‘Shatter the Glass Ceiling: Women May Make Better Managers’

Human Resource Management (Impact Factor: 1.52). 11/2006; 33(4):549 - 560. DOI: 10.1002/hrm.3930330405


There is considerable evidence that women encounter a glass ceiling or barrier to advancement into the executive ranks of organizations. Although many expected this barrier to be obliterated with the large influx of women entering the work force over the last two decades, little change has actually occurred in the most senior ranks. In most sectors, women still comprise less than 5 percent of board directorships and corporate officerships.
This article focuses on emerging evidence which indicates that the trend in U.S. corporations toward high-involvement work teams, consensus decision making, and empowerment may actually benefit the leadership styles that women already exhibit. Preliminary evidence is also provided which indicates that female managers are seen as more transformational than their male counterparts—a leadership style that has been shown to have a strong positive impact on individual, group, and organizational performance.

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    • "5 . 2 . Liderazgo transaccional Bass y Avolio ( 1994 ) describen este tipo de liderazgo , en función de que el líder premia o castiga al seguidor , como resultado de la calidad del trabajo desempeñado , por lo que el liderazgo transaccional , depende del refuerzo contingente , se considera que existe un intercambio de relaciones entre el líder y los seguidores , basadas en una serie de transacciones con una correspondencia de costo - beneficio ( Mendoza et al . , 2012 ) . "
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    DESCRIPTION: Abstract Nowadays organizations have to challenge a great competence, which take them to search strategies that lead them to be more competitive. The human factor is of great relevance, being important to focus on the organizational climate that leaders must generate in the creation of a positive climate that contributes to satisfaction. The aim of this research I to identify the leadership styles of the managers of the General Directorate of an educational institution through the MLQ in order to establish its relationship with the organizational climate and satisfaction. The surveys used were: the Bass and Avolio’s MLQ, adapted by Mendoza (2005) and Valenzuela’s ECL (2004). The alpha Cronbach's reliability coefficient was 0.842 and 0.913, respectively for the MLQ and the ECL. The results show that the leadership style that best presents the leadership is transformational, which influences the generation of organizational climate and satisfaction. The dimension that had the highest perception was personal work, while the lowest was promotion and career. Keywords: Leadership, organizational climate, outcome variables
    Full-text · Research · Oct 2015
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    • "Given that the concept of leadership has been the subject of significant changes, it is quite possible that new standards regarding agentic and communal leadership behaviors have developed (Koenig et al., 2011). The transformational and the contingent reward leadership styles especially seem to encompass behaviors which could be described as communal (Bass and Avolio, 1994). From their finding that women are rated to use transformational leadership and contingent reward more often than men, Eagly et al. (2003) develop the assumption that women in particular might prefer these styles because of the greater overlap between this leadership style and the female gender role. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines whether the behaviors of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership are perceived as being more typical of female or male leaders. In a questionnaire study, 113 participants in Germany were asked to rate the probability of occurrence of a specific leadership behavior for male and female leaders, respectively. A diagnostic ratio for each leadership behavior allows the determination of the direction and degree of gender-specific evaluations. As predicted, transformational leadership is believed to be more typical of female leaders. Nevertheless, inspirational motivation and idealized influence attributed are rated as being gender neutral. For transactional leadership, contingent reward was perceived to be more typical of female leaders, whereas management by exception was rated as neutral. Contrary to expectation, laissez-faire was not perceived as more typical of male leaders, but rather as gender neutral. Implications regarding potential gender biases for selection, training, and performance appraisals of leaders are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Leadership
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    • "With the individualized consideration such leaders coach, support and encourage subordinates. Bass and Avolio (1994) stated that transformational leaders teach and help followers to develop their strengths, and listen attentively to the concerns of followers. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the influence transformational and transactional leadership styles have on job stress among employees in Ghana’s banking industry. The study made use of structured questionnaires to collect quantitative data. 196 questionnaires were returned by respondents out of 250 administered. The findings revealed a significant negative relationship between transformational leadership and job stress (β= -.193, p< .05) and a significant positive relationship between transactional leadership and job stress (β= .165, p< .05). From these findings, it is recommended that managers adopt transformational leadership behaviours in order to reduce job stress among employees in Ghana’s banking industry. This is a pioneering work in the Ghanaian context where participants have been drawn from 19 different banks; making it possible to get general views of employees concerning the subject. Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, job stress, banking sector, Ghana
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Business and Management
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