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Restoration of living environment based on vegetation ecology: Theory and practice

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Abstract

The foundation of ecological restoration is how to preserve biocoenoses (i.e. functional ecosystems) and how to restore and reconstruct them where they were destroyed. One of the most important challenges is the restoration of complex, multilayer forests representing the potential natural vegetation. Native forests have functions in disaster mitigation and environmental protection, as well as providing the basis of existence for local people and maintaining gene pools for the future. Through vegetation surveys in Japan and South-east Asia, we have established basic principles in vegetation-ecological restoration of forests. We have been restoring expected disaster-mitigation and environmental protection forests, as experimental reforestation projects, since the 1970s at more than 750 sites throughout the 3000 km long Japanese Archipelago, and since the 1980s in parts of South-east Asia, China and South America. The restoration movement has spread from a local activity to a global movement. We aim for the sustainable development of human society through ecological restoration of living environments.

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... This region is very unfavorable for the regeneration of tree species ; revegetating with native shrubs may be ecologically reasonable. In fact, natural recovery of vegetation is gaining increasing attention in various restoration projects (Karel and Petr 2001;Miyawaki 2004;Li et al. 2008b). Therefore, we urgently need to enhance the present restoration methods and theories following the community succession principles, for example, selecting suitable native species from the potential natural vegetation. ...
... Correct selection of suitable species is crucial for ecological restoration (Rosales et al. 1997;Miyawaki 2004). It is desirable to use drought-and leannessresistant native species instead of exotic species in restoration efforts if these native species are available and can grow well in the region, since they can facilitate and enhance shrub regeneration habitats for later successional species (Montagnini 2006). ...
... Therefore, it is fundamental that existing shrub populations and their communities, especially N-fixers, should be protected and preserved, and secondly, those that have been destroyed by human impact should be restored and reconstructed. Once candidate seedlings have been established, it is not climate conditions but soil conditions that matter (Miyawaki 2004). The distribution pattern of nutrients showed the lowest fertility level in CCS, a medium level in EACS and the highest rate in DCS. ...
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Shrubs play different key roles in arid regions. Comparisons of shrubs and their site adaptability are essential for correct selection of candidates in developing restoration theory and practice. A survey of topography, soil properties and shrub composition was conducted in fifty-seven 5-m×5-m plots in an arid valley of the upper Minjiang River, Southwest China. With cluster analysis and critical examinations based on edaphic properties, soil was classified into three groups: dry cinnamon soils (DCS), calcareous cinnamon soils (CCS) and eluvial-accumulation cinnamon soils (EACS). EACS had the highest fertility level, DCS the next and CCS the lowest level. For non-N fixers, soil moisture is the primary limiting factor, and nitrogen the next. However, N-fixers are weakly constrained by soil moisture and nitrogen, the extent of which is species-specific. N-fixers had a significantly higher cumulative relative importance value (44.4%) in CCS than in DCS (34.0%) and EACS (17.3%). The results suggest that it would be reasonable to restore non-N fixers in DCS and EACS and that N-fixers are appropriate for CCS. Compared with grass, shrubs significantly enhanced the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus and soil electric conductivity, and significantly decreased the soil C/N ratio. The median fertility level of soil dominated by N-fixers indicates that N-fixers are suitable driver candidates from grassland to non-N-fixing shrub land. Four native shrubby legumes (Indigofera amblyantha, Sorphora viciifolia, Desmodium podocarpum and Bauhinia faberivar) and one soil-conserving shrub (Ajania potaninii) are the top-priority pioneers for ecological restoration. KeywordsArid region-Species distribution-Legume shrub-Restoration species selection-Ecological restoration
... In Japan, Environmental Protection Forests have been planted in urban and industrial areas since 1970s. These forests aimed to restore "potential natural vegetation" (sensu Miyawaki, 2004) of the region. In such forests, tree saplings, mainly composed of native late-successional tree species, are planted at high densities (20,000-120,000 trees/ha) on improved soil in order to achieve canopy closure within a short period (Nakashima et al., 1998;Miyawaki, 2004;Nakamura et al., 2005). ...
... These forests aimed to restore "potential natural vegetation" (sensu Miyawaki, 2004) of the region. In such forests, tree saplings, mainly composed of native late-successional tree species, are planted at high densities (20,000-120,000 trees/ha) on improved soil in order to achieve canopy closure within a short period (Nakashima et al., 1998;Miyawaki, 2004;Nakamura et al., 2005). The prevalence of this method was based on thinking that mature, climax forest, most of which had been lost by drastic urbanization in Japan during 1950-60s, should be conserved and restored (Morimoto et al., 2006). ...
... This study revealed that, without additional management intervention, restoration of mature, late-successional forest cannot be achieved by simultaneous planting of native species. Although one-time planting of late-successional species is practiced in many restoration sites across Japan (Miyawaki 2004), such practices are unlikely to lead to natural forest stand structure because, in natural forest, regeneration of late-successional species occurs gradually over many years. Our results illustrate the importance of continuous management, such as thinning to mimic mortality of overstory trees and achieve multi-layered stand structures while also ensuring the availability of native seed sources for ensuring restoration success. ...
Article
We assessed whether forest restoration was successful in Expo ’70 Commemorative Park in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, which was planted in the 1970s with native late-successional tree species. Detailed survey and analysis of species composition, stand vertical stratification, and forest dynamics, including comparison with a reference, natural late-successional forest, were conducted. The restoration plots had grown to larger basal area compared with the reference plots, however, this was a consequence of very high densities of the overstory trees due to low self-thinning rate. Stand vertical structure of the restoration plots was biased toward overstory layers, causing high mortality of understory trees and shrubs. Because there are no mature forests near the restoration site that could act as a seed source, abundance and diversity of understory trees are likely to continue decreasing in the restoration plots, resulting in single-layered forest structure similar to those of monocultures and even-aged forests. Many seedlings of exotic species emerged in the restoration plots and this could lead to a plagiosere where exotic species dominate the vegetation inhibiting regeneration and growth of native species. Ordination analysis using different measures, basal area and abundance, showed apparently contradicting results, suggesting that multiple criteria are needed to evaluate forest restoration success. Our results indicate restoration of mature, late-successional forest cannot be achieved by simultaneous planting of native species. To sustain urban forests into the future, we must conduct long-term monitoring and management referencing natural forest structure and dynamics.
... Two main fields are recognized according to the characteristics of landscape . (1) For the structure of green space, the effects of the design concept of ecological planting on a built environment (Fujiwara et al. 1988; Bradley 1995; Grey 1995; Jim 2004; Miyawaki 2004); a mosaic ecological green system on restoration ecology (Stein 1996); and a green network system and ecological corridors on landscape ecology (Forman and Godron 1986; Flink and Searns 1993; Nowicki et al. 1996; Forman 2002; Hersperger and Forman 2003) are considered. (2) For the function of green space, design concepts for exterior space under hot-humid climates (Lin 2003); the green space concept of " naturalness " (Ite 1980; Ite and Kameyama 1993); and the concept of vegetation zoning under local considerations (Makhzoumi and Pungetti 1999; Kuo 2001) are introduced. ...
... Where the plant community is developing towards progressive succession or the ecological greenery meets the Miyawaki Method, the green space is then treated as " ecological green space " (Lin 1991; Sasaki 1988; Miyawaki 2004). The Miyawaki Method is planting greenery that complies with ecological concepts. ...
Article
This study is designed to develop an alternative evaluation method for ecological green space. It offers criteria for identifying ecological green space on building sites. The grey decision-making method is applied to assess the greening project at the first step. The evaluation items are rebuilt by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method at the second step. The range of standard values and the weighting values are also obtained by AHP. Grey classes are identified using the whitening weight function of the grey number. The evaluation system of the ecological green space is framed by grey clusters. We considered the factors of building environment and the scale of building sites in the ecological greenery of green building sites. This study proposes a new model to solve the problems hard to be quantified. Especially for those ecological benefits are too close to decide. Architects and landscape architects can input the engineering data and the design information into the ecological greenery assessment system. The identification and assessment system of green space is fit for Taiwan area. We will obtain the best greening project by the maximum value of absolute degree of grey incidence (max{ɛ ij }) in grey-decision making. The maximum value of synthetic clustering coefficient (max{σ k }) in grey clustering assessment reflects the quality and variation of green space.
... On the other hand, our estimates of climate mitigation potential from urban reforestation assumes a process of natural forest regrowth and succession after initial reforestation [8], and may thus be a conservative estimate since new reforestation projects may utilise more intensive or efficient planting techniques. One popular example is the Miyawaki method, which applies soil restoration and high density multi-stratal planting of late successional species identified from native vegetation, and may increase carbon sequestration by up to five to eight times [36,37]. In contrast, reforestation through monoculture plantations can also deliver rapid tree growth, but come with risks to the longevity of the carbon stored, such as greater susceptibility to pests and disturbance [38,39]. ...
... In contrast, reforestation through monoculture plantations can also deliver rapid tree growth, but come with risks to the longevity of the carbon stored, such as greater susceptibility to pests and disturbance [38,39]. Such intensive methods are more feasible for urban than rural areas, and have often been attempted for urban reforestation projects [17,36,37]. However, we caution that research on the long-term ecological and successional dynamics of urban forests is still sparse [40]. ...
Article
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The climate mitigation potential of urban nature-based solutions (NBSs) is often perceived as insignificant and thus overlooked, as cities primarily pursue NBSs for local ecosystem services. Given the rising interest and capacities in cities for such projects, the potential of urban forests for climate mitigation needs to be better understood. We modelled the global potential and limits of urban reforestation worldwide, and find that 10.9 ± 2.8 Mha of land (17.6% of all city areas) are suitable for reforestation, which would offset 82.4 ± 25.7 MtCO2e yr−1 of carbon emissions. Among the cities analysed, 1189 are potentially able to offset >25% of their city carbon emissions through reforestation. Urban natural climate solutions should find a place on global and local agendas.
... Recently, natural forest restoration has also become an important objective to realize integration of human-disturbed slopes with the regional landscape. Various methods have been proposed that use native seedlings and juvenile trees, which are planted simultaneously in an effort to restore natural forest vegetation (e.g., Miyawaki, 2004;Morimoto et al., 2006;Yamagawa et al., 2010;Yoshida, 2007). It is uncertain, however, whether such efforts will actually produce mature, native forests (Oldfield et al., 2013). ...
... Normally, it takes more than 20 years for abandoned fields and bare lots in urban areas to reach the successional stage of woody dominance (e.g., Bornkamm, 2007;Millard, 2000;Prach et al., 2001). The aim of planting native seedlings and juvenile trees is to speed up this process (Miyawaki, 2004;Yoshida, 2007). Simultaneously planting native seedlings, however, creates artificial cohorts, which are rarely observed in natural forests, whose population structure tends to be multi-aged (e.g., Kominami et al., 2003). ...
Article
To integrate human-disturbed hillslopes with the regional landscape, natural forest restoration has become an important objective of hillslope re-vegetation in Japan. At Kobe Municipal Sports Park (KMSP), seedlings of native species were planted in 1980 to restore semi-natural secondary forest (satoyama) in an urban setting. Here, we present 21 years of stand dynamics based on vegetation surveys conducted in 1992, 2000, and 2013 in two research plots (control and managed) at KMSP in relation to a reference forest to evaluate management effects and restoration success. Total basal area continued to increase in both the plots, but diameter-growth decreased in the control plot, whereas it continued to increase in the managed plot, which had been thinned by volunteers. In the control plot, which was planted at higher initial density than the managed plot, Quercus phillyraeoides (evergreen, mid-canopy tree) dominated the single-layered canopy and vertical development was delayed. In the managed plot, Quercus serrata (deciduous, canopy tree) dominated the upper canopy layer and evergreen broadleaved trees dominated the mid- to lower-canopy layers, resulting in a vertically well-developed canopy similar to the reference forest. The basal area of Rhobinia pseudoacacia decreased due to shading by evergreen trees, whereas that of Nerium oleander, an exotic species, had increased in the control plot. Ordination results indicated that vegetation of the control plot was diverging away from the reference forest, whereas thinning had directed the managed plot toward it. Our results confirm that simultaneously planting seedlings of native species does not lead to natural forest stand structure. In the future, adaptive management, such as periodic thinning, removal of shade-tolerant, exotic species and enrichment planting of native species, will be needed to integrate forest restoration sites with the surrounding mid-successional, secondary forest.
... If seeds of Ochroma are introduced in open pastures, exclusion and burial will be needed. However, as with Cecropia, we recommend to transplant juveniles into pastures (Miyawaki 2004; but see Camargo et al. 2002). ...
... During the dry season, we predict higher seed predation rates and lower germination levels. Finally, as pointed out before, considering the high predation and low germination levels suffered by sowed seeds of ES species (Camargo et al. 2002), we recommend the transplanting of juveniles over the sowing of seeds (Miyawaki 2004;Martínez-Garza et al. 2005). Nevertheless, the costs of raising and transplanting juveniles need to be considered (Martínez-Ramos & Garcia-Orth 2007). ...
Article
We explored different treatments to enhance the probability of sowed seeds of two early successional (ES, Cecropia obtusifolia and Ochroma pyramidale) and two late successional (LS, Brosimum costaricanum and Dialium guianense) species to escape predation and germinate in abandoned cattle-raising pasture fields in Southeastern Mexico. ES species were sown in groups of 50 seeds under three treatments: invertebrate exclusion, burial, and exposition to seedeaters. LS species were sown in groups of 10 seeds under three treatments: vertebrate exclusion, burial, and exposition to seedeaters. We registered seed predation and germination 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 days after the initial sowing. Overall, ES showed higher predation rates (mean ± SE = 0.45 ± 0.07 seed seed−1 day−1; n = 3) than LS species (0.09 ± 0.02 seed seed−1 day−1). Cecropia obtusifolia was completely predated in all treatments after 8 days. Burial and exclusion treatments reduced final predation in circa 6% for O. pyramidale, relative to that of exposed seeds (85% after 8 days); most germination occurred in buried seeds (3.7%). In B. costaricanum, burial enabled germination by 10%; exposed and excluded seeds were removed 100%. Dialium guianense showed 12% germination in buried seeds and circa 20% of the seeds were not removed after 64 days. Direct sowing would be a recommended rainforest restoration practice for species with relatively large seeds if deposited in groups and buried. Studies which address variation across numerous sites are necessary in order to generate more consistent seed predation patterns and rainforest restoration principles in tropical pastures.
... Recently, restoration of the native vegetation has also become an important objective of re-vegetation projects. Regionally-grown seedlings and juvenile trees are planted in an effort to restore the native forest and integrate the restoration site with the regional landscape (e.g., Miyawaki 2004;Morimoto et al. 2006;Yamagawa et al. 2010;Yoshida 2007). It is uncertain, however, whether current re-vegetation techniques will produce mature, native forests (Oldfield et al. 2013). ...
... Normally, it takes more than 20 years for abandoned fields and bare lots in urban areas to reach the successional stage of woody dominance (e.g., Bornkamm 2007;e.g., Millard 2000;Prach et al. 2001). The aim of planting native seedlings and juvenile trees is to speed up this process (Miyawaki 2004;Yoshida 2007). Simultaneous planting, however, creates artificial cohorts, which are rarely observed in natural forests where, except after large-scale disturbances, the population structure tends to be multi-aged (e.g., Kominami et al. 2003). ...
... It is preferable to obtain seeds from local sources given the higher probability that these will be genetically adapted to local conditions (Yang et al. 2005a, b). Finally, remnant EBLFs are sound model for rebuilding of local vegetation following ''close-to-nature'' or ''back-to-nature'' approaches (Gamborg and Larsen 2003;Miyawaki 2004). The essence of those approaches is to restore natural vegetation of combined native species in accordance with the potential abilities of the habitat, and to try to restore the whole ecosystem specific to a region (Miyawaki 1992). ...
... The essence of those approaches is to restore natural vegetation of combined native species in accordance with the potential abilities of the habitat, and to try to restore the whole ecosystem specific to a region (Miyawaki 1992). Many cases of application of these approaches have been conducted worldwide, such as in Japan, China, South-East Asia, Europe, Australia, and South America (Da et al. 2004;Miyawaki 2004). ...
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Evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs, lucidophyllous forests) are vegetation types characteristic of East Asia. The extent of EBLFs has decreased significantly due to long-term anthropogenic disturbance, and remnant EBLFs in urban area are rare and important landscape types contributing to biodiversity and sustainable development. This study focuses on remnant EBLFs on Mt. Gele (GL), Mt. Tieshanping (TSP), and Mt. Jinyun (JY), located from the inner city to outskirts of Chongqing metropolis, Southwest China. Species of Theaceae, Lauraceae, Symplocaceae, and other families, which are essential floristic components of primary EBLFs, were still the main components at the three sites. GL and JY showed higher biodiversity, with richer heliophytes and shade-tolerant species, respectively. Castanopsis carlesii var. spinulosa was the sole dominant species at all three sites in woody layer, with codomination by Pinus massoniana and Cinnamomum camphora at GL and by Machilus pingii and Castanopsis fargesii at JY; these evergreen broad-leaved trees all showed inverse-J or sporadic-shaped size distribution with large numbers of small stems, but the conifer tree Pinus massoniana showed unimodal distribution with small stems at GL. The height growth of tree species, especially Castanopsis carlesii var. spinulosa, was increasingly restricted from JY to TSP to GL. Sprouting is an important life history strategy at community and population level, and differences were exhibited from GL to TSP to JY. A rural–urban gradient from JY to TSP to GL was indicated in this study. Species composition, biodiversity, and stand structure of these remnant EBLFs showed obvious differences along this gradient, and conservation responses to address the effects of urbanization need to be carefully considered. KeywordsLandscape–Conservation–Heliophyte–Inherent component–Sprouting–Fragmentation
... Around the world, many other species have suffered due to the loss of large old trees such as the orangutan (Ponginae) in southeast Asia and the leadbeaters possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) in southeast Australia (Jones et al. 2017). We have already lost many species of both plants and animals completely due to the destruction of native forests which are very difficult and sometimes impossible to restore (Miyawaki 2004). This is why conserving the remaining old-growth forests is essential to limit the losses of yet more endangered plants and animals which otherwise would have nowhere else to go (Miyawaki 2004). ...
... We have already lost many species of both plants and animals completely due to the destruction of native forests which are very difficult and sometimes impossible to restore (Miyawaki 2004). This is why conserving the remaining old-growth forests is essential to limit the losses of yet more endangered plants and animals which otherwise would have nowhere else to go (Miyawaki 2004). ...
Article
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Old forests containing ancient trees are essential ecosystems for life on earth. Mechanisms that happen both deep in the root systems and in the highest canopies ensure the viability of our planet. Old forests fix large quantities of atmospheric CO2, produce oxygen, create micro-climates and irreplaceable habitats, in sharp contrast to young forests and monoculture forests. The current intense logging activities induce rapid, adverse effects on our ecosystems and climate. Here we review large old trees with a focus on ecosystem preservation, climate issues, and therapeutic potential. We found that old forests continue to sequester carbon and fix nitrogen. Old trees control below-ground conditions that are essential for tree regeneration. Old forests create micro-climates that slow global warming and are irreplaceable habitats for many endangered species. Old trees produce phytochemicals with many biomedical properties. Old trees also host particular fungi with untapped medicinal potential, including the Agarikon, Fomitopsis officinalis, which is currently being tested against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Large old trees are an important part of our combined cultural heritage, providing people with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historical cues. Bringing their numerous environmental, oceanic, ecological, therapeutic, and socio-cultural benefits to the fore, and learning to appreciate old trees in a holistic manner could contribute to halting the worldwide decline of old-growth forests
... However, in a semi-deciduous forest in the Southeast there was a great floristic similarity between canopy trees and a sub-canopy tree layer (Souza et al. 2006), suggesting that semi-deciduous forest is essentially two layered -canopy and understorey with young canopy trees at various intermediate heights. According to Miyawaki (2004) one of the most important challenges is the restoration of complex, multilayer forests. ...
Article
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... After these field surveys, all intermediate and late successional species are mixed and densely planted, with as many companion species as possible (Kelty 2006; Miyawaki 1998a), and soil between them is mulched. Mulching is needed to prevent soil dryness , erosion on steep slopes even with heavy rainfall, weed growth, protect seedlings against cold, and as manure as materials decompose (Miyawaki 2004 ). In fact, biocoenotic relationships involve autoregulations between species, favoring a dynamic equilibrium and avoiding any further silvicultural practice and need no insecticides or herbicides (with some exceptions). ...
Article
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In the 1980s, Professor Akira Miyawaki introduced a new and innovative reforestation approach in Japan with the challenge to restore indigenous ecosystems, and maintaining global environments, including disaster prevention and carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation. Here, natural vegetation successional stages (from bare soil to mature forest) are practically forced and reproduced, accelerating natural successional times. The Miyawaki method has been applied in the Far East, Malaysia, and South America; results have been very impressive, allowing quick environmental restorations of strongly degraded areas. However, these applications have always been made on sites characterized by high precipitation. The same method has never been used in a Mediterranean context distinguished by summer aridity and risk of desertification. A first test was carried out by the University of Tuscia, Department of Forest and Environment (DAF), 11years ago in Sardinia (Italy) on an area where traditional reforestation methods had failed. For an appropriate Miyawaki application on this site, the original method was modified while maintaining its theoretical principles. Results obtained 2 and 11years after planting are positive: having compared the traditional reforestation techniques, plant biodiversity using the Miyawaki method appears very high, and the new coenosis (plant community) was able to evolve without further operative support after planting. Therefore, the implementation of supplementary technique along with cost reduction might provide a new and innovative tool to foresters and ecological engineering experts for Mediterranean environmental reforestation program. KeywordsEcological restoration–Potential natural vegetation–Ecotechnology–Reforestation practices comparison–Mediterranean environment
... Potential vegetation maps are widely used in research, conservation and management. Some applications of potential vegetation maps include analysing vegetation dynamics (Hessburg et al. 1999;Hickler et al. 2004), quantifying spatial patterns of deforestation (Trejo & Dirzo 2000), planning land management (Hughes et al. 1986;Felix et al. 2004), selecting sites and species for restoration (Miyawaki 2004), analysing the effect of climate change on vegetation (Yates et al. 2000;Koca et al. 2006;Franke & Köstner 2007), and predicting spatial patterns of species diversity (Golicher et al. 2008). ...
Article
Questions: Can the accuracy of coarse resolution potential vegetation maps be improved through downscaling to finer resolution climatic grids? Can output from random forests produce new insight into the climatic characteristics that are associated with the structural characteristics of the vegetation? Location: Southern Mexico. Methods: A potential vegetation map (National Atlas of Mexico) at a 1:4 000 000 scale, was downscaled to a 1 km2 grid resolution using climatically based random forests models. The resulting map was then evaluated against 256 inventory plots sampled at the transition between different vegetation types in Southern Mexico. Results: Downscaling increased accuracy up to 0.40, as measured by the Kappa Index of Agreement. Multivariate analysis of the results allowed the association between Rzedowski's classification and climatic variation to be explored. This confirmed that many of the structural aspects of the vegetation that are used by the Rzedowski classification are closely associated with climate, but it also revealed weaknesses in the underlying basis of this classification system. Conclusions: Rzedowski's scheme for vegetation classification may require further modification in order to be an effective tool for research into vegetation–climate relationships.
... For instance, in strongly disturbed soils by pasture, the seed bank is affected (Gomez-Pompa & Vázquez-Yanes 1981), seedling establishment and growth is altered (Uhl et al. 1988) and the succession process leads to an undesired forest structure (Pascarella et al. 2004). Loosing resilience limits the ecosystem recovery, then demanding the use of restoration practices to rescue the structure and function of tropical landscapes (Aide et al. 1995, Holl 1999, Holl et al. 2000, Miyawaki 2004). ...
Article
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Replacing the Brazilian Atlantic Forest by pastures has caused a strong impact on this biome. Hence, to evaluate the forest recovery after removing disturbance is a key factor to conserve biodiversity. In this study we analyzed changes in forest structure in five abandoned pastures in southern Brazil, aiming to verify the direction and rate of structural and functional changes in the early succession. The abandoned pastures (by periods of 8, 14, 48, 50 and 96 months) were colonized mainly by trees, animal-dispersed and pioneer species. The data showed that the forest structure was quickly changed with an increase in tree abundance, stem volume and species richness. It indicates that in low fragmented landscapes, such as the northern littoral of Parana State, the resilience of the Atlantic Forest is relatively high and assisted regeneration may be an option to biodiversity conservation strategies.
... In addition to accelerating forest restoration through afforestation or propagating the introduction of native species [78][79][80][81][82][83], the use of soil seed banks to achieve vegetation restoration is also an ecological restoration strategy [84][85][86], i.e., to increase species diversity by transferring forest-seed-rich soils to sites where forest seeds are scarce or where soils are degraded. In this study, only Trema orientalis type was a secondary forest in Dadu Terrace (however, the area was minimal), and its soil seed bank was the only plant community that was dominated by native tree seed reserves. ...
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The contributions of urban forests and green spaces to sustainable development have been confirmed. Meanwhile, cities worldwide have shown that investments in urban forestry can greatly contribute to citizens’ quality of life. This study was conducted in urban forests in the Dadu Terrace of Taichung City, central Taiwan, which were frequently disturbed by fires and had grassland severely invaded by Panicum maximum after the forest degraded. We sampled 46 plots in Dadu Terrace to understand the relationship between the soil seed bank and vegetation as well as to evaluate the feasibility of applying soil seed bank transfers for ecological restoration in Dadu Terrace. The grassland was dominated by Panicum maximum. Forest vegetation was distinguished by cluster analysis into five types, i.e., Ficus microcarpa type, Acacia confusa type, Litsea glutinosa type, Cinnamomum camphora type, and Trema orientalis type. In the aboveground survey, we recorded 141 vascular plants, including 129 seed plants and 12 ferns. There were 40 identified species of naturalized plants. A total of 29,914 seedlings were recorded in the soil seed bank, with an average seed density of 9634 seeds/m2 and a total of 91 species. There were 40 species of naturalized plants, accounting for 90.9% of the total seed reserves. This showed that Dadu Terrace was severely affected by the invasion of naturalized species. The species number and seed reserves of woody plants of the Panicum maximum type were significantly lower than those of forest vegetation. The composition of the soil seed bank was dominated by naturalized plants, indicating that the high frequency of fire reduced the proportion of native species and woody plants in the soil seed bank. Acacia confusa type was the main forest type in Dadu Terrace. Although several woody species and seed reserves were in its soil seed bank, the naturalized proportions were even higher. Trema orientalis type was the secondary forest type in Dadu Terrace; it had the smallest forest area. However, it was the only vegetation type with a greater tree seed abundance than herbs and the lowest proportion of naturalized seed abundance. Trema orientalis type vegetation has a relatively high soil transfer value for ecological restoration but lacks diversity. Our results revealed that the characteristics of the soil seed bank of Dadu Terrace make it challenging to restore the grassland to the forest by natural succession. Therefore, we suggest that artificial restoration is necessary for Dadu Terrace.
... 1992Miyawaki, 1999), 자연 림 3) , 준자연림 (Miyawaki, 1999) (宮脇昭, 1972;Grossman et al., 1998) 그 지역의 고유식생으로 판단되어지는 식생이며, 소규모적으로 잔존하여 있는 자연식생으로도 판 단할 수 있다 (Tűxen, 1956 (Miyawaki, 1999). 3, 4 중층림 부분도입가능 동백나무 H5.0 * B18 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 4 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 중층림 도입가능 돈나무 H2.5 * W2.5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 하층림 도입가능 호랑가시나무 H2.5 * W2.0 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 하층림 도입가능 완도호랑가시나무 H2.5 * W2.5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 하층림 도입가능 사철나무 H2.5 * W2.0 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 하층림 도입가능 광나무 H3.5 * W2.5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5, 5 5 (Miyawaki, 1998), 일본에서 550개 지역, 중국, 말레이시아, 브라질, 칠레 등지에서 숲복원 을 성공하였으며 (Miyawaki, 1999), 남동아시아 말레이지아의 Bintulu와 Sarawak에서 묘목을 식 재하여 10년만에 수고 12∼14m로 성장하여 준 자연숲(quasi-natural forest)을 조성한 (Miyawaki, 2004) 해안식생은 뚜렷한 대상구조를 나타나는데 (Costa et al., 1996) ...
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This study was carried out to the development of ecological planting model to make up of coastal windbreak forest on the Suncheon-bay in Sucheon-si, Korea. Make up of coastal windbreak forest in this site was needed for appropriate bioresource, biodiversity and ecological structure, and for conservation of the eco-tour resource and protection of human life and property by the unforeseen disaster from the coast. Based on the plant-social principle, the planting model of windbreak forest was developed to facilitate growth of trees, considering planting locations. The ecological planting model for the coastal windbreak was composed of warm temperate evergreen and windbreak forest which is spreading around the inland area in Korea. The horizontal forest style was composed of forest edge community and inner forest community, and the vertical forest style was composed of upper, middle, low and ground planting class. The target of the present model was quasi-natural forest, and the species of tree were selected based on the adaptability to surroundings depending on a goal to create a forest and forest style. To achieve both functions of wind break forest and visual effect in short period of time, small trees and seedlings were planted with high-density of 40,000/ha in an expectation of easy natural maintenance in the future. The significance of the present study is a suggestion for a guideline to create ecological coastal windbreak forest in the Suncheon-bay in which the harmony of human life and the ecological conservation is of great importance. Also, the ecological coastal windbreak forest model should be developed further through the long term monitoring after construction of forest.
... drought, storms or fire). It may also be sensible to experiment with planting high densities using highly diverse seed sources and to anticipate relatively high mortality rates that can be expected to result from chronic or acute climatic stress (Ledig and Kitzmiller, 1992;Miyawaki, 2004;Chmura et al., 2011). Based on a review of recent plant reintroductions, Godefroid et al. (2011) found a positive relationship between the number of reintroduced individuals and their survival rate. ...
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Rehabilitation and restoration of forest ecosystems are in growing demand to tackle climate change, biodiversity loss and desertification—major environmental problems of our time. Interest in restoration of ecosystems is increasingly translated into strong political commitment to large-scale tree planting projects. Along with this new impetus and the enormous scale of planned projects come both opportunities and risks: opportunities to significantly increase the use of native species, and risks of failure associated with the use of inadequate or mismatched reproductive material, which though it may provide forest cover in the short term, will not likely establish a self-sustaining ecosystem. The value of using native tree species in ecosystem restoration is receiving growing recognition both among restoration practitioners and policy makers. However, insufficient attention has been given to genetic variation within and among native tree species, their life histories and the consequences of their interactions with each other and with their environment. Also restoration practitioners have often neglected to build in safeguards against the anticipated effects of anthropogenic climate change. Measurement of restoration success has tended to be assessments of hectares covered or seedling survival in a short timeframe, neither of which is an indicator of ecosystem establishment in the long term. In this article, we review current practices in ecosystem restoration using native tree species, with a particular focus on genetic considerations. Our discussion is organised across three themes: (i) species selection and the sourcing of forest reproductive material; (ii) increasing resilience by fostering natural selection, ecological connectivity and species associations; and (iii) measuring the success of restoration activities. We present a number of practical recommendations for researchers, policymakers and restoration practitioners to increase the potential for successful interventions. We recommend the development and adoption of decision-support tools for: (i) collecting and propagating germplasm in a way that ensures a broad genetic base of restored tree populations, including planning the sourcing of propagation material of desired species well before the intended planting time; (ii) matching species and provenances to restoration sites based on current and future site conditions, predicted or known patterns of variation in adaptive traits and availability of seed sources; and (iii) landscape-level planning in restoration projects.
... The domination of woody plants results in the formation of shelter and changes soil conditions, reducing the area covered by Rhodes grass, thereby promoting forestation. Miyawaki [21] claimed that the evolution of a natural forest from a poor wasteland takes 150-200 years. Based on ecological theory, similar natural forests can be produced artificially in only 15-20 years. ...
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Reforestation after a landslide facilitates competition between herbaceous plants and arborous plants. Tangible variations in grassland areas in regions susceptible to landslides can only be found within collections of trees. A landslide area in the Sule Watershed was investigated. Relative illuminance results reveal that the Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) biomass in this landslide area increases with relative illuminance. A comparison of regions with tree islands indicates that the size of the grassland areas decreased and the number of tree islands increased during 2005-2010. Furthermore, a germination experiment in a soil-seed bank indicates that more woody plant species exist around the tree island than in other areas in the landslide region. Trees in a tree island change the micro-climate of the landslide region, and they gather as many nutrients and as much moisture as possible, enabling vegetation to expand around the tree island. Additionally, the area with Rhodes grass and its biomass declined annually in the tree island region. Investigation results show that tree islands and soil-seed banks are suited to reforestation in landslide regions. The pioneering research will assist regional landslide management in Taiwan.
... Las poblaciones grandes reducen la pérdida de diversidad genética a través de la deriva y el efecto amortiguador contra el riesgo de pérdida de población debido a eventos bióticos como plagas o enfermedades forestales o eventos estocásticos de naturaleza abiótica como las sequías, tormentas o incendios. Algo equivalente se puede provocar con altas densidades de plantación y usando fuentes semilleras altamente diversas (mezclas AGR 1ª + AGR 2ª), de modo de anticiparse a tasas relativamente altas de mortalidad que se pueden esperar por el estrés climático crónico o agudo (Miyawaki, 2004). ...
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RESUMEN El documento describe la importancia de considerar elementos genéticos, como la identidad genética, diversidad genética y las regiones de procedencias, en los procesos de restauración ecológica de bosques degradados. Sintetiza información bibliográfica en esta materia, presenta un modelo simple de restauración y describe indicadores de éxito para este proceso. Como conclusión especifica que la incorporación de consideraciones genéticas en la restauración de bosques aumentará la probabilidad de éxito del sistema restaurado, mientras que ignorar estos elementos incidirá en que las unidades restauradas no sean sustentables debido a una limitada capacidad para adaptarse a los cambios ambientales. Palabras clave: Restauración ecológica, diversidad genética, adaptación. SUMMARY This paper describes the importance of genetic considerations, such as genetic identity, genetic diversity and provenance regions, on degraded forests ecological restoration. Bibliographic information on the matter is synthesized, a restoration simple model is presented and process success indicators are decribed. Conclusion is that genetic considerations incorporation in forest restoration will increase restored system success probability. While ignore these considerations will turn unsustainable the restored units because of a low capacity to adapt facing environmental changes.
... Las poblaciones grandes reducen la pérdida de diversidad genética a través de la deriva y el efecto amortiguador contra el riesgo de pérdida de población debido a eventos bióticos como plagas o enfermedades forestales o eventos estocásticos de naturaleza abiótica como las sequías, tormentas o incendios. Algo equivalente se puede provocar con altas densidades de plantación y usando fuentes semilleras altamente diversas (mezclas AGR 1ª + AGR 2ª), de modo de anticiparse a tasas relativamente altas de mortalidad que se pueden esperar por el estrés climático crónico o agudo (Miyawaki, 2004). ...
... We face an unprecedented degree of destruction of natural forests and at the same time societies become increasingly aware of the vital ecosystem services forests provide (Miyawaki 2004). The Brazilian law demands the preservation of forest or reforestation along riversides, on steep slopes, along the edges of tablelands, and as well a minimum forest area per property (Código Florestal 2001). ...
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This work treats the degradation of the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco and its natural regeneration. It has three focuses: the vulnerability of tree species dispersed by specific animals, the dispersal and pollination modes of woody species of young secondary forest and the germination and survival of seedlings of native tree species directly seeded in secondary vegetation.
... La restauración de ecosistemas degradados es un proceso lento, y su respuesta depende de la intensidad, duración y escala del impacto (Hobbs & Norton 1996), a pesar de lo dinámicos que pueden ser los bosques tropicales, volver un ecosistema alterado a su condición original podría tardar largos periodos de tiempo, entre 75-150 (Harlshorn 1980), o hasta 300 años (Clements 1916, 1936, Miyawaki 2004, en cualquier caso resulta excesivo en la escala temporal humana. ...
... According to Willoughby et al. (2004), high tree densities means that occasional damage to trees is less serious than when establishing seedlings at substantially lower stocking levels. Indeed, natural thinning by extended droughts leave survivors more resilient, while natural thinning by herbivores indicates that animals are using the area and possibly contributing to nutrient cycling (Miyawaki, 2004). Regarding the initiation of a restoration process, Willoughby et al. (2004) have found that high sapling densities and absence of transplant shock can result in much earlier canopy closure (3-5 yr after sowing) for direct-seeded stands compared with traditional seedlings plantation at a wider spacing. ...
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The Y Ikatu Xingu Campaign brought together indigenous people, farmers, researchers, governmental, and non-governmental organizations seeking riparian forest restoration in the Xingu watershed, in west-central Brazil. Forest restoration is challenging in the region because of scarce nurseries, long distances, and high costs associated with the usual technique of planting nursery-raised seedlings. This article describes mechanized direct seeding and compares it with the planting of seedlings, in terms of cost and tree densities at ages of 0.5 until 5.5 yr after planting. Direct-seeding was mechanized using common agricultural machines designed for sowing cereals or grasses, which were loaded with 200,000 seeds of native trees and 150,000 seeds of annual and sub-perennial legumes, plus 50–150 kg sand ha−1. The Campaign restored more than 900 ha by direct-seeding and 300 ha by planting seedlings. The great demand for native seeds was met by the Xingu Seed Network, formed by Indians, small landholders, and peasants, which commercialized 98 tons of native seeds and earned US$500,000 since 2006. Direct-seeding costs less per hectare than planting seedlings (US$1,845 ha−1 against US$5,106 ha−1), results in higher tree densities (2,500–32,250 trees ha−1 against 1,500–1,650 trees ha−1), is more practical, and creates layers of dense vegetation that better resembles natural forest succession.
... This method is used when degradation is severe enough to prevent incoming seed dispersal. The process includes vegetation and soil survey and selects native tree species for planting at the high densities (Miyawaki, 2004). Degraded sites can be transformed into fully functioning forest in about 15-20 years using this method, which involves planting multiple tree species. ...
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One limitation of forest restoration by direct seeding is predation of seeds and seedlings by natural enemies. Natural enemies include both vertebrates and invertebrates. This study quantified seed and seedling predation by both vertebrates and invertebrates in a degraded forest area. Five native tree species were selected; Hovenia dulcis, Prunus cerasoides, Alangium kurzii, Choerospondias axillaris and Horsfieldia glabra. Seeds of each species were placed on the ground under five treatments; 1) wire cage (vertebrate exclusion), 2) insecticide spraying (invertebrate exclusion) 3) wire cage plus insecticide spraying, 4) open cage and 5) control (no exclusion). Percentage seed removal, seed germination, and seedling (cotyledonous-seedling and leafy-seedling) mortality were compared among the treatments. Seed removal differed significantly among species. Percent seed removal was highest for the H. glabra, and seeds of this species germination. Seed removal of four species H. dulcis, P. cerasoides, A. kurzii and C. axillaris, was low and percent seed removal did not differ among these species. Caging seeds significantly reduced seed removal, suggesting that vertebrates are major seed predators in this study site. However, excluding predators did not increase seed germination. Differences in germination among species may have been influenced by seed characteristics and germination requirements. Moreover, excluding predators prevented only cotyledonous-seedling mortality but not leafy-seedling mortality. This suggested that other factors such as seed/seedling characteristics and competition with grass and herbaceous weed might be a major cause of seedling mortality. In addition, camera traps were used to identify which small mammals and birds were present as potential seed/seedling predators. Pitfall traps, sticky traps and direct capture were used to collect invertebrates. Of the vertebrates, rats (Rattus sp.) frequently visited the studied site, especially during the first month after seed sowing. Of the invertebrates, ant species (Order Hymenoptera) were more abundant than other invertebrate groups. Both rats and ants have been reported as seed predators in degraded areas. From this study, species recommended for direct seeding, ranked in order of declining performance, were P. cerasoides, A. kurzii, and C. axillaris. H. dulcis was considered to be marginally species and H. glabra is not recommended without treatments to reduce seed predation.
... The published literature on forest restoration includes studies that demonstrate how planting mixtures of native species can restore ecosystem functions, conserve biological diversity, and diversify forest products in degraded landscapes (e.g. [13][14][15][16][17]). These studies emphasize that the most critical step in such restoration plantings is to select suitable native species from the regional species pool. ...
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The use of native species in forest restoration has been increasingly recognized as an effective means of restoring ecosystem functions and biodiversity to degraded areas across the world. However, successful selection of species adapted to local conditions requires specific knowledge which is often lacking, especially in developing countries. In order to scale up forest restoration, experimental data on the responses of native species to propagation and restoration treatments across a range of local conditions are required. In this study, the restoration potential of 34 native tree species was evaluated based on nursery research and field planting experiments at a highly degraded site in a subtropical area of southwest China. We examined species performance in terms of germination rates as well as survival rates and growth over 2 years after planting. Of the 34 species examined, 25 had a germination percentage greater than 50%. Survivorship ranged from 0 to 97% across species and was greater than 50% for 20 species. Mean monthly growth increments varied between species. Pioneer species performed well, and 14 mid-and late-successional species performed reasonably well to very well in this study. However, the remaining 16 mid-and late-succes-sional species performed poorly. These results indicate that carefully selected mid-and late-successional species can be effectively incorporated into mixed species plantings. This data can be used to inform restoration planning, helping to identify suitable species and so enhance the biodiversity and resilience of restored forests.
... In restoring the natural forests in the Želivka river basin, we recommend the utilization of the internationally verified Miyawaki forestation method [24], which offers the most efficient and quickest way to cool the air and generate oxygen, to clean waters and regulate precipitation and wind, to restore terrestrial biodiversity, and to reduce fertilizer runoff into rivers that causes algae blooms. ...
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This article shows how to restore Central European natural capital effectively. Water in the landscape is primarily sustained by vegetation and soil, most effectively by natural forests and only secondarily by artificial reservoirs. The authors document these facts using a case study from the Želivka River basin (Švihov reservoir), which collects surface water for the metropolitan region of Prague and Central Bohemia. With the Energy-Water-Vegetation Method, the authors demonstrate that the cultural human-changed landscape of the Želivka river basin is able to utilize only about 60% of its solar energy potential. In 1.5% of the territory of the Czech Republic, society annually loses supporting ecosystem services at a level higher than 25% of the annual GDP of the CR 2015. Water retention in the landscape needs to be re-evaluated and addressed in accordance with the thermodynamic principles of life and ecosystem functioning in the biosphere. It is necessary to begin restoring the most efficient natural capital in the landscapes and to return the broad-leaved deciduous forests by intelligent forestation methods to the cultural landscape to the extent justified; this is especially true of the Želivka River basin, which is Czechia’s biggest surface drinking-water collecting area.
... The urban forest acts as an exclusive ecosystem that offer a wide range of benefits. Native plant species are planted, conventional pesticides or fertilizers are not used, and the forests are watered only in the early years of establishment [29]. An urban forest can be created using the Miyawaki Method, invented by Dr. Akira Miyawaki in Yokohama, Japan, in the 1970s. ...
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Globally, universities are evaluating and targeting to reduce their carbon emissions and operate on a sustainable basis. The overall aim of this study revolves in addressing the following three questions: (1) How to calculate carbon footprint, including indicators selection, criteria, and measurement, for higher education institutions? (2) How to evaluate impact and effectiveness of various mitigation strategies in context of a higher education institution? (3) What are the possible limitations of approach selected for carbon footprint calculation. This paper presents estimation of the carbon footprint of NED University using a carbon calculator along with the identification of sources with maximum contribution to its carbon footprint. The carbon footprint of the NED University main campus for 2017 was calculated to be approximately 21,500 metric tons of equivalent CO2 and carbon footprint per student was 1.79 metric tons of equivalent CO2. Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions each contributed nearly 7% of the carbon footprint, while Scope 3 emissions accounted for 85.6% of the carbon footprint. Major interventions such as switching to renewables, usage of energy efficient appliances, electric vehicles, and massive tree plantation inside and outside the campus were identified as the most effective mitigation strategies.
... Im bardziej zieleń zakładana przez człowieka różni się od tej kształtowanej spontanicznie, tym kosztowniejszych wymaga zabiegów pielęgnacyjnych. Ponadto, rośliny rosnące w odpowiednich warunkach siedliskowych i zbiorowisku roślinnym cechują się większą odpornością na czynniki zewnętrzne, żywotnością, estetyką, spójnością fizjonomiczną, wartością użytkową, wymagają także mniejszych nakładów inwestycyjnych niż w innym przypadku (Wysocki 1994, Miyawaki 2004. ...
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urban parks are to some extent artificial structures. their persistence is strongly dependent on management practices which sustain the primarily designed shape of the park. under progressing urbanization pressure, parks play a key role in providing services for the city dwellers who can have direct contact with nature. Adjusting the existing parks to new visitor expectations requires integrating spontaneous processes of vegetation but within boundaries set by the designer. the aim of this study was to test whether naturalization of modern parks can facilitate their ecological quality expressed as floristic richness. this research consisted of 1) identification of factors associated with spatial structure of the parks and connections between the park patches, crucial for sustaining continuous system of urban green spaces; 2) analyses of vegetation composition changes under various management intensity and its effect on biodiversity; 3) understory vegetation in public and restricted accessed parks was compared to predict the effect of increasing number of people seeking contact with nature. Investigated parks play an important role in preserving floristic richness in the scale of the city. Despite the small size of the modern parks they sustained 30.1% of the city’s vascular flora. A naturalization is a management approach designed to preserve stable fragments of habitats within the parks to facilitate their high biodiversity. In the modern parks it can be performed by maintaining spatial connectivity, proper management of the park structure and its surroundings. this can contribute to high floristic richness, as the average plant dispersal ability in the city was low (ca. 800 m). For many forest species, even small gaps in the habitat continuity were impassable, thus the statistically significant effect of the parks area and its age on the plant diversity. Overall tendencies in floristic richness changes under increasing management practices pressure were different in lawns and forest stands. Due to visitors pressure impoverishment of plant composition in lawns occurred, every in 5 years one species disappeared. In woodlands the changes were not significant, but every in 19 years one new tree plant appeared in tree stand, which can be related to the stabilization of conditions under the canopy. the vegetation cover is becoming poorer, especially in vascular species, percentage of native species is decreasing, mosses react with strong area loss. In public parks increased soil characteristics were observed concerning: pH, soil compaction, moisture variability, phosphorus and calcium carbonates content. Consequences of the applied measures associated with naturalization concept, do promote high floristic richness, but this goal can be also achieved by creating actual connections of the parks with ecological corridors, channeling the visitors movement through the parks and finally by creating an effective park management system that would allow controlling the measures being actually performed on a regular basis.
... In a modified method, the initial planting includes both canopy trees and woody and herbaceous subcanopy species (Ottburg et al., 2017). The original method has been applied in urban and rural contexts in temperate, tropical, and Mediterranean climates (Miyawaki, 2004;Schirone et al., 2011) but not, it appears, to the design of UAF systems. Though the mechanisms responsible for the reported success of the method are underexplored, at close spacings tree seedlings may compete with one another but also act as nurse plants facilitating the growth of their neighbors through environmental modification, an effect that may be more important to target plant survival and performance in challenging environments (Padilla & Pugnaire, 2006). ...
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Urban landscapes combining trees and crops—urban agroforestry (UAF) systems—may offer greater ecological and cultural benefits than annual cropping systems. Interest in UAF is growing, as evidenced by an increasing number of built projects and articles in the popular press and the academic literature on the subject. However, the practice of UAF appears to far outpace research on its scientific underpinnings or its design. Developing sustainable, resilient UAF sites can be challenging because of biophysical and sociocultural conditions unique to the city; however, cities offer opportunities not found in rural environments including the potential to close open nutrient loops between consumers and sites of food production. We argue that these biophysical and sociocultural challenges and opportunities can be best addressed through an evidence‐based approach to the design of UAF systems and a complex ecological aesthetic design language integrating theory, principles, and practices from urban agroecology and allied fields, environmental psychology, and landscape architecture. The resulting multifunctional UAF systems would be socially sustainable and equitable and promote the circular metabolism of the city. Drawing on a purposive review of literature from these disciplines, we propose a preliminary framework consisting of 14 guidelines and complementary principles and strategies for the design of multifunctional, culturally preferred UAF and offer recommendations for future research. The practice of urban agroforestry (UAF) outpaces research on system science and design. A system‐specific complex ecological aesthetic design language could enhance multifunctionality. Evidence‐based design guidelines, principles, and strategies can inform UAF practice. Additional research is needed to bridge the gap between practice and theory.
... Other authors limit their understanding of USV only to contemporary vegetation of wastelands, such as found in post-industrial or abandoned agricultural areas (Prach and Pyšek, 2001;Robinson and Lundholm, 2012). In such sites where the plants develop unhampered reaching a state of equilibrium after many years (Kuitert, 2013;Miyawaki, 2004). USV also consists of ruderal vegetation, growing in extremely anthropogenic habitats, where the plant composition is often limited to annual plants (Bonthoux et al., 2019b). ...
Article
Nature-based Solutions (NbS) have been an increasingly recognized framework that uses naturally occurring processes to maximise the provisioning of ecosystem services and improve the life quality of city dwellers. One of the more widely applied NbS is an intentional abandonment of green space cultivation and promoting wilderness. In this study, we developed urban spontaneous vegetation (USV) identification algorithm based on NDVI from Sentinel-2 data in Warsaw's green spaces, Poland. We verified the study in an on-site survey where we collected 2863 field reference plots for USV and cultivated vegetation identification. We achieved 74 % accuracy for USV and 70 % for cultivated vegetation identification. The study assessed the spatial resources and extent of USV in the scale of the city and within various types of urban greenery. We identified the vegetation development persistence over 3 years and assessed the spontaneity levels of urban greenery. Classification of Warsaw's vegetation revealed that 54 % of Warsaw's greenery is cultivated while the remaining part is characterized by various levels of spontaneity. Only in 34.7 % of USV, we found no interruption of vegetation development due to cultivation for at least 3 years. USV was common in both cultivated parks where it accounted for 46.6 % of vegetation, as well as in the vacant lots, where it occurred in 55.3 % of the area. The proposed USV detection methodology can be an efficient tool for restoration effectiveness assessment and can support cultivation abandonment as NbS-an intended action promoting wilderness.
... Las poblaciones grandes reducen la pérdida de diversidad genética a través de la deriva y el efecto amortiguador contra el riesgo de pérdida de población debido a eventos bióticos como plagas o enfermedades forestales o eventos estocásticos de naturaleza abiótica como las sequías, tormentas o incendios. Algo equivalente se puede provocar con altas densidades de plantación y usando fuentes semilleras altamente diversas (mezclas AGR 1ª + AGR 2ª), de modo de anticiparse a tasas relativamente altas de mortalidad que se pueden esperar por el estrés climático crónico o agudo (Miyawaki, 2004). ...
Article
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El documento describe la importancia de considerar elementos genéticos, como la identidad genética, diversidad genética y las regiones de procedencias, en los procesos de restauración ecológica de bosques degradados. Sintetiza información bibliográfica en esta materia, presenta un modelo simple de restauración y describe indicadores de éxito para este proceso
... Therefore, we consider ecological coherence as species suitability for specific combinations of climatic, litho-morpholgical and edaphic conditions, i.e., coherence with the potential natural vegetation and related natural substitution communities [57,58]. As the natural bio-physical setting is never totally hidden by urbanization, even in the very center of cities [59,60], and as native and ecologically coherent forests and trees grow well with little or no management [61,62], both biogeographic representativity and ecological coherence should be targeted for the conservation of biodiversity in urban regions [63]. ...
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A large number of green infrastructure (GI) projects have recently been proposed, planned and implemented in European cities following the adoption of the GI strategy by the EU Commission in 2013. Although this policy tool is closely related to biodiversity conservation targets, some doubts have arisen as regards the ability of current urban GI to provide beneficial effects not only for human societies but also for the ecological systems that host them. The aim of this work is to review the features that should be considered critical when searching for solutions that simultaneously support biodiversity and guarantee the provision of ecosystem services (ES) in urban areas. Starting from a case study in the metropolitan area of Rome, we highlight the role of urban trees and forests as proxies for overall biodiversity and as main ecosystem service providers. We look beyond the individual functional features of plant species and vegetation communities to promote the biogeographic representativity, ecological coherence and landscape connectivity of new or restored GI elements.
Article
Accelerated land use change in the tropics has resulted in heterogeneous landscapes where secondary rainforest patches of different ages are immersed among agricultural areas. Due to soil productivity exhaustion, agricultural areas may be left to fallow or definitely abandoned due to several socio-economic processes. Rainforest regeneration in abandoned areas may be impeded by numerous biotic and environmental barriers which filter propagule arrival and establishment in open areas. Isolated trees play a key role in favoring rainforest regeneration in abandoned pastures. Several intrinsic (e.g., height, phenology, architecture, and crown structure) and extrinsic (micro-environmental) factors related to isolated trees may influence forest regeneration in pastures, however, other sitequality factors may influence seedling recruitment, but these effects are still to be clarified. This study describes the effect of isolated trees, pastures grasses, microclimate, and seed predation on the early regeneration community of rainforest species in abandoned tropical pastures of Southeast Mexico. An experimental system consisting in two groups of ecologically contrasting isolated trees (Ficus and Inga), two distance-toisolated-tree categories (('canopy', 0 to 10 m, and 'open pasture', 15 to 48 m from tree's trunk), and four grass removal treatments was established. Grass removal treatments were: a) control (no alteration), b) cut of above ground biomass with machete, c) herbicide application, and d) removal of above-and below-ground biomass using a gardening hoe. The tree species composition of adjacent forest fragments, and the abundance and composition of seed rain and seedlings emerged from the seed bank were considered as the main propagule sources. Abundance and composition of the seedling community recruited after one and two years of study were considered as response establishment in open pastures, using seeds of two pioneer (Cecropia obtusifolia and Ocrhoma pyramidale) and two mature (Brosimum costaricanum and Dialium guianense) rainforest species. Several treatments were applied to seeds, according to seed size and possible predators (i.e. insects or rodents), excluding, burying or exposing seeds arranged in bunches of several individuals. Results indicate that the recruited seedling community is mainly affected by the isolated tree species and distance to isolated tree. Ficus sites showed significantly higher density and diversity of recruited seedlings when compared to Inga sites. Recruitment rate was higher under the canopy when compared to the open pasture in both species of isolated trees. Grass treatments did not have an effect on seedling recruitment. The vast majority of recruits belonged to secondary species with invasive habit (21 tree, 21 shrub, and six liana species were recorded). Adjacent rainforest fragments were very similar in abundance, however, seed rain was more abundant under the canopy of isolated trees when compared to the open pasture, and more abundant and diverse in Ficus sites when compared to Inga sites. On average, seed rain was ca. 34 times more abundant under the canopy of isolated trees when compared to the open pasture. Seed rain in Ficus trees was 6.7 times more abundant and 10% more diverse when compared to Inga sp. trees. Overall, seed rain density (seeds m-2) outnumbered at least 60 times seedlings emerged from the seed bank, at least 100 times seedling recruitment (1y), and at least 353 times older seedling recruitment (2y). No species were observed across all communities, but some abundant genera (i.e. Solanum) were observed in all but mature forest. Pioneer species were predated in less than 8 days after seed deposition, while only mature species with defense mechanisms (D. guianense) survived after 64 days of seed deposition. Only buried seeds germinated. Results show that propagule sources and successional communities differ consistently in abundance and composition, most likely as a result of limited dispersal and strong biotic and environmental barriers against seedling establishment in the open field. Rainforest regeneration will be modified according to the presence and species of isolated trees in pastures, land-use history, and proximity to forested areas.
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Mucina, L. 2010. Floristic-phytosociological approach, potential natural vegetation, and survival of prejudice. Lazaroa 31: 173-182 (2010). Carrión & Fernandez (2009; further C&F) in a recent commentary on a paper published in Journal of Biogeography criticised an obvious mismatch between the predictions about the patterns of potential natural vegetation (PNV) made by phytosociologists, and those underpinned by pollen data. C&F used this stage to take a broad sway on phytosociology in general (stopping only very short of denying it status of science), blaming power of tradition and influence of personal cult for ignoring scientific evidence. In my response I show that C&F have misinterpreted the concept of PNV, rendering their comparisons irrelevant. C&F obviously overslept the progress descriptive vegetation science made in recent decades, relegating their heavy criticism of phytosociology into the realm of prejudice. Resumen: Mucina, L. 2010. Supervivencia de prejuicios en el concepto de vegetación potencial natural, y en las aproxi-maciones florística-fitosociológica. Lazaroa 31: 173-182 (2010). Carrión y Fernández (2009; C&F) en un comentario recientemente publicado en Journal of Biogeography han criticado la falta de relación entre las predicciones que sobre modelos de vegetación natural potencial (PNV) han hecho los fitoso-ciólogos, y aquellas sostenidas por datos polínicos, utilizando este hecho para hacer una crítica amplia y general de la fi-tosociología, negándola, aunque de forma breve, el estatus de ciencia. Estos autores han argumentado el poder de la tradición y de la influencia del culto personal como principales responsables de una cierta falta de evidencia científica. En mi res-puesta muestro que han malinterpretado el concepto de PNV, además han obviado el progreso que se ha realizado en las ciencias de la vegetación en las últimas décadas, cayendo sus críticas en meros prejuicios.
Technical Report
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Sea level rise and coastal erosion in the coastal areas of Thailand have become more seriously problem nowadays. Commonly used solution these problems by hard structure is increasingly recognized to be unsustainable for coastal ecosystems and people in the affected areas compared to soft ecosystem-based approaches. The objectives of this study is to develop coastal eco-forest model to reduce the impacts of sea level rise and, coastal erosion and to evaluate survival and tree growth rate in the experimental plot area at Chalatat Beach, Bo Yang Subdistrict, Muang District, Songkhla Province. The data in the experimental pilot was collected during May 2020 - April 2021. The principal of eco-forest that imitates and replicates natural forest growth and regeneration processes was applied to develop coastal eco-forest model. The concept of densely and randomly planting with various coastal species, were also employed. Three groups of tree structure (perennials, low trees, and shrubs) with 9 species were selected to plant in the experimental plot area. The results of the evaluation of the survival and growth rates of the trees from the 8-month follow-up period showed 96% of survival rate. The species with the highest growth rate as determined by height and diameter) were Casuarina junghuhniana (Son Pradipat), Hibiscus tiliaceus (Por Talay) and Thespesia populnea (Pho Talay), respectively. These results showed that these three species were fast growth and had potential to applied in ecological forest planting to reduce impact from sea level rise and coastal erosion. In additions, this study could be utilized as a learning center for eco-forestation models to reduce the impacts of sea-level rise and coastal erosion and the biodiversity and applying knowledge from the results in other areas.
Article
Parks, as one specific type of urban open space, play important roles in the conservation of urban biodiversity and provision of recreational services for local residents. As there is a lack of specific insight into park plant species composition in relation to park features, 24 sample parks within the inner city of Beijing, the capital of China, were studied by stratified random plot sampling of their tree, shrub, and herbaceous communities, respectively, in order to investigate how human activities have influenced park green cover configuration and floristic characteristics. The quantitative correlation of species richness and the park green cover indices (patch size, shape, etc.) were studied. The importance value index for plant species (trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species) of each park was calculated. The two-way indicator species analysis approach (TWINSPAN) was applied to classify the 24 parks into different groups based on their species assemblages. Two-hundred and eighty-eight species were recorded within the 24 study parks, belonging to 184 genera and 72 families dominated by Gramineae, Compositae, and Leguminosae. Among all the recorded species, 41% are exotic. The species occurrence, abundance and diversity vary significantly among different parks. Besides the positive correlation (R=0.505, P<0.05) between herbaceous species abundance and the park green cover size, no other significant relations were found between the species abundance and other indices of park green cover configuration. Remarkably, the TWINSPAN classification resulted in a good discrimination between park functional types and the variation in their species assemblage. For the parks of similar age (development history) or landscape design, their species assemblages show more similarity. The methodology adopted and results can be employed to improve baseline information on urban plant ecology and support the setting of priorities for future park management and vegetation protection.
Article
Full-text available
Tree planting is both a promising and controversial solution to climate change and biodiversity loss. However, this controversy is largely theoretical because we lack detailed information of how tree planting is proceeding on-the-ground. Here, we compiled a pantropical dataset of 174 tree planting organizations to determine the type of organizations involved in tree planting, their geographic locations and tree planting approaches. We found that the number of organizations have increased by 288% in the past 30 years, especially for-profit organizations. These organizations reported planting nearly 1.4 billion trees across 74 countries since 1961. Most frequently organizations reported establishing agroforestry systems or mixed species and single species plantations or using assisted natural regeneration, suggesting that tree planting programs are designed to support local communities as well as environmental objectives. Moreover, the most frequently reported species were commercial or utilitarian, with the top five including cacao, teak, moringa, mango and coffee. Finally, despite widespread efforts to plant more trees, there was a pronounced lack of monitoring on websites and in reports; only 18% of organizations mention monitoring at all, and only 5% mention measuring survival rate of plantings. Greater transparency and greater communication are needed between planting organizations and researchers to apply the most effective ways to restore forest cover. Further, while organizations often aimed to counter environmental problems, the use of the same sets of commercially useful species to meet economic development goals across the global indicates a need for greater coordination among organizations to avoid biotic homogenization.
Article
The future of old growth urban forests is not solely in the hands of the individuals or government agencies that at some time in the past had sufficient funds to plant and maintain the forests. Partnerships of landowners; local government; nearby schools, colleges, and universities; and community neighbors must collaborate to muster the resources needed to assure the historical continuity of old growth urban forests. Because threats such as invasive species, deer browsing, and human trampling are poorly understood, partnerships utilize adaptive management in order to respond to the challenges facing old growth urban forests. Foremost among partnership activities is communication to help forest visitors understand the need for maintenance and restoration activities. Plans for historical continuity restoration projects are based on records of forest changes revealed by the historical ecology research on the individual forest. The spatial limitations of street and landscaped forests leads to the planting of microforests with canopy, subcanopy, and ground-level species placed within the confines of the available growth environment. In addition to plantings, restoration of remnant forests requires restricted access to the forest in order to eliminate disturbances which kill the spontaneous regeneration of arboreal species essential to the reestablishment of forest dynamics and historical continuity.
Research
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The use of native species in forest restoration has been increasingly recognized as an effective means of restoring ecosystem functions and biodiversity to degraded areas across the world. However, successful selection of species adapted to local conditions requires specific knowledge which is often lacking, especially in developing countries. In order to scale up forest restoration, experimental data on the responses of native species to propagation and restoration treatments across a range of local conditions are required. In this research, the study of all the native Species and the climate they required is done. Moreover the importance of these species to the Forest Ecosystem has been mentioned and how they help Forest Ecosystem has explained. In this research, studies of those species affecting the Forest Habitat are discussed and the Human Activities that are affecting Forest Ecosystem. These results can help to restore and improve the forest condition. This data can be used to inform restoration planning, helping to identify suitable species and so enhance the biodiversity and resilience of restored forests. It can also help recognize all the factors affecting Forest Ecosystem and the solutions that can help cure the problems.
Research
The use of native species in forest restoration has been increasingly recognized as an effective means of restoring ecosystem functions and biodiversity to degraded areas across the world. However, successful selection of species adapted to local conditions requires specific knowledge which is often lacking, especially in developing countries. In order to scale up forest restoration, experimental data on the responses of native species to propagation and restoration treatments across a range of local conditions are required. In this research, the study of all the native species and the climate they required is done. Moreover, the importance of these species to the Forest Ecosystem has been mentioned and how they help Forest Ecosystem has explained. In this research, studies of those species affecting the Forest Habitat are discussed and the Human Activities that are affecting Forest Ecosystem. These results can help to restore and improve the forest condition. This data can be used to inform restoration planning, helping to identify suitable species and so enhance the biodiversity and resilience of restored forests. It can also help recognize all the factors affecting Forest Ecosystem and the solutions that can help cure the problems.
Research
Full-text available
The use of native species in forest restoration has been increasingly recognized as an effective means of restoring ecosystem functions and biodiversity to degraded areas across the world. However, successful selection of species adapted to local conditions requires specific knowledge which is often lacking, especially in developing countries. In order to scale up forest restoration, experimental data on the responses of native species to propagation and restoration treatments across a range of local conditions are required. In this research, the study of all the native species and the climate they required is done. Moreover, the importance of these species to the Forest Ecosystem has been mentioned and how they help Forest Ecosystem has explained. In this research, studies of those species affecting the Forest Habitat are discussed and the Human Activities that are affecting Forest Ecosystem. These results can help to restore and improve the forest condition. This data can be used to inform restoration planning, helping to identify suitable species and so enhance the biodiversity and resilience of restored forests. It can also help recognize all the factors affecting Forest Ecosystem and the solutions that can help cure the problems.
Article
Present study aims to find out how evergreen tree species planted in urban parks spread to nearby wild areas. We accomplished field investigation at the Duryu Park area, Daegu, where located a transitional zone between the warm-temperate and the cool-temperate zones. From 2018 to 2019, a total of 32 floristic-sociological relevés were made. Distribution patterns of tree species connected into habitat conditions were explored by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). 10 tree species dispersed spontaneously in the study area were recognized; Nandina domestica, Euonymus fortunei, E. japonicus, Quercus acuta, Q. glauca, Q. phillyraeoides, Elaeagnus pungens, Ligustrum japonicum, Osmanthus heterophyllus, and Ilex cornuta. Most of these trees were the preferentially ornamental plants introduced in the park since 1977 and mainly bird dispersal seeds. Q. glauca and L. japonicum appeared the most predominant dispersion. Their micro-habitats are the much humid and warmer stands of the deciduous broad-leaved forests mainly. We concluded that urban gardening has been also an important agent to recover the native vegetation if introducing potential natural vegetation (PNV). The habitat-based PNV in the Daegu area arose as a critical issue for further understanding.
Article
A great earthquake hit the Tohoku District, eastern Japan, on March 11th 2011. This Great East Japan Earthquake including great tsunami that followed claimed the lives of about 20,000 people, though we made best possible prediction and preparation for natural disasters with full use of the newest science and technologies. Tide prevention forests of pine trees alone did not serve the purpose, but not a tree from the local potential natural vegetation fell in the earthquake and the tsunami. In order to survive in such flat areas, it is essential to build high coastal levees with native forests of indigenous tree species. Most of the debris from disaster areas is ecologically an earth resource. After removing poisonous materials, debris should be utilized to make well aerated mounds along the 300 km-long coasts of disaster areas. Saplings of native tree species with fully developed root systems are planted mixed and densely on the mounds. They will grow to form tsunami-preventing native forests a “Great Wall of Forests”. This afforestation on embankments should spread as a government project and a national movement.
Article
Full-text available
Reforestation is an effective way to alleviate deforestation and its negative impacts on ecosystem services. It is widely recognized that the most key step for reforestation is using suitable native species, but selecting suitable native tree species is much more complex and challenging than the selection of non-native tree species that have been widely used for reforestation. Here, we quantify whether the native tree species ( Bombax ceiba ) can be suitable for performing reforestation to restore a 0.2 km ² highly degraded tropical monsoon forest in Baopoling Mountain (BPL), Sanya, China, due to 20 years of limestone mining for cement production. We found that stomatal closure helped Bombax ceiba develop higher drought stress tolerance than the most dominant native tree species ( Bridelia tomentosa ) in an undisturbed tropical rainforest in BPL, thereby better adapting well to drought stress in the dry season. These characteristics in turn facilitated it to have high survival rate (92% ± 4%) and fast growth rate, after three years of monoculture in BPL . Thus, Bombax ceiba is very suitable for performing reforestation to recover highly degraded tropical forests in Hainan Island, China.
Article
Cities are at crossroads, confronting challenges posed by increasing population growth, climate change and faltering livability. These problems are prompting urban areas to chart novel path towards adapting sustainable production/consumption strategies. The alluring concept of circular economy (CE) that focuses on reuse and recycling of materials in technical and biological cycles to reduce waste generation is a critical intervention. Present article aims on precisely highlighting the importance of biogenic materials with immense potential to be transformed into a source of value in an urban ecosystem. It also sets out to explore the scope of implementing ‘urban biocycles’ that strategically directs the flow of resources, their use, extracting value in the form of nutrients, energy and materials post consumption within an urban metabolic regime. The concepts discussed contribute to biocycle economy by outlining emerging requirements, identification of common strategies, policies and future areas of research in line with sustainable development goals.
Article
The effects of different afforestation methods on the soil quality of the woodland was discussed. This paper took several afforestation lands reformed by four Miyawaki Methods and one traditional method respectively and an untransformed woodland in Nanhai District, Foshan City, China as the research objects, and conducted the comparative analysis on the soil physical, chemical characteristics and biological characteristics of different woodlands. The results showed that the average coverage of understory shrub layer and herbaceous layer of each type of reformed woodland from large to small was GX3> GX2>CT>GX1>GX4>CK. The change of the biomass of herbaceous layer was consistent with the total biomass, and the order from large to small both was GX2>GX3>GX1>CT>GX4>CK. There was no significant difference in the effects of different afforestation methods on soil physical properties. The Miyawaki Method 2 afforestation land had the highest soil organic matter content. The Miyawaki Method 3 afforestation land had the highest soil total nitrogen, available nitrogen and available potassium content, the number of the bacteria, fungus and actinomycetes and soil enzyme activities. The traditional method afforestation land had the highest soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus content. The analysis results of principal component showed that the comprehensive index of soil quality in different afforestation methods was: GX3>GX1>GX2>CT>GX4>CK, which indicated that the transformation could improve the soil quality effectively, and the transformation efficiency in the Miyawaki Method 3 was the best. So the transformation efficiency should be mainly considered in the transformation practice.
Chapter
Geobotany or Vegetation Science is the discipline that attempts to document and understand spatial and temporal patterns of diversity in the world of plants and vegetation. Diversity has evolved into a key word in ecological but also geobotanical research, and so the introductory part draws attention to some aspects of biodiversity: The present-day biodiversity of the earth is reflected from a palaeoecological viewpoint. The natural diversity of climate, geodiversity and biodiversity constitute the treasures of the present global ecosystems. So, biodiversity is a concept of different aspects: Structural biodiversity of life forms, functional biodiversity of ecosystems and production, and evolutionary diversity of long-term and short-term evolution. We share our planet Earth with countless other creatures—today about 1.75 million species of animals, plants and microorganisms are registered, and we know that many more species exist: perhaps between 10 and 100 million species. However, a portion will go extinct before even being discovered. We use uncountable services of nature in our daily lives: air, water, soil, food and energy for our existence—absolutely for free. By the destruction and overexploitation of natural habitats by human activity, the number of today’s known species on earth decreased by about 40 % between 1970 and 2000: a decline of nearly a half in just 30 years! This led to the creation of the term “The Sixth Extinction” to describe the crisis on our planet. With that background, some aspects of global problems in the twenty-first century are discussed and, finally, the role that Geobotanical research could play at the beginning of this new century is outlined.
Article
The Sierra Nevada (S Spain) constitutes a unique mountain system among Mediterranean high mountains for its richness in endemic species. The ski station on the mountain has strongly altered the landscape, making necessary measures for vegetation recovery. Several experiments were made under controlled conditions (pH, temperature, light and soil) using seeds from some native shrubs plants of Sierra Nevada and Betic Sierras. In this research, we tested the combined effects of light and plant hormones on germination of these species using a specific pH value, which is characteristic in the soils of Sierra Nevada. The seeds were pretreated with different concentrations of known hormonal growth regulators and different conditions of light and temperature. Germination, rooting, and seedling growth was monitored in all plants. The exogenous application of hormonal growth regulators combined with light affected germination in all the study species. The application of the study growth hormones improved growth of the shoot, and/or root, confirming its suitability for restoring plant cover. It is expected that, when transferred to the field, these treatments might be an effective aid for plant recruitment in recovery programs.
Article
Ecological devastation is becoming a serious problem locally to globally, inproportion as people seek affluent living circumstances. Environmental devastation originated mainly from nature exploitation and construction of cities and industrial institutions with non-biological materials. Humans have ignored the rules of nature, biodiversity and coexistence.One of the best measures we can take anywhere, in order to restore ecosystems indigenous to each region and to maintain global environments, including disaster prevention and CO2 absorption, is to restore native, multi-stratal forests following an ecological method.I would like to refer to the experimental reforestation projects based on ecological studies and their results at about 550 locations throughout Japan and in Southeast Asia, South America, and China. We have proved that it is possible to restore quasi-natural multi-stratal forest ecosystems in 20 to 30 years if we take the ecological method.
Article
Land restoration involves reconstruction of the native biota in a sustainable form. If reconstruction involves deliberate manipulation of biological organisms and the physical-chemical environment to achieve specific human goals, it qualifies as ecological engineering. Restoration which uses natural processes to achieve endpoints which are unpredictable but can be accepted because they are “natural” is not ecological engineering. In Japan a system of forest reconstruction has been developed which is based on knowledge of the potential vegetation of a site, knowledge of the methods of germination and growth of the species which compose the mature vegetation and a method of site preparation and planting. This ecological engineering approach has been used on 285 sites, in a variety of habitats, to form dense stands of vegetation to hide industrial complexes, control visual, noise and chemical pollution, stabilize soil and beaches and provide urban green space. The technique has also been used to restore tropical rain forest.
Article
Modern cities and industrial areas are standardized, built of non-biological materials such as iron, cement and petrochemicals. The most desirable life for citizens should be both mentally and physically sound, which are the basis of existence for all lives. A multistratal forest is estimated to have 25–30 times the green surface area monostratal grass. With underground organic compounds, multistratal forests also contribute to the reduction of CO2. Building facilities can be completed in short term with economic backing. But it takes biological time to regenerate a multistratal forest using living green construction materials. It is urgent to start the restoration and reconstruction of native green environments immediately. To form green environments of multistructure using plants, it is necessary to systematize the data from field investigations and to follow the scientific scenario based on potential natural vegetation. We propose the restoration of native forests, which function as disaster-prevention and environmental-preservation forests in urban and pre-urban areas. Native forests grow well with no management. With the ecological technique 600 sites have been successfully revegetated in the Japanese Archipelago, in Malaysia, Melaka, Kuala Lumpur, and Bangkok in Southeast Asia, and in Belem, Brazil, and Concepcion, Chile in South America.
Article
Contributions from the Department of Vegetation Science, Institute of Environmental Science & Technology, Yokohama Natlonal University No.118. Urbanization and Industrialization, and environmental problems are two sides of a single issue. Expansion of a new industrial base should be allowed only when the living environment of its vicinity is to be better re-created and perennially guaranteed. In more specific terms, formation of Environmental Protection Forest is recommended. Environmental Protection Forest is diverse and stable in nature, and biologically represents the integral of a given region's indigenous natural environment, upon which human life is profoundly dependent. Since the climate of the Japanese Archipelago is temperate and rainy, more than 95% of the land was covered with woods and forests. The woods and forests which mainly occupied the southern half of the country were evergreen broad-leaved forests dominated by Castanopsis, Persea (Machilus), evergreen Querrus etc. In the northern half, they were summergreen broad-leaved forcsts dominated by Fagus and Quercus (deciduous species). Man migrated to the Archipelago approximately 2000 years ago, and started to slowly cultivate land and develop industries. And now, the new civilization created by the population increase and rapid urbanization has inevitably resulted in nature destruction. such as deterioration and demolish-ment of vegetation. Although continuously destroying nature on one hand, the Japanese have created, cherished and preserved nature in certain locations, after many trials and errors over a long period of time. This is Native Forest as symbolized by the "Chinju-no-mori(Heimatwäder)" forest in and around towns and villages. "Chinju-no-mori" has been under the protection of communities' residents. In Japan, our recommendation has been widely accepted. Natural environment survey (vegetational suvey) is now a prerequiste to the construction of hydraulic, thermal, atomic and geothermal power plants, factories, industrial sites and residential complex. Also, time is ripe for making it a premise to disgnose current conditions of the greens in the vicinity concerned and compile an actual vegetation map, a base map for nature restoraction, and a potential natural vegetation map i. e. a quantitative illustration of the habitat. Realistic planning and implementation of nature preservation, restoraction and creation as represented by the Environmental Protection Forest, are neccessary. These diagnosis and proposals from the point of view of ecology and phytosociology are being adopted and utilized in the Japanese environmental policies today. Gradually, Environmental Protection Forest, a creative ecological response to an emerging new era, is taking root in various energy and industrial bases thoughout the country.
Vegetation of Japan Vegetation of Japan Kyushu Shibundo Vegeta-tion of Japan
  • Clements F E Miyawaki
  • A Fujiwara
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  • Y Okuda
  • S Sasaki
  • Y Suzuki
  • K Tsurumaki
  • K Yakushima
  • Shibundo
  • Tokyo
  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
  • S Itow
  • K Kawano
  • Y Murakami
  • Y Nakamura
  • K Ohno
  • S Okuda
  • Y Sasaki
  • K Suzuki
  • K Ohno
  • S Okuda
  • Y Sasaki
  • H Shimizu
  • S Suzuki
Clements F. E. (1916) Plant Succession, an Analysis of the Develop-ment of Vegetation, vol. 1. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, Washington. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Minowa R., Mochizuki R., Murakami Y., Okuda S., Sasaki Y., Suzuki, K. & Tsurumaki K.(1980) Vegetation of Japan vol. 1. pp. 81–305 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Yakushima, Shibundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Itow S., Kawano K., Murakami Y., Nakamura Y., Ohno K., Okuda S., Sasaki Y. & Suzuki K. (1981) Vegetation of Japan. vol 2. pp. 75–422 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Kyushu Shibundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Morimoto K., Murakami Y., Nakamura Y., Okuda S., Sasaki Y., Suzuki K. & Suzuki S. (1982) Vegeta-tion of Japan. vol 3. pp. 84–479 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Shikoku, Shibundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Hada Y., Itoh S., Miyata I., Miyoshi N., Murakami Y., Nakagoshi N., Nakanishi H., Nakamura Y., Ohno K., Okuda S., Sasaki Y., Shimizu H., Suzuki S. & Toy-ohara G. (1983) Vegetation of Japan. vol 4. pp. 90–465 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Chugoku, Shi-bundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Goto S., Murakami Y., Nakagoshi N., Nakanishi S., Nakamura Y., Ohno K., Okuda S., Suganuma T., Suzuki K. & Suzuki S. (1984) Vegetation of Japan. vol 5. pp. 106–515 (In Japanese with English and German summa-ries).
Vegetation und Vegetationskarten auf den Japanischen Inseln Bulletin of Yokohama Phytosociological Soci-ety. Japan (Festschrift für Prof Energy policy and green environment on the base of ecology
  • J Cramer
  • Vaduz
  • A Miyawaki
J. Cramer, Vaduz. Miyawaki A. (1979) Vegetation und Vegetationskarten auf den Japanischen Inseln. Bulletin of Yokohama Phytosociological Soci-ety. Japan (Festschrift für Prof. R. Tüxen) 16 : 49–70. mit 2 farb. Vegetationskarte. Miyawaki A. (1981) Energy policy and green environment on the base of ecology. In: Beyond the Energy Crisis Opportunity and Challenge (eds R. A. Fazzolage & C. B. Smith) pp. 581–587.
Phytosociological study of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Bulletin of Institute of Environmental Science and Tech-nology
  • J Cramer
  • Vaduz
  • A Miyawaki
J. Cramer, Vaduz. Miyawaki A. (1982c) Phytosociological study of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Bulletin of Institute of Environmental Science and Tech-nology, Yokohama National University 8: 219–232 (in Japanese with English synopsis).
Restoration of evergreen broad-leaved forests in Pacific region The Hague. Miyawaki A. (1993) Restoration of native forests from Japan to Malaysia
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  • A Miyawaki
Eger, Hungary. Miyawaki A. (1992) Restoration of evergreen broad-leaved forests in Pacific region. In: Ecosystem Rehabilitation (ed. M. K. Wali), vol. 2, pp. 233–245. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague. Miyawaki A. (1993) Restoration of native forests from Japan to Malaysia. In: Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystem (eds H.
Vegetation of Japan Veg-etation of Japan
  • Tohoku
  • Shibundo
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  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
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  • J Kim
  • Y Murakami
  • Y Nakamura
  • K Ohno
  • S Okuda
  • Y Sasaki
  • K Sato
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  • K Suzuki
  • S Suzuki
  • H Tachibana
  • M Tohyama
  • T Tsujii
  • M Tsukada
  • Hokkaido
  • Shibundo
  • Tokyo
  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
  • K Miyagi
  • Y Murakami
  • Y Nakamura
  • K Ohno
  • T Ohno
  • S Okuda
  • Okutomi
Tohoku, Shibundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Ito K., Kim J., Murakami Y., Nakamura Y., Ohno K., Okuda S., Sasaki Y., Sato K., Shinjo H., Suzuki K., Suzuki S., Tachibana H., Tohyama M., Tsujii T. & Tsukada M. (1988) Vegetation of Japan. vol 9. pp. 158–474 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Hokkaido, Shibundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Fujiwara K., Miyagi K., Murakami Y., Nakamura Y., Ohno K., Ohno T., Okuda S., Okutomi K., Ono M., Shimizu Y., Suzuki K., Suzuki S. & Tohyama M. (1989) Veg-etation of Japan. vol 10. pp. 247–564 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Okinawa and Ogasawara, Shibundo Tokyo. Miyawaki A. (1975) Entwicklung der Umweltschtz-Pflanzungen und-Ansaaten in Japan. In: Sukuzessionsforschung (ed. R. Tüxen) Berichte Über Internationales Symposium der Internation-alen Vereinigung für Vegetationskunde, pp. 237–254.
Forest types in East Asia and their dynamics under human impact
  • Wooseok Publishing
  • Seoul
  • A Miyawaki
Wooseok Publishing, Seoul. Miyawaki A. (1989b) Forest types in East Asia and their dynamics under human impact, emphasizing the Japanese Archipelago Studies in Plant Ecology 18: 180–182.
Vegeta-tion of Japan
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  • J Kim
  • S Kim
  • H Matsui
  • Y Matsuda
  • M Minamikawa
  • Y Murakami
  • Y Nakamura
  • K Ohno
  • S Okuda
  • Y Sasaki
  • T Shimizu
  • K Suzuki
  • S Suzuki
  • M Tohyama
  • K Wada
Kinki, Shibundo, Tokyo. Miyawaki A., Aizawa Y., Fujiwara K., Hukushima T., Kim J., Kim S., Matsui H., Matsuda Y., Minamikawa M., Murakami Y., Nakamura Y., Ohno K., Okuda S., Sasaki Y., Shimizu T., Suzuki K., Suzuki S., Tohyama M. & Wada K. (1985) Vegeta-tion of Japan. vol 6. pp. 96–521 (In Japanese with English and German summaries). Chubu, Shibundo, Tokyo. 90 A. Miyawaki Ecological Research (2004) 19 : 83–90
Vegetation of Japan Kyushu Shibundo
  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
  • S Itow
  • K Kawano
  • Y Murakami
  • Y Nakamura
  • K Ohno
  • S Okuda
  • Y Sasaki
  • K Suzuki
A reforestation project of lowland forest in Brazilian Amazon - Growth behavior in ten years Abstracts of 45th Symposium of IAVS
  • A Miyawaki
  • S Abe
Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen im OzeGahara-Moor, Mittel-Japan. The National Parks Association of Japan
  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
Planting experiments for the restoration of tropical rainforest in Southeast Asia and a comparison with laurel forest at Tokyo Bay
  • A Miyawaki
  • S Meguro
Vegetationskundliche Untersuchung zur Schaffung von Umweltschutzwäldern um Industrie-Anlagen, Erlautert am Beispiel der 11 Fabriken der Tore-Industrie-AG
  • A Miyawaki
  • H Harada
  • K Ude
Ökologische und Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen zur Schaffung von Umweltschutzwäldern in den Industrie-Gebieten Japans
  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
  • Y Nakamura
  • M Kimura
Native forest by native trees-restoration of indigenous forest ecosystem. (Reconstruction of environmental protection forest by Prof. Miyawaki’s Method) Bulletin of Institute of Environmental Science and Technology
  • A Miyawaki
  • K Fujiwara
  • M Ozawa
A vegetation-ecological study on regeneration and restoration of vegetation
  • Miyawaki
Ökologische und Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen zur Schaffung von Umweltschutzwäldern in den Industrie-Gebieten Japans
  • Miyawaki
Native forest by native trees-restoration of indigenous forest ecosystem. (Reconstruction of environmental protection forest by Prof. Miyawaki's Method)
  • Miyawaki
Phytosociological study of East Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • Miyawaki
Forest types in East Asia and their dynamics under human impact, emphasizing the Japanese Archipelago
  • Miyawaki