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The Use Of Films In Teaching English As A Second Language 1

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[These are the first two parts of a three-part report on the development of a program at the English Language Institute which uses documentary films for the improvement of aural comprehension, speaking, writing, and reading in English as a second language. Part I is a general description of the program; Part II is a discussion of the writing aspects of the program; Part III, to appear in the next issue of Language Learning, will discuss the treatment of aural comprehension in the program. The program itself will be published under the title Films for Advanced Practice in Aural Comprehension, Vocabulary Building, and Composition, by H. Joan Morley and Mary S. Lawrence (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, forthcoming).]

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... Many studies have highlighted the linguistic, informational (Morley & Lawrence, 1971), and pedagogical purpose of documentary film for facilitating language skill learning. The linguistic purpose is to provide advanced students with opportunities for live practice in the four skills of language. ...
... In other studies, Snow (2012) used four types of documentaries, which are expository, observational, interactive, and reflective to explore the similarities between all these types of documentary film and essay composition. Morley and Lawrence (1971) reached the conclusion that there is mutual interdependence between listening ability and writing ability and it seems likely that students who are taught how to listen will more easily learn how to communicate their ideas in writing. Critical thinking in writing exposition also mentioned by Kasper (2000), who found that film imagery enables students to visually process comparative and casual relationships between and among issues and events and encourages student to support a point of view on that issue. ...
... The way to use this type of multimedia material in writing class needs a model. Morley and Lawrence (1971) suggested that five steps for using documentary film in enhancing the four language skills among second language students. Step one is preparation for aural comprehension and the next step is aural comprehension and class discussion. ...
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Nowadays, having access to authentic material for language learning, such as documentary film programs is very easy for all students and teachers around the world. The importance of this comprehensive input was emphasized by Krashen. At the same time, many studies have highlighted the linguistic, informational, and pedagogical purpose of documentary film in language skill learning. The base of the studies is the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Accordingly, the present study has two main objectives, firstly to highlight the importance of using documentary film in enhancing the learning of Arabic as a second language (ASL) writing skill. Secondly, to analyse and discuss local experts' views on the utilization of documentary film in the ASL classroom. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed among 12 experts in the field of ASL in Malaysian public universities. Their responses were collected and analysed based on closed-ended and open-ended surveys. The findings and discussion indicated that strong recommendations are given to the credit of the research question. The ASL experts recommend types of documentary films to be utilized, the category of writing skill that can be developed and the appropriate instruction technique to be used in the classroom.
... According to Morley and Lawrence (1971) as cited by Ahmadi (2016), claimed that broad rules should be followed while instructing students in listening comprehension. Lessons on listening comprehension must first have precise, clearly stated objectives. ...
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This study was based on the teacher's observations of the students' comprehension of questions, passages, and literary works during the listening session. One of the numerous reasons why listening comprehension is underestimated among the four macro skills is the lack of exposure to real-world content. Numerous listening resources also conflict with the students' real-world circumstances and past knowledge, making it difficult for them to stay involved in the course. This is the justification for the study's execution. In that situation, the researcher searched for strategies and listening practice materials to aid the students in developing their English listening comprehension abilities by turning to the content-based method for support and developed listening exercise materials that would aid in the English language learning of grade 8 children. Pre-experimental design with a single group pretest-posttest was the methodology employed in this study. Based on the pretest they took prior to the treatment, 100 eighth-grade students' listening comprehension abilities were evaluated. After that, a post-test was administered to gauge how well the treatment and content-based approach had worked. The researcher also used the following statistical software or formulas: Probability and percentage distribution, standard deviation, t-test, and weighted mean: Assuming Equal Variances for Two Samples.
... Los autores proponen un modelo provisional que permite observar cómo las variables pueden interactuar en la comprensión de una L2. De similar manera, Morley and Lawrence (1971), entregan ciertos principios para optimizar la escucha: tener propósitos claramente definidos en las lecciones, elaborar y planificar cuidadosamente las actividades, exigir la participación activa de los estudiantes en la estructura de la tarea, integrar una necesidad comunicativa que propicie la concentración, enfatizar la memorización consciente, y focalizarse en el proceso más que en el Doblele | n.º 5 | Diciembre 2019 producto, integrando retroalimentación y no solo evaluación o medición de la escucha. Del mismo modo, es importante tomar en cuenta las dificultades que debe enfrentar el aprendiz en la escucha para un mejor diseño instruccional. ...
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Metacognition has evolved into a complex, multidisciplinary concept linked in instructed learning to problem solving, decision making and critical thinking. In analyzing the construct’s models and components, it is possible to tell metacognition apart from other closely related constructs such as cognition, self-regulation, self-awareness and autonomy/self-efficacy as we seek to understand how metacognitive strategies are viewed, assessed and enhanced to develop L2 listening. For such an endeavor, we review literature in psychology, cognitive sciences, learning sciences as well as educational neuroscience. Finally, we offer methodological suggestions for metacognitive literacy in listening for Spanish as a foreign language –ELE.
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Documentary films represent the skill of writing with its pillars on the introduction to the topic, presenting its ideas and conclusion, and it is known that preparing written texts based on scientific research is required before the documentary is made. Therefore, the documentary has a strong relationship and close to the skill of writing. Thus, this study addressed three questions; (1) what is the field of documentary film preferred by the students? (2) what do they think about the texts in the nature and the environment documentary films? (3) what do they think about the texts in the science and technology documentary films?. This study applied quantitative and qualitative methodology, as the study analyzes data from closed-ended questions to answer all the research questions, while the study also analyzes data from open-ended questions answer the second and third question. The questionnaire was sent to the experts to verify the accuracy and reliability of the questionnaire. Then the questionnaire was distributed to eighty (80) students to explore the field of documentary film liked by students, before exposure to learning using documentaries in the quasi-experimental study. The study found that nature and environment documentary films are more popular with students rather than science and technology documentary films.
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One of the required in the process of teaching and learning of the Arabic language is an authentic language inputs, whether speaking or written input. An authentic language inputs are ready, not for the purpose of education, but for social purposes, because these texts are shared in the real language used. This paper addressed the basic question of the needs and the effectiveness of Arabic language majoring students towards the use of documentary films in developing their Arabic writing skill. The study implemented two methods, namely survey method through questionnaire to identify the needs of students and secondly a quasi-experimental study using the pre-test and post-test to identify the differences of statistical significance at the average of the student’s grades. The study sample consists of two groups of students who enrolled for subject ‘Computer Applications in Arabic Language and Literature (ARAB2124)’ at the Department of Arabic Language, Faculty of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, Islamic International University of Malaysia in the second semester 2015/2016. The number of students in control group is 41 while the experimental group with 42 students. The study found that there is a need for Arabic majoring students to employ documentary films in learning writing skills, and the results of pre and post test showed the effectiveness of employing documentary film in writing skill class.
Article
[This is the third of a three-part report on the development of a program at the English Language Institute which uses documentary films for the improvement of aural comprehension, speaking, writing, and reading in English as a second language. Part I was a general description of the program; Part II was a discussion of the writing aspects of the program; the first two parts appeared in Language Learning, Volume 21, Number 1 (June 1971) pp. 117-135; Part III is a discussion of the treatment of aural comprehension in the program.]
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