Paper received March 6, 2010 Accepted June 29, 2010
... For example, if these persons cannot detect signi cant di erences between products, it is a strong con rmation that most probably neither consumers will be able to detect these di erences. were found to use self-designed de nitions, resulting in a widely diverse terminology (de Melo et al., 2009;Lanza et al., 2011;Rocha et al., 2017). ...
... A thorough literature review of papers on cocoa and chocolate avor, including both sensory and instrumental data, revealed 2.5. Link between instrumental and sensory analysis 59 that most cocoa research articles include a partial least squares regression (PLSR) or a PCA (Luna et al., 2002;Misnawi et al., 2004;Lanza et al., 2011;Owusu et al., 2013;Waehrens et al., 2016;Seisonen et al., 2016;Deuscher et al., 2019;de Jesus Silva et al., 2020;Hinneh et al., 2020;Fayeulle et al., 2020;Biancolillo et al., 2021). Contrary to conducting a PCA, a PLSR requires prior knowledge on the sample patterning (Kilcast, 2010). ...
Book
Roasting plays a critical role in the production process of cocoa liquor and chocolate. Besides desirable changes in color and moisture content, flavor development is one of the most important reasons to roast cocoa. By means of a convective and/or conductive heat transfer, cocoa and nutty flavors are generated within the roasted beans, while the bitter taste and astringent mouthfeel are reduced. Roasting via a convective and/or conductive heat transfer is easy applicable and therefore also commonly used. However, these roasting techniques are lately questioned due to the long roasting times needed to sufficiently heat the core of the beans. Therefore, a growing interest is encountered to search for optimal roasting conditions and/or alternative roasting techniques, with the development of a desirable flavor profile as primary criterion. Within this research a comparison was made between conventional and microwave-assisted roasting with the main focus on flavor. The impact of varying roasting conditions (i.e. time, temperature and power input) on the flavor profile of cocoa liquor and chocolate was investigated via both instrumental (i.e. HS-SPME-GC-MS, UPLC-HRMS) and sensory (i.e. trained panel, consumer panel) techniques. Results confirmed that microwave-assisted roasting has the potential to be used as alternative technique.
... Modica chocolate is produced in Sicily, and takes its namesake from the municipality of Modica. This chocolate is characterised by the presence of sugar crystals and a gritty texture resulting from the manner of its production (Lanza et al., 2011). ...
... These two regions are geographically located at the extremes of the country, characterised by different populations in terms of socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics (ISTAT, 2020). However, both populations possess a deep-rooted and ancient tradition of chocolate making but are characterised by completely different productions (Gianduia and Modica), which can provide us with interesting data reflecting general consumer preferences (Atlante del cibo, 2017; Lanza et al., 2011;Rebonato, 2020). Consumer motivations towards chocolate consumption are constantly evolving, thus it is imperative to evaluate consumer preferences and attitudes towards different types of chocolate to explore emotional marketing strategies, in order to reach consumers on a personal level, so they perceive that they are seen, heard and understood. ...
Article
This paper analyses the preferences and emotional connotations of Italian consumers towards different chocolate types and assesses which label information consumers take into consideration during the purchasing process. A survey was conducted to collect data from 390 respondents from two different Italian chocolate production regions (Sicily and Piedmont). The results show that overall, consumers prefer dark, extra-dark and milk chocolate. However, a significantly higher percentage of women and men from Piedmont prefer “Gianduia” (hazelnut-based chocolate), when compared to Sicilians, whereas the type of chocolate formats preferred by consumers differs by gender (P < 0.05). Different attitudes before or after chocolate consumption are closely related to a certain type of product, in which gender and the geographical aspect are key influencing factors. Women and men from Piedmont feel unpleasant emotions towards chocolate before and after consumption, this was observed in the correlation analysis where positive correlations between anger emotions before consuming chocolate with guilty and sad emotions after consumption were noted in women and men, respectively (P < 0.05). In contrast, no significant correlations between feelings reported before and after chocolate consumption of Sicilian men was observed. During decision making, more than 40% of participants are aware of the cocoa quantity, nutritional information and fair-trade certification on the chocolate label. Our findings provide an empirical basis to inform the chocolate industry regarding consumer attitudes towards chocolate, to raise awareness of the social dimension in food labelling and to provide a baseline for the choice of a marketing communication strategy which plays upon emotional claims.
... Cocoa of excellence (COE), an organization comprised sensory evaluation experts and industrial cocoa and chocolate partners, created a glossary with the purpose of increasing the consistency of a trained panels' lexicon. Nevertheless, various research papers were found to use self-designed definitions, resulting in a widely diverse terminology (Rocha et al. 2017;Lanza, Mazzaglia, and Pagliarini 2011;de Melo, Bolini, and Efraim 2009). ...
... Due to the complex multidimensional nature of sensory data, multivariate statistical tools have been widely used to comprehend the actual human perception or to link it with instrumental data (Kilcast 2010). A thorough literature review of papers on cocoa and chocolate flavor, including both sensory and instrumental data, revealed that most cocoa research articles include a partial least squares regression (PLSR) or a PCA (Luna et al. 2002;Misnawi et al. 2004;Lanza, Mazzaglia, and Pagliarini 2011;Owusu, Petersen, and Heimdal 2013;Waehrens et al. 2016;de Jesus Silva et al. 2020;Hinneh et al. 2020;Seisonen, Vene, and Koppel 2016;Deuscher et al. 2019;Fayeulle et al. 2020;Biancolillo et al. 2021). Contrary to conducting a PCA, a PLSR requires prior knowledge on the sample patterning (Kilcast 2010). ...
Article
ABSTARCT The performance of appropriate instrumental and/or sensory analyses is essential to gain insights into the flavor profile of cocoa products. This three-part review is compiled of an overview of the most commonly used instrumental techniques to study cocoa liquor and chocolate flavor, their perception by a trained panel and the potential relationship between them. Each part is the result of a thorough literature study, principally focusing on the assumptions, features and limitations of these techniques. Reviewing of the literature revealed that cocoa matrix effects and methodology restraints were not always considered when instrumentally analyzing cocoa flavor. With respect to sensory analyses, various studies lacked reporting of accomplished trainings and performance of panelists. Moreover, a discrepancy was noticed in the descriptive flavor lexicon employed. Finally, when linking instrumental and sensory data, linear modeling is regularly applied, which might not always be appropriate. This review paper addresses the challenges associated with flavor assessment, intending to incite researchers to critically study cocoa flavor and apply standardized protocols and procedures.
... In this research, Pecorino cheese was produced with the addition of solid or molten chocolate obtained from bars of Modica chocolate, one of the most appreciated products of Sicilian pastry (Lanza, Mazzaglia, & Pagliarini, 2011), recently recognized as a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product. ...
... The chemical and coagulation parameters of the bulk milk used for cheese making (Table 1) were quite close to the mean values observed in milk produced in Sicily by Valle del Belice ewes during spring, when pasture feeding is widely available (Todaro, Bonanno, & Scatassa, 2014). Modica chocolate supplemented to curds (Table 2) showed a pH of 5.24, slightly lower than the value (5.92) reported by Lanza et al. (2011) for the same chocolate type. The chocolate in the present study had high fat and sugar, together accounting for 75% of the content, and a total polyphenol content of 17.3 g/kg. ...
Article
A novel dairy product, namely "chocolate cheese", was produced with two typical Sicilian food products: Pecorino cheese, processed from ewe's milk, and Modica chocolate. The cheese, manufactured with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) solid or molten chocolate, was evaluated after 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of vacuum storage for its nutritional and health properties. The addition of chocolate reduced the pH, protein, fat, and ash; the addition of 5% or 10% molten chocolate reduced hardness (N/mm 2). The addition of either solid or molten chocolate resulted in a slight increase (P < 0.1038) in the total polyphenol content, a higher oleic acid content, and less oxidative stability. The microbiological profile showed that the total mesophilic count and the number of mesophilic coccus lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were approximately equal (about 10 8 CFU/g) in all cheese. The survival of the microorganisms was affected by both the chocolate added and the storage time. Chocolate cheese stored for 6 weeks had less Enterobacteriaceae than control cheese, whereas yeasts were detected at higher cell densities in the former cheese. Filamentous fungi were undetectable in some cheese. Differences were also observed in the number of mesophilic rod LAB, which increased progressively over time in all cheese, and in Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, which decreased during storage. Descriptive and hedonic sensory tests and principal component analysis showed that fresh cheese and cheese stored for 2 weeks, including 5% molten chocolate, were the most preferred by evaluators. Based on these results, chocolate cheese has the potential to be appreciated in the market for its nutritional, health, and sensory properties. Practical Application: Chocolate cheese, made by combining two typical Sicilian foods, Pecorino cheese and Modica chocolate, is proposed as a novel dairy product. The highest sensory acceptance was obtained with the addition of 5% molten chocolate and storage for 2 weeks. Given its improved antioxidant properties, healthier fat, and sensory properties, chocolate cheese has the potential to be appreciated in the market, especially by young consumers.
... It is believed that the chocolate originates from Mexico where the Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs cultivated the cacao tree. Since the sixteenth century, a cinnamon application with chocolate has been referred to (Lanza et al. 2011). Current studies incorporating cinnamon essential oil to chocolate mostly aim to improve the sensory qualities of chocolate, especially the aroma. ...
Book
Cinnamon Botany, Agronomy, Chemistry and Industrial Applications
... On the other hand, Lanza et al. [88] studied the sensory properties of chocolate with the presence of larger sugar crystals and a sandy texture, resulting from a particular form of production. Despite its diversity, chocolate according to the panelists did not lose two sensory descriptors typical of chocolate: melting and cocoa taste. ...
Article
Full-text available
The content of polyphenols in chocolate depends on many factors related to the properties of raw material and manufacturing parameters. The trend toward developing chocolates made from unroasted cocoa beans encourages research in this area. In addition, modern customers attach great importance to how the food they consume benefits their bodies. One such benefit that consumers value is the preservation of natural antioxidant compounds in food products (e.g., polyphenols). Therefore, in our study we attempted to determine the relationship between variable parameters at the conching stage (i.e., temperature and time of) and the content of dominant polyphenols (i.e.,catechins, epicatechins, and procyanidin B2) in chocolate milk mass (CMM) obtained from unroasted cocoa beans. Increasing the conching temperature from 50 to 60 °C decreased the content of three basic flavan-3-ols. The highest number of these compounds was determined when the process was carried out at 50 °C. However, the time that caused the least degradation of these compounds differed. For catechin, it was 2 h; for epicatechin it was 1 h; and for procyanidin it was 3 h. The influence of both the temperature and conching time on the rheological properties of chocolate milk mass was demonstrated. At 50 °C, the viscosity and the yield stress of the conched mass showed its highest value.
... It is believed that the chocolate originates from Mexico where the Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs cultivated the cacao tree. Since the sixteenth century, a cinnamon application with chocolate has been referred to (Lanza et al. 2011). Current studies incorporating cinnamon essential oil to chocolate mostly aim to improve the sensory qualities of chocolate, especially the aroma. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
True (Ceylon) cinnamon, a traditional spice, is used as a flavor enhancer in a variety of food products in many parts of the world. Today, the consumer is becoming increasingly health conscious and sophisticated, and the food and beverage market is more dynamic than ever and is shifting from synthetic to natural products with the advent of a burgeoning green economy. Ceylon cinnamon has unique organoleptic attributes, including exotic flavor, distinct aroma, and pungent taste with functional properties, such as antiaging, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antiflatulent, and analgesic uses. Therefore, it has found wide industrial applications, including food and beverage, nutraceutical, oral care, and packing industries. Cinnamon is used as an ingredient in a wide range of confectionaries. In the beverage industry, it is added to tea and alcoholic and ready-to-drink beverages. Among cinnamon-flavored beverages, cocktails, wine, tequila, and beer are popular and command an appreciable market. In view of its antibacterial, antifungal, and insect-repelling properties, cinnamon-impregnated food packaging material is used to extend shelf life of food products and to reduce their vulnerability to pest attack. Therefore, cinnamon shows great promise as an agro-industrial crop with a wide range of applications in the food and beverage industry through value addition and value creation.
... It is believed that the chocolate originates from Mexico where the Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs cultivated the cacao tree. Since the sixteenth century, a cinnamon application with chocolate has been referred to (Lanza et al. 2011). Current studies incorporating cinnamon essential oil to chocolate mostly aim to improve the sensory qualities of chocolate, especially the aroma. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sri Lanka is the market leader of Ceylon cinnamon with a 90% global market share. Cinnamon is one of the leading foreign exchange earners from among agricultural exports of Sri Lanka. The cinnamon extent of cultivation, production, and yield has only marginally increased over the past few decades despite high potential in the global market. However, the major competitive product cassia produced and exported predominantly by Indonesia, China, and Vietnam has contributed to the erosion of Ceylon cinnamon market share, notwithstanding warning from leading health agencies about its negative impact on health due to high content of coumarin. Ceylon cinnamon has the potential to become Sri Lanka’s number one foreign exchange earner from the agriculture sector by building on its competitive edge as the main true cinnamon supplier. Product and process innovation with a focus on compliance with food safety and quality requirements remains the most feasible and practical option to exploit the competitive edge of Ceylon cinnamon in the global marketplace. Marketing strategies should focus on product diversification, value addition, and brand recognition.
... for artisanal and industrial chocolate manufacturers that seek to have greater quality control of their products, and be competitive with the local, regional, national, and international markets. This allows us to understand consumer satisfaction, maintain product quality control, and reformulate rejected products (Thamke et al., 2009;Lanza et al., 2011;Donadini et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present work was to determine the sensory differences, consumer preference, and dominant attributes of industrial and artisanal Mexican chocolates. This characterisation was performed by using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Consumer preference was analysed by using External Preference Mapping, and the dominant attributes through Temporal Dominance of Sensations. Sensory differences between chocolate types were more evident in attributes such as chocolate aroma, cocoa aroma, and cocoa flavour. Consumer preference was focused towards artisanal chocolates that showed high intensities of brown colour, cocoa aroma, chocolate aroma, fat aroma, sweet aftertaste, and dominant attributes such as bitter, fat aroma, and bitter aftertaste. Results provided a significant insight about the preference of consumers for artisanal and industrial chocolates based on their sensory attributes.
Article
Chocolate is one of the most popular sweets in the world. In recent years, the bean-to-bar process for chocolate production has attracted global attention. Bean-to-bar is a method of managing the whole production process from cocoa beans to chocolate bars, including single-origin chocolate (SOC). Many manufacturers aim to produce high-quality chocolate to maximize the flavor of cocoa beans. However, chocolate compounds are very complex due to many processes, and there are a limited number of studies on the SOC produced from the bean-to-bar process. Therefore, understanding the effects of processing is important for the growth of the chocolate industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the processing effect on the component changes of SOC during the bean-to-bar process. In this study, the component changes during the bean-to-bar process were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Then, the characteristics of SOC from five regions in Indonesia were further investigated. Lastly, the component profiles were combined with the data obtained from sensory evaluation. Our results showed that the influence of the manufacturing process was greater than that of the difference in the cocoa production area. Moreover, 1-pentanol, raffinose, and heptanoic acid were correlated with sweetness and dairy flavor, whereas glutamic acid, tartaric acid, 3-methyl-2-butanone, mannitol, and ethyl cinnamate were correlated with bitterness, astringency, and cocoa flavor, which were shown to be affected by fermentation, roasting, and sugar addition. This information might provide a basis for improving the chocolate production process and its quality related to the component profiles.
Article
Flavour characteristics of the chocolate made from 14 dried, fermented cocoa bean samples from eight different countries of origin and the relationship with pH, titratable acidity and acetic and lactic acid were studied. The fermented dried cocoa beans were processed into semi-sweet dark chocolate and were evaluated for their flavour difference by the multiple comparison test using the Ghanaian sample as a reference. The descriptors and the intensities of the chocolate flavour perceived by the taste panel members were also obtained. There was no correlation between the flavour score and the pH, tritratable acidity, acetic and lactic acid concentrations. The study found that chocolate samples made from the low pH (4.75–5.19) and high pH (5.50–5.80) cocoa beans have low response in strong chocolate flavour. On the other hand, chocolate samples made from the Ghanaian and Nigerian beans which have medium pH values of 5.20–5.49 received a high response in strong chocolate flavour. More off-flavour descriptors were perceived from chocolate samples made from low-pH cocoa beans.
Article
The sensory properties of nine milk chocolate formulations varying in sucrose (400, 475 or 550 g kg−1) and cocoa butter (280, 320 or 360 g kg−1) were evaluated by descriptive analysis with a panel of 18 trained judges and by instrumental measures of colour lightness, hardness, viscosity and yield value. Low-sugar samples were more bitter, gritty and roasted (p < 0.001). High-sugar samples had higher milky/dairy, vanilla/caramel, hardness and sweetness intensities (p < 0.001). Samples higher in fat were faster melting. Low-sugar and low-fat samples were associated with viscous, mouthcoating, fatty/oily, cocoa and darker notes. Samples with high levels of both sugar and fat were more cooling and faster vanishing (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, fatty/oily intensity was inversely related to fat concentration. This research documents previously unreported effects of sugar and fat on the texture, mouthfeel and flavour of milk chocolate.© 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Thirty-nine fermented and dried cocoa bean samples from 13 countries were evaluated for pH, titratable acidity and concentrations of volatile and nonvolatile acids. The correlation coefficient between pH and log10 titratable acidity was -0.94. Cocoa beans from Brazil and Far Eastern countries were highly acidic while those from Central American and South American countries were low in acidity. Samples from West African countries were intermediate with titratable acidity values from 0.12 to 0.15 meq NaOH/g sample and pH values from 5.20 to 5.49. Highly acidic beans were characterized by high concentrations of acetic and lactic acids. The high correlation between acetic acid and both pH (r=0.86) and titratable acidity (r = 0.91) indicated that this acid could be primarily responsible for high acidity in cocoa beans.
Article
Chocolate, a complex emulsion, is a luxury food that during consumption evokes a range of stimuli that activate pleasure centres of the human brain. Central to chocolate quality is an appropriate melting behaviour so that products are solid at ambient temperature and on ingestion melt to undergo dissolution in oral saliva, with a final assessment of texture after phase inversion. Particle size distribution and ingredient composition play important roles in shaping its rheological behaviour and sensory perception but are poorly understood. With opportunities for improvements in quality possible through improved and more transparent supply chain management, plant breeding strategies and new product development, associated with fair trade and development of niche premium quality products, there is a need for greater understanding of variables.
Article
A craving for specific foods represents one of the most common and intense experiences surrounding eating. This paper explores the phenomenology of food craving by discussing the properties, origins and determinants of the craving state. The discussion includes consideration of the use of the craving concept in the drug literature and a review of the food craving literature. It is suggested that advances in the understanding of food cravings must address the problem of the definition and measurement of the craving state and proceed with recognition of the inadequacies of the ubiquitous assumption that cravings serve to identify and redress bodily needs.
Article
Although addictive behavior is generally associated with drug and alcohol abuse or compulsive sexual activity, chocolate may evoke similar psychopharmacologic and behavioral reactions in susceptible persons. A review of the literature on chocolate cravings indicates that the hedonic appeal of chocolate (fat, sugar, texture, and aroma) is likely to be a predominant factor in such cravings. Other characteristics of chocolate, however, may be equally as important contributors to the phenomena of chocolate cravings. Chocolate may be used by some as a form of self-medication for dietary deficiencies (eg, magnesium) or to balance low levels of neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of mood, food intake, and compulsive behaviors (eg, serotonin and dopamine). Chocolate cravings are often episodic and fluctuate with hormonal changes just before and during the menses, which suggests a hormonal link and confirms the assumed gender-specific nature of chocolate cravings. Chocolate contains several biologically active constituents (methylxanthines, biogenic amines, and cannabinoid-like fatty acids), all of which potentially cause abnormal behaviors and psychological sensations that parallel those of other addictive substances. Most likely, a combination of chocolate's sensory characteristics, nutrient composition, and psychoactive ingredients, compounded with monthly hormonal fluctuations and mood swings among women, will ultimately form the model of chocolate cravings. Dietetics professionals must be aware that chocolate cravings are real. The psychopharmacologic and chemosensory effects of chocolate must be considered when formulating recommendations for overall healthful eating and for treatment of nutritionally related health issues.
Article
This study investigated relationships of culture and physiology with chocolate cravings. Gender differences in chocolate cravings in Spaniards and Americans were examined using parallel Spanish- and English-version questionnaires administered to 259 undergraduate students at one university in Spain and 306 at one university in the US. Responses were examined separately for men and women in American and Spanish samples using multivariate analyses to control for variables like chocolate availability and cultural involvement (which was described by country of birth, years spent in that country, media use, and cultural identification). Chocolate was the most craved food among all Spanish students, but only female American students. A total of 91% of American women and 59% of American men reported chocolate cravings, and this significant difference persisted when controlling for American cultural involvement. In contrast, 90% of Spanish women versus 78% of Spanish men reported chocolate cravings, but the gender difference was no longer significant when controlling for Spanish cultural involvement. These results do not reject a role of physiology in chocolate cravings, but suggest that American culture encourages disproportionately more chocolate cravings among females than males, and that globalization may have led to a similar craving pattern among Spaniards, although gender differences in cravings are less clear-cut than they are in the US.
Dolceamaro: storia e storie dal cacao al cioccolato Alinari IDEA, pag. 87. Firenze, Italy. r44 Ital The true history of chocolate
  • Z Ciuffoletti
  • C Cresti
Ciuffoletti Z. and Cresti C. 2004. Dolceamaro: storia e storie dal cacao al cioccolato. Alinari IDEA, pag. 87. Firenze, Italy. r44 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 23 - 2011 Coe S.D. and Coe M.D. 1996. The true history of chocolate. New York: Thamer and Hudson Ltd
Sensory characterization of the typical chocolate of Modica
  • C M Lanza
  • E Pagliarini
  • A Mazzaglia
  • Laureati
Lanza C.M., Pagliarini E., Mazzaglia A. and Laureati M. 2004. Sensory characterization of the typical chocolate of Modica. European Conference on Sensory Science of Food and Beverages “A Sense of Identity” 26-29 Septem-ber, Firenze, Italy