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Admirer-celebrity relationships among young adults

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Abstract

This study investigated young adults' judgments regarding the degree to which relationships with celebrity idols influenced their sense of identity and feelings of self-worth. Participants (N=75) were recruited from a larger sample (N=213) of young adults whose responses to a brief survey instrument indicated that they were moderately to strongly attached to media figures they identified as idols in their lives. The present paper discusses the characteristics of the sample of idols participants reported as well as descriptive data concerning the degree to which participants perceived these idols as influential in shaping their sense of identity and feelings of self-worth. We also present the results of an exploratory path analysis that tested hypotheses about the possible relational antecedents of participants' perceived influence ratings, hypotheses derived from Caughey's (1984) analysis of celebrity-admirer relationships. The results highlight the utility of adopting a relational orientation to the study of how attachments to celebrities can significantly shape identity development.

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... Customers are more likely to gauge the brand image of endorsed brands positively and are able to easily remember brands promoted through celebrities [3,25]. About 75% of young adults exhibit strong attraction for celebrities at some point in their lives [9]. No wonder businesses spend huge investment in promoting their brands through celebrity advertising [21]. ...
... About 75% of young adults exhibit strong attraction for celebrities at some point in their lives [9]. More specifically, celebrities are often admired, especially by young consumers, who borrow from such celebrities for their identity construction [9]. ...
... About 75% of young adults exhibit strong attraction for celebrities at some point in their lives [9]. More specifically, celebrities are often admired, especially by young consumers, who borrow from such celebrities for their identity construction [9]. Based on the above submissions, this study seeks to assess the impact of celebrity advertising on purchase intention of university students-young adults-, after controlling for celebrity advertising risk. ...
... Celebrities build seemingly meaningful relationships with large numbers of consumers (Banister & Cocker, 2013;Boon & Lomore, 2001). Media personalities provide a wide range of characters for people to relate, engage and adopt as role models (Rojek, 2012). ...
... Consumer-celebrity relationships can be important predictors of consumers' brand associations and product purchases (Banister & Cocker, 2013;Choi & Rifon, 2012;Hung, 2014;Hung, Chan, & Tse, 2011;Kerrigan, Brownlie, Hewer, & Daza-LeTouze, 2011;Loroz & Braig, 2015;Thomson, 2006). Consumers develop different and complex types of relationships with celebrities, which have distinct effects upon consumers' identities and brand association (Banister & Cocker, 2013), and which may influence upon consumers' preferences, values and behavioural modifications (Basil, 1996;Boon & Lomore, 2001;Hoffner & Buchanan, 2005). Therefore, the role of consumercelebrity relationships is an important research topic in marketing and may influence how consumers interpret celebrity images and endorsement information. ...
... The social environment is an important predictor of behaviours and buying intentions (Bandura, 1971(Bandura, , 1986Hinz, Schulze, & Takac, 2014). The attention celebrities receive in mass media makes them highly influential marketing communication tools and social role models (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Brown & Basil, 1995;Brown et al., 2003). The social learning and social comparison theories are particularly useful for understanding celebrity influence in marketing communications including endorsements. ...
Article
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Throughout human history, people have expressed admiration for heroes who possessed extraordinary abilities and achieved superhuman goals. For many, modern-day celebrities fulfil this role and are prominent in various marketing communications activities. This paper addresses the literature review gaps and provides an in-depth review of the psychological and social psychological perspectives which are relevant to the celebrity endorsement literature. The contributions of this paper consist of a detailed analysis of important types of consumer-celebrity relationships, key emotional drivers (e.g. envy and admiration) of celebrity influence and the development of an original conceptual model. The conceptual model pulls together the past research and identifies new research gaps, which synthesises different research perspectives and provides a sound theoretical basis guiding future researchers and marketing managers.
... These varying results might reflect a common limitation of classical endorsement models: They tend to include consumers as passive spectators of the celebrity-brand association and only measure those consumers' ultimate attitudes and behaviors toward the endorsed objects (brands, products, services). In addition to celebrity-brand congruency, celebrity-consumer (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Choi & Rifon, 2012) and brand-consumer (Aaker, 1997;Fournier, 1998) congruencies could influence brand attitudes and relationships. Yet these three types of potential fits or congruencies have never been investigated together in a single empirical framework; such a standpoint could offer new contributions to theory and practice. ...
... Celebrities function as reference groups for people so that some consumers try to look like, search for information about, and make inferences about celebrities (Choi & Rifon, 2012). In turn, people may develop an attraction to a celebrity and invest time and energy to achieve a perceived relationship with him or her (Boon & Lomore, 2001). People also use celebrities to enhance or support their selfidentities, because celebrities convey symbols through their media presence and lifestyles (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Choi & Rifon, 2012). ...
... In turn, people may develop an attraction to a celebrity and invest time and energy to achieve a perceived relationship with him or her (Boon & Lomore, 2001). People also use celebrities to enhance or support their selfidentities, because celebrities convey symbols through their media presence and lifestyles (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Choi & Rifon, 2012). Such forms of involvement even can develop into a sense of intimacy that increases people's perceptions of their congruency with the celebrity (Boon & Lomore, 2001). ...
Article
Celebrity endorsement research mainly focuses on celebrity–brand congruency, presented as a primary condition for the success of these marketing communications. In this view, the consumer functions as an outsider of the celebrity–brand dyad, even though endorsement efficiency depends on psychological processes by the consumer (i.e., identification, social influences). This study therefore proposes a model of celebrity endorsement to test the simultaneous effects of three congruencies among the brand, the celebrity, and the consumer. Data collected from samples of real French women (mean age: 43.36 years) (N = 720) indicate that only the brand–consumer match exerts a significant impact on brand attitude, brand commitment, brand identification, and behavioral intentions. Celebrity–brand and celebrity-consumer fits have a limited influence on the outcomes. These findings challenge the exclusive prominence of celebrity–brand fit as a research and practical consideration and confirm the consumer's active role in the endorsement.
... Consumers' motivation to maintain their self-image and receive approval in a social environment (Schlenker, 1980) propels them to follow celebrity endorsers and brands with whom they find close association (Escalas and Bettman, 2015). They engage in the process of self-construction of identity by borrowing from a celebrity (Boon and Lomore, 2001) those elements of cultural meanings they may find personally relevant (Peter and Olson, 1996). Such borrowing may activate their ideal self (Boon and Lomore, 2001;Escalas and Bettman, 2003). ...
... They engage in the process of self-construction of identity by borrowing from a celebrity (Boon and Lomore, 2001) those elements of cultural meanings they may find personally relevant (Peter and Olson, 1996). Such borrowing may activate their ideal self (Boon and Lomore, 2001;Escalas and Bettman, 2003). Congruity in the demographic characteristics between the celebrity and the user enhances the advertisement's viability and persuasiveness (Kamins and Gupta, 1994). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of user gender, celebrity gender, and celebrity-user gender congruity on celebrity personality-user personality (CP-UP) congruity, and consequently, brand purchase intention (BPI). Additionally, it delves into the mediating roles of CP-UP congruity and brand personality-celebrity personality (BP-CP) congruity. Design/methodology/approach A survey research entailing a sample of 709 adult consumers was used to test the framed hypotheses by means of a structural equation modelling. Findings The results indicate that while celebrity and user gender have a significant positive effect on CP-UP congruity, celebrity-user gender congruity has a negative effect. The study shows a partial mediation of CP-UP congruity in the relationship between gender congruity and BP-CP congruity. Furthermore, BP-CP congruity is shown to have a full mediation effect on the relationship between CP-UP congruity and BPI. Research limitations/implications Consistency of the results of this study may be corroborated by employing other methods to estimate congruity scores. Also, the results of the present study may not be generalisable across different product classes with varied consumer involvement. Practical implications The findings have major implications for practitioners in understanding the significance of BP-CP congruity among celebrity-user-brand in the formation of purchasing intentions. The results of the study suggest a better CP-UP congruity when the gender of the celebrity is opposite to the gender of the user. This result questions the generalisability of the similarity theory that exhorts a prospect’s customary identification with a spokesperson of her/his own sex and further reinforces the selectivity hypothesis that indicates different information processing of males and females while they make judgements. Therefore, it might be a good idea for advertisers targeting female audiences to employ male celebrities in certain endorsements. Originality/value This is the first study that tests for the mediation effect of CP-UP congruity in the relationship between gender congruity and BP-CP congruity, and that of BP-CP congruity in the relationship between CP-UP congruity and BPI.
... Numerous studies have found that the gender of a celebrity can impact the intensity of a parasocial relationship. For instance, Boon and Lomore (2001) and Cohen (1997;2003) found both male and female audience members tend to prefer male celebrities more than female celebrities. Hoffner (1996) interviewed boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 12 regarding their favorite television characters, finding that both genders perceived female characters as engaged in more positive behaviors than male characters. ...
... In answering RQ3b, results suggest the presence of females in videos is associated with higher levels of realism compared to videos that only feature males. Although the present study did not measure audience attitudes, previous research suggests that audiences tend to prefer male over female celebrities (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Cohen, 1997Cohen, , 2003. This supports existing literature by suggesting there is a positive relationship between videos featuring females and levels of realism, indicating that individuals watching videos on YouTube may not prioritize realism. ...
Article
This study seeks to analyze the relationships between content features, video attributes, and parasocial attributes – the characteristics that could lead to the creation of parasocial relationships—among the top most subscribed YouTube channels. A quantitative content analysis was utilized in order to explore the videos of the most popular YouTube personalities. A stratified random sample was used to select 24 videos from each the top ten most subscribed YouTube channels. The findings of this study illuminate the relationship between content features, production features, and parasocial attributes.
... Consumers subscribe to the values celebrities possess and transfer these values from brands and products to construct, maintain, and enhance their selfconcept. Young consumers, in particular, are likely to regard the celebrities they admire as a kind of exemplar and thus adopt celebrities' values in their identity construction (Boon & Lomore, 2001). Therefore, purchasing and using the celebrity-endorsed product helps consumers acquire values and thereby contributes to constructing a satisfying self-concept (Dwivedi, Johnson, & McDonald, 2016). ...
... The data were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling method. Therefore, the current sample cannot represent the whole population of Chinese generation Y. Since younger consumers are more motivated to achieve their ideal-self and hold stronger beliefs that brands can contribute to their self-achievement (Boon & Lomore, 2001), the findings of the current study have limited generalizability. Future research should employ a larger sample size created with a random sampling method. ...
Article
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The prevalence of online social networks has given rise to the emergence of social media influencers (SMIs), so-called "Internet celebrities". Celebrity endorsement, which can be an effective marketing strategy, is also popular in the tourism field. This study uses self-congruity theory, which originally refers to the congruence between consumers and brands or products, to the congruence between endorsers and potential tourists to evaluate endorsement effectiveness. Results indicate that SMI endorser-consumer congruence positively contributes to visit intentions toward the endorsed destinations as does endorser-destination congruence. Tourism marketers are advised to use SMIs when the destination images and target markets align. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Such consumers are likely to develop strong, emotional relationships with the dance in the ad and the advertised brand. Additionally, the need for self-construction (Boon & Lomore, 2001;McCracken, 1989) drives consumers to constantly strive for symbolic consumption of prominent brands and seek close association with iconic celebrities whom the consumers hold in high esteem. When applied to the present study, consumers who strive for symbolic consumption are likely to seek close association with esteemed dance in the ads and develop an emotional attachment toward the advertised brand through the metaphorical and kinesthetic effects of the dance in the ads. ...
Article
The present study examines how consumers’ perceived congruence between their self-concept and the image of the dance incorporated in online advertisements influences emotional attachment toward the advertised brand. The partial least squares structural equation model was applied to the data analysis. The results show that congruence between self-concept and the dance incorporated in online advertisements has a positive impact on emotional attachment toward the advertised brand. More specifically, the present study demonstrates that ideal self/dance-congruence increase emotional attachment towards advertised brand as hypothesized. However, contrary to expectations, actual self/dance-congruence has negligible contribution to emotional attachment towards advertised brand. The managerial implications of the study are outlined.
... It is also evident that most of these new users are a youngster and the influence of celebrity is much higher in the case of young people (Ang & Chan, 2016). Young people show stronger affection towards celebrities and it is estimated about 75% of youngsters are strongly attached to a celebrity at some point in their lives (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Flora, 2004). In a situation where, India has more Generation Y shoppers than China and the USA taken together (Steelcase Workplace Futures, 2011).In this context, the role of marketers becomes very crucial not only to design the communication using credible celebrity for the target audience but also to provide the right product according to the requirement of the market for building a stronger and long-lasting brand personality. ...
Article
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The present study examines the role of celebrity credibility for building brand equity and relationship continuity with the help of brand credibility as a mediator. The experience of usage of Smartphone is considered as a moderator. A survey is conducted with a total of 376 participants. Brand credibility partially mediates the positive relationship of celebrity credibility on brand equity and relationship continuity expectations. A significant difference is found in the case of new users in the case of relationship continuity expectations. The relationship continuity which is usually an important construct in services is tested for a tangible product.
... All four actors grew up in the North Wales heartland, and have experience of Welsh and English in both formal and informal contexts. To accord with young people's aspirational reference points, recruited actors were aged in their twenties, aligning with the notion that young people orientate themselves towards older iconic and idolised figures (Boon & Lomore, 2001). ...
Article
We investigate covert attitudes towards Welsh and English as a medium of informal communication among L1 Welsh‐English bilingual adolescents. We collected quantitative data using an adaptation of the Matched‐Guise technique, testing measures of social attractiveness within youth culture via an indirect method. A total of thirty‐five adolescents took part in this study. We perform a 2 (language: Welsh /English) × 2 (register: high/low) × 2 (participant gender: male/female) mixed‐design ANOVA, with participant gender as the between‐subjects variable. Results show English rated more favourably than Welsh overall, with female participants rating Welsh guises significantly more highly than males. This lends empirical support to the perception of Welsh as a language of school and officialdom while English fulfils the language of leisure. Investigamos actitudes encubiertas hacia el galés y el inglés como medio de comunicación informal entre adolescentes bilingües L1 de galés e inglés. Recopilamos datos cuantitativos usando una adaptación de la técnica Matched‐Guise, analizando medidas de atractivo social en la cultura juvenil a través de un método indirecto. En el estudio participaron un total de treinta y cinco adolescentes. Llevamos a cabo un diseño ANOVA mixto 2 (idioma: galés/inglés) x 2 (registro: alto/bajo) x 2 (género del participante: masculino/femenino), con el género del participante como la variable entre sujetos. Los resultados muestran que en general el inglés tiene una valoración más alta que el galés, y que las participantes femeninas valoran de manera significativamente más alta lasformas galesas que los masculinos. Esto proporciona apoyo empírico a la percepción del galés como el idioma de la escuela y del funcionariado mientras que el inglés ocupa el lugar del idioma del ocio.
... It is very important to consider the adolescent consumers by the marketers because those customer groups have the most potential purchasing power than others(Bush et al, 2004). Especially when marketers endorse their brand using celebrity, it is very significant to target adolescent because adolescent largely perceive the celebrities as their ideal self-image which they use to develop their own physical appearance, values, attitudes and personality traits similar to the celebrities(Boon & Lomore, 2006). Martin andBush (2004) found that there is a positive impact on celebrity brand endorsement and the consumption behavior and purchase intention of American adolescents. ...
Article
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This paper has been developed as a conceptual paper by rationalizing the existing literature sources to build arguments on two main concepts namely Celebrity Endorsement and consumer brand behaviour on Sri Lankan modern trade industry. This study is specially focused on Sri Lankan modern trade sector which has remarked a significant position in the local economy. It shows a higher degree of contribution in the practical scenario of celebrity endorsements in the Sri Lankan modern trade industry, but empirical knowledge is lack to investigate how celebrity endorsements works in modern trade industry branding perspectives. The study based on empirical studies basing the Tears model by Shimp (2003) indicated that trustworthiness, expertise, attractiveness, respect of the celebrity are key factors that impact on celebrity endorsement. Finally, it concludes the paper with some research directions and priorities for the future studies.
... One can speculate that celebrity baby news, with its potential to be accompanied by appealing photos, could diffuse at least as thoroughly. Young adults may be particularly attuned to celebrities: one study found that 75% reported "strong attachment" to multiple celebrities (Boon and Lomore 2001). ...
Article
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BACKGROUND In recent years, demographers have proposed increasingly sophisticated models of culture's relationship to demographic patterns and change. However, little research theorizes or empirically examines how celebrity culture might shape demographic norms, despite the pervasiveness of celebrity news. OBJECTIVE I argue that demographic theories of culture and social networks can be fruitfully expanded to address the role of celebrity culture. Empirically, I evaluate the quality and quantity of US news on celebrity nonmarital fertility since the mid-1970s, examining dominant framings of and responses to nonmarital fertility, and comparing celebrities' nonmarital birth ratios to those of the general US population. METHODS People magazine covers, 1974-2014, were coded for all celebrity fertility-related stories, and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Nonmarital birth ratios from People were compared with those from US vital statistics. RESULTS People has consistently presented nonmarital conceptions - and, in its later years, nonmarital births - in a highly positive light. Celebrity fertility-related news spiked appreciably beginning approximately in the year 2000. Engagement (rather than marriage) has become an increasingly common response to celebrity nonmarital conceptions. Celebrities have lower nonmarital fertility rates than the general population, but among non-Hispanic whites who attended college, celebrities have had higher rates. CONTRIBUTION News about celebrity fertility is increasingly common, and highlights positive framings of nonmarital fertility. Although these findings do not permit strong causal claims, they suggest that celebrity news may have contributed to the destigmatization of US nonmarital fertility, especially among college-educated non-Hispanic whites. Demographic research could benefit from deeper scholarly engagement with celebrity and popular culture.
... Так, у 2001 році Сюзан Бун і Крістіна Ломор досліджували самосприйняття молодих людей і встановили, що 58,7% респондентів вибірки зазначили, що медіакумири вплинули на їх власну життєву позицію та переконання. Крім того, 25,3% сказали, що вони змінили свою особистість, щоб бути більш схожими (рисами характеру) на улюблених медіаперсон (Boon and Lomore, 2001). Також було доведено, що телевізійні ролі й моделі часто впливають на професійні уподобання та вибір молоді (Christiansen, 1879;King and Multon, 1996) . ...
Article
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ABSTRACT. This article describes the actual functional potential of parasocial relationship in life of the modern media consumers. The author provides functional model of parasocial relationships based on the wide range of experimental studies of Western and Eastern colleagues. It was designed to explain the connection of human needs and their satisfaction through parasocial contact. The author had summarized global researches, related to the topic of functionality of parasocial relations compiling them in a model which is based on two theoretical approaches «Utilization» and «Satisfaction» (U&G) and on the «Consumption-Creation» concept. The first one is studied how the media are used to satisfy the needs of media consumers , based on their goals that they set for themselves. The second one considers refracting through the cult of consumerism, considers the interactions of media consumers with the media either as thoughtless consumerism for the sake of pleasure, or as meaningful creative activity. The second one considers through the consumerism cult the interaction of media consumers with the media, either as thoughtless consumerism for the sake of pleasure, or as meaningful creative activity. The author has identified six main functions which were divided in two groups according to the general idea of the «Consumption-Creation» concept. Consumer concept includes such functions as entertaining, compensating and replacement. Сreative concept includes educational, media-creative and motivational-effective functions. The consumer concept serve exclusively to the needs of media consumers and affect mainly their emotional sphere. The creative concert can transform personality of the media consumer in a certain way and have influence on his self-presentation in the world. In this article the author describes each function in detail, its core personal needs, results of specific researches that have studied these aspects and the ability to meet certain needs through the formation of both parasocial connection (contact) and parasocial relationships. The author calls this model universal but does not exclude the possibility of further research that could describe new practices of parasocial interaction and expand or transform the potential of the parasocial functionality. _______________________________________________________________________________ Чаплінська, Ю.С. (2020). Функціональна модель парасоціальних взаємин. Журнал “Психологічний часопис”, Том 6 № 5, 66-79 Посилання: https://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/962/581
... While the theoretical reasons for the effect of actual selfcongruence on celebrity attachment support ideal self-congruence, there are some different consumer motivations specific to ideal self-congruence. Celebrities are desirable, accepted as role models and inspiring people in consumers' minds (Boon & Lomore, 2001). Because of these characteristics, consumers can associate celebrities with their ideal selves, and thus the ideal selves of consumers can be activated by the celebrity whom they admire or are attached to (Choi & Rifon, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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Although previous studies have investigated the effect of celebrity endorsement on variables such as attitudes towards advertisement-brand, research on celebrity attachment is still in its infancy, and its effect on consumer-brand relations is not completely clear. The primary aim of this study is to examine celebrity attachment, which to date has been explained only by self-determination theory, from a different point of view (self-congruence theory) and to investigate its effect on brand attachment. Furthermore, researching the relationships between brand attachment, brand loyalty, and brand addiction is the second aim of this study. Data from 377 surveys collected from the UK were analyzed using SEM. Findings show that actual and ideal self-congruence have positive effects on celebrity attachment, which is consistent with self-congruence theory. Moreover, celebrity attachment also affects brand attachment, while brand attachment positively affects brand loyalty and brand addiction.
... The shared mental states and empathetic feelings toward story character may stimulate intense emotional responses and increase enjoyment (De Wied, Zillmann, & Ordman, 1995), making audiences less likely to argue against the message. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) suggests that identification can increase self-efficacy and facilitate vicarious learning and modeling behavior (Boon & Lomore, 2001;Caughey, 1986). Identification mediates the effects of absorption in narrative persuasion and is associated with positive responses to the embedded persuasive content (Slater, 2002). ...
Article
This study conceptually and empirically distinguishes two mental processes in narrative processing of food safety health messages-identification with and egocentric projection onto story characters. Two studies examined the effects of narrative autobiographical accounts of contracting foodborne illness (salmonella) because of careless food preparation. Both studies consistently found that identification increased, but egocentric projection decreased audience members' behavioral intention to perform safe food handling practices, indicating that egocentric projection and identification represent unique mental processes and yield distinct persuasive outcomes. In addition, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that egocentric projection and identification are distinct constructs. Implications for the role of identification and egocentric projection for understanding narrative processing and for health persuasion are discussed.
... Only very limited research on emotions has argued that adolescents may imitate their idols to affirm their self-value (Cheung & Yue, 2003), feelings of self-worth (Boon & Lomore, 2001), or body image (Maltby et al., 2005). Despite the lack of empirical research on the emotion of admiration, Haidt and Seder's (2009) theoretical speculations provide an introduction to the origins and functions of admiration. ...
Article
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The concept of fame has been associated with celebrities, wealth, attractiveness, and social recognition. Nevertheless, people have admiration for the famous who may not be celebrities. Admiration is regarded as one of the emotions of appreciation, or moral emotions, triggered by positive appraisals of excellence. It is present when seeing extraordinary displays of skills talent or achievement. However, theoretical and empirical research on admiration and its psychological effects on people are scarce. In this article, we discuss a qualitative study that explores a collection of experiences of admiration for the famous. Based on 26 in-depth interviews with residents in southern England, we explored why people admire famous individuals and how the experience may produce positive attitudes and behaviors. We found that through admiring famous individuals who are perceived to share similar interests and attributes, people may develop positive thinking about their own lives and may be more active in seeking new opportunities or engaging in self-growth. We also discuss the potential problems of admiration. This exploratory research contributes to the literature of positive psychology and has implications for furthering the understanding of people’s well-being.
... Many enjoy "celebrity" status, and celebrity idols have been found to influence youths' lives in nontrivial ways. This includes youths taking substantial steps to transform oneself to "match" their idols identity [8]. Celebrity idols in STEM disciplines, or with STEM backgrounds, tend to be less prominent, and have especially unique stories (e.g., Neil DeGrasse Tyson). ...
... Arnett menyatakan bahwa dewasa awal atau emerging adult adalah individu yang berusia 18-25 tahun (Santrock, 2011). Individu pada tahap perkembangan ini diasumsikan telah menuntaskan tugas perkembangan remaja yaitu telah sukses membentuk identitas jati diri dan mencapai autonomi, sehingga pada tahapan ini individu dituntut untuk fokus pada tugas selanjutnya yaitu mempersiapkan diri untuk mengemban peran baru dalam kehidupan seperti mempersiapkan diri untuk mencari jenjang karir yang tepat, memilih gaya hidup yang ingin dijalani apakah melajang atau menikah dan tugas perkembangan dewasa awal lainnya yang fokus pada pekerjaan dan cinta (Santrock, 2011 Celebrity worship pada dasarnya memiliki dampak positif pada penggemar seperti menginspirasi penggemar untuk belajar hal baru karena terinspirasi oleh selebriti favoritnya contohnya belajar musik atau belajar akting (Boon & Lomore, 2001). Dampak yang negatif juga dapat ditimbulkan oleh celebrity worship yang berlebihan terutama pada tahap intense-personal dan borderline-pathological. Dampak negatif yang muncul seperti kurang produktif (Aini dkk., 2019), sulit untuk mandiri atau menentukan tujuan hidup (Nurohmah & Prakoso, 2019), bahkan kegemaran yang berlebihan pada K-pop dapat membuat individu melakukan tindakan melukai diri sendiri (Rojek, 2012). ...
Article
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Celebrity worship is a normal phenomenon caused by human interaction with mass media, but it becomes a problem when a person becomes obsessed with one or more celebrities. This research aims to determine whether there are any influences of Self-Esteem and Psychological Well-Being on Celebrity Worship among Emerging Adult K-pop Fans at Surabaya. This research uses a quantitative approach involving 121 participants around 18-25 years old. The scales used in this research are RSES, PWBS, and CAS. The data was analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics Version 25 for Windows and Jamovi 1.6.15. The results of this research show that self-esteem and psychological well-being simultaneously and partially have no significant effect on celebrity worship intense-personal and borderline-pathological (sig > 0,05). In conclusion, self-esteem and psychological well-being have no effect on celebrity worship.
... In other words, followers desire to imitate their influencers in terms of physical appearance, attitude, or lifestyle by using or experiencing whatever influencers did or claimed to have done. An audience that shares bonds with their idols on social media is more likely to follow the influencers' choices to build identity and shape feelings of self-esteem (Boon and Lomore, 2001). Followers develop strong emotions about influencers, even when face-to-face interactions are lacking (La Ferle and Chan, 2008). ...
Article
Purpose As social media use rises, the impact of social media influencers on customer buying decisions increases, due to customers viewing influencers as ideal role models who they try to imitate. Nevertheless, this phenomenon is still under-researched. This study examined the impact of the imitation of influencers on customer buying intention toward endorsed products, which is mediated by social comparison, materialism and the fear of missing out (FOMO). Design/methodology/approach An online survey of 243 respondents was conducted via Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. This study employed structural equation modeling to test for direct and indirect effects among the constructs. Findings The results revealed that imitation of influencers has a significant impact on social comparison, materialism and FOMO, which affect buying intention toward endorsed products. The analysis results highlight the critical role of FOMO in explaining buying intention toward endorsed products in the context of social media influencers. Originality/value This study proposes a new theoretical model and empirically tests the power of influencers to affect consumer buying intention for endorsed products. It also explains the influencers' effects through FOMO, which have hardly been examined in earlier research although it is an important factor in understanding customer behavior. The implications are discussed for the academic literature and for online marketing strategies in marketing and advertising management.
... Parasocial relationships with media figures, as originally conceptualized by Horton and Wohl (1956), are perceived relationships with media figures that are functionally similar to interpersonal relationships (Giles 2002). These relationships are symbolic in nature and characterized by repeated exposure to the character or media figure, missing the figure when they are gone, perceived friendship, and the perception of an intimate bond with the figure (Boon and Lomore 2001). Parasocial relationships are the natural result of engagement with narrative media and are often entered into through simple exposure (Schiappa et al. 2007). ...
Article
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Increasingly, audiences are engaging with media narratives through the practice of binge watching. The effects of binge watching are largely unknown, although early research suggests binge watching may be motivated by a need for escape and could be associated with some qualities of addiction. In this study, we ask whether the practice of binge watching impacts audience engagement with a media narrative. Using an experimental approach, we manipulate the format of exposure to media narratives (binge or nonbinge) and test the effect of this manipulation on audience engagement, specifically parasocial relationships with favorite characters and narrative transportation. Results suggest that binge watching increases the strength of parasocial relationships and the intensity of narrative transportation. Media engagement has been shown to increase media effects, suggesting that binge watching could change not only how audiences engage with narrative media but also the effect it has on them.
Chapter
Seeking to increase knowledge about the content and underlying messages in news articles about celebrities’ experiences with cyberbullying, this chapter reports upon the results of a framing analysis. A total of N = 106 online articles were selected from two popular American celebrity teen magazines, Seventeen and Twist magazine. The analysis revealed 10 frames that could be classified within two themes. The first group of frames focused on celebrities’ experience of cyberbullying, citing its negative consequences and pointing to the uncontrollable character of the situation. In contrast, the second group of frames defended the idea that the situation could be handled by using the ‘right’ coping strategies. Suggested coping strategies were found on three levels: behavioral, cognitive and social. The dominant behavioral coping frame was that of ‘biting back’, representing celebrities fighting back against the bully by making sassy comments, a strategy that was also largely encouraged by journalists. On a cognitive level, celebrities strongly stressed the importance of a positive stand towards the cyberbullying experience, for instance by believing in positive outcomes associated with the ways the experience was handled. Finally, on a social level, looking for help was strongly encouraged, particularly if it was available nearby. The implications of this study are discussed in terms of their potential for supporting future anti-cyberbullying prevention and intervention initiatives.
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The celebrity worship considered an anomalous psychological behaviour with major consequences on personality development of an individual is examined with the important constructs of marketing namely, brand attitude, advertisement attitude and purchase intention. The study is carried out with a sample size of 386 respondents. The model is tested using structure equation modeling where celebrity worship is studied by examining its three dimensions individually as well as in aggregate implementing an existing celebrity worship scale. The study reveals some interesting findings with celebrity worship having a direct positive relationship with advertisement attitude and purchase intentions, whereas brand attitude is found to be significantly negatively associated with celebrity worship. The future research scope for the study and its practical implications are discussed based on the findings of the study. Keywords: Celebrity worship, Marketing, Structure equation modeling, India
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Relationships with media figures—referred to as parasocial relationships—provide a means for adolescents to explore and define their romantic and sexual identities (Boon & Lomore, 2001; Engle & Kasser, 2005; Karniol, 2001). However, more often than not, adolescents’ romantic attachments to media figures are ignored or dismissed as frivolous in the scholarly literature on youth development (Caughey, 1984; Jenkins, 1992; Willis, 1972). In this paper, we introduce a theoretical model of adolescent romantic parasocial attachment (ARPA) designed to facilitate a comprehensive, developmentally-based line of research that improves our understanding of the ways adolescents experience parasocial romance and the influence their experiences may have on their lives. Implications for the study of adolescent romantic development and future research directions are proposed.
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This research examined the relationships of social network sites (SNS) intensity, parasocial interaction (PSI), and the propensity to imitate idols or celebrities. Conceptual model that depicts the indirect effect of the measured PSI on the relationship of SNS usage and the tendency to imitate idols was tested. 194 undergraduate students were recruited to complete the Celebrity-Persona Parasocial Interaction Scales, the modified Facebook Intensity Scale, and a set of five items that reflect on the inclination to imitate idols. Results revealed the significant indirect effect of the measured PSI, supporting that SNS intensity facilitate parasocial experience, which in turn, induce the tendency to impersonate idols. Findings supported one of the theorems of the uncertainty reduction theory, which posited the facilitative effect of perceived intimacy on similarity. Theorem that posited the importance of engagement level in inducing similarity was negated by the obtained results.
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Influencer marketing acquires customers who follow their favorite celebrities, who have shared beliefs and opinions. This research explores the self-motives and influencer-related factors that lead to influencer congruence. Influenced customers subsequently recommend those influencers to others. No concrete scale of recommendation is available so far. This research also conceptualizes, develops, and validates a scale for recommendations. In this study, 451 respondents answered questions about the influencers they follow. Normality, reliability, and validity were used for hypothesis testing. Results show the positive and direct impacts of all proposed hypotheses. The findings contribute to the literature by presenting a balanced approach to studying two parallel yet integral aspects of influencer marketing: the influencer and the consumer.
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The main objective of this research is to investigate the triadic relationship among celebrity worship, self-brand connection and brand equity. Specifically, it aims to investigate the role of self-brand connections as a mediating variable in the relationship between celebrity worship and brand equity. The results of the conditional process analysis revealed that celebrity worship influences brand equity through direct as well as indirect pathways. It reveals that there is a direct and positive influence of celebrity worship on brand equity. It also finds that the consumer self-brand connection mediated the effect of celebrity worship on brand equity, extending support for the indirect influence on brand equity enrichment. The findings of the study offer key insights for academicians and marketing practitioners. It is one of the pioneering studies in the field of celebrity worship which helps academicians decipher the impact of celebrity as idols on the endorsed brand equity. Brand managers can use the findings for targeting niche consumer segments who are celebrity worshippers as they are more likely to remain loyal to the brand. They can also benefit from developing relationships with consumers as these may transform into long-lasting benefits for the brand.
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Wie ist die weltweit führende Social-Media-Video-Plattform YouTube im Hinblick auf Geschlechtergleichberechtigung einzuschätzen? Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Videoproduktion auf YouTube männlich dominiert ist und dass die Video-Inhalte oft tradierte Geschlechterrollen vermitteln. Rezipierende greifen neben den Mainstream-Inhalten jedoch auch auf Nischen-Inhalte zurück, die vielfältigere Geschlechterbilder bieten als die herkömmlichen Massenmedien. Der Beitrag zeigt Forschungslücken auf und endet mit praktischen Handlungsempfehlungen zur Förderung von Geschlechtergleichberechtigung auf YouTube.
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Despite the current relevance of social media influencers in brand communication strategies, questions remain about the factors that determine their influential power and how this power affects follower behaviour. This research examines the role of emotional attachment and perceived information value in the process of influence that can lead followers to manifest behavioural intentions toward the brands endorsed by influencers. The results show that both factors act as determinants of followers’ perceived influence, which in turn predicts followers’ positive word-of-mouth (WOM) about recommended brands and purchase intention. In fact, perceived influence plays a mediating role in these relationships. Positive WOM and purchase intention are also significantly related. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature and effects of the persuasive power of social media influencers. Key implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
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The current study explores the bereavement and coping of fans following the death of a personally significant popular musician. Nine participants completed individual interviews and the data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three superordinate themes were identified: a meaningful relationship, disenfranchisement of grief, and social recognition of grief. The findings highlight that the impact of a musician’s death is deeply personal yet socially underrecognized. The loss of the parasocial relationship with the musician is comparable to losing a close social contact. Future research should investigate the roles of culture and social media in bereavement following a musician’s death.
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Star worship is an ever-growing phenomenon around the globe. Across various social media platforms in China, a new idol–fan relationship model has emerged, such that the fans have stepped up from merely worshipping the idols to being able to co-cultivate their idols, including their public images, the scope of their work, and even their personal lives. Based on a grounded theory approach, this study utilized text analysis and in-depth interviews to explore parakin relationships between fans and idols and proposed a dual motivation model to explain the motivations of fans for forming such a relationship. The findings extend current fandom literature by exploring a new front of fan–idol interactions in the context of social media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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The present study focused on the sexy-clothing behavior of high school girls. Specifically, we examined whether high school girls wear sexy clothes to express their actual sexual self-concepts and achieve their ideal sexual self-concepts and whether parents and popular girls influence those behaviors. The results, obtained by applying structural equation modeling to analyze the data collected from 384 ninth-grade girls, imply that such girls wear sexy clothes to convey their actual sexual self-concepts and achieve their ideal sexual self-concepts. The girls’ perceptions of parents’ sexy-clothing approval and of popular girls’ sexy-clothing wearing behavior influence the high school girls’ sexy-clothing wearing behavior. Parents significantly influence high school girls’ tendencies to wear sexy clothes to express their actual sexual self-concepts. Popular girls’ sexy-clothing wearing behavior influences high school girls’ tendencies to wear sexy clothes to achieve their ideal sexual self-concepts. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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This research explores how the level of consumers’ need for cognition (NFC) is associated with celebrity endorser credibility and examines its effects on advertising-related attitudes. A 3 (endorser types: actor/actress, athlete, TV personality/talent) × 2 (endorser’s gender) factorial experiment with 435 Japanese consumers was conducted. Concerning Japanese OTC drug advertising, lower NFC individuals perceived celebrity endorsers as more credible in comparison to higher NFC individuals. The main effects of NFC and endorser type on endorser credibility existed; however, no interaction between the two variables was found. The endorser type had an influence on attitudes toward ads and the advertised brand.
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Research in Terror Management Theory finds that close interpersonal relationships (e.g., parents, romantic partners) mitigate threat reactions to reminders of mortality. Parasocial relationships (imagined relationships with media personalities) afford many of the same benefits as interpersonal relationships. Do these benefits extend to mortality concerns? We investigated whether those with strong parasocial attachments were differentially influenced by reminders of death. Results showed that those with strong parasocial relationships had more defensive reactions to a mortality prime, suggesting that such attachments may not afford the same existential benefits given by close human others and may instead indicate a heightened vulnerability.
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Social media has significantly transformed the way we communicate with each other. It is now possible to let the whole world participate in one’s own life, thus having the opportunity to easily create one’s own personal brand. In this study, we aim to explore the factors of successful personal branding activities on social media. The present paper aims to find out which aspects of personal brand identities are communicated on social media and how they affect user interaction. More particular, we look at the communication activities of five popular female musicians on the social networking site Instagram. Due to its emphasis on visuals (images and short films), Instagram is particularly suitable to analyze personal branding activities to find out why some individuals excel in creating their personal brand. From a theoretical perspective, this study contributes to the fields of personal branding and social media. From a practical perspective, this study provides important insights for social media managers, artists, and everybody who is interested in building a strong personal brand on social media.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to empirically test the extent to which gossip plays a role in individual reputation development in the context of contemporary organizations. This study answers the continuous calls to integrate theory across fields by exploring the theoretical links between these two constructs. Design/methodology/approach This study provides a conceptual analysis and general review of the literature on gossip and reputation. The relationship between these two constructs is investigated through a two-study package (lab and field) yielding convergent results. Findings The findings of this study are that gossip contributes to organizational identity in that it reinforces the social norms of groups and that gossip serves as an important enabler of reputational development. This study provides empirical evidence that gossip serves a more significant role in the development of personal reputation than more formal methods of communication. Practical implications As organizations and individuals attempt to develop and capitalize on the effects of individuals’ reputations, this study provides practical insights into the knowledge that needs to be built regarding the method by which this development can occur. This study points to the practical value of gossip in the creation of personal reputation. Originality/value The theoretical framework in this study highlights the centrality of gossip as a primary enabler of reputation development in contemporary organizations. Reputation theory is advanced by studying a segment of the construct that has, until now, been excluded from consideration in this field.
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A cross-sectional survey of adult romantic involvements was conducted to assess the generalizability of investment model predictions (Rusbult, 1980a; 1983). According to the investment model, satisfaction with a relationship should be greater to the extent that a relationship provides high rewards and low costs, whereas commitment increases not only due to greater relationship satisfaction, but also to increases in the investment of resources in relationships and declines in the quality of available alternative partners. Consistent with model predictions, satisfaction was positively related to level of rewards, and commitment was positively associated with satisfaction, negatively associated with alternative quality, and positively associated with investment size. Greater reward value, too, promoted greater commitment to maintain relationships. However, costs did not powerfully or consistently affect satisfaction or commitment to relationships. The generalizability of the model for selected demographic subsamples-females and males, marrried and single persons, younger and older persons, persons with greater and lesser education and income, and for relationships of greater and lesser duration-is also evaluated. The obtained findings provide good support for the generalizability of the investment model.
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Intimacy is a topic of importance with respect to many aspects of relationship theory and a variety of academic disciplines. A consideration of the literature reveals much research but little consensus on even such basic issues as a definition of intimacy. Given that, a phenomenological study was done to determine what ordinary people meant by, and experienced as, intimacy. Results of that study revealed seven major components to intimate experiences. These included: non-verbal communication, presence, time, boundary, body, destiny/surprise and transformation. The relationship between these results and previous research is discussed.
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Social psychological studies of language cover a wide range of research domains, most of which ignore written communication to societally visible figures. Toward ameliorating this, the authors focus on letters written to Hollywood celebrities. The authors'goal is to extend the 1991 research of Dietz et al. that has examined threatening and inappropriate letters to entertainment celebrities. The authors present a comparative view by investigating the features of normal fan behavior. A total of 294 university students were asked to express their motivations for contacting celebrities. Next, 83 fan letters received by one Hollywood celebrity were content analyzed in terms of the senders' motivations for writing. The authors compared the university students' rationale to the ones articulated in the actual letters and also compared the latter with characteristics found in Dietz et al. `s more sinister sample. Finally, a case study of one fan is undertaken to illustrate how distinguishing between a sycophantic fan and the obsessed unwanted pursuer poses a challenging task.
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Conducted ego identity status interviews with 53 male college seniors who had participated in a previous study of identity development during the freshman year. As hypothesized, significant increases in the frequency of students in the identity achiever status were observed for both occupational and ideological identity. Also as predicted, the achiever status was found to be the most stable status from the end of the freshman year to the senior year, while the moratorium status was the least stable. While the general developmental trend was positive, a substantial proportion of the Ss were completing their college years in the identity diffusion status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Exposure to celebrities through the media can have an important influence on the public's health- related attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. The announcement by Los Angeles Lakers basketball star "Magic" Johnson that he tested positive for HIV infections was intended to promote HIV and AIDS prevention, particularly among adolescents and young adults. The present study analyses how previous knowledge of Johnson acquired through the mass media affected the public's responses to his announcement and appeal for HIV and AIDS prevention. The study also assesses how emotional involvement with Johnson through parasocial interaction affected the public perceptions of HIV and AIDS risk. Results indicate that those who had a greater degree of emotional involvement with Johnson were more likely to show an increase in their personal concern about AIDS, concern about the risk of AIDS to heterosexuals, and intention to reduce high risk behaviors. In contrast, simply knowing about Johnson had no measurable impact on the public's responses to his HIV disclosure. Implications of these findings suggest involvement with a celebrity through media exposure is an important mediating variable in persuasive communication, and celebrities can effectively endorse health-related messages.
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This study examined the influence of age, gender, and pubertal development on the personality attributions that adolescents make to age-appropriate celebrities. Sixty male and female 5th, 8th, and 11th graders completed a series of questionnaires describing the perceived maturity, attractiveness, and personality of six male and six female age-appropriate celebrities. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that (a) adolescent found opposite-sex celebrities more attractive than same-sex celebrities; (b) the perceived attractiveness of opposite-sex celebrities increased with grade, particularly among adolescent females; (c) androgynous celebrities were seen as more attractive than either sex-typed or cross-sex celebrities; and (d) adolescents' preference for androgynous celebrities increased with grade. Contrary to prediction, adolescent pubertal development was unrelated to celebrity attractiveness ratings. For 5th-grade girls, however, pubertal development positively correlated with the perceived maturity of all female celebrity figures, regardless of the celebrity's sex type (i.e., sex typed vs. androgynous vs. cross sex). These findings provide convergent support for the hypothesized role of secondary attachments in adolescent identity development. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45595/1/11199_2004_Article_BF00289224.pdf
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This study examined the popular notion that crushes or secondary attachments to celebrity figures are an important aspect of self-concept development during adolescence. In a repeated measures design, 79 male and female 5th, 8th, and 11th graders and college sophomores completed a set of personality scales, first describing themselves and later, describing the favorite celebrity. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) analysis of self-object congruence revealed no significant main or interaction effects for the type of attachment, gender, or age of subject. Significant within subject effects were obtained for the repeated measures factor (self-object congruence). Overall, students perceived their attachment objects to be more agentic, yet less expressive and emotionally vulnerable than themselves. MANOVA analyses indicated that males and older students perceived their attachment objects to be higher in agency than expressivity, whereas females and younger students perceived their attachment objects to be higher in expressivity than agency. These data indicate that the function served by secondary attachments in the development of self-concept may be quite similar for adolescent males and females. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45592/1/11199_2004_Article_BF00288191.pdf
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A model of breakup decisions is proposed that extends interdependence theory. This dependence model asserts that the primary issue in understanding breakup decisions is degree of dependence on a relationship. Dependence is great when important outcomes in the current relationship are not available elsewhere. Need satisfaction dependence measures identify important needs in a relationship and compare satisfaction of those needs in the current relationship to satisfaction in alternative relationships. Two longitudinal studies provide good support for the dependence model. Need satisfaction dependence measures significantly differentiated between subjects who remained in their relationships and those who voluntarily broke up. The studies also compared the model to simpler breakup models and assessed whether commitment mediates the link between dependence and breakup decisions.
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Used a longitudinal study of heterosexual dating relationships to test investment model predictions regarding the process by which satisfaction and commitment develop (or deteriorate) over time. Initially, 17 male and 17 female undergraduates, each of whom was involved in a heterosexual relationship of 0-8 wks duration, participated. Four Ss dropped out, and 10 Ss' relationships ended. Questionnaires were completed by Ss every 17 days. Increases over time in rewards led to corresponding increases in satisfaction, whereas variations in costs did not significantly affect satisfaction. Commitment increased because of increases in satisfaction, declines in the quality of available alternatives, and increases in investment size. Greater rewards also promoted increases in commitment to maintain relationships, whereas changes in costs generally had no impact on commitment. For stayers, rewards increased, costs rose slightly, satisfaction grew, alternative quality declined, investment size increased, and commitment grew; for leavers the reverse occurred. Ss whose partners ended their relationships evidenced entrapment: They showed relatively low increases in satisfaction, but their alternatives declined in quality and they continued to invest heavily in their relationships. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Based on a new formulation of attitude formation theory, new instruments (The Wisconsin Significant Other Battery) are utilized to measure the influence of significant others over the educational and occupational aspirations of 100 high school seniors. These new variables are combined with other variables of known effect into a hypothetical model of the process whereby educational and occupational aspirations are set. Because of the partially nonrecursive nature of the proposed model, statistical difficulties involved in its solution are discussed. In spite of these difficulties, the new variables introduced result in more satisfactory explanations of aspiration attitudes than those reported previously.
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Thirty male subjects, given identity status interviews 6-7 years previously, were reinterviewed for identity status, as well as intimacy status, life style, and participation in the 1969-1970 campus demonstrations. High identity status appeared more vulnerable to change than did low. The Moratorium status showed a 100% change rate. The establishment of intimate relationships was related both to previous identity status (when that status remained stable) and to current identity status. In life style, Identity Achievement and Moratorium subjects were "open"; Foreclosure subjects were "closed"; and Identity Diffusion subjects tended to be "diffuse". Subjects currently high in identity tended to feel more positively about and participated more in the 1969-1970 demonstrations than did lower identity status subjects. A new status, Foreclosure/Diffusion, is described. The theoretical anomaly of Identity Achievement and Moratorium subjects moving into the Foreclosure status has led to the suggestion of a process, as opposed to typological, approach to identity. Brief sketches of individuals as they currently appear in the identity statuses conclude the study.
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The present study explores the links between individual TV viewers’ working models of attachment (Bowlby, 1980) and the parasocial relations they establish with their favorite TV character. Student subjects answered a survey that assessed the intensity of their parasocial relationships and the content of their mental models of attachment. Results show a selective pattern of relationships between attachment models and parasocial relationships. For dating subjects, males were found to have stronger parasocial relationships with their favorite characters as they were more anxious about their current partner. Females, on the other hand, were found to have stronger parasocial relationships as they were more secure in their current. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences in romantic relationships.
Article
A variety and range of imaginary social relationships with celebrities appearing in television commercials were explored using ethnographic interviews and self‐reflective reports of 60 informants. Interpretation of the descriptions suggests that viewers’ responses to celebrity appearances in television commercials go beyond emulation toward pseudo‐social interactions. These interactions can provide great meaning to a viewer involved in an imaginary social relationship with a celebrity appearing in a commercial. This research demonstrates that even when viewers are skeptical of the advertisement, they may reach beyond the intended message where the confluence of information, gossip, and prior exposure to the celebrity converge. This activity becomes part of the individual's social construction of reality.
Article
The parasocial interaction relationship development process was explored by applying principles of uncertainty reduction theory. Results suggested that parasocial relationship development follows a path from (a) social and task attraction to (b) parasocial interaction to (c) a sense of relationship importance. Length of exposure to the television character was not related to parasocial interaction in the path model. The study affirmed the contribution of interpersonal communication theories to understanding relationships people have with television personalities. Implications for future research were explored.
Article
Most statistics textbooks concentrate on theoretical discussions and mathematical proofs of the various concepts presented. . . . The intent of the first and second editions of "Computational Handbook of Statistics" was to reverse this approach and to present statistical concepts and tests as they are applied. This emphasis on application will be continued in the third edition, the major changes being the addition of multivariate analyses, the latest computer applications to statistics, expanded computer programs, and greater treatment of how to write them. Since this text requires little mathematical or formal statistical background, it should prove invaluable to instructors in beginning laboratory courses in which students have completed only the most basic statistics course. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article employs interdependence theory as a means of understanding how and why some relationships survive difficult times whereas other promising relationships end. Interdependence theory makes important distinctions between satisfaction and dependence. These distinctions are extended in the investment model, a theory of the process by which individuals become dependent on and committed to their relationships. The investment model suggests that dependence increases not only as a consequence of increasing satisfaction, but also because available alternatives are perceived to be poor and numerous important resources are invested in a relationship. Subjective commitment summarizes the nature of an individual's dependence on a partner, and represents broad, long-term orientation toward a relationship. Strong commitment not only makes individuals more likely to remain with their partners, but also promotes a variety of relationship maintenance behaviors such as adaptive social comparison and perceived relationship superiority, derogation of attractive and threatening alternatives, effective management of jealousy and extrarelationship involvements, willingness to sacrifice for the good of a relationship, and tendencies to accommodate rather than retaliate when a partner behaves poorly.
Article
Differences between men's and women's conceptions of intimacy and distance may be a source of misunderstanding and conflict in close relationships. Although there is already an extensive literature on sex differences in intimacy, the meaning of the findings is somewhat unclear because each set of authors adopts a unique operational definition of intimacy. Often, this definition has been affected by the tendency to equate intimacy with self-disclosure. Distance (the opposite of intimacy, if intimacy is conceptualized as closeness) has been left largely unexplored in previous research and its relation to intimacy is unclear. In the present study, the components of intimacy and distance were delineated by asking men and women to describe an intimate and a distant experience with a member of the opposite sex and a member of the same sex. Prototypes were constructed by submitting the features mentioned in each kind of experience to hierarchical cluster analysis. The results revealed more similarities than differences between men's and women's conceptions of intimacy and distance. A conceptualization of intimacy emerged with a focus on appreciation and affection rather than self-disclosure. Distance appeared to revolve around dissatisfaction with and disapproval of the partner. Analyses of variance on specific features revealed sex differences and relationship differences that were consistent with previous research. Sex differences in the description of distance reflected the status or power differential between men and women.
Article
Reviews the books, Using LISREL for structural equation modelling: A researcher’s guide and Principles and practice of structural equation modelling by E. Kevin Kelloway (see record 1998-08130-000) and Principles and practice of structural equation modelling by Rex B. Kline (see record 1998-02720-000). Structural equation modeling (SEM) is one of the most rapidly growing analytic techniques in use today. Proponents of the approach have virtually declared die advent of a statistical revolution, while skeptics worry about the widespread misuse of complex and often poorly understood analytic methods. The two new books under review are therefore timely. Both are valuable, but differ in important ways. Kevin Kelloway's book is directed at the researcher with little knowledge of structural equation modeling and is intricately linked to one of the more popular structural equation modeling programs, LISREL. For researchers keen to begin analyzing data quickly, this book is an invaluable resource that will speed one's introduction to SEM. On the other hand, the volume written by Rex Kline represents one of the most comprehensive of available introductions to the application, execution, and interpretation of this technique. The book is written for both students and researchers who do not have extensive quantitative background. It is especially attentive to quantitative issues common to most structural equation applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A longitudinal study of identity status and ego stage development during late adolescence was completed to assess (a) potential differential rates in male vs female development, (b) possible cohort differences, and (c) consistency in theoretically predicted change. The cross-sequential study included a Sex × Cohort × Repeated Measures design. A random sample of 148 freshman, sophomore, and junior college students was assessed in 1976 and 1977 using the Marcia Ego-Identity Incomplete Sentence Blank and Interview and the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test. Some sex and cohort differences were observed. Although half of the Ss remained stable in their identity ego status or stage, the remaining Ss experienced either advancement or regression from 1976 to 1977. The data support the theoretical notions of development underlying both psychological constructs and are consistent with previous longitudinal studies that indicate intraindividual change over time in personality development. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments were designed to test the adequacy of the investment model of developing relationships in predicting satisfaction with and commitment to ongoing associations. According to the investment model, attraction to and satisfaction with a relationship is a function of a comparison of the relationship outcome value (both rewards and costs) to the individual's expectations, or comparison level. Commitment to a relationship is said to be a function not only of the relationship outcome value, but also the quality of the best available alternative and the magnitude of the individual's investment in the relationship. The intrinsic or extrinsic investment of resources serves to increase commitment by increasing the costs of leaving the relationship. Thus, increases in investment size, decreases in alternative value, and increases in relationship value should increase commitment to an ongoing relationship. In Experiment 1, a role-playing study, commitment to relationships increased with intrinsic and extrinsic investment size and decreased with the value of alternatives, but was not appreciably affected by relationship costs. Satisfaction/attraction significantly increased as relationship costs decreased. In Experiment 2, a survey of ongoing romantic associations, satisfaction/attraction was predicted by relationship reward value and relationship cost value. Commitment to relationships increased as relationship reward value and investment size increased and as alternative value and relationship cost value decreased, although the effects of cost value were weak.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate how individuals in cross- and same-sex friendships define and express intimacy. In a self-report questionnaire 164 college students were asked what they meant by the term `intimacy' in the context of cross- and same-sex friendships. Individuals assigned an average number of two meanings to the term `intimacy', though the number of meanings ranged from one to five. Results revealed substantial similarities in the meanings of intimacy in both types of friendship, as well as some gender differences. For instance, five of the seven most frequently mentioned definitions of intimacy were specified by both cross- and same-sex friends: self-disclosures, emotional expressiveness, unconditional support, physical contact and trust. One of the remaining two meanings of intimacy, i.e. sexual contact, was mentioned by cross- but not same-sex friends. Sharing activities was given as a definition of intimacy by 9 percent of the males in same-sex friendships, and 4 percent of the females in cross-sex friendships. Within cross-sex friendships, emotional expressiveness and sexual contact were specified as meanings of intimacy by a higher percentage of males than females, while physical contact was specified by a greater percentage of females in those relationships.
Article
Proposes a model of breakup decisions that extends interdependence theory. This dependence model asserts that the primary issue in understanding breakup decisions is degree of dependence on a relationship. Dependence is great when important outcomes in the current relationship are not available elsewhere. Need satisfaction dependence measures identify important needs in a relationship and compare satisfaction of those needs in the current relationship to satisfaction in alternative relationships. Two longitudinal studies provide good support for the dependence model. Need satisfaction dependence measures significantly differentiated between Ss who remained in their relationships and those who voluntarily broke up. The studies also compared the model to simpler breakup models and assessed whether commitment mediates the link between dependence and breakup decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The cognitive significance of being in a close relationship is described in terms of including other in the self (in K. Lewin's [1948] sense of overlapping regions of the life space and in W. James [1890/1948] sense of the self as resources, perspectives, and characteristics). Exp 1 (with 24 college students), adapting W. B. Liebrand's (see record 1985-20117-001) decomposed-game procedures, found less self/other difference in allocations of money to a friend than to a stranger, regardless of whether Ss expected other to know their allocations. Exp 2 (with 20 female undergraduates), adapting C. G. Lord's (see record 1988-00331-001) procedures, found that Ss recalled fewer nouns previously imaged with self or mother than nouns imaged with a nonclose other, suggesting that mother was processed more like self than a stranger. Exp 3 (with 17 married graduate students), adapting self-schema, reaction-time (RT) procedures (e.g., H. Markus; see record 1977-27587-001) found longer latencies when making "me/not me" decisions for traits that were different between self and spouse versus traits that were similar for both, suggesting a self/other confusion with spouse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the use of celebrity spokespeople in advertising, focusing on 3 dimensions of source credibility: attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise. Two pilot studies were conducted with 78 college students to compile a list of 4 celebrities and products that would be appropriate for them to endorse. From this information, 4 questionnaires were developed. 542 respondents (aged 18–73 yrs) completed 1 questionnaire. In each case, Ss evaluated celebrities to be significantly different from each other with respect to the 3 dimensions studied. Ss' gender and age had no significant effect on their intention to purchase or on how they evaluated celebrities' credibility. Only the perceived expertise of celebrities significantly explained Ss' intentions to purchase, regardless of whether the product was for personal use or for gift-giving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews research from psychoanalysis, clinical and personality psychology, social psychology, and sociology on the social penetration process. Verbal, nonverbal, and environmentally oriented behaviors are described. States in the development and dissolution of social bonds are discussed. (14 p. ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant. Relevant stars provoked self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seemed attainable in that participants either still had enough time to achieve comparable success or believed their own abilities could improve over time. Open-ended responses provided rich evidence of inspiration in these circumstances. Relevant stars provoked, if anything, self-deflation when their success seemed unattainable in that participants either had already missed the chance to achieve comparable success or viewed their abilities as fixed and so unlikely to improve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A conceptual model was developed predicting parasocial interaction from both a social interaction need due to loneliness and instrumental television news use. Questionnaires were completed by 329 persons. Pearson and partial correlations supported hypotheses linking loneliness with less interpersonal communication and both loneliness and parasocial interaction with more television reliance. Loneliness and parasocial interaction were not correlated. Canonical correlation analysis supported expectations that instrumental news viewing for information was related to more parasocial interaction and perceived news realism; viewing news for exciting entertainment, news affinity, and news viewing levels correlated positively with this pattern. Ritualized news viewing for time consumption was related to more television viewing, but to less news viewing, duration, and affinity. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified news affinity, perceived news realism, and information news viewing motives as salient predictors of parasocial interaction with a favorite local television news personality. Implications of results were discussed in light of uses and gratifications research and communication interaction.
Article
Based upon the analysis of questionnaire responses of 1092 high school students, an attempt was made to assess the type of heroes and heroines most often chosen. The major findings are that high school students have more heroes than heroines, that they have an approximately equal number of personal heroes and heroines, and that the preference for heroes is not altered when the sex or race of the respondents is considered. The findings are explained both by the greater numbers of males than females in public professional roles and by the greater salience of male than female professional role models. Implications of the possible effects of hero and heroine choices for sex-role identification are discussed.
Article
Used a longitudinal study of heterosexual dating relationships to test investment model predictions regarding the process by which satisfaction and commitment develop (or deteriorate) over time. Initially, 17 male and 17 female undergraduates, each of whom was involved in a heterosexual relationship of 0–8 wks duration, participated. Four Ss dropped out, and 10 Ss' relationships ended. Questionnaires were completed by Ss every 17 days. Increases over time in rewards led to corresponding increases in satisfaction, whereas variations in costs did not significantly affect satisfaction. Commitment increased because of increases in satisfaction, declines in the quality of available alternatives, and increases in investment size. Greater rewards also promoted increases in commitment to maintain relationships, whereas changes in costs generally had no impact on commitment. For stayers, rewards increased, costs rose slightly, satisfaction grew, alternative quality declined, investment size increased, and commitment grew; for leavers the reverse occurred. Ss whose partners ended their relationships evidenced entrapment: They showed relatively low increases in satisfaction, but their alternatives declined in quality and they continued to invest heavily in their relationships. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)