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The KKK won't let me play: Ostracism even by a despised outgroup hurts

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Abstract

Previous research has shown that ostracism even by outgroup members is aversive. In this study we examined whether ostracism by a particular type of outgroup, a despised outgroup, was sufficient to inflict emotional distress. We manipulated ostracism using Cyberball, an on-line ball toss game. Ostracized participants reported lower levels of belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence, and more negative mood, than included participants. Moreover, ostracism by despised outgroup members was no less aversive than ostracism by rival outgroup or ingroup members. Participants differentiated between the groups, however; ostracized individuals reported greater outgroup negativity than included participants only when their co-players were members of the despised outgroup. We interpret these results as evidence for the powerful impact of ostracism and the potential importance of distinguishing between qualitatively different outgroups. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Being excluded triggers aversive reactions including social pain, threatened needs (e.g., belonging, self-esteem), reduced positive affect, increased negative affect, among others (Williams, 2009). Although the negative reactions to exclusion have been well documented across various situations (e.g., interactions with ingroups or outgroups; Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), it remains unclear whether the effects persist in situations where exclusion affords substantial benefits, such as reducing pathogen exposure associated with social interactions. Given this important benefit, is exclusion less aversive when cues of infectious disease threat are salient in the environment? ...
... Therefore, being excluded represents "a strong situation," producing similar responses across individuals and contexts (McDonald & Donnellan, 2012;Williams, 2009). In support of this theorizing, decades of research have shown that the initial responses to exclusion are often resistant to a range of contextual factors, such as the source of exclusion (Fayant et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Smith & Williams, 2004;Zadro et al., 2004), whether it occurred in person or online (Williams et al., 2002), and whether it resulted in financial costs or gains (van Beest & Williams, 2006). ...
... First, following the COVID-19 regulations at our institution, we collected data online (vs. in person). Based on past Cyberball studies (e.g., Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007) and our own experience with Cyberball, the cover story that other players are real participants is most plausible in laboratory settings with carefully executed procedures (e.g., welcoming multiple participants to enter the laboratory around the same time, staged phone calls). However, the plausibility of the cover story is likely to be substantially undermined in an online setting because participants are allowed to carry out the activity at their own time. ...
Article
Social exclusion triggers aversive reactions (e.g., increased negative affect), but being excluded may bring substantial benefits by reducing pathogen exposure associated with social interactions. Is exclusion less aversive when cues of infectious diseases are salient in the environment? We conducted two preregistered experiments with a 2 (belonging status: included vs. excluded) × 2 (disease salience: low vs. high) design, using scenarios (Study 1, N = 347) and a well-validated exclusion paradigm, Cyberball (Study 2, N = 519). Positive affect and negative affect were measured as the key outcomes. Across the 2 studies, we found little evidence that disease salience moderated the effect of exclusion (vs. inclusion) on positive affect. At the same time, we observed consistent evidence that disease salience moderated the effect of exclusion (vs. inclusion) on the other affective component: negative affect. Concretely, disease salience increased participants' negative affect in inclusion conditions; in exclusion conditions, the effect of disease salience on negative affect was negligible or nearly zero. Using a novel and robust approach of mediation analysis (interventional indirect effects), we further showed that the motive of disease avoidance rivals the motive of affiliation in shaping people's experiences of social interactions. These findings suggest that cues of disease salience alter people's affective experience with inclusion but not exclusion. The current research represents an important step toward understanding people's affective responses to social exclusion and inclusion in complex social situations involving multiple, and potentially conflicting motives. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Indeed, whereas some findings showed that social exclusion by the same racial ingroup (vs. outgroup) could be more hurtful (Bernstein et al., 2010), others supported that social exclusion from a despised group could be as aversive as from one's ingroup (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). Study 2 tested how the development over time of social connections with the national majority and other immigrants moderated the longitudinal relationship between exclusion and resignation. ...
... Concerning the experimental factor of situation, we predicted that participants would anticipate more negative emotions in the condition of social exclusion compared to inclusion. Given the conflicting literature on the effects of the source of social exclusion (Bernstein et al., 2010;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), we could not generate specific predictions on the role of the source of social exclusion. Therefore we adopted an exploratory approach in testing if being excluded by the national majority or other migrants would influence the emotional responses to social exclusion. ...
... Oppositely, social connections with other minorities aggravated the immediate emotional impact of the exclusion. As in previous research (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), the study also showed that these effects occurred regardless of the group source of social exclusion. Although we could not draw reliable inferences on the generalization of the results across migrant populations (due to the small size, non-representativity, and heterogeneity of the two migrant samples considered), additional analyses supported that the moderating effects of intergroup connections were replicated across the forced and voluntary migrant groups considered (see the Supplementary Analyses file for further details). ...
Article
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Persistent social exclusion can detrimentally impact marginalized individuals' psychological well-being. However, little is known about the social factors that could moderate the psychological cost of social exclusion in persistently excluded social groups. Focusing on asylum-seekers, refugees, and voluntary economic immigrants, we tested if intergroup social connections with the majority national group (i.e., the host population) and other immigrants moderated the short- and long-term social exclusion impact. In Study 1 (N = 277), we found that the quantity and quality of connections with the national people reduced the immediate emotional burden of experimental exposure to social exclusion, whereas connections with other immigrants aggravated it. Study 2 (N = 112) consisted in a six-month longitudinal study investigating the influence of intergroup social relationships on the long-term psychological harm of social exclusion in asylum-seekers and refugees. Results showed that in participants who developed more frequent and close connections with people from the national group over time, social exclusion yielded a less detrimental long-term psychological impact. Oppositely, for immigrants who established increasing connections with other migrants, social exclusion led to more adverse psychological repercussions over time. The research provided replicated and complementary evidence highlighting that immigrants' intergroup connections can influence the short and long-term consequences of persistent exclusion, emphasizing the benefits of bridging connections with the national group and the risks of segregation within immigrants' niches.
... Besides potential long-term consequences, research on ostracism repeatedly revealed immediate effects of social exclusion on the satisfaction of basic needs (e.g., Böckler et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Jamieson et al., 2010;Lau et al., 2009;Wirth et al., 2010;Zadro et al., 2004; for an overview, see Williams, 2007). Specifically, ostracism impairs belongingness as the fundamental human need for affiliation (see also Baumeister & Leary, 1995), self-esteem as the perception of oneself as a worthy person, control as the feeling of self-efficacy and meaningful existence as protection when faced with one's own mortality (see Williams, 1997). ...
... Specifically, ostracism impairs belongingness as the fundamental human need for affiliation (see also Baumeister & Leary, 1995), self-esteem as the perception of oneself as a worthy person, control as the feeling of self-efficacy and meaningful existence as protection when faced with one's own mortality (see Williams, 1997). Some studies also reported detrimental effects of social exclusion on mood (e. g., increased sadness and anger; Buckley et al., 2004;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Williams et al., 2000); others, however, did not find mood effects (e.g., Baumeister et al., 2002;Böckler et al., 2014Zadro et al., 2004. ...
... Employing this and comparable paradigms, a growing field of research examined boundary conditions of the immediate effects of ostracism and revealed that they are highly resilient to experimental manipulations. Negative consequences of being ostracized occur even when participants know that the other players are controlled by a computer algorithm (Zadro et al., 2004), belong to a highly unpopular group like the Ku Klux Klan (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), or when the interaction is merely based on eye contact (Böckler et al., 2014), text messages (Smith & Williams, 2004), or access to information (Jones et al., 2009). Similarly, even exclusion from virtually passing a bomb (rather than a ball) that can kill one's virtual character causes aggression against the ostracizing person (Van Beest et al., 2011), and winning money by being excluded does not prevent participants from feeling hurt (Van Beest & Williams, 2006). ...
Article
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Social exclusion, even from minimal game-based interactions, induces negative consequences. We investigated whether the nature of the relationship with the excluder modulates the effects of ostracism. Participants played a virtual ball-tossing game with a stranger and a friend (friend condition) or a stranger and their romantic partner (partner condition) while being fully included, fully excluded, excluded only by the stranger, or excluded only by their close other. Replicating previous findings, full exclusion impaired participants’ basic-need satisfaction and relationship evaluation most severely. While the degree of exclusion mattered, the relationship to the excluder did not: Classic null hypothesis testing and Bayesian statistics showed no modulation of ostracism effects depending on whether participants were excluded by a stranger, a friend, or their partner.
... Ostracism threatens four basic psychological needs in humans: belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence (see Eck, Schoel, & Greifeneder, 2017;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Van Zalk & Smith, 2019). Belonging is an individual's sense of how much they are relationally involved with others. ...
... Hales, Dvir, Wesselmann, Kruger, and Finkenauer (2018) found that when people were in a conversation and someone was looking at their cell phone, it negatively affected the four needs. In other studies, the source of ostracism was a computer (Zadro, Williams, & Richardson, 2004), or even a member of the KKK (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007) and the results were the same. Whether the target was ostracized through text messages (Smith & Williams, 2004), in virtual reality (Kassner, Wesselmann, Law, & Williams, 2012), or by not receiving likes on social media (Hayes, Wesselmann, & Carr, 2018) the results indicated that being ostracized poses threats to the four psychological needs. ...
... Whether the target was ostracized through text messages (Smith & Williams, 2004), in virtual reality (Kassner, Wesselmann, Law, & Williams, 2012), or by not receiving likes on social media (Hayes, Wesselmann, & Carr, 2018) the results indicated that being ostracized poses threats to the four psychological needs. Because of this, ostracism is considered a universally hurtful experience for a target (Tang & Richardson, 2013;Williams & Nida, 2017;Zadro, Boland, & Richardson, 2006) and that the reaction to ostracism is part of a hard-wired alert system evolutionarily built into human beings for survival (Buss, 1990;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Kerr & Levine, 2008;Spoor & Williams, 2007). ...
Article
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Research on ostracism overwhelmingly suggests that being ostracized is a painful experience. Much of this research comes from the field of psychology and uses various adaptations of the Cyberball experiment to specifically examine the effects of being ostracized through the Temporal Model of ostracism. As a result, there is much less understanding about how ostracism is communicated interpersonally, the interpretive process of receiving an ostracism message, or the antecedent communication conditions that allow someone to recognize various cues as ostracism. Thus, the purpose of this manuscript was twofold. The first goal was to conduct an extensive review of literature to reveal the discrepancies, variations, and disunity of the operationalization and conceptualization of ostracism related terminology across disciplines and to show how such a landscape has made it difficult for communication scholars to study ostracism as communication. The second goal was to propose a new terminology, interpersonal ostracism messages (IOMs), and to define it in order to fill this gap. By using Expectancy Violations Theory and Relational Dialectics Theory, we further shape the definition of IOMs so that communication researchers can begin focusing on ostracism as an interpersonal communication phenomenon and begin looking beyond the psychological effects of being ostracized.
... The thermometers asked participants how they felt towards students from their own university or a rival university along a 0 (Very Cold) to 50 (No Feeling) to 100 (Very Warm) response scale. Such feeling thermometers are widely used as valid indicators of ingroup positivity and outgroup negativity (e.g., Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). ...
... This ambivalence does not clearly mesh well with previous research demonstrating that even exclusion from hated outgroup members can elicit social pain (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). It may be that exclusion from outgroup members simply is not that distressing. ...
Article
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Aggression occurs frequently and severely between rival groups. Although there has been much study into the psychological and socio-ecological determinants of intergroup aggression, the neuroscience of this phenomenon remains incomplete. To examine the neural correlates of aggression directed at outgroup (versus ingroup) targets, we recruited 35 healthy young male participants who were current or former students of the same university. While undergoing functional MRI, participants completed an aggression task against both an ingroup and an outgroup opponent in which their opponents repeatedly provoked them at varying levels and then participants could retaliate. Participants were then socially included and then excluded by two outgroup members and then completed the same aggression task against the same two opponents. Both before and after outgroup exclusion, aggression towards outgroup members was positively associated with activity in the ventral striatum during decisions about how aggressive to be towards their outgroup opponent. Aggression towards outgroup members was also linked to greater post-exclusion activity in the rostral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex during provocation from their outgroup opponent. These altered patterns of brain activity suggest that frontostriatal mechanisms may play a significant role in motivating aggression towards outgroup members.
... According to the Temporal Need Threat (TNT) model of ostracism, the initial hurt of social exclusion is suggested to be impervious to cross-cutting variables (Williams, 2009). This is an ongoing field of inquiry and while some studies support this claim in terms of need threat (e.g., Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;van Beest et al., 2011;Zadro et al., 2004), some others suggest that the immediate hurt of social exclusion may indeed be prone to moderation (e.g., Bernstein et al., 2010;Eck et al., 2017;Goodwin et al., 2010;van Beest et al., 2011). Previous investigations of cross-cutting factors incorporate factors such as gender (Hawes et al., 2012), age (Abrams et al., 2011;Pharo et al., 2011), size of the group in which the exclusion takes place (Hartgerink et al., 2015;Tobin et al., 2018), or race (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Goodwin et al., 2010;Mulvey et al., 2016) to name a few. ...
... This is an ongoing field of inquiry and while some studies support this claim in terms of need threat (e.g., Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;van Beest et al., 2011;Zadro et al., 2004), some others suggest that the immediate hurt of social exclusion may indeed be prone to moderation (e.g., Bernstein et al., 2010;Eck et al., 2017;Goodwin et al., 2010;van Beest et al., 2011). Previous investigations of cross-cutting factors incorporate factors such as gender (Hawes et al., 2012), age (Abrams et al., 2011;Pharo et al., 2011), size of the group in which the exclusion takes place (Hartgerink et al., 2015;Tobin et al., 2018), or race (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Goodwin et al., 2010;Mulvey et al., 2016) to name a few. Therefore, we reported our results also in a way that could speak to this debate about RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT SOCIAL EXCLUSION 9 the cross-cutting variables by testing whether age, gender, the selected avatar, or group size influences the extent to which participants experience need threat following exclusion. ...
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Social exclusion has a myriad of negative effects on students’ psychological and social well-being. One way to combat such negative effects is to raise awareness about social exclusion in schools. Here, we describe and evaluate a training program that was carried out across schools in the Netherlands. The program relies on basic experiential learning principles and a well-established social exclusion paradigm to make participants experience and discuss social exclusion. We had three goals in the current paper: (1) discussing previous work supporting the feasibility of such programs, (2) presenting a secondary analysis of the data generated by the program, and finally (3) testing a core assumption of Temporal Need-threat Model of Ostracism (Williams, 2009). The analyses are based on 14,065 participants (ages 12 to 19) and a subset of those who evaluated the program later (n = 386). Our review of the literature supports the feasibility of the program in raising awareness about social exclusion. The results of the secondary data analyses further corroborate this finding and, importantly, offer preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the program. Lastly, stressing a core assumption of the ostracism model, the results indicated that the experience of ostracism was not substantially altered by the characteristics of the participants such as age and gender.
... Considering that many individuals spend a long time in social media nowadays, it can be seen that the effects of cyberostracism would be as high as or higher than physical and social ostracism and the importance of this subject will increase gradually. For this reason, the number of studies on cyberostracism has increased in recent years (9,10). In previous studies, it was reported that, when subjected to cyberostracism, individuals feel bad and lose their self-esteem and sense of belonging (8,11). ...
... It was developed by Hatun and Demirci in 2020 in order to assess the level of cyberostracism. The scale consists of 14 5point Likert-type items and it has three subdimensions as Cyber Direct Excluded (1-4), Cyber Indirect Excluded (5)(6)(7)(8), and Cyber Ignored (9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). The scale includes no reversescored item. ...
Article
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The technological advancements of this era made the use of Internet an essential part of our lives. It is known that the Internet is used for social media applications at most. It is thought that the use of social media has increased with the effect of decreasing face-to-face socialization due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the period, in which the present study was carried out. The use of social media plays an important role in the socialization and the development of belongingness and self-esteem in online groups but it also brings several threats with it. One of these threats is cyberostracism, which is defined as not belonging to a group in social media, being ignored, and being ostracized. The present study is a cross-sectional one carried out with students studying in the Medical Faculty of Eskişehir Osmangazi University in educational year of 2020-2021. Ethics committee approval was obtained. The study group involved 1092 students. Making use of the literature, a questionnaire form was prepared. The questionnaire was filled out online by students. The data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test, Spearman’s Correlation Analysis, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. 593 (54.3%) of the students were female. Their ages were ranging between 17 and 27 years and the mean age was found to be 21.6±2.0 years. The scores in the cyberostracism scale range between 14 and 70 points and the mean score was 24.8±9.9 points. The social media applications used most during the day were Instagram, WhatsApp, and YouTube. In advanced analyses, character type, family type, devoting time for hobbies during the day, face-to-face communication with friends, behaviors of parents towards the participant, age of the first use of a smartphone, time of smartphone use in a day, and creating a social media membership by concealing the identity were found to be the predictors of cyberostracism. A negative relationship was found between students’ level of cyberostracism and self-esteem. The increase in the use of internet and social media applications also brought the concept of “digital health” forward. This subject is important for public health. It is recommended to develop intervention programs in order to protect from the harmful effects of social media and decrease cyberostracism. Keywords: Cyberostracism; ostracism; self-esteem; medical faculty; student
... Social exclusion has been seen to cause emotional distress, pain, and negative moods and to be associated with psychological problems (Williams et al., 2000;Deater-Deckard, 2001;Leary et al., 2001;Nolan et al., 2003;Buckley et al., 2004;Gonsalkorale and Williams, 2007;Williams, 2007). Social exclusion has also been identified as activating neural pathways associated with pain and distress (Eisenberger and Lieberman, 2004;Eisenberger et al., 2007Eisenberger et al., , 2011Kawamoto et al., 2012;Sleegers et al., 2017). ...
... Social exclusion has also been identified as activating neural pathways associated with pain and distress (Eisenberger and Lieberman, 2004;Eisenberger et al., 2007Eisenberger et al., , 2011Kawamoto et al., 2012;Sleegers et al., 2017). The emotional reaction to social exclusion has been seen to be immediate (Williams et al., 2000(Williams et al., , 2002Gonsalkorale and Williams, 2007) and generates a significant decrease in positive affect in parallel with a significant increase in anger (Seidel et al., 2013). In contrast, feeling included in a group enhances positive affect in individuals (Blackhart et al., 2009;Cuadrado, 2015;Cuadrado et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Given the negative costs of exclusion and the relevance of belongingness for humans, the experience of exclusion influences social affiliation motivation, which in turn is a relevant predictor of prosocial behavior. Skin conductance is a typical measure of the arousal elicited by emotions. Hence, we argued that both inclusion and exclusion will increase skin conductance level due to the increase of either positive affect or anger affects, respectively. Moreover, we argued that emotional arousal is also related to social affiliation motivation and prosocial behavior. A total of 48 students were randomly allocated to either an inclusionary or exclusionary condition and their skin conductance levels were recorded during an experiment in which they completed an online questionnaire and played the game “Cyberball.” Results indicated that (a) individuals who perceived high exclusion felt angrier than individuals perceiving high inclusion, who feel positive affect; (b) no differences were evidenced in terms of skin conductance between exclusion and inclusion situations; (c) over-aroused individuals were less motivated to affiliate; and (d) individuals with lower affiliation motivation behaved in a less prosocial way. The results were congruent to the argument that behaving prosocially may be a way to gain the desired affiliation.
... Ostracism can severely impact well-being as it causes immediate experiences of existential threat (Williams, 2007(Williams, , 2009) and directly threatens feelings of belongingness (Williams & Nida, 2011). This immediate response is so strong that it even occurs if one is ostracized by despised groups (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007) or by a computer program (Zadro et al., 2004). The temporal need-threat model of ostracism further postulates that this immediate threat to belongingness will have further consequences for wellbeing over time (Williams, 2009) and can foster social withdrawal (Ren et al., 2016). ...
Article
Minority students’ belongingness on campus has become an emergent topic in psychological research. Past research has particularly focused on belonging uncertainty as a potential explanation for impaired belongingness in minority students. While this represents an important perspective, we argue that students of certain minority groups may also be more likely to be confronted with actual ostracism experiences on campus. Using structural equation modelling, we investigated associations between minority status, ostracism, and belongingness in an aggregated sample derived from two longitudinal survey studies ( n = 973 students) with two time points (beginning of the first and of the second semester) at a German university. We show that student characteristics that are likely more visible (migration background with family ties to the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, or Latin America) are linked to impaired belongingness both directly as well as indirectly through experiences of ostracism. In contrast, student characteristics that are less visible (such as parental education level) are directly associated with impaired belongingness but not with experiences of ostracism. Furthermore, we found that a migration background from the aforementioned regions indirectly predicted students’ well-being, dropout intentions, and actual dropout via the experience of ostracism and subsequent impaired belongingness. For parental education level, we only found indirect effects on students’ well-being via impaired belongingness. Our findings suggest that in addition to the existing focus on belonging uncertainty, there is a need to focus psychological research and educational practice on ostracism experiences that ethnic minority students face at university.
... Humans have an ostracism detection system that detects even minimal cues of exclusion and reacts with immediate need threat (Spoor & Williams, 2007). This immediate, reflexive reaction is strong across situations and individuals (e.g., Hartgerink et al., 2015;Williams, 2009) and has been documented even when individuals are excluded by a despised outgroup (e.g., Fayant et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), a computer (e.g., Jauch et al., 2022;Zadro et al., 2004), or when they receive money for being excluded (van Beest & Williams, 2006). The ostracism detection system sets off a strong default reaction to exclusion cues, causing high levels of need threat after every exclusion experience (Spoor & Williams, 2007), plausibly regardless of previous exclusion experiences. ...
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Unlike one-time lab manipulations of exclusion, in real life, many people experience exclusion, from others and from groups, over extended periods, raising the question of whether individuals could, over time, develop hypo- or hypersensitive responses to chronic exclusion. In Study 1, we subjected participants to repeated experiences of inclusion or exclusion (three Cyberball games, time lag of three days, N = 194; 659 observations). We find that repeatedly excluded individuals become hypersensitive to inclusion, but not to exclusion. Study 2 ( N = 183) tested whether individuals with chronic experiences of real-world exclusion show hypo- or hypersensitive responses to a novel episode of exclusion. In line with Study 1, exclusion hurt to the same extent regardless of baseline levels of chronic exclusion in daily life. However, chronically excluded individuals show more psychological distress in general. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for dealing with chronically excluded individuals and groups.
... Likewise, committing ostracism in social media also has become very prevalent, given (a) the mobile internet technology's timeless and spaceless accessibility (Vorderer & Kohring, 2013), (b) the increased dependence on ubiquitous communication technologies to connect with family and friends (Turkle, 2011) and (c) the unexpected social agony of online ostracism from strangers (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). It is more common for targets of ostracism to simultaneously become the sources of the behaviour on social media platforms than in face-to-face contexts. ...
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Although people often exclude others in their daily encounters and social media interactions, no consumer research on ostracism has solely focused on sources of ostracism. We argue that the influence of ostracism on evasive behavior is worth investigating since the scant academic investigations on sources are limited to their reparation intentions for their harmful behavior. Three experiments were conducted to examine the influence of ostracizing behavior (vs. neutral vs. social interaction) on extraordinary consumption in face‐to‐face and social media contexts. It was uncovered that sources sense dissonant feelings in dissimilar contexts when their behavior transcends society's normative boundaries and, hence, prefer consumption that does not commonly appear in society as a means to evade this dissonance. The effect was moderated by sources’ justification of their behavior. We initiate consumer research on sources of ostracism and contribute to the marketing practice of introducing extraordinary consumption options by investigating the psychological consequences of ostracizing behavior.
... Other research indicates that even when individuals are ostensibly excluded by members of a despised political outgroup who are aware of the participant's opposite political affiliation, they report similar levels of need threat as individuals who are excluded by members of their political ingroup (Fayant et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). ...
Article
Evidence from different research areas suggests that expecting negative outcomes can buffer their adverse psychological effects. In the context of social exclusion, however, evidence for buffering effects of expectations on individuals’ immediate need threat is mixed and has not been examined in terms of cognitive bracing. We present four studies (N = 1159) that test two competing hypotheses (no buffering vs. buffering effects) and focus on three explanations that may account for the previous mixed findings. Study 1 provides support for buffering effects. However, Studies 2, 3 and 4 do not replicate these effects. An integrative data analysis across the four studies using equivalence tests suggests no meaningful differences in need threat after exclusion. These results suggest that expectations alone may not suffice to buffer immediate need threat or negative affect after exclusion, and illuminate how prior seemingly contradictory evidence may align well. Conceptual and practical implications are discussed.
... In addition, while the pernicious effects of rejection are felt by all age groups [16] and can cause an individual to feel like life is less meaningful [17]-even if the rejection is by a group the individual does not wish to belong to [18]-these effects can be particularly severe for young adults [19]. As such, young adults are often at greater risk for experiencing loneliness because rapid social changes are often occurring, existing support networks can be unstable, and new stressors are introduced, such as starting work and carving out an occupational or professional identity. ...
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Loneliness is commonly associated with older people with the majority of research and interventions focusing on loneliness in aged and aging populations. However, loneliness seems to be on the rise for young adults more so than the elderly. Our research focusses on the experiences of young workers who report feeling lonely at work. We explore individual and organisational factors that may be contributing to loneliness, and comment on the consequences of feeling lonely at work. Qualitative data from 37 young adults from Western Europe suggest that these workers feel invisible at work, have a thwarted sense of belonging to their employing organisation, and often experience relational deficiencies due to automation and individualisation of work practices.
... Researchers have proposed that ostracism thwarts people's perceived control because victims of ostracism have no efficacious ways to engage in or influence social interactions (Williams, 2009;Williams et al., 2000). Indeed, empirical evidence has demonstrated that ostracism decreases perceived control (Gerber & Wheeler, 2009;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Hartgerink et al., 2015) and that thwarted control may influence people's behavioural responses to ostracism (Marinović & Träuble, 2021;Warburton et al., 2006). A possible explanation of the importance of regaining control is provided by the processes of need intensification and satiation, which suggest that people possess the primary motivation to think and behave in ways to restore their essential needs when these needs are thwarted (Geen, 1995;Shah & Gardner, 2007). ...
Article
Whether and how interpersonal experiences predispose people to show superstitious tendencies have been largely unexamined by past studies. By adopting a multimethod approach, three studies tested (a) whether ostracism increases superstitious tendencies through thwarted perceived control, (b) whether the dispositional need for closure moderates the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies and (c) whether restoring ostracized people's thwarted control weakens their superstitious tendencies. The results revealed that ostracized participants had higher superstitious tendencies than nonostracized participants did (Studies 1-3). Moreover, thwarted control mediated the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies (Study 2). In addition, the dispositional need for closure moderated the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies, such that the effect was stronger among participants with a high need for closure (Studies 1-2). Finally, restoring ostracized participants' perceived control weakened the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies (Study 3). Altogether, these findings feature the essential role of thwarted perceived control in understanding the link between ostracism and superstitious tendencies and the implication of control restoration in weakening the link. They also highlight the importance of dispositional characteristics in moderating people's responses to superstitions following ostracism and related forms of interpersonal maltreatment.
... Researchers can easily alter the composition of the group in terms of race and gender to investigate questions pertaining to differences in group membership and their influence on feelings of belonging. By doing so, Social Ball can help contribute to the ongoing research on how group membership in terms of race (Aureli et al., 2020;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Goodwin et al., 2010;Mulvey et al., 2016) or gender (e.g., Bolling, 2016;Bolling et al., 2012;Hawes et al., 2012;Wirth & Williams, 2009) influences or is influenced by belonging threats. ...
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We introduce “Social Ball,” a new research paradigm to study ostracism via an online ball tossing game based on Cyberball (Williams & Jarvis, 2006) designed with both researchers and participants in mind. For researchers, the game incorporates a variety of features which are easily accessible from the software’s interface. Some of these features have already been studied with Cyberball (e.g., tossing different objects) but some are novel (e.g., end-game communication or hand-waving during the game). From the participants’ perspective, the game was designed to be more visually and socially immersive to create a more video-game- like online environment. We discuss two previous implementations. Study 1 showed that Social Ball successfully induced need threat and negative affect among ostracized (vs included) participants (n = 247). Study 2 empirically demonstrated how a new feature of the game (i.e., hand-waving) can be used to answer various questions. The results suggested that people waved their hands to varying degrees yet the frequency of which was not associated with post game need satisfaction (n = 2578). Besides describing the features of the game, we also provide a configuration manual and an annotated R code (both as online supplementary materials) to make the paradigm and associated analyses more accessible, and in turn, to stimulate further research. In our discussion, we elaborate on the various ways in which Social Ball can contribute to the understanding of belonging and ostracism.
... Distress was assessed by six items validated in previous research on ostracism (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007) and previous research in Poland (Hase et al., 2021). We asked participants to indicate to what extent they felt each of following states while observing the video: "good" (reversed), "happy" (reversed), "relaxed" (reversed), "resentful", "upset", and "threatened". ...
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Three experiments (two pre-registered) tested whether gender collective narcissism (i.e., a belief that one’s gender ingroup’s exceptionality is not sufficiently recognized by others) predicts parochial vicarious ostracism (i.e., feeling ostracized and distressed while recognizing the gender ingroup’s exclusion, but not when recognizing the exclusion of the gender outgroup). In all studies (overall N = 1480), gender collective narcissism was positively associated with distress among women who witnessed the exclusion of women, but not among men who witnessed the exclusion of women. In Study 3, gender collective narcissism was positively associated with distress among men who witnessed the exclusion of men, but not among women who witnessed the exclusion of men. These findings help explain why men do not universally feel distressed by the discrimination of women and why some women may mobilize to challenge gender discrimination.
... Despite constituting more than half the population, women experience significant social exclusion and inequality [4,5] which is reflected in higher poverty rates [6] and lower income levels [7], limited participation in the labor market [8], a marked absence from the public sphere, and less involvement in civic/political life than men [9]. No less concerning is the subjective experience of disadvantaged individuals, who tend to feel a decreased sense of belonging, self-esteem, control [10], and meaning in life [11], as well as higher levels of mental distress [12], and stress [13]. ...
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Civic engagement is thought to contribute to well-being among young adults. However, less is known about the ways in which civic engagement promotes well-being in general and in particular in socially excluded populations. This study investigated whether civic engagement contributes to life satisfaction and hope in a sample of 127 socially excluded young Israeli women who participated in social activism programs for a period of eight months. A mediation model incorporating self-efficacy, meaning in life, and identity exploration was used to examine the contribution of positive attitudes toward civic engagement, civic engagement skills, and political awareness to the participants’ life satisfaction and hope. Indirect effects were found between positive attitudes toward civic engagement, civic engagement skills, and political awareness and the participants’ life satisfaction and hope via self-efficacy. Positive attitudes toward civic engagement and political awareness also predicted the participants’ life satisfaction via meaning in life. A positive direct effect was found between political awareness and hope. However, contrary to the hypothesis, a negative direct effect was found between positive attitudes toward civic engagement and life satisfaction. Civic engagement skills and political awareness also predicted identity exploration. These findings underscore the need for clinicians to be aware of the potential benefits of civic engagement for the well-being of socially excluded populations.
... Agli studi in vivo sugli effetti dell'isolamento si è aggiunto il contributo decisivo della ricerca sperimentale; proprio là dove la strada per studiare il silent treatment si era rivelata impervia, una procedura atta a riprodurre sperimentalmente un'esperienza analoga in un semplice gioco virtuale noto come cyberball game 1 (Williams, Cheung, & Choi 2000;Williams, 2007) ha prodotto una mole estremamente consistente di risultati che testimoniano in modo inequivocabile l'impatto dell'ostracismo sul benessere di chi lo subisce, costituendo un attacco diretto ad alcuni bisogni fondamentali quali il bisogno di avere controllo sull'ambiente, di sentire che la vita ha senso, di autostima, e di appartenenza ( Nezlek et al., 2012;Williams, 2009). Questo effetto è confermato ormai da centinaia di studi su decine di migliaia di partecipanti di ogni genere, età e provenienza culturale (Hartgerink et al., 2015), ed è notevole constatare che l'impatto subito nel cyberball non si attenui neppure rivelando ai partecipanti la natura fittizia del compito (Zadro et al., 2004) o attribuendo a chi ci esclude caratteristiche disprezzabili (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). Si è andata così consolidando l'ipotesi evoluzionistica secondo cui l'ostracismo, in quanto esperienza di perdita del contatto sociale, rappresenti nella nostra specie una minaccia alla sopravvivenza (Williams, 2009), e che di conseguenza la reazione di chi lo subisce sia destinata a rimanere invariante (McDonald & Donnellan, 2012). ...
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IT La letteratura sull'ostracismo sociale costituisce ad oggi il principale punto di riferimento concettuale per comprendere il fenomeno del "muso". Sebbene le esperienze interpersonali caratterizzate dal muso siano estremamente comuni ed appaia evidente la sofferenza che questo comporta, tuttavia la ricerca specifica sull'argomento è poco sviluppata; in particolare, non esistono indicazioni univoche su quali fattori possano mitigarne l'impatto negativo. Nel presente studio, sono stati confrontati gli effetti provocati dalla rievocazione di due episodi, uno di dolore fisico e uno di muso; la Social Mentalities Scale è stata utilizzata per valutare l'effetto di mediazione di alcune disposizioni interpersonali a base evoluzionistica sull'impatto delle due esperienze sfavorevoli. I risultati mostrano che unicamente il gioco, e non l'attaccamento o il senso di appartenenza, consente di mitigare l'effetto negativo del muso. Parole chiave: muso, silent treatment, ostracismo, mentalità sociali, sistemi motivazionali, gioco EN The literature on social ostracism currently represents the main conceptual framework for understanding the phenomenon of the "silent treatment" (Williams, 2001). Although the silent treatment is extremely common and the suffering that it entails is evident, specific research on the subject is underdeveloped; in particular, there are no unambiguous indications on which factors can mitigate its negative impact. In the present study, the Social Mentalities Scale (SMS, Brasini et al., 2020), was used to evaluate the mediating effect of some evolutionary-based interpersonal dispositions on the impact of two unfavourable experiences: physical pain vs silent treatment. The results show that only playfulness, and not attachment or a sense of belonging, effectively mitigates the negative effect of the silent treatment.
... Further, people experience need threat from ostracism even in situations that seem counterintuitive. For example, participants felt deprived in their needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence even when they were ostracized by a despised outgroup (Fayant et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007) or a computer program (Zadro et al., 2004). People can even experience the adverse effects of ostracism simply by watching it happen to someone else (Poon et al., 2020;Wesselmann et al., 2009). ...
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In recent years, researchers of various disciplines have developed many theories to understand the radicalization process. One key factor that may promote radicalization is social exclusion, the state of being kept apart from others. Indeed, experimental studies have provided initial evidence for a relation between exclusion and radicalism. The current review outlines and builds upon these research programs, arguing that social exclusion has been shown (a) to increase the willingness to fight-and-die, (b) to promote the approval for extreme, even violent, political parties and actions, and (c) to push the willingness to engage in illegal and violent action for a political cause. We close with an agenda for future research and critically discuss implications of this work for social policy.
... Nevertheless, previous research has been mixed on the impact of the ingroup/outgroup dynamics of exclusion, with the majority of research indicating that the source of exclusion does not impact any effects of exclusion (Abrams et al., 2005;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Hutchison et al., 2007;Smith & Williams, 2004;Williams et al., 2000). However, some research suggests that this may be the result of using arbitrary groups (e.g., groups based on trivial attitudes) and when using groups that have clear and defining characteristics that are unchangeable (highly essentialized), such as skin color, there is evidence that there are differences in the reaction to ingroup/outgroup exclusion (Bernstein et al., 2010). ...
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This paper explored how the source of exclusion (ingroup/outgroup) influences ingroup identification and political engagement. It is well documented that social exclusion has a negative impact on individuals' well‐being, but less is known how it affects identification with the ingroup, and subsequent behavior. In two studies, one survey (N = 193) and one experiment (N = 384), we explore how exclusion in the context of Brexit impacts identification with the EU and Remain cause and in turn engagement with a pro‐EU group. Participants sympathetic to the Remain‐side were recruited and findings suggest that exclusion from the outgroup (Leave‐sympathizers) increases ingroup identity measures and engagement with a Pro‐EU group. Mediation analysis revealed that increased ingroup identity mediated engagement with the ingroup.
... It significantly affects the mental health and well-being of an individual (Maner et al., 2007); it can lead to feelings of loneliness and depression (McDougall et al., 2001;Schwartz et al., 2008), anxious (Pickering et al., 2020) or suicidal thoughts (Boeninger et al., 2010;Rigby, 2003), antisocial behavior (Kotchick et al., 2001), or aggression (Lansford et al., 2010;Twenge et al., 2001). At the same time, it threatens the sense of a meaningful existence, the perception of hope, or the need to belong and control (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Williams, 2009). Long-term exposure to peer rejection can lead to impaired regulation of emotions, including poor emotional awareness, and an increase in rumination (King et al., 2018;McLaughlin et al., 2009;Parker et al., 2006). ...
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Self-regulation is a process that may affect the degree of peer rejection but may also be determined by the degree of peer rejection, whereby the degree of acceptance/rejection can influence the processes that lead to the strengthening or weakening of self-regulation. In this study, we concentrate on self-regulatory mechanisms (self-regulated behavior and strategies for emotional regulation) in peer-rejected students compared to non-rejected students. With the aid of structural equation modeling, we identified models of self-regulation mechanisms in three groups of students according to their acceptance/rejection. These groups differ in the degree of peer rejection, the structure of the regulation of emotional relations, and the degree of self-regulation behavior. The results suggest that peer-rejected students do not form a monolithic group from the perspective of self-regulation mechanisms, as it is possible to identify diverse structures of relations between the self-regulation mechanisms that probably depend, inter alia, on the degree of peer rejection.
... Similar studies in organizational behavior on workplace ostracism, where there is still a lack of research, reported that perceived workplace ostracism induces unproductive work behavior by avoiding conversations with the employee or maintaining distance in behavior. Ferris et al. [35] found that social ostracism includes variables such as anger [36] and negative mood [37], which induce an aversive psychological reaction. ...
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Ostracism in the workplace is a common phenomenon in modern society that impairs employees’ well-being. This study suggests that workplace ostracism reduces subjective well-being by examining the effect of workplace ostracism on subjective well-being. Based on self-determination theory and resource conservation theory, this study explores the underlying processes and their contingent factors in the relationship between workplace ostracism and employee well-being. Specifically, this study hypothesizes that workplace ostracism decreases employees’ well-being by enhancing employees’ need satisfaction. Furthermore, the perception of a direct supervisor’s authentic leadership positively moderates the relationship between workplace ostracism and employees’ need satisfaction. This study used moderated mediation analysis to evaluate our predictions using a two-time online survey of 485 Korean employees. The findings revealed that workplace ostracism has a detrimental impact on employee well-being via need satisfaction. However, perceptions of a direct supervisor’s authentic leadership positively moderate the association between workplace ostracism and need satisfaction. Our results have important practical and theoretical implications in the workplace ostracism literature.
... On the other hand, even ostracism by undesirable others (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), as well as not receiving direct eye-contact by a computerized face (Wirth et al., 2010) or basic civil attention (often not even consciously processed; Wesselmann et al., 2012) leads to consistent decreases in the fulfillment of self-related basic needs. According to the notion of an evolved ostracism detection system (Kerr & Levine, 2008;Spoor & Williams, 2007), this suggests that feelings about the self are impacted even if lack of inclusion does not allow for clear attributions and is unrelated to relevant social judgment. ...
Article
Social distancing to limit the spread of COVID-19 poses a unique psycholo- gical challenge, especially in light of evidence for the importance of even minimal cues of inclusion. In a German (N = 546) and a US (N = 199) sample, we examined the impact of work-related social distancing on the outcomes of ostracism, measuring need fulfillment in self-esteem, belonging, control, and meaning. Overall, social distancing was associated with decreased need fulfillment. German participants reported a higher need fulfillment compared to American participants. Compared to previous studies, social distancing impacted self-related need fulfillment less than experimental manipulations of ostracism, however more so than the baseline condition of inclusion. Working, while social distancing was associated with greater need fulfill- ment, as was identifying as male. Women reported lower need fulfillment overall and this difference was mediated by the need to belong. Results are discussed in terms of understanding self-related needs in different contexts of isolation.
... However, it has been argued that humans are exceedingly sensitive to indicators of actual or potential ostracism, given the evolutionary disadvantages associated with exclusion from social groups(Williams & Zadro, 2001). Correspondingly, being ignored or excluded typically has large effects on individuals even if the individuals are told the ostracism is unintentional(Zadro, Williams, & Richardson, 2004), the ostracism is from individuals not part of our in-group(Williams, Cheung, & Choi, 2000), or the ostracism is from individuals who are disliked(Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). ...
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The number of constructs developed to assess workplace aggression has flourished in recent years, leading to confusion over what meaningful differences exist (if any) between the constructs. We argue that one way to frame the field of workplace aggression is via approach–avoidance principles, with various workplace aggression constructs (e.g., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining, and workplace ostracism) differentially predicting specific approach or avoidance emotions and behaviors. Using two multi-wave field samples of employees, we demonstrate the utility of approach– avoidance principles in conceptualizing workplace aggression constructs, as well as the processes and boundary conditions through which they uniquely influence outcomes. Implications for the workplace aggression literature are discussed.
... However, it has been argued that humans are exceedingly sensitive to indicators of actual or potential ostracism, given the evolutionary disadvantages associated with exclusion from social groups(Williams & Zadro, 2001). Correspondingly, being ignored or excluded typically has large effects on individuals even if the individuals are told the ostracism is unintentional(Zadro, Williams, & Richardson, 2004), the ostracism is from individuals not part of our in-group(Williams, Cheung, & Choi, 2000), or the ostracism is from individuals who are disliked(Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). ...
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The number of constructs developed to assess workplace aggression has flourished in recent years, leading to confusion over what meaningful differences exist (if any) be�tween the constructs. We argue that one way to frame the field of workplace aggression is via approach–avoidance principles, with various workplace aggression constructs (e.g., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining, and workplace ostracism) differentially predicting specific approach or avoidance emotions and behaviors. Using two multi-wave field samples of employees, we demonstrate the utility of approach– avoidance principles in conceptualizing workplace aggression constructs, as well as the processes and boundary conditions through which they uniquely influence outcomes. Implications for the workplace aggression literature are discussed.
... In one study, adults reported more satisfaction after being included in an online game by in-group members than out-group members (Bernstein et al., 2010). However, being rejected by an outgroup member felt just as distressing as being rejected by one's own group (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). Only one study that we know of has examined the effects of group-based firstparty ostracism in children. ...
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Here, we used high- and low-stakes testimonial learning tasks to better understand two important types of social influence on children’s learning decisions: group membership and social ostracism. Children (4- and 5-year-olds; N = 100) were either included or excluded by in-group or outgroup members in an online ball tossing game. Then, children were asked to selectively learn new information from either an in-group or out-group member. They also received counterintuitive information from an in-group or out-group member that was in conflict with their own intuitions. When learning new information, children who were excluded were more likely to selectively trust information from their in-group member. In contrast, when accepting counterintuitive information, children relied only on group membership regardless of their exclusion status. Together, these findings demonstrate ways in which different forms of testimonial learning are guided not only by epistemic motivations but also by social motivations of affiliation and maintaining relationships with others.
... Another point that might be interesting for future research is possible context effects of not being tagged. While some research showed that ostracism is hurtful even when it originates from an undesired group (e. g., Fayant et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007), when being excluded has financial benefits (van Beest & Williams, 2006), or when targets are ostracized by a computer (e.g., Jauch et al., 2021;Zadro et al., 2004), other research showed that the prevailing norm of the situation is decisive in determining the reaction to being excluded (e.g., Rudert & Greifeneder, 2016): Typically, humans expect to be included (Dvir et al., 2019;Rudert & Greifeneder, 2016), however, there may be situations in which one doesn't want to be included, for example one might not want to be tagged in an undesired depiction of oneself (see also untagging oneself, e.g., Birnholtz et al., 2017), for example, being drunk or committing a crime. Investigations into context effects of reactions to (not) being tagged might help to establish the conceptual core of the not being tagged paradigm. ...
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Humans are highly sensitive to ostracism experiences and thus, even very short occurrences of being excluded and ignored can threaten fundamental needs and lower mood. We investigated whether not being tagged causes similar negative responses as being excluded in real life. Using a multi-method approach, we show across five studies (total N = 1149) that not being tagged in a posted photo strongly threatens fundamental needs. This effect is moderated by individuals’ need to belong, such that individuals with a higher need to belong experience not being tagged as more aversive. Results replicate across vignette studies in which participants imagine not being tagged on Instagram (Studies 2 and 3) and across studies using an alleged group task paradigm that mimicked the psychological mechanism of not being tagged outside of Instagram (Studies 4a and 4b). All experimental studies were pre-registered and we freely share all materials, code and data. Extending ostracism effects to the social media phenomenon tagging, the present research bridges real-world and digital social interactions. The results add to theoretical knowledge on social media, ostracism, and digital well-being and have practical implications for social media app design, social media interventions and our everyday interactions that increasingly happen online.
... Future studies should mend this gap by investigating samples from different cultural backgrounds and replicating the present findings using other exclusion scenarios. For example, future studies could use exclusion paradigms with more immersive contexts like ostensible group tasks (e.g., Rudert et al. 2020), chat paradigms (e.g., Rudert et al. 2018), or false feedback manipulations (e.g., Baumeister et al. 2002), to avoid method biases and to probe for generalization across social exclusion contexts (e.g., Rudert et al. 2021), including factors such as the relationship with the excluding group (e.g., Gonsalkorale and Williams, 2007;Nezlek et al. 2012), present observers (e.g., Hales et al. 2021), or available coping mechanisms (cf. Eck et al. 2016). ...
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Background . Prior studies show that depressed individuals react with more immediate reflexive need threat to ostracism than healthy controls. However, it remains unclear whether the observed difference between depressed individuals and healthy controls is caused by ostracism. To find out, the exclusion condition needs to be compared to a baseline condition: inclusion. Methods . We assessed depressive symptoms in N = 426 participants in an experimental study. Participants were included or excluded in Cyberball and indicated both their immediate reflexive need satisfaction level and their reflective need satisfaction level several minutes later to assess recovery. Results . Being excluded decreased reflexive need satisfaction levels for all participants. At the same time, the strength of depressive symptoms negatively predicted reflexive and reflective need satisfaction and was associated with slower recovery. Importantly, no moderation was observed: individuals with more depressive symptoms reported reduced need satisfaction levels regardless of being included or excluded in Cyberball. Limitations . The present findings were obtained with one paradigm only, albeit the most commonly used one: Cyberball. Depressive symptoms were assessed as self-report; future studies may wish to replicate the effects using structured clinical interviews. Conclusions . Depressive symptoms come with lowered need satisfaction levels, irrespective of whether individuals are socially excluded or included. Clinical practitioners should be aware of the relationship between chronic need threat and depression in order to help their patients overcome it.
... Ostracism could therefore have increasingly severe negative outcomes for an individual over time. Indeed, the effects of social ostracism are so pervasive that they not only impact us when our in-group rejects us, but also when we are rejected by a group to which we have no interest in belonging (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). Sebastian, Viding, Williams, and Blakemore (2010) suggest that the negative affective consequences of perceived social ostracism are especially pronounced in young people. ...
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Low social resilience (e.g., susceptibility to social anxiety, and social avoidance) has been associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes, and can lead to ostracism. Support services such as university counselling centres, which deal with non-diagnosable psychological distress, linked to low social resilience, require effective yet brief interventions deliverable by non-experts to meet service demands. As it is not always possible to prevent subjectively negative experiences, acceptance-based interventions aim to change how we respond behaviourally to such experiences. The present study tests the efficacy of an ultra-brief (1hr) non-expert delivered acceptance- and values-based (AV) coaching intervention to increase resilience to negative social interactions. This was compared to a comparable dose of a cognitive restructuring and relaxation-based (CRR) analogue, and a psycho-education and progressive muscle relaxation-based (PE-PMR) control. Participants (N=60) were assessed on perceived burdensomeness, belonging, and 3 scenarios measuring anxiety and likelihood to engage in social situations. Participants then played Cyberball, an ostracising task, before recompleting the aforementioned measures. Physiological measures indicated Cyberball was an aversive experience. In the AV condition only, we observed an improved behavioral intention to engage with social scenarios (dppc2 = .57). Ultra-brief AV-based coaching interventions delivered by non-expert coaches appear promising in increasing participant’s likelihood to continue engaging in social interactions after a stressful social experience. We tentatively conclude that gains in committed action may increase the propensity of at-risk individuals to seek social support.
... In this view, people are so averse to exclusion, that they should feel excluded regardless of the context (Carter-Sowell et al., ☆ This paper has been recommended for acceptance by Ernestine Gordijn. 2010; Van Beest, Williams, & Van Dijk, 2011) -i.e., even when inclusion has negative elements (e.g., when it concerns inclusion in a despised group, Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007) or when exclusion has positive elements (e.g., when it pays, Van Beest & Williams, 2006). While inclusion is thus considered a very positive experience, exclusion is characterized as a "social death penalty" (Wesselmann & Williams, 2017) that people are motivated to avoid at all times (Ouwerkerk, Kerr, Gallucci, & Van Lange, 2005). ...
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While a considerable body of literature has shown that leaving one's group is a negative experience that people tend to avoid, the current research focuses on the idea that on some occasions, leaving one's group can come with positive consequences. Across four experimental studies, we demonstrate that people's reactions to staying in versus leaving their group are modulated by their performance. Studies 1 and 2 showed that performing considerably below (vs. at the same level as) one's group members, can be an aversive experience that people prefer to avoid, even when this means being excluded by their fellow group members. Exclusion harmed low-performers' and equal-performers' feelings and need fulfilment equally, but low-performers still considered exclusion relatively relieving and preferable. They also experienced inclusion in the group as less positive than equal-performers. Studies 3 and 4 showed that low-performing participants were also relatively likely to leave the group when they had the chance. Although this resulted in participants' separation from the group, this had positive effects for them, as it restored their fundamental needs and improved their feelings, relative to when they were still part of the group.
... However, the literature on the hurtful effects of the exclusion by ingroup and outgroup members is mixed. Some studies have shown that exclusion by an ingroup member is felt more strongly by the target (Bernstein et al., 2010;Sacco et al., 2014), whereas other studies have provided some evidence for the opposite effect (Goodwin et al., 2010;Williams et al., 2002), and other research has not shown any ingroup-outgroup difference in the hurtful feelings elicited in the target (Fayant et al., 2014;Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007;Smith & Williams, 2004). ...
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This study focuses on Saudi mothers’ and their children’s judgments and reasoning about exclusion based on religion. Sixty Saudi children and their mothers residing in Saudi Arabia and 58 Saudi children and their mothers residing in the United Kingdom were interviewed. They were read vignettes depicting episodes of exclusion based on the targets’ religion ordered by peers or a father. Participants were asked to judge the acceptability of exclusion and justify their judgments. Both groups rated the religious-based exclusion of children from peer interactions as unacceptable. Saudi children and mothers residing in the UK were less accepting of exclusion than were children and mothers residing in Saudi Arabia. In addition, children and mothers residing in the UK were more likely to evaluate exclusion as a moral issue and less likely as a social conventional issue than were children and mothers residing in Saudi Arabia. Mothers in the UK were also less likely to invoke psychological reasons than were mothers in Saudi Arabia. Children’s judgments about exclusion were predicted by mothers’ judgments about exclusion. In addition, the number of times children used moral or social conventional reasons across the vignettes was positively correlated with mothers’ use of these categories. The findings, which support the Social Reasoning Development model, are discussed in relation to how mothers and immersion in socio-cultural contexts are related to children’s judgments and reasoning about social exclusion.
... Il est aussi important de noter que ce sentiment immédiat à valence négative est indépendant de la situation dans laquelle cette exclusion intervient. Des expériences utilisant le CBT ont été réalisées en manipulant la prétendue appartenance des adversaires à des groupes similaires (même idéologie politique, même goût musicaux par exemple), groupes rivaux (opposition politique) ou groupes méprisés (adversaires appartenant au Ku Klux Klan) (Gonsalkorale & Williams, 2007). De manière surprenante, les sujets de l'expérience rapportaient des niveaux de détresse tout aussi élevés dans les trois situations (Williams, 2006). ...
Thesis
Les humains sont motivés par un besoin fondamental de maintenir des relations stables et durables. De nombreuses études comportementales ont démontré que l’exclusion sociale menace ce besoin fondamental d’appartenance. Au niveau neuronal, il a été mis en évidence l’implication du cortex cingulaire antérieur sous génual (CCAsg) et de l’insula antérieure (AI), deux régions aussi impliquées dans la dépression majeure, où le rejet social constitue un facteur de risque établi. A ce jour, le rôle du CCAsg et de l’AI dans les processus d’intégration et de régulation de l’exclusion sociale reste cependant inconnu. Afin d’étudier les conséquences comportementales de l’exclusion sociale ainsi que les rôles différentiels du CCAsg et de l’AI, nous avons dans un premier temps développé une nouvelle tâche d’exclusion sociale chez le rat. Cette tâche nous a permis, dans un second temps, d’étudier i) les conséquence socio-affectives de l’exposition à un stress social, ii) l’effet de lésions discrètes au niveau de l’homologue murin du CCAsg (cortex infralimbique, A25) et de l’AI (insula agranulaire) sur la réponse affective et iii) l’impact de l’administration d’ocytocine (OT), un neuropeptide impliqué dans les processus affiliatifs, sur les interactions sociales. Nous avons pu montrer que l’exclusion sociale impactait négativement les interactions sociales ainsi que les comportements de type dépressifs. Les lésions au niveau de A25 et l’administration d’OT ont réduit cet effet négatif et modulé l’activation neuronale au niveau du CCAsg et de l’AI. Nos données permettent de proposer un modèle d’intégration et de régulation des signaux d’exclusion sociale impliquant le CCAsg et l’AI.
... İş yerinde dışlanmaya maruz kalarak sosyal ve duygusal gereksinimlerini karşılayamayan çalışanların stres, depresyon ve kaygı düzeylerinin yükseldiği, saldırganlık ve suç işleme eğilimlerinin arttığı belirlenmiştir (Wu vd., 2012, 190). İş yerinde dışlanmanın şiddetli hissedilmesi ya da uzun süre devam etmesi durumunda ortaya çıkan özsaygının yitirilmesi, yaşam enerjisini kaybetme, değersizlik duygusu, tükenmişlik ve majör depresyon çalışanın hem iş hem de özel yaşamını olumsuz etkilemektedir (Foster, 2012;Robinson vd., 2013). ...
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z Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, iş yerinde dışlanma ve örgütsel sinizmin, işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Bu kapsamda, Alanya'da faaliyet gösteren otel işletmelerinde çalışan 439 kişiye anket uygulanmıştır. İlişkisel tarama modelinde tasarlanan araştırmada, "İş Yerinde Dışlanma", "Örgütsel Sinizm " ve "İşten Ayrılma Niyeti " ölçekleri kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler istatistik paket programı aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde betimleyici istatistikler, Pearson korelasyonu ve çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, ankete katılan otel çalışanlarının hem iş yerinde dışlanma hem de işten ayrılma niyetleri düşük düzeydedir. Bununla birlikte, çalışanların örgütsel sinizm algıları ortalamaya yakındır. Araştırma bulguları, otel çalışanlarının iş yerinde dışlanma ve örgütsel sinizm algıları ile işten ayrılma niyetleri arasında pozitif yönlü ve orta kuvvette bir ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca işten ayrılma niyeti üzerinde iş yerinde dışlanma algısının örgütsel sinizmden daha etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: İş Yerinde Dışlanma, Örgütsel Sinizm, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti, Otel İşletmeleri. Abstract The aim of this study is to examine the effects of workplace ostracism and organizational cynicism on turnover intention. Within this context, a questionnaire was applied to 439 people working in hotel establishments that have been operating in Alanya. In the research designed in the relational survey model of screening, " Workplace Ostracism", "Organizational Cynicism" and "Turnover Intention" scales were used. The obtained data were analyzed through the statistical package program. In the analysis of the data descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used. According to the findings of the study, the surveyed hotel employees' perceptions on both workplace ostracism and turnover intentions are low level. However, employees' perception of organizational cynicism is close to the average. The findings of the study, show that there is positive and a moderate correlation between the hotel employees' perceptions of workplace ostracism and organizational cynicism and their turnover intention. Additionally, it was determined that the perception of workplace ostracism is more effective than organizational cynicism on the turnover intention.
... İş yerinde dışlanmaya maruz kalarak sosyal ve duygusal gereksinimlerini karşılayamayan çalışanların stres, depresyon ve kaygı düzeylerinin yükseldiği, saldırganlık ve suç işleme eğilimlerinin arttığı belirlenmiştir (Wu vd., 2012, 190). İş yerinde dışlanmanın şiddetli hissedilmesi ya da uzun süre devam etmesi durumunda ortaya çıkan özsaygının yitirilmesi, yaşam enerjisini kaybetme, değersizlik duygusu, tükenmişlik ve majör depresyon çalışanın hem iş hem de özel yaşamını olumsuz etkilemektedir (Foster, 2012;Robinson vd., 2013). ...
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Thesis
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A great deal of human behavior is motivated by the desire for acceptance and belonging, and a high proportion of people's emotional reactions stems from concerns with actual or potential social rejection. The pervasive quest for acceptance can be seen in the attention and effort people devote to their physical appearance, their efforts to be liked, achievement-related behaviors, conformity, accumulating resources that others need, and generally being the sort of person with whom others want to have social connections. Depending on the context, concerns with social acceptance are typically accompanied by emotions such as social anxiety, embarrassment, jealousy, hurt feelings, and guilt, as well as lowered self-esteem. In addition, people who feel inadequately valued and accepted may behave in ways to increase acceptance, aggress against those who rejected them, distance themselves from other people, and/or engage in symbolic efforts to increase their subjective sense of being accepted. Concerns with acceptance and belonging exert a pervasive, ongoing effect on human thought, behavior, and emotion.
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The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of cyberostracism on state authenticity. For this purpose, I conducted two experimental studies using the Cyberball paradigm. The research revealed that ostracism activated using the Cyberball procedure decreased both in-game and post-game authenticity, though in the latter case the effect was clearly weaker and associated mainly with the affective aspects of authenticity. Moreover, Study 1 (N = 87, 65.5% women, Mage = 21.37 years, SDage = 1.55) showed that basic need satisfaction mediated the effect of cyberostracism on state authenticity, while Study 2 (N = 184, 66.8% women, Mage = 21.53 years, SDage = 1.54) revealed that rejection anxiety moderated the effects of cyberostracism on most measures of post-game authenticity. These findings are consistent both with the results of previous studies showing the detrimental impact of social rejection on different aspects of the self and with the recent conceptualizations of authenticity highlighting its interpersonal sources.
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This study explores the effects of intergroup vicarious ostracism on individual prejudicial attributions and aggressive intentions. It takes Tibetan and Hui college students in northwestern China as participants. Study 1 and Study 2 explore the difference in observers' prejudicial attributions and aggressive intentions, respectively, when the group members who experienced ostracism (Tibetan college students) observed an in-group member being ostracized by out-group members versus an in-group member being ostracized by in-group members. Results show that those in-group participants, i.e., the Tibetan college students, who observed an in-group member being ostracized by out-group members, showed much higher prejudicial attributions, F (1, 106) = 19.65, p < .001, ηp ² = .156, and aggressive intentions, F (1, 108) = 10.51, p = .002, ηp ² = .089, toward ostracizers than those who observed an in-group member being ostracized by in-group members. In Study 3, Hui college students were recruited as participants to further test the results of Study 1 and Study 2. In addition, we also found that under the out-group conditions, prejudicial attribution mediates the effects of inclusionary status on aggressive intentions (95% bias-corrected confidence interval did not include zero; 95% CI [0.15, 0.69]). This study shows that ostracizers’ group membership could affect observers' prejudicial attributions and their aggressive intentions toward the ostracizers.
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We examined if perceiving oneself as burdensome, due to performing poorly in a group, can lead to feelings associated with ostracism (to be excluded and ignored). Participants completed a typing game (Study 1) or solved Remote Associates Test (RAT; Study 2) items where they performed worse, equal, or better than the group. To focus on the influence of burdensomeness, participants were consistently selected by computerized agents to play. In each study, worse performers experienced greater perceptions of being burdensome, less basic need satisfaction, increased negative mood, and greater anticipation of being excluded from a future group task compared to equal or better performers. Combining Study 1 and 2 data, we found despite reporting being included, poor performers experienced social pain. Additionally, mediation analyses demonstrated feeling burdensome, due to one’s performance, influenced feelings associated with ostracism. These results suggest, despite being included, feeling burdensome can lead to outcomes related to ostracism.
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Media commentators have suggested that recent school shootings were precipitated by social rejection, but no empirical research has examined this claim. Case studies were conducted of 15 school shootings between 1995 and 2001 to examine the possible role of social rejection in school violence. Acute or chronic rejection—in the form of ostracism, bullying, and/or romantic rejection—was present in all but two of the incidents. In addition, the shooters tended to be characterized by one or more of three other risk factors—an interest in firearms or bombs, a fascination with death or Satanism, or psychological problems involving depression, impulse control, or sadistic tendencies. Implications for understanding and preventing school violence are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:202–214, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.
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Social exclusion was manipulated by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. These manipulations caused participants to behave more aggressively. Excluded people issued a more negative job evaluation against someone who insulted them (Experiments 1 and 2). Excluded people also blasted a target with higher levels of aversive noise both when the target had insulted them (Experiment 4) and when the target was a neutral person and no interaction had occurred (Experiment 5). However, excluded people were not more aggressive toward someone who issued praise (Experiment 3). These responseswere specific to social exclusion (as opposed to other misfortunes) and were not mediated by emotion
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The authors studied social norms and prejudice using M. Sherif and C. W. Sherif's (1953) group norm theory of attitudes. In 7 studies (N = 1,504), social norms were measured and manipulated to examine their effects on prejudice; both normatively proscribed and normatively prescribed forms of prejudice were included. The public expression of prejudice toward 105 social groups was very highly correlated with social approval of that expression. Participants closely adhere to social norms when expressing prejudice, evaluating scenarios of discrimination, and reacting to hostile jokes. The authors reconceptualized the source of motivation to suppress prejudice in terms of identifying with new reference groups and adapting oneself to fit new norms. Suppression scales seem to measure patterns of concern about group norms rather than personal commitments to reducing prejudice; high suppressors are strong norm followers. Compared with low suppressors, high suppressors follow normative rules more closely and are more strongly influenced by shifts in local social norms. There is much value in continuing the study of normative influence and self-adaptation to social norms, particularly in terms of the group norm theory of attitudes.
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Three studies examined the effects of randomly assigned messages of social exclusion. In all 3 studies, significant and large decrements in intelligent thought (including IQ and Graduate Record Examination test performance) were found among people told they were likely to end up alone in life. The decline in cognitive performance was found in complex cognitive tasks such as effortful logic and reasoning; simple information processing remained intact despite the social exclusion. The effects were specific to social exclusion, as participants who received predictions of future nonsocial misfortunes (accidents and injuries) performed well on the cognitive tests. The cognitive impairments appeared to involve reductions in both speed (effort) and accuracy. The effect was not mediated by mood.
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The authors hypothesize that socially excluded individuals enter a defensive state of cognitive deconstruction that avoids meaningful thought, emotion, and self-awareness, and is characterized by lethargy and altered time flow. Social rejection led to an overestimation of time intervals, a focus on the present rather than the future, and a failure to delay gratification (Experiment 1). Rejected participants were more likely to agree that "Life is meaningless" (Experiment 2). Excluded participants wrote fewer words and displayed slower reaction times (Experiments 3 and 4). They chose fewer emotion words in an implicit emotion task (Experiment 5), replicating the lack of emotion on explicit measures (Experiments 1-3 and 6). Excluded participants also tried to escape from self-awareness by facing away from a mirror (Experiment 6).
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A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress. ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC activity.
Article
Social exclusion was manipulated by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. These manipulations caused participants to behave more aggressively. Excluded people issued a more negative job evaluation against someone who insulted them (Experiments 1 and 2). Excluded people also blasted a target with higher levels of aversive noise both when the target had insulted them (Experiment 4) and when the target was a neutral person and no interaction had occurred (Experiment 5). However, excluded people were not more aggressive toward someone who issued praise (Experiment 3). These responses were specific to social exclusion (as opposed to other misfortunes) and were not mediated by emotion.
Article
Three studies examined the effects of randomly assigned messages of social exclusion. In all 3 studies, significant and large decrements in intelligent thought (including IQ and Graduate Record Examination test performance) were found among people told they were likely to end up alone in life. The decline in cognitive performance was found in complex cognitive tasks such as effortful logic and reasoning: simple information processing remained intact despite the social exclusion. The effects were specific to social exclusion, as participants who received predictions of future nonsocial misfortunes (accidents and injuries) performed well on the cognitive tests. The cognitive impairments appeared to involve reductions in both speed (effort) and accuracy. The effect was not mediated by mood.
Article
Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
Article
Abstract This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.
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This article presents 4 studies examining the impact of being ignored and excluded via computer-mediated communication (CMC). The focus is the differences between social- and cyberostracism. Study 1 replicated K. D. Williams, C. K. T. Cheung, and W. Choi's (2000) cyberostracism experiment, which showed negative consequences of being ostracized in a virtual ball toss game. Studies 2 and 3 examined ostracism in a chat room environment, again showing negative consequences of ostracism, even when compared with negatively charged inclusion. Study 4 directly compared responses to CMC with face-to-face (or social) ostracism. Results suggest that whereas both modes of ostracism are aversive, aspects of CMC provide targets with "virtual bravado" that might buffer negative effects of cyberostracism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Ostracism has a powerful negative effect on individuals. Face-to-face (i.e., social) ostracism is not necessary for these effects to emerge; they occur also in Internet ball toss games and within chat rooms. In previous research, ostracized individuals observed the interaction between other members of a group. In this experiment, the authors tested whether imagined ostracism is sufficient to inflict psychological pain. They used a triadic cell phone text-messaging method such that after initial inclusion in a conversation, participants either continued to be included or received no further messages from the others (and saw no messages between the others). Ostracized participants reported worse mood; reported lower state levels of belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence; and wrote more provoking messages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that ostracism (to be excluded and ignored) leads to detrimental eVects on four human needs (belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence; Williams, 2001). These detrimental eVects, however, may be more pronounced, or more prolonged, in particular individuals (see Williams & Zadro, 2001). In the present study, we examined the persistence of the detri-mental eVects of ostracism in high and low socially anxious participants. The results show that being ostracized aVected both groups at the immediate test, and that the high socially anxious participants recovered their primary needs more slowly. The results also show that being ostracized aVects personality/attractiveness ratings of sources of ostracism, and increases the likelihood of interpreting ambiguous situations in a threatening manner. Overall, the study illustrates that a comprehensive understanding of ostracism, and the eVects of mod-erating factors such as social anxiety, requires assessing the eVects across time rather than only focusing on immediate reactions.
Article
We hypothesized that increasing or decreasing levels of control in an ostracized individual could moderate aggressive responding to ostracism. Participants were either ostracized or included in a spontaneous game of toss, and then exposed to a series of blasts of aversive noise, the onsets over which they had either control or no control. Aggression was defined as the amount of hot sauce participants allocated to a stranger, knowing the stranger did not like hot foods, but would have to consume the entire sample. Ostracized participants without control allocated more than four times as much sauce as any other group; ostracized participants who experienced restored control were no more aggressive than either of the groups who were included. Aggressive responding to ostracism may depend on the degree to which control needs are threatened in the target, and is discussed in terms of Williams’s (2001) needs threat model of ostracism.
Article
Two experiments examined the effects of various levels and sequences of acceptance and rejection on emotion, ratings of self and others, and behavior. In Experiment 1, participants who differed in agreeableness received one of five levels of acceptance or rejection feedback, believing that they either would or would not interact with the person who accepted or rejected them. In Experiment 2, participants who differed in rejection sensitivity received one of four patterns of feedback over time, reflecting constant acceptance, increasing acceptance, increasing rejection, or constant rejection. In both studies, rejection elicited greater anger, sadness, and hurt feelings than acceptance, as well as an increased tendency to aggress toward the rejector. In general, more extreme rejection did not lead to stronger reactions than mild rejection, but increasing rejection evoked more negative reactions than constant rejection. Agreeableness and rejection-sensitivity scores predicted participants’ responses but did not moderate the effects of interpersonal acceptance and rejection.
Article
Previous research has demonstrated self-reports of lower levels of four fundamental needs as a result of short periods of face-to-face ostracism, as well as short periods of Internet ostracism (Cyberball), even when the ostracizing others are unseen, unknown, and not-to-be met. In an attempt to reduce the ostracism experience to a level that would no longer be aversive, we (in Study 1) convinced participants that they were playing Cyberball against a computer, yet still found comparable negative impact compared to when the participants thought they were being ostracized by real others. In Study 2, we took this a step further, and additionally manipulated whether the participants were told the computer or humans were scripted (or told) what to do in the game. Once again, even after removing all remnants of sinister attributions, ostracism was similarly aversive. We interpret these results as strong evidence for a very primitive and automatic adaptive sensitivity to even the slightest hint of social exclusion.
Article
Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). (from the journal abstract)
Book
Originated from the Athenian practice, ostracism or the temporary exclusion by consensus and the act of ignoring is analyzed by Kip William and Lisa Zadro. Laboratory manipulations and real-life observations are the main data-gathering procedures of the study. Apart from the emphasis that ostracism may occur across all ages, the experimental efforts particularly set the foundations of numerous frameworks for the field. Even if there has been small amount of psychological literature about the phenomenon, enough studies have illustrated its short- and long-term consequences. Conformity and increased motivation for better performance comprise the short-term effects, while for long-term results, internalization of low levels of self-esteem and control, as well as suicide attempts, are evident. New models are devised in the attempt tocapture the complexities of ostracism, which were not noted by early researches. These frameworks come with various data-gathering methods such as structured interviews, narratives, and contingency plans.
Book
Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
Article
Interpersonal rejection poses a threat to people's identity as competent, desirable individuals. This study examined the possibility that people buffer themselves against the implications of rejection by derogating those who reject them and by concluding that the rejector did not know them well. Participants were led to believe that a team captain has selected them either first or last for a laboratory team, then rated the captain and indicated how well he or she knew them. Results showed that, compared to those who were selected first for the team, participants who were selected last rated the team captains less positively, were less interested in having them as friends, and indicated that the captains knew them less well. Mediational analyses suggested that ratings of the captains were mediated by perceived rejection and that derogation helped to maintain participants' positive affect following rejection.
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Many prominent theorists have argued that accurate perceptions of the self, the world, and the future are essential for mental health. Yet considerable research evidence suggests that overly positive self-evaluations, exaggerated perceptions of control or mastery, and unrealistic optimism are characteristic of normal human thought. Moreover, these illusions appear to promote other criteria of mental health, including the ability to care about others, the ability to be happy or contented, and the ability to engage in productive and creative work. These strategies may succeed, in large part, because both the social world and cognitive-processing mechanisms impose filters on incoming information that distort it in a positive direction; negative information may be isolated and represented in as unthreatening a manner as possible. These positive illusions may be especially useful when an individual receives negative feedback or is otherwise threatened and may be especially adaptive under these circumstances.
Article
The present research highlights affiliation defenses in the psychological confrontation with death. In 3 experiments, it was found that mortality salience led to increased affiliation strivings, as indicated by a greater preference for sitting within a group as opposed to sitting alone. Mortality salience actually led to increased affiliation with a worldview-threatening group (Experiments 1-2), even when affiliation with the group forced participants to attack their own worldviews (Experiment 3). Taken together, the findings support a distinct role of affiliation defenses against existential concerns. Moreover, affiliation defenses seem powerful enough to override worldview validation defenses, even when the worldviews in question are personally relevant and highly accessible.
Article
Poets have long waxed lyrical about the pain of a broken heart. Now, as Panksepp explains in his Perspective, this metaphor may reflect real events in the mammalian brain. A new brain neuroimaging study (Eisenberger et al.) reveals that the brain areas that are activated during the distress caused by social exclusion are also those activated during physical pain. Thus, we now have an explanation for the feeling of physical pain that accompanies emotional loss-whether that be the loss of a loved one, rejection by one's social group, or the distress of separation experienced by young animals.
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The authors forward the hypothesis that social exclusion is experienced as painful because reactions to rejection are mediated by aspects of the physical pain system. The authors begin by presenting the theory that overlap between social and physical pain was an evolutionary development to aid social animals in responding to threats to inclusion. The authors then review evidence showing that humans demonstrate convergence between the 2 types of pain in thought, emotion, and behavior, and demonstrate, primarily through nonhuman animal research, that social and physical pain share common physiological mechanisms. Finally, the authors explore the implications of social pain theory for rejection-elicited aggression and physical pain disorders.
Ostracism: The power of silence
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G Ã Power: A priori, post-hoc, and compromise power analysis for MS-DOS
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