Article

The Relative Effectiveness of External, Peer, and Self‐Coaches

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Abstract

Deux recherches poursuivies sur deux continents ont fait appel à deux variables dépendantes différentes pour étudier l’efficacité relative du coach externe, du pair coach et de l’autocoaching sur la performance des participants (maîtrise de gestion). La première investigation concernait trente étudiants en gestion canadiens. Ceux qui étaient suivis par un coach extérieur présentaient une meilleure adaptation au travail collectif que ceux qui avaient un pair pour coach. La seconde recherche portait sur 23 managers en gestion australiens. Ceux qui étaient suivis soit par un coach externe, soit par eux-même, ont obtenu des résultats significativement plus élevés que ceux qui étaient accompagnés par un pair. Dans les deux études, le coach externe avait aux yeux de l’intéressé une plus grande crédibilité que le pair. Dans la seconde étude, l’autocoaching était mieux vu que le coaching du pair. La satisfaction relative à l’ensemble du processus était plus forte chez les managers pourvus d’un coach externe. Two studies in two different continents using two different dependent variables examined the relative effectiveness of external, peer, and self-coaches on the performance of participants in two MBA programs. The first study involved MBA students in Canada (n= 30). Those who were coached by an external coach exhibited higher teamplaying behavior than did those who were coached by peers. The second study involved EMBA managers in Australia (n= 23). Those who were either coached by an external coach or who were self-coached had significantly higher grades than those who were coached by a peer. In both studies, an external coach was perceived by the participants to have higher credibility than their peers. In the second study, self-coaching was perceived to be more credible than coaching from peers. Satisfaction with the coaching process was highest among the managers who had an external coach.

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... Three studies have compared the effectiveness of who can act as a coach (Offermanns, 2004;Spence & Grant, 2005;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). In line with our definition of coaching, effectiveness in the coaching literature is typically measured at the individual level by two groups of dependent variables. ...
... The first consists of processes or business outcomes (e.g., goal attainment), and the second focuses on people outcomes (e.g., changes in affect, well-being). Although further research is warranted in this area as the three existing studies suffered from small sample sizes (average N ϭ 35.25), taken together the following picture arises: External coaching seemed to be more effective than peer coaching in terms of goal attainment (Spence & Grant, 2005;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004), although peer coaching still had positive effects compared to control groups without coaching (Spence & Grant, 2005). This difference in success between the external coach and peer coaching was explained by Sue-Chan and Latham (2004) as a result of the higher perceived credibility of the external coach by the coachees. ...
... No differences between external and peer coaching were observed for well-being measures (Spence & Grant, 2005). Similar to external coaching, self-coaching was perceived to be more credible than peer coaching (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004), and was shown to be as effective for goal attainment as external coaching (Offermanns, 2004;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). External coaching, however, led to a higher satisfaction with the coaching process in comparison with self-or peer coaching (Offermanns, 2004;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). ...
... Research on the implementation of educational changes in schools raised multiple arguments in favour of bringing in the expertise of individuals who are external to the school. Among others, the neutral, objective status of external individuals tends to result in enhanced credibility among team members [31][32][33]. However, vertical, top-down leadership may start to smother the involvement of team members, especially in the case where it becomes autocratic [28,34]. ...
... They suggest that teachers perceive external coaches as neutral and objective, because of their external status. Similarly, the exploratory study by Sue-Chan and Latham [33] showed that the credibility of external coaches is higher than the credibility of peer coaches. Furthermore, these coaches are able to use their prior experience and expertise to offer novel perspectives to a team that may otherwise be unlikely to generate or accept new ideas [31]. ...
... This may be explained by the fact that in the present study, the pedagogical experts are experienced coaches, in contrast to the majority of internal coaches. These findings support previous research indicating that external coaches often have a broader range of competences and more in-depth expertise [31,33], which enhances their ability to respond to potential problems. ...
Article
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Teacher design teams (TDTs) are increasingly used as a means for teacher professional development. It has been posited that for teacher learning to occur, TDTs need support from team coaches. These coaches are either external experts or peer teachers that guide the team from within. The current literature is in debate on whether external or internal coaches are most effective in supporting TDTs. In this study, we, therefore, examine whether these coach types differ in how they fulfil their role. We additionally evaluate how coaching interacts with the team learning process and the TDT trajectory’s outcomes. We used a mixed methods design in the context of a large-scale TDT trajectory in Flanders (Belgium). We administered questionnaires among 63 teachers of 18 TDTs, and conducted interviews with the coaches of 14 TDTs. Our results indicate that coaching activities correlate with the majority of team learning beliefs and behaviours (TLBB) examined, as well as with perceived team effectiveness and the quality of material developed. Whereas teachers in TDTs with an internal coach seem to evaluate the coaching activities and the TLBB more positively than teachers in TDTs with an external coach, the opposite holds for perceptions of the trajectory’s outcomes.
... Unfortunately, we did not find any study that compares outcomes from different coaching methods. Instead, a few studies compared the effect of EC to other types of developmental interventions (Olivero, Bane & Kopelman, 1997;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Moen & Skaalvik, 2009;Jones, Woods & Guillaume, 2016) or to no intervention (e.g. Grant et al., 2010;Moen & Federici, 2012a;2012b;MacKie, 2014). ...
... Only four studies have looked into comparing the outcomes of EC with other leadership development interventions or no intervention. EC has been compared with a traditional management training program (Olivero, Bane & Kopelman (1997), peer-and self-coaching (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004) and coaching-based leadership programmes (i.e. internal coaching) (Moen & Skaalvik, 2009;Jones, Woods & Guillaume, 2016). ...
Article
In this article, we focus on a specific type of personal and professional development practice -executive coaching- and present the most extensive systematic review of executive coaching outcome studies published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals to date. We focus only on coaching provided by external coaches to organizational members. Our purpose is twofold: First, to present and evaluate how executive coaching outcome studies are designed and researched (particularly regarding methodological rigor and context-sensitivity). Secondly, to provide a comprehensive review of what we know about executive coaching outcomes, what are the contextual drivers that affect coaching interventions and what the current gaps in our understanding of coaching practice. On that basis, we discuss and provide a research agenda that might significantly shift the field. We argue that methodological rigor is as important as context-sensitivity in the design of executive coaching outcome studies. We conclude with a discussion of implications for practice. FULL-TEXT AVAILABLE VIA THE FOLLOWING LINK: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:8548836a-13af-4f3c-bac9-91e02bb4baf0
... This is due to receive a response within the context of relationships that can be trusted to provide an important platform for change and leadership development itself occurred (Grant, Green, & Rynsaardt, 2010). Reviews Sue Chan and Latham (2004) shows the importance of the credibility of the coach in improving the effectiveness of behavioral and academic achievement of MBA players. Moreover, the study Bozer, Perros, and Santora (2014) also found that the feedback credibility has a positive relationship with the effectiveness of the guidance given by the leader to the follower. ...
... Feedback credibility contributed 3.3 percent to the variance of changes to teaching self-efficacy. This finding is consistent with the findings of Bozer et al. (2014) and Sue Chan and Latham (2004), which concludes the credibility of the source of feedback to improve the effectiveness of individual behavior. ...
Article
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This study aimed to identify the effect of feedback on the credibility of the source towards constructive feedback and self-efficacy of teaching. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine whether the credibility of the source of feedback be the moderator of the relationship between the constructive feedback and self-efficacy of teaching. In this study, a total of 411 lecturers from three premier polytechnics and two polytechnics which achieved excellent recognition through polyrate took part. Data for this study were collected through a questionnaire which was adapted from previous researchers’ questionnaire. Finding shows that higher academic qualification does have an effect on feedback credibility. Hypothesis testing is done by using multiple regression analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Findings have shown the constructive feedback and credibility of feedback have an influence on self-efficacy of teaching. In addition, the findings also indicate the credibility of the feedback was moderator of the relationship between the constructive feedback and self-efficacy of teaching. In terms of implications, middle leaders in educational organizations should enhance the skills, knowledge, and credibility in giving constructive feedback to shape and improve self-efficacy among his followers.
... In self-coaching, clients work on their own on their professional development, for instance by using videotapes or self-diagnostical tools (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). AI coaching and self-coaching demonstrate conceptual overlap in so far that they do not incorporate human coaches during the process. ...
... AI coaching may therefore only work well if the client is already aware of the core problem and simply needs to be prompted with questions to reflect upon it. Research supports this idea by showing that self-coaching works well when the participants have the knowledge and ability to identify which behaviors to improve on in the future (Sue- Chan & Latham, 2004). Several criteria are missing from the AI perspective: a well-defined output (such as all possible problems; with large data sets for each problem), a clear performance indicator when the problem is successfully identified, and a simple concept without long chains of logic for getting toward the problem identification. ...
... In self-coaching, clients work on their own on their professional development, for instance by using videotapes or self-diagnostical tools (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). AI coaching and self-coaching demonstrate conceptual overlap in so far that they do not incorporate human coaches during the process. ...
... AI coaching may therefore only work well if the client is already aware of the core problem and simply needs to be prompted with questions to reflect upon it. Research supports this idea by showing that self-coaching works well when the participants have the knowledge and ability to identify which behaviors to improve on in the future (Sue- Chan & Latham, 2004). Several criteria are missing from the AI perspective: a well-defined output (such as all possible problems; with large data sets for each problem), a clear performance indicator when the problem is successfully identified, and a simple concept without long chains of logic for getting toward the problem identification. ...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) has brought rapid innovations in recent years, transforming both business and society. This paper offers a new perspective on whether, and how, AI can be employed in coaching as a key HRD tool. We provide a definition of the concept of AI coaching and differentiate it from related concepts. We also challenge the assumption that AI coaching is feasible by challenging its capability to lead through a systematic coaching process and to establish a working alliance to clients. Based on these evaluations, AI coaching seems to encounter the greatest difficulties in the clients’ problem identification and in delivering individual feedback, which may limit its effectiveness. However, AI generally appears capable of guiding clients through many steps in the coaching process and establishing working alliances. We offer specific recommendations for HRD professionals and organizations, coaches, and developers of AI coaching programs on how AI coaching can contribute to enhance coaching practice. Combined with its lower costs and wider target group, AI coaching will likely transform the coaching profession and provide a future HRD tool.
... The studies that have been conducted tend to yield contradictory findings. Sue- Chan and Latham (2004) and Spence and Grant (2007) reported that an external coach was perceived to be more credible and effective than a peer-coach, whereas other research has yielded more positive findings. Ladyshewsky (2006) peer coaches have greater credibility than academic or support staff. ...
... Previous research findings have suggested that coaching by peers may be seen as less effective than coaching by professionals (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Spence & Grant, (2007).) The present study, however, provides strong evidence that peer coaching techniques can be successful in university settings. ...
Chapter
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This paper examines the effectiveness of a peer coaching intervention on aspects of well‐being in students. The study employed a two‐factor mixed design. Two groups of third‐year undergraduate psychology students participated in this study. The coaching group (N = 32) comprised 24 females and eight males (mean age 25.23, SD = 8.07) who were studying coaching psychology. This group was introduced to a model of coaching and practiced skills during lectures and seminars. They subsequently conducted and received five sessions of peer coaching before an examination period. The control group (N = 33) comprised 30 females and three males (mean age 24.77, SD = 5.57). This group was also third‐year students but were not studying coaching psychology or engaged in peer coaching. Measures were taken at Time 1 (pre‐coaching intervention) and Time 2 (post‐coaching intervention). Demographic data were obtained and the General Health Questionnaire and the Inventory of Personal Problems were utilized. The topics covered in coaching sessions and the perceived effectiveness of the technique were examined at Time 2. The results showed that levels of psychological distress were high at both data points. Findings highlighted significant differences in outcome variables for both groups between Times 1 and 2. Nonetheless, the increase in psychological distress was significantly lower in the peer coaching group. The most common topics covered in coaching sessions were relationships, health, and career issues and 67% of the sample found the intervention to be at least moderately effective. Findings highlight the potential value of peer coaching in helping students manage their well‐being during a potentially stressful period. Follow‐up research is ongoing to examine ways of extending this technique in university settings.
... In the case of teachers, work performance is studied in terms of teacher's ability to reshape their behavior in accordance with the changing work environment and successfully complete the given task (Marsh, 1987;Medley, 1982). There are studies that show a positive relationship between employee performance and EI (McClelland, 1998;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Law et al., 2004;Nguyen et al., 2020). Competency research by Moradi and Ardahaey (2012) of 200 companies and organizations worldwide showed that employees with high EI had a high organizational performance. ...
Article
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Many organizations have realized that to stand out in today's competitive business world, they need not only academic skills but also emotional intelligence (EI). This study aims to investigate the relationship between EI and the organizational performance of university teachers. The convenient sampling technique has been used to select 200 respondents from 25 universities, and a self-administered research instrument has been employed to collect data from the respondents. The reliability test of items is confirmed by Cronbach's Alpha test using SPSS. Factor analysis has been used to find out the significant constructs of EI, which influence organizational performance. Likert scale and multivariate regression analysis have been used for measuring questionnaire items and testing hypotheses. The key outcomes of this study suggest that interpersonal competence, job performance, effective leadership, motivation and creativity, and social competence have a vital influence on organizational performance. The study also reveals that a decision-making system should be developed and the policymakers and concerned authorities should give more emphasis on key variables of EI that are affecting the advancement of higher education. Further investigation is encouraged to identify the mediating and moderating effects of EI on the relationship between employee work engagement and job performance in the organization.
... While the evidence base is emerging rather than established (Neufeld & Donaldson, 2012), coaching has been shown to have positive impact across a range of factors such as communication, team working, facilitating change in others, meta-cognition, goal attainment and enhanced insight. (Grant, 2003;Ravitz et al., 2013;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Timmerman, 2013). ...
... Foreign country experience and a solid base of culture-related knowledge are seen as essential characteristics of expatriate coaches . The coach's credibility and confidence also contribute to her/his effectiveness (Hall et al., 1999;Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004;Ianiro et al., 2013). Further, McGill (2010 suggests that international coaches need to be knowledgeable about international business and Human Resource (HR) issues in order to foster a greater level of success. ...
... Despite practitioner advocacy, scholarly examinations of coaching are relatively sparse (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Sue-Chan, Wood, & Latham, 2012). Nonetheless, building on the Heslin et al. (2006) model of coaching behaviors, Hui et al. (2013) proposed two styles of coaching-guidance and facilitation-which they showed had different impacts on follower's performance, as mediated by differences in the willingness of participants to set task-related goals. ...
Article
Variations in the coaching style used by supervisors and/or managers (n = 51) at a variety of businesses in mainland China were examined for their impact on a range of subordinates' (n = 373) work outcomes. The data, collected in four waves over several months, showed as hypothesized that style variations reflected by guidance versus facilitation-based coaching had differential effects on subordinates' adaptive performance (AP), task performance, and job-related feelings of anxiety. Guidance coaching, for example, was negatively related to AP, whereas facilitation was positively associated; this pattern was reversed for task performance. Also, as expected, AP partially mediated both the positive relationship between guidance coaching and task performance, as well as the negative association between facilitation and task performance. Finally, a post hoc study revealed that subordinates' job-related anxiety partially mediated the negative relationship between guidance coaching and AP, as well as the positive association involving facilitation and AP.
... It is suggested that the coaches' expertise has direct consequences on the outcomes of the coaching activities (Spence and Grant, 2007;Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004). Following the lean startup methodology contributed to the perceived experience and expertise possessed by the coaches. ...
... Die Befundlage zur Wirksamkeit von Selbstcoaching-Trainings, die sich allerdings auf wenige empirische Nachweise stützt, bestätigt die positiven Effekte des Selbstcoachings auf das Individuum (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Tews, 2009;Lieser, 2012). Die Ergebnisse sind unter anderem höhere Werte in der Selbstwirksamkeit und verbesserte Zielerreichungsgrade im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe. ...
Chapter
»Kennen Sie eine/n gute/n Coach in Kassel, Münster oder Wien? Ich suche jemanden, der sich im Hochschulkontext auskennt.« Anfragen dieser Art begegnen uns immer wieder, seitdem wir im Feld Wissenschaft und Forschung als Coachs tätig sind. In letzter Zeit wird diese Frage ergänzt durch den Nachsatz: »Kennen Sie eine/n Coach … der oder die noch Kapazitäten frei hat?« Coaching im Wissenschaftsfeld boomt.
... The International Coaching Federation (ICF) alone numbered 15,000 members in 90 countries in 2008. However, many authors have noted the lack of scientific studies on the process and the outcome of coaching (see Lowman, 2005;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004), and others have argued this development approach is overused considering the paucity of research on the subject (McGovern et al., 2001). From the other side, coaching has been a key technique in Islamic training culture and by Islamic beliefs God is the first coach of human that taught his great names to Adam as his creation. ...
Article
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The use of coaching as a developmental intervention for students has received increased attention during the past decade. Numerous authors have suggested that the working relationship between coach and coachee constitutes an essential condition to the success of effective coaching. This study was aimed of designing a measure for coach_ coachee relationship and examining its validity and reliability. The concept of coach_coachee relationship was operationalised based on indexes collected from hadith’s of Islamic religious elders such as holy prophet Mohammad, Imam Ali, Imam Sadjad, Imam Sadiq and so on and texts of religious scientists such as Qazzali and Shahid-e-sani for teacher-student relationship. A branch of University Of Applied Science And Technology in Tehran was selected as a case study and students of 9 classes of architecture, graphics and management were chosen through stratified sampling and a questionnaire was distributed among 285 students. To develop the measure, an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was done and four key factors were identified as "Coach's teaching and ethical behaviour", "Coachee's classroom behaviour", "Coachee's respectful behaviour" and "Divine purpose of coaching"; in addition, load factor of indexes as well as significance of factors and their relation to variables were confirmed.
... In line with recent reviews (Bozer & Jones, 2018;Hagen et al., 2017;Huang & Hsieh, 2015;Theeboom et al., 2014) calling for more theoretical explorations of coaching, this study contributes to the coaching literature by linking existing coaching theory (Hui & Sue-Chan, 2018;Hui et al., 2017;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Sue-Chan et al., 2012) with goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990 and interactionist theories of personality (Mischel & Shoda, 1995). It examines the boundary conditions of individual's motivational disposition on the goal-directed mechanism of coaching. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the personal factors that influence goal setting in the coaching process. In an experiment, we examined self-set goals as mediator and implicit theories of ability (ITA) as moderator of the impact of guidance versus facilitation styles of coaching on two types of performance, analogous and adaptive. Participants (n = 137) were coached to use one of two software programs, PowerPoint or Excel. We found that ITA moderated the mediating effects of self-set goals on the coaching style-performance relationship. Our findings support the importance of motivational fit by identifying the conditions under and process by which coaching enhances performance and adaptation. Implications for theory and management practice are discussed.
... In coaching research there is a trend to investigate how psychological constructs are involved in human change (e. g., Ely, et al., 2010;Evers, Brouwers & Tomic, 2006;Grant, 2002;Grant & Cavanagh, 2004;Grant, Curtayne & Burton, 2009;Green, Oades & Grant, 2006;Spence & Grant, 2007;Spence, Cavanagh & Grant, 2008;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). In general, there are numbers of studies that have looked at the effects of psychological factors impacting human performance. ...
Article
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The main purpose of the present study was to implement an experiment to explore the effects from coaching based leadership on goal setting, self-efficacy, and causal attribution. The study comprised of 20 executives and 124 middle managers at a branch of a Norwegian Fortune 500 company who all voluntarily participated in an experiment over a period of one year. The executives who were randomly chosen for the experiment group conducted a coach specific training programme over one year and executed coaching based leadership with the middle managers in the experiment group. The study uses ANCOVA to explore possible effects from coaching based leadership on psychological variables that have an impact on performance. The ANCOVA analyses from this study supported none out of three proposed hypotheses. Only one significant change in the experiment group was found, as successful attributions to ability increased. This study raises important questions about coaching based leadership. The results are mainly discussed related to possible conflicting roles in coaching based leadership and possible lack of competencies among the executives to efficiently fulfil their roles as coaches. Coaching in business is a fast growing industry and this study is a contribution to expand the amount of empirical studies with an experiment- and control group design that explore the effects from coaching based leadership.
... Although coaching is widely regarded as an effective managerial activity (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 2002); willingness of managers to provide coaching to their subordinates can vary (Huang andHsieh, 2015, Heslin andLondon, 2003). Various researchers (Smither and Reilly, 2001;Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004) have indicated a lack of sufficient empirical evidence on the antecedents of coaching. Dweck and Leggett (1988) posited that the degree to which managers coach employees can be influenced by the mindsets of managers. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to investigate how hotel managers with incremental mindsets influence the organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) of their subordinates through the process of coaching. Design/methodology/approach Surveys were collected from managers and employees of 12 five star hotels operating in Northern Cyprus. A sample of 176 employees and 40 managers from 40 departments responded to the survey. As the employees are nested in the departments, a multilevel analysis using hierarchical linear modelling was utilised. Findings Effects of higher incremental mindsets of managers on the OCBs of their subordinates are mediated by the coaching behaviour of the managers. Effective coaching serves as a mechanism through which the incremental mindsets lead to higher levels of employee OCBs. Practical implications A growth mindset-oriented organisational culture should be formed in hospitality organisations with shared beliefs that employee abilities are malleable and can be developed. Hotels should not only seek managers who have experience and knowledge, but should also strive to attract managers with incremental mindsets. Originality/value The study contributes to social exchange theory, the mindset and OCB literature by demonstrating how OCBs can be improved by management with higher incremental mindset through effective coaching using a multi-level model. The findings reveal that incremental mindset managers are more likely to demonstrate effective coaching which, in turn, leads to higher levels of OCBs in their team members.
... & Attitudes toward critique. Novices may doubt the quality of peer critique (Cho et al. 2006b;Sue-Chan and Latham 2004), so they may ignore it. ...
Article
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Intelligent tutors based on expert systems often struggle to provide formative feedback on complex, ill-defined problems where answers are unknown. Hybrid crowdsourcing systems that combine the intelligence of multiple novices in face-to-face settings might provide an alternate approach for providing intelligent formative feedback. The purpose of this study was to develop empirically grounded design principles for crowdcritique systems that provide intelligent formative feedback on complex, ill-defined problems. In this design research project, we iteratively developed and tested a crowdcritique system through 3 studies of 43 novice problem solvers in 3 formal and informal learning environments. We collected observations, interviews, and surveys and used a grounded theory approach to develop and test socio-technical design principles for crowdcritique systems. The project found that to provide formative feedback on ill-defined problems, crowdcritique systems should provide a combination of technical features including: quick invite tools; formative framing; a public, near-synchronous social media interface; critique scaffolds; “like” system; community hashtags; analysis tools and “to do” lists; along with social practices including: prep/write-first/write-last script and critique training. Such a system creates a dual-channel conversation that increases the volume of quality critique by grounding comments, scaffolding and recording critique, and reducing production blocking. Such a design provides the benefits of both face-to-face critique and computer-support in both formal and informal learning environments while reducing the orchestration burden on instructors.
... This theory states that self-persuasion strategies produce more powerful and long-lasting effects than alternative sources (Erricson, Prietula and Cokely, 2007). When attitude and behavioural change are encouraged by other theories, the change is fairly short-term, especially when there is an emotional factor (Sue- Chan and Latham, 2004), such as in the case of wellness. ...
Article
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There is a growing demand and a global shift towards universal holistic healthcare. The work context of health professionals is often marked with numerous stressors and demands affecting the outcomes of clients. Current individual wellness interventions often lack a holistic and self-regulation approach needed to ensure optimal individual wellness. An Appreciative Inquiry (AI)-based strategy was utilised. In-depth, one-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with somatology health professionals in order to determine their peak experience of holistic individual wellness and to question their ideal wellness dream. Field notes and reflective notes allowed for triangulation. The findings of this study indicated that participants utilise various personal, interpersonal and financial wellness options to facilitate their individual holistic wellness. The research team, therefore, suggests seven self-coaching strategies to address the findings of this study. These strategies aim to facilitate behavioural change in a flexible and interconnected process in order to promote holistic individual wellness.
... If coaches possess the appropriate expertise for coachees' needs, they will have the ability to consequently lead coachees to the intended changes. This assumption can be confirmed by several empirical findings, which indicate that perceived expertise is positively related to coaching effectiveness in terms of higher satisfaction with coaching and better leadership performance (Boyce et al., 2010;Bozer, Sarroz, & Santora, 2014;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). A coach's expertise could also be a relevant factor for the emergence of negative effects of coaching (Hodgetts, 2002;Kilburg, 2002). ...
Article
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Sound research demonstrates the substantial positive effects of business coaching, but little is known about potential side effects. This study sheds light on the characteristics of side effects of coaching from the coachees' perspective and investigates three possible predictors: relationship quality between coach and coachee, the coach's expertise, and the coachees' motivation to change. Data was collected in a time-lagged design from 111 coachees who received business coaching in Germany. Coachees reported that side effects were frequent but with low to moderate intensity. The number of side effects was negatively associated with relationship quality at both measurement times and with coach's expertise at Time 1. Results expand knowledge about side effects of coaching and reveal opportunities for how they can be reduced.
... In terms of peer coaching, one study [38] that examined the relative effectiveness of peer coaching and external coaching in a student sample found that external coaching proved to be more effective, in terms of performance and satisfaction, over peer coaching as the coach was perceived to be more credible in external coaching. Although these alternative methods of coaching are not included in this review, online, peer and team coaching will require their own separate reviews in due course. ...
Article
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Purpose: The primary aim of this paper is to conduct a thorough and systematic review of the empirical and practitioner research on executive, leadership and business coaching to assess the current empirical evidence for the effectiveness of coaching and the mechanisms underlying it. Background: Organisations are increasingly using business coaching as an intervention to improve the productivity and performance of their senior personnel. A consequence of this increased application is the demand for empirical data to understand the process by which it operates and its demonstrable efficacy in achieving pre-set goals. Method: This paper is a systematic review of the academic and practitioner literature pertaining to the effectiveness of business and executive coaching as a developmental intervention for organisations. It focuses on published articles, conference papers and theses that cover business, leadership or executive coaching within organisations over the last 10 years. Conclusions: The main findings show that coaching is an effective tool that benefits organisations and a number of underlying facets contribute to this effectiveness. However, there is deficiency and scope for further investigation in key aspects of the academic research and we identify several areas that need further research and practitioner attention. .
... Thus, according to our self-regulation approach to entrepreneurship, this would increase both their perceived desirability and feasibility of business creation and, therefore, this would promote their entrepreneurial intentions. Besides, the fact that coaching had successfully increased the performance of MBA and EMBA students (Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004), strengthens the relevance of this recommendation. ...
Article
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The main aim of this study is to demonstrate that private self-consciousness (SC) and core self-evaluations (CSEs) influence their formation, via the perceived feasibility and desirability of entrepreneurship or in interaction with it. Two hundred and sixteen students, from a university, an engineering college and a management school, participated in a survey questionnaire which measured these variables as well as controlled factors (e.g. entrepreneurship education, presence of entrepreneurs in their close social network). The results confirm that CSEs have a positive effect on feasibility and desirability (p < .001) which mediate their effect on intention (p < .007). They also show that private SC has a positive direct effect on intention (p < .001). Additionally, the positive interaction effects of desirability and feasibility and public SC and feasibility on intention are highlighted (p < .05). Unexpectedly, none of the hypothesized moderation effects of private SC were corroborated. The convergence of these results with prior research, the limitations of the study and practical implications are discussed.
... Personale Kompetenzen können also durch evidenzbasiertes Coaching erstarken, was sich auch mit Studien zu Wirkfaktoren von Coaching im Allgemeinen deckt (Shannahan et al., 2013;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004). ...
Research
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In der vorliegenden Arbeit sind die theoriebasierten Konstrukte des personenzentrierten und kognitiv-behavioralen Coachings hinsichtlich ihrer Anwendbarkeit auf Leistungs-und Selbstregulationsfähigkeit von Erwerbstätigen 1 im Homeoffice überprüft worden. Aktuelle Studien und Literaturvergleiche, die die Entwicklungen der COVID-19-Pandemie einbezie-hen, wurden dabei berücksichtigt. Die Wirksamkeit von Coaching konnte für persönlich-keitsspezifische Variablen wie Wohlbefinden, Minderung negativer Emotionen oder Zuver-sicht mit erhöhten Effekten nachgewiesen werden. Jedoch bleibt eine regelhafte Implementation von Coaching in neue Arbeits-und Organisationsformen bislang offen. Die pandemische Situation und ihre Nachwirkungen in der Zukunft sind aufgrund ihrer Neuheit momen-tan nur lückenhaft erforscht, sodass langfristige Betrachtungen von digitalem Stress, Arbeits (-zeit) modellen oder Mensch-Maschine-Interaktionen indiziert wurden.
... inwiefern dieser sich in der Lage sieht, neue Situationen erfolgreich zu meistern (Bandura et al. 1977).F€ ur den Aufbau einer tragfähigen Beziehung ist es wichtig, dass der Coach als glaubw€ urdig wahrge- nommen wird. Eine höhere Glaubw€ urdigkeit des Coaches hängt mit einer höheren Leistung des Klienten sowie der Zufriedenheit mit dem Coaching zusammen (Bozer et al. 2014; Sue-Chan undLatham 2004). Glaubw€ urdigkeit bezieht sich darauf, dass der Coach die nötigen Qualifikationen und Kompetenzen besitzt, um adäquat auf die Bed€ urfnisse des Klienten einzugehen (Boyce et al. 2010). ...
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Coaching etabliert sich zunehmend als wirksames Personalentwicklungsinstrument. Hierfür ist es wichtig zu verstehen, was Coaching ist sowie die Anlässe zu kennen, zu denen Coaching eingesetzt wird und welche Bedeutung Coaching im Rahmen der Führungskräfteentwicklung einnimmt. In verschiedenen Forschungsarbeiten konnte gezeigt werden, dass Coaching vielfältige positive Wirkungen erzielt. Darüber hinaus können durch Coaching aber auch verschiedene Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Es lassen sich einige Wirkfaktoren finden, wie beispielsweise die Beziehungsqualität zwischen Coach und Klient oder die Glaubwürdigkeit des Coaches. Daraus lassen sich wiederum Handlungsempfehlungen für die Praxis ableiten, um für ein möglichst erfolgreiches und nebenwirkungsfreies Coaching zu sorgen. Dies beinhaltet sowohl Vorschläge für die Auswahl des geeigneten Coaches als auch Hinweise für die Auswahl des Klienten und für die organisationale Unterstützung.
... It has been suggested that coaches' expertise has a direct impact on the outcomes of their coaching activities (Spence and Grant, 2007;Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004). Coaches' advocating for the lean startup methodology contributes to their perceived experience and expertise. ...
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The lean startup methodology has been steadily gaining widespread popularity during the past few years. As part of this trend, startup accelerator programs have begun to adopt the methodology as their main organizing framework. At the same time, coaches and their coaching practices lie at the core of many accelerator programs. Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of coaching, there is a lack of knowledge of how the role of coaches in accelerators interacts with the lean startup methodology. Using an ethnographic study design combined with interviews, this study investigates entrepreneur-coach relationships in the context of a university-based accelerator. The findings show that the lean startup methodology influences how entrepreneur-coach relationships evolve and how the formation and progression of these relationships facilitate learning among entrepreneurs. The lean startup methodology creates conflict between the information collected from customers and the (perceived) authority of coaches. However, the entrepreneurial method also enables the coaching to be evolutionary and assumption-changing. Suggestions are made for mitigating challenges related to the progress of entrepreneurial activities and entrepreneur-coach relationships.
... Convenience and fitness 10 (47%) Variety and stimulation to avoid boredom 7 (33%) To improve movement and symmetry 5 (24%) Mental wellbeing of the horse 5 (24%) To develop rider skills, rideability, control and responsiveness of the horse 5 (24%) Soundness 2 (9%) Selection for FEI level performance resulted in a sample with considerable skill and knowledge from participation in their sport in a range of roles. This expertise may have enabled respondents to 'self-coach' , relying on their own heuristic knowledge to replace some components of performance normally contributed by a coach (Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004;Wolframm, 2014). Self-coaching has been defined as the process whereby athletes assume responsibility for activities that contribute to improving performance and achieving goals (Bradbury, 2000). ...
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Riders and training have been implicated as contributing to poor performance and adverse horse welfare outcomes in endurance competitions (‘rides’). This study described the experience, riding practices and training methods of a cohort of 21 Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI: 80-160 km) level endurance rider-owner-trainers in New Zealand. Data were collected via face-to-face survey and descriptive statistics calculated. Respondents had a median 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 9-15) years’ experience in domestic competition and 7 (IQR 4-10) years in FEI competition. Respondents were mostly amateur (67%, 14/21), >40 years of age (86%, 18/21), female (76%, 16/21), riders (95%, 20/21), owners (91%, 19/21) and trainers (95%, 20/21) with ≤2 FEI level horses (53%, 11/21). Over half (62%, 13/21) intended to prepare horses for a 160 km competition over a 26-41 week season. Respondents reported using additional fitness training (86%, 18/21) and athlete support services such as chiropractic (29%, 6/21), massage (29%, 6/21) or physiotherapy (19%, 4/21) so they could ride better. Most (86%, 18/21) respondents reported they employed schooling using equitation techniques to develop riding skills and supple, sound, rideable horses. Ridden aerobic distance training was complemented with a median 6 (IQR 5-8) other training methods for convenience, enabling amateur respondents to schedule training around employment. Furthermore, respondents intended to use a series of 40-80 km rides for training purposes for most (94%, 34/36) horses instead of time-trial type training sessions reported in other countries. This cohort of experienced amateur semi-elite to competitive elite rider-owner-trainers in New Zealand appear to self-coach, taking responsibility for the development of their horses, and working pro-actively to improve aspects of their riding practices and training that might improve performance. These findings can inform further exploration of how rider characteristics inform and influence training and competition practice and outcomes.
... Our results emphasize the important role of peer coaching for team functioning by showing that peer coaching promotes team performance, and team task performance strengthens the benefits of peer coaching on team performance. In addition, although peer coaching has become an important training program in practice to meet the demands of the contemporary business environment (Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004;Parker et al., 2013), few empirical studies have examined its effectiveness in the workplace (Parker et al., 2008). Most of the peer coaching researches pertain to the field of education (e.g., Huston and Weaver, 2008;Goldman et al., 2013). ...
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Drawing on social information processing theory, the present study examines how and when leader coaching can be beneficial for team performance. Based on a sample of 58 teams from a sanitary product company in China, we found that peer coaching served as a mediator linking leader coaching and team performance. Moreover, the team individualistic/collectivism value moderated the first-stage relationship that the relationship between leader coaching and peer coaching was more positive when the team individualism value was low, but not significant when the team individualism value was high; while team task interdependence moderated the second-stage relationship that the relationship between peer coaching and team performance was more positive when the team task interdependence was high, but not significant when it was low. The findings enrich our understandings of the effectiveness of leader coaching behavior by uncovering the theoretical mechanism and boundary conditions. The study also provides important implications for coaching practice in organizations.
... The literature suggested that self-efficacy can explain why and how there is a relation between cognitive ability and performance (Chen et al., 2001). Furthermore, an external coach affects the participant effectiveness than one's self or a peer (Sue-Chan and Latham, 2004). Generally, self-efficacy positively influences task performance through the motivational state (Chen et al., 2004) as one's belief about efficacy regulates cognitive, motivational, and affective function, which enables people to build a productive environment (Bandura, 2001). ...
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The purpose of this study is to understand how leader humility effectively stimulates follower creativity in the workplace during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) scenario. Relying on social cognitive and social information processing theories, this study investigates how leader humility cultivates follower self-efficacy and follower creativity. Furthermore, it explores an intervening mechanism of follower self-efficacy and examines a moderating role of leader proactive personality. The hypothesized model is empirically tested by collecting the data from 405 employees and 87 managers working in the banking sector of Pakistan. The results indicate that leader humility is positively related to follower self-efficacy and follower creativity, which improve the organization’s innovation climate and an environment for social sustainability. Follower self-efficacy is also significantly related to follower creativity. The mediation analysis shows that follower self-efficacy mediates the relationship between leader humility and follower creativity. Additionally, leader proactive personality moderates the relation between follower self-efficacy and follower creativity. This study highlights the importance of leader humility for creativity and extends the literature by explaining the role of self-efficacy. Furthermore, the findings may assist the policymakers in how a humble leader heightens employee creativity and social sustainability in COVID-19.
... In the case of teachers, work performance is studied in terms of teacher's ability to reshape their behavior in accordance with the changing work environment and successfully complete the given task (Marsh, 1987;Medley, 1982). There are studies that show a positive relationship between employee performance and EI (McClelland, 1998;Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004;Law et al., 2004;Nguyen et al., 2020). Competency research by Moradi and Ardahaey (2012) of 200 companies and organizations worldwide showed that employees with high EI had a high organizational performance. ...
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Many organizations have realized that to stand out in today's competitive business world, they need not only academic skills but also emotional intelligence (EI). This study aims to investigate the relationship between EI and the organizational performance of university teachers. The convenient sampling technique has been used to select 200 respondents from 25 universities, and a self-administered research instrument has been employed to collect data from the respondents. The reliability test of items is confirmed by Cronbach's Alpha test using SPSS. Factor analysis has been used to find out the significant constructs of EI, which influence organizational performance. Likert scale and multivariate regression analysis have been used for measuring questionnaire items and testing hypotheses. The key outcomes of this study suggest that interpersonal competence, job performance, effective leadership, motivation and creativity, and social competence have a vital influence on organizational performance. The study also reveals that a decision-making system should be developed and the policymakers and concerned authorities should give more emphasis on key variables of EI that are affecting the advancement of higher education. Further investigation is encouraged to identify the mediating and moderating effects of EI on the relationship between employee work engagement and job performance in the organization.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to identify the key competencies managerial coaches have and examine the significant competencies that affect coaching effectiveness in the Malaysian telecommunications industry. Design/methodology/approach The unit of analysis was individual managerial coaches who were working in the Malaysian telecommunications industry. Among the 300 questionnaires distributed, a total of 140 were obtained and deemed sufficiently complete to be useable. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Findings The results indicated that leadership development is the most important function of managerial coaching, followed by communication. In addition, co-creating the relationship and effective communication are the critical categories of competencies for managerial coaching. Analysis from the regression highlighted that effective communication is the influencing factor on the coaching effectiveness, followed by facilitating learning, and results. The findings also shown that all the core competencies in setting foundation are the significant influencing factors. Research limitations/implications Analyses relied on cross-sectional data and limits the generalizability of findings to other industries. The utilization of self-reported perceptual data may suffer from response bias. Practical implications This paper highlights personal or professional coaching characteristics that might affect managerial leadership development. It also provides a list of important criteria for developing effective managerial coaching to assist Malaysian managerial coaches to build a world class workforce. Originality/value Using International Coach Foundation competency model, this study provides an insight on the important criteria to develop and select coaching managers effectively which ultimately lead to performance improvement in the organization.
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“Leader credibility” is believed by many scholars as essential for effective leadership and is commonly used in discussions about leaders in business, politics, and other areas. Yet despite leader credibility’s strong presence in contemporary press and research, the “leader credibility” construct is not clearly conceptualized, and a grounded understanding of leader credibility is missing. To begin building a solid foundation of leader credibility knowledge, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR), which included 108 peer-reviewed articles representing various disciplines. This paper presents our descriptive and content-based findings. Our results reveal a significant research gap: despite the breadth and depth of the research on leader credibility, leader credibility is not consistently defined or measured. We provide an accounting of knowledge to date and illustrate this concept’s weak footing. Finally, we outline an array of relevant research paths that are possible after scholars reconceptualize the leader credibility foundation.
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Coaching has become an important didactic tool for reflecting learning processes in higher education. Digital media and AI-based technologies such as chatbots can support stimulating self-coaching processes. For the use case of student coaching on the topic of exam anxiety, the working alliance between a coaching chatbot and a human coachee is investigated. Two coachbot interaction methods are compared: A click-based chatbot (implemented in a rule-based system), where the coachee can only click on one answer, and a writing-based chatbot (implemented in a conversational AI), which allows the coachee to freely type in their answers. The focus is on which coachbot interaction method enables a stronger working alliance between coach and coachee: a click-based or a writing-based chatbot. The working alliance and the technical realization of the chatbot systems were investigated in an exploratory quantitative study with 21 engineering students. The results indicate that the working alliance in both study conditions can be classified as medium to high overall. The results further show higher values for bonding on a writing-based platform than when using a click-based system. However, click-based systems seem to be more helpful as a low-threshold entry point to coaching, as they guide coachees better through the process by providing predefined answers. An evaluation of the technical realization shows that self-reflection processes through digital self-coaching via chatbot are generally well accepted by students. For further development and research, it is therefore recommendable to develop a “mixed” coachbot that allows interaction via clicking as well as via free writing.
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As organizational structures have become more flat, firms are increasing the use of peer reviews as a performance monitoring tool. Research suggests that the effectiveness of performance feedback, particularly negative feedback, depends on the feedback source and the recipient's sense of psychological entitlement. We conduct an experiment wherein we manipulate the valence and source level of performance feedback and examine how psychological entitlement moderates the effect of feedback on subsequent performance. We find that when providing negative performance feedback, the effect of feedback source on performance is moderated by the level of psychological entitlement of the feedback recipient. Specifically, relative to peer feedback, the effectiveness of feedback from a superior increases with the feedback recipient's entitlement. We also find that psychological entitlement and source level do not affect responses to positive feedback. Our results suggest that companies should encourage supervisors to deliver negative performance feedback, particularly to psychologically entitled employees.
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Until recently, there has been little published systematic empirical research into business coaching. This article reports on a systematic, critical review of 111 published empirical papers investigating business coaching theory, processes, and outcomes. The present article identifies a significantly larger body of empirical research than covered in previous reviews and uses a Systematic Review methodology (SRm) to conduct a comprehensive review of the available empirical evidence into business coaching effectiveness focusing on implications for theoretical development, practice (within human resource development) and further research in this area. This review identifies convergence around factors that contribute to perceived effective coaching practice but nevertheless highlights a number of issues to be resolved in further research. These include determining the primary beneficiaries of coaching, the factors that contribute to coach credibility, and how the organizational and social context impacts on coaching. Weaknesses in coaching research methodology and research gaps are also noted.
Article
Context Recruiters and practitioners are increasingly relying on online activities of developers to find a suitable candidate. Past empirical studies have identified technical and soft skills that managers use in online peer production sites when making hiring decisions. However, finding candidates with relevant skills is a labor-intensive task for managers, due to the sheer amount of information online peer production sites contain. Objective We designed a profile aggregation tool—Visual Resume—that aggregates contribution information across two types of peer production sites: a code hosting site (GitHub) and a technical Q&A forum (Stack Overflow). Visual Resume displays summaries of developers’ contributions and allows easy access to their contribution details. It also facilitates pairwise comparisons of candidates through a card-based design. We present the motivation for such a design and design guidelines for creating such recruitment tool. Methods We performed a scenario-based evaluation to identify how participants use developers’ online contributions in peer production sites as well as how they used Visual Resume when making hiring decisions. Results Our analysis helped in identifying the technical and soft skill cues that were most useful to our participants when making hiring decisions in online production sites. We also identified the information features that participants used and the ways the participants accessed that information to select a candidate. Conclusions Our results suggest that Visual Resume helps in participants evaluate cues for technical and soft skills more efficiently as it presents an aggregated view of candidate’s contributions, allows drill down to details about contributions, and allows easy comparison of candidates via movable cards that could be arranged to match participants’ needs.
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The purpose of this study was to develop a framework in order to evaluate the quality of trainer-trainee relationship. As well as that the effects of demographic characteristics of students on the level and quality of this relationship were investigated. The present study had a fundamental nature with respect to its audience. It was an exploratory-descriptive work with respect to purpose and a survey one based on its methodology. After review of relevant literature and study of Islamic texts, questionnaires were distributed between 300 associate students.Exploratory factor analysis revealed four key factors including trainer's teaching skills, ethical behaviour, trainee's classroom behaviour, trainee's behaviour with respect to trainer” and divine purpose of training. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis showed the validity of the research instrument. The results of ANOVA analysis revealed that there is a positive relationship among age, gender and employment status and the quality of trainer-trainee relationship, but there is no relationship between this variable and field of study
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This paper examines the experience of nine undergraduates who had six coaching sessions over an academic year. It is part of a wider study that explores how young people experience and understand personal growth in the context of university life. A qualitative, longitudinal design was employed and semi‐structured interviews were used. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), an experiential approach that focuses on how individuals make sense of a particular experience in a specific context. A volunteer sample of nine students, across various arts and social science subjects, was recruited in a Russell Group university and each student received six one‐to‐one professional coaching sessions in person and/or by Skype. The students felt that the coaching sessions sped up the growth that would have happened eventually, and thus they could put into practice what they had learned much earlier than they could otherwise have done. Coaching benefited the students in four broad ways: it gave them an increased sense of control over their work and other areas, it helped them achieve greater balance and focus, it increased their confidence, and it enabled them to take new perspectives on various issues. In conclusion, coaching helped the undergraduates address common concerns such as time management, stress, social relationships, and confidence. Universities could enhance the student experience if they helped students address these concerns, perhaps by training personal tutors to take a coaching approach or by giving students access to professional coaches as a widening or preemptive component of their psychological services provision.
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Selbstcoaching und Selbstmanagement sind in aller Munde. Doch wie effektiv sind Trainings zur Entwicklung des persönlichen Managements? Dazu liegen bislang nur wenige Studien vor, weshalb sich das Coachingzentrum Olten im Rahmen seines Angebots von zielführenden Ausbildungen für Coachs und Berater/innen für seriöse Evaluationen im Bereich von Selbstcoaching- Trainings einsetzt. Der folgende Beitrag präsentiert ein Selbstcoaching- Training, dessen Evaluation sowie kritische Diskussion.
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This paper explores the use of life coaching as an applied positive psychology. Studies to date have utilized community samples with participants of varying ages and most research has used adult community samples. The present study is unusual in that it examined the efficacy of an evidence‐based (cognitive‐behavioral, solution‐focused) life‐coaching program in enhancing cognitive hardiness and hope in senior female high school students. In a randomized controlled experimental design, 56 female senior high school students (mean age 16 years) were randomly allocated to an individual life coach (N = 28) or to a wait‐list control group (N = 28). Ten teachers were trained in theories and techniques of coaching psychology through a manualized “Teacher as Coach” workshop. Participants were randomly allocated to a Teacher‐Coach with whom they met individually for 10 sessions over two school terms. Life coaching was associated with significant increases in levels of cognitive hardiness and hope, and significant decreases in levels of depression. It is concluded that life coaching may be an effective intervention for high school students.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential benefits of integrating self-regulated learning with skill charting, a training and development tool. The following areas are examined: manager-as-coach, self-regulated learning, and skill development through skill charting. Design/methodology/approach This discussion of manager stimulation through the integration of self-regulated learning and skill charting is based on an extensive literature review of recent research as well as that done by the authors. Findings There are many practical opportunities for managers to enhance self-regulated learning of employees using skill charting. Because self-regulated learners tend to reflect a growth mindset they are more likely to engage in performance improvement, change and innovation. These personal characteristics are highly valued by most managers as they may provide a competitive advantage for organizations. Managers, acting as coaches with individuals or small groups, can be instrumental in helping employees to internalize self-regulating learning practices at the same time the employees participate in learning important job skills. The approach offered here also encourages team-building skills, knowledge acquisition, and employee engagement. Originality/value This fresh look at an integration of self-regulated learning with the skill-charting approach offers specific, practical suggestions for manager stimulation of self-regulated learning.
Article
Purpose Much has been written about self-regulated learning (SRL) (including mind-sets) in psychology and education, but little research is found in the HRD or training literature regarding the stimulation of this learning. This paper aims to present a practical training tool, performance templates (P-T), to demonstrate how a line manager may assist employees improve their problem-solving skills as well as stimulate SRL. Design/methodology/approach Presented are literature reviews and assessments of the areas of: line manager in coaching role, SRL theory and the phases of SRL in action. Following is a detailed explanation and demonstration of the P-T method. Finally, the efficacy of PT is examined and constraints are noted. Findings Demonstrated in the paper is how a line manager may function as the key actor in assisting employees to become more effective self-regulating learners and problem-solvers. The method presented can stimulate employee motivation and help employees to internalize self-regulating learning processes. All of this should help employees become more growth-oriented, self-confident and goal-directed participants in organizational life. Originality/value Rather than simply discuss what SRL is about, this paper provides an effective tool, P-T, for use in the stimulation and direction of SLR. The use of the tool also helps organization participants to achieve progress on some current problems.
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Previous studies on the effectiveness of coaching have focused on positive outcomes that clients, coaches, and organizational colleagues attribute to engaging in coaching overall. In this study descriptions of critical moments of coaching as experienced by executive‐coaching clients, their coaches, and their sponsors are analyzed and compared, to find out more about how coaching conversations are experienced. In this sense, the objective of this research was to understand more about “sub‐outcomes” of coaching: mini‐outcomes as they arise within the process and as a result of the coaching process. We extend previous studies in two ways. First, we take a process‐oriented, qualitative approach by investigating which events are regarded as critical by clients and coaches within their coaching contracts to date. Second, we consider the perspective of sponsors of coaching who refer to the same coaching assignments as clients and coaches have done. For this study, 177 critical‐moment descriptions were collected (49 from clients, 49 from coaches and 79 from sponsors of coaching), of which 147 could be matched between coach, client, and sponsor working on the same assignment. They are coded with an existing and a new coding scheme and analyzed with reference to a larger dataset comprising 555 critical‐moment descriptions from executive‐coaching assignments. Our results suggest that clients and coaches are considerably more aligned in what they regard as critical in their coaching assignments when compared to their alignment with sponsors' views. While clients and coaches mainly refer to moments of new insight and attitudinal change as critical, sponsors underline changes in the clients' behavior, such as their communication or interpersonal skills. Alongside earlier studies, we have found further indications that clients and coaches conducting normal coaching conversations seem to identify critical moments to a large extent with new learning, perspectives, and insight, and they pick the same moments well above chance rates. At the same time, organizational sponsors of coaching seem to prioritize more new actions and changes initiated by coaching clients.
Chapter
Managing Employee Performance and Reward - by John Shields October 2015
Book
Cambridge Core - Management: General Interest - Managing Employee Performance and Reward - by John Shields
Article
We examine the rise of coaching within management education to support student learning. We question the assumption that faculty-student coaching (FSC) is beneficial and propose that there may be some limitations in the use of FSC that have yet to be adequately acknowledged and discussed in the literature. In particular, we propose that there is currently insufficient evidence to conclude that coaching can produce knowledge acquisition and therefore ask why we persist in the use of FSC when we have limited evidence of its efficacy in delivering a core education outcome. We suggest that the theory of academic capitalism provides a useful, critical lens through which to view the growing trend in FSC, identifying that FSC may be utilized as a method of increasing student satisfaction, perceptions of value for money and as a useful marketing tool for business schools competing for students. However, academic capitalism may also explain the use of coaching via its ability to enhance the skills and attitudes of students, providing outcomes that are valued by students, employers and governments. We conclude our essay by providing recommendations to mitigate these proposed dangers and consequently maximise the effectiveness of coaching as a development tool in management education
Article
Purpose In order to address the need for greater understanding about the occupational and practice determinants of effective workplace coaching, the purpose of this paper is to examine the associations of two coaching practice factors (coaching format and external vs internal coaching provision), and coachees’ job complexity with perceived outcomes from coaching. Design/methodology/approach A survey of 161 individuals who had received workplace coaching was conducted. Participants provided data on two outcome criteria (self-reported work well-being and personal effectiveness at work). Findings Analysis indicated that external coaches and blended format coaching were most strongly associated with work well-being outcomes. The examination of interaction effects showed that coaching provided by external coaches was more strongly associated with outcomes for individuals working in the most complex job roles. Originality/value The original contribution of the authors’ findings is in terms of the implications for coaches, managers and HR practitioners by showing how coaching can be implemented differentially and most effectively based on desired outcome criteria and features of coachees’ job situations.
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Three experimental studies showed that bonuses based on end-of-period determinations of standards led to the setting of more challenging goals but lower performance than a control condition in which bonuses were based on the achievement of self-set goals. Performance differences between the bonus and control conditions were not mediated by levels of self-set goals or goal commitment as predicted by goal theory. However, self-set goals and self-efficacy were significant predictors of performance within both the bonus and control conditions. Changes in performance under the end-of-period bonus condition in Study 3 were fully mediated by judgments of instrumentality. Participants in the end-of-period bonus condition were less certain of receiving a bonus, and this negatively affected their performance. Implications for the use of appraisal ratings to allocate bonuses and for the design of bonus schemes for management are discussed.
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A longitudinal experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of two different realistic job previews on subsequent turnover and to clarify the processes responsible for any such effects. One, enhancement preview, was constructed to enhance overly pessimistic expectations, whereas the other, reduction preview, was designed to reduce overly optimistic expectations. Subjects, 533 male and female trainees in the U.S. Army, were given either preview, both previews combined, or no preview. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up (5 weeks later) perceptual and attitudinal measures were collected, in addition to demographic and turnover data. Results indicated (a) that trainees exposed to the combined previews had significantly (p < .05) lower turnover, (b) that those exposed only to the reduction preview had significantly (p < .05) higher turnover, and (c) that the previews administered in all experimental conditions were more effective in reducing turnover (p < .05) among more intelligent trainees and those initially more committed to the Army. Survey measures collected immediately after the previews showed that the combined previews increased perceptions of trust and honesty, and that the reduction preview reduced anticipated job satisfaction. Measures collected after 5 weeks revealed that trainees exposed to the combined previews (a) saw the Army as more caring, and trustworthy and honest, (b) were more committed to the Army and more satisfied with their jobs, and
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Results of a systematic replication of studies by Dearborn and Simon and by Walsh suggest that differences in their conclusions resulted from differences in their experimental procedures. Managers are broader perceivers when they are encouraged to identify more problems. Also, contrary to Walsh's and others' theories, in this replication belief structure did not mediate the relationship between functional experience and selective perception. In addition, predominantly negative relationships were found between areas of experience and perceptions, indicating that functional experience may produce selective imperception as well as selective perception.
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This experiment applied a new twist on cognitive dissonance theory to the problem of AIDS prevention among sexually active young adults. Dissonance was created after a proattitudinal advocacy by inducing hypocrisy-having subjects publicly advocate the importance of safe sex and then systematically making the subjects mindful of their own past failures to use condoms. It was predicted that the induction of hypocrisy would motivate subjects to reduce dissonance by purchasing condoms at the completion of the experiment. The results showed that more subjects in the hypocrisy condition bought condoms and also bought more condoms, on average, than subjects in the control conditions. The implications of the hypocrisy procedure for AIDS prevention programs and for current views of dissonance theory are discussed.
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Meta-analysis procedures were applied to the results of 70 managerial training (MT) studies. The meta-analysis results for 34 distributions of MT effects representing 6 training-content areas, 7 training methods, and 4 types of criteria (subjective learning, objective learning, subjective behavior, and objective results) indicated that MT was moderately effective. For 12 of the 17 MT method distributions, the 90% lower-bound credibility values were positive, and thus the effectiveness of these training methods, at least minimally, can be generalized to new situations. A list of the 70 MT studies is included. (97 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three experimental studies showed that bonuses based on end-of-period determinations of standards led to the setting of more challenging goals but lower performance than a control condition in which bonuses were based on the achievement of self-set goals. Performance differences between the bonus and control conditions were not mediated by levels of self-set goals or goal commitment as predicted by goal theory. However, self-set goals and self-efficacy were significant predictors of performance within both the bonus and control conditions. Changes in performance under the end-of-period bonus condition in Study 3 were fully mediated by judgments of instrumentality. Participants in the end-of-period bonus condition were less certain of receiving a bonus, and this negatively affected their performance. Implications for the use of appraisal ratings to allocate bonuses and for the design of bonus schemes for management are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Determined the long-term effects of self-management training given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their job attendance in a 6-month follow-up study. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that enhanced self-efficacy and increased job attendance were effectively maintained over time. Perceived self-efficacy at the end of training predicted subsequent job attendance. The control group ( n = 20) was then given the same training in self-management by a different trainer. Three months later, this group showed the same positive improvement as the original training group with regard to increased self-efficacy and job attendance. These findings lend support to a self-efficacy based theory of job attendance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In Study 1, 76 engineers/scientists either participated in the setting of, or were assigned, specific behavioral goals during their performance appraisal. Participative goal setting resulted in more difficult goals being set than was the case when the goals were assigned. Perceptions of goal difficulty, however, were not significantly different in the 2 goal-setting conditions. In Study 2, the analysis of the performance data collected 6 mo later on 132 engineers/scientists revealed main effects for both goal setting and anticipated rewards. Only participative goal setting led to significantly higher performance than a "do your best" and a control group condition. There was no significant difference between the performance of the latter 2 conditions despite the fact that the individuals in the do-your-best group received knowledge of results. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Evaluated job previews on subsequent turnover and clarified the processes responsible for any such effects. One, enhancement preview, was constructed to enhance overly pessimistic expectations, whereas the other, reduction preview, was designed to reduce overly optimistic expectations. Subjects, 533 male and female trainees in the U.S. Army, were given either preview, both previews combined, or no preview. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up (5 weeks later) perceptual and attitudinal measures were collected, in addition to demographic and turnover data. Results indicated (a) that trainees exposed to the combined previews had significantly ( p 
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Training in self-management was given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their attendance at the work site. Analyses of variance revealed that compared to a control condition ( n = 20), training in self-regulatory skills taught employees how to manage personal and social obstacles to job attendance, and it raised their perceived self-efficacy that they could exercise influence over their behavior. Consequently, employee attendance was significantly higher in the training than in the control group. The higher the perceived self-efficacy, the better the subsequent job attendance. These data were significant at the .05 level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Behavioral observation scales (BOS) were developed for first line foremen. BOS are similar to behavioral expectation scales (BES) in that both are based on a job analysis procedure known as the critical incident technique. However, the BOS differ from BES in that, in developing BOS, (a) a group of individuals is observed and rated on a five-point scale as to the frequency with which they engage in the behavior described by each incident/statement, (b) a total score for each individual is determined by summing the observer's responses for each behavioral item, and (c) an item analysis (or factor analysis, depending upon the sample size) is conducted to select the most discriminating items. Those items with the highest correlations with the total score on a scale are retained to form one behavioral criterion or scale (BOS).
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