Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis
Department of Exercise and Nutrition Science, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.Critical reviews in food science and nutrition (Impact Factor: 5.18). 11/2012; 52(11):980-7. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.516034
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and characterized by neurological and cognitive manifestations. The disease is more common in populations living in high altitudes with low sun exposure, women more than men, and certain ethnic backgrounds more than others. The etiology of MS is yet unknown, although several factors have been implicated in its development. These include genetic factors and environmental factors as well as dietary components and their interactions. Among the dietary components that have recently attracted the attention is vitamin D. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the potential use of vitamin D in the protection and treatment of MS. In addition, the mechanism(s) by which vitamin D plays a role in the development and/or protection from MS are discussed.
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- "the optic nerve as in MS (Nebbioso et al., 2013). There are many in vitro and in vivo studies supporting the immuno-modulative effects of vitamin D in the treatment of ON (Ho et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown that the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the eye is able to modulate inflammatory responses. In fact, it has been demonstrated that topical administration of vitamin D3 inhibits Langerhans cells migration from the central cornea, corneal neovascularization, and production of cytokines (i.e. interleukin-1-6-8) in experimental animals. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that vitamin D is a potent inhibitor of retinal neovascularization. It has been shown that calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D, inhibits angiogenesis both in cultured endothelial cells and in retinas from guinea pigs with retinoblastoma or oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy. In addition, it seems that this compound is able to prevent the progression from early to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and, at the same time, to down-regulate the characteristic inflammatory cascade at the retinal pigment epithelium-choroid interface due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Furthermore, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogue, 2-methylene-19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, are able to modulate intraocular pressure (IOP) through gene expression. Several studies have suggested a role in glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy therapies for vitamin D3. In conclusion, this review summarizes our current knowledge on the potential use of vitamin D3 in the protection and treatment of ocular diseases in ophthalmology.
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- "The relationship of vitamin D with the immune system is being intensely discussed. It has been shown that vitamin D induces immune tolerance [Weiss, 2011], vitamin D deficiency being related to the development of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis [Ho et al. 2012; Holmøy et al. 2012, Weinstock-Guttman et al. 2012], "
ABSTRACT: The extraskeletal effects of vitamin D have attracted considerable interest. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D may affect glucose homeostasis, vitamin D levels having been found to be inversely related to glycosylated hemoglobin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In addition, vitamin D appears to protect from the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim was to study levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and the relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 25(OH)D3 levels were measured in a group of 120 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. The same measurements were performed in a group of 120 control subjects of the same age and sex. 25(OH)D3 was measured by radioimmunoassay and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in the diabetes mellitus type 2 patients than in the control group, being 19.26 ± 0.95 ng/ml and 25.49 ± 1.02 ng/ml, in the patient and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). 25(OH)D3 levels were found to be inversely associated with HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.058, linear regression). 25(OH)D3 levels were found to be inversely associated with HbA1c when the patient and control groups were analysed together (p < 0.001, r (2) = 0.086). Vitamin D levels appeared to be lower in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients than in the control group, vitamin D levels being related to glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2. These findings may have therapeutic implications as cautious vitamin D supplementation may improve glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the recent data on the role of vitamin D (VD) in the genesis of various immunological disorders. It inhibits immune reactions in general, but it enhances the transcription of 'endogenous antibiotics' such as cathelicidin and defensins. VD inhibits the genesis of both Th1- and Th2-cell mediated diseases. The pleiotropic character VD-induced effects are due to the altered transcription of hundreds of genes. VD supplementation in most related studies reduced the prevalence of asthma. Th1-dependent autoimmune diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Type 1 diabetes, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and so on) are also inhibited by VD due to inhibition of antigen presentation, reduced polarization of Th0 cells to Th1 cells and reduced production of cytokines from the latter cells. VD seems to also be a useful adjunct in the prevention of allograft rejection. Last but not least, VD supplementation may be useful in the prevention or adjunct treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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