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Students' of Color and European American Students' Stigma‐Relevant Perceptions of University Instructors

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Students' of Color and European American Students' Stigma‐Relevant Perceptions of University Instructors

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Abstract

In classrooms students of color may experience stigma (i.e., concern about being stereotyped) because negative stereotypes of their intellect are salient. Two studies included African American, European American, and Latina/Latino female and male undergraduates. Study 1 (n= 86) demonstrated while students of color generally had positive expectations of teachers, their expectations declined when imagining class with a European American instructor who would repeatedly versus never evaluate their work or an ethnically matched instructor across conditions. Study 2 (n= 136) revealed all students had more positive expectations of culturally tolerant versus culturally intolerant instructors. Students of color more than European American students perceived that intolerant instructors could grade them unfairly. We discuss implications for ethnically diverse classrooms.

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... Despite the 50 years that have passed, the faculty in U.S. schools and colleges remains largely White (Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Gaines, 2004;Jones, 1997;Keller & Manzo, 2003), and the issues identified by hooks in the above quote remain relevant today. Students of colorÕs interactions with White faculty take place in the context of a society with a history of racial prejudice and discrimination towards students of color in educational settings. ...
... Even at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUÕs), African-American students reported feeling that although all faculty on campus were equally competent, African-American faculty were better able to mentor them (Chism & Satcher, 1998). At Predominantly White Institutions (PWIÕs), interactions with White faculty sometimes, in and of themselves, evokes fear and trepidation among students of color (e.g., Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Cohen, Steele, & Ross, 1999;Walters, Shepperd, & Brown, submitted), and this relationship occurs in an atmosphere of distrust (Cohen & Steele, 2002). Brown (1998) reports that students of color reported more concern regarding a hypothetical interaction with a White faculty member, especially if that interaction was going to be in an evaluative context that had consequences for the student (Brown & Dobbins, 2004). ...
... At Predominantly White Institutions (PWIÕs), interactions with White faculty sometimes, in and of themselves, evokes fear and trepidation among students of color (e.g., Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Cohen, Steele, & Ross, 1999;Walters, Shepperd, & Brown, submitted), and this relationship occurs in an atmosphere of distrust (Cohen & Steele, 2002). Brown (1998) reports that students of color reported more concern regarding a hypothetical interaction with a White faculty member, especially if that interaction was going to be in an evaluative context that had consequences for the student (Brown & Dobbins, 2004). ...
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Brown v. Board of Education was focused on eliminating racial stigma and creating greater racial equity in education. Unfortunately, racial and ethnic stigma is still a powerful force in educational institutions of all kind. In this manuscript, I review the ways that stigma impedes academic performance, shapes the classroom climate and student–teacher relationships, and is a powerful influence on students’ developing identities and identifications. Current efforts to create greater educational equity need to focus at least some of their attention on the issue of stigma and its role in educational performance and outcomes. Finally, strategies for reducing racial and ethnic stigma in the classroom are discussed.
... A diverse teaching staff may better enable students of color to feel that their teachers will be fair (Ancis, Sadlacek, & Mohr, 2000;Brown & Dobbins, 2004) -perceptions which are not unjustified. ...
... However, there is much that white teachers can do to effectively divert fears among students of color. Simple affirmations to students of color about teachers" confidence in them (Cohen & Steele, 2002) or teachers" statements affirming their interest in cultural diversity (Brown & Dobbins, 2004) can have a substantial calming effect on students" fears. Increasing the racial and ethnic diversity of the teaching force is not a strategy that can stand alone. ...
... Part of the importance of having at least some teachers of the same racial or ethnic background as students is that students of color do not fear that teachers of their own ethnic background have lower expectations of them than their white peersthis affirmation is assumed until demonstrated otherwise (Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Casteel, 2000;Galguera, 1998;Wout et al., in press). However, white teachers can destigmatize their classrooms and more deeply engage their students of color through a simple, explicit affirmation of their belief in the abilities of all students (Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Cohen, Steele, & Ross, 1999;Wout et al., in press). ...
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The empirical literature from education, psychology, and sociology is reviewed in order to identify strategies with demonstrated effectiveness in improving either the educational outcomes of students of color, interethnic relations in schools and colleges, or both. The conceptual framework for this review identifies eight core themes that can guide policy and change efforts in this area: (a) the need to explicitly and directly address issues of aversive and institutional racism, (b) the importance of conceiving of schools as agents of change, (c) the importance of leadership in setting a school or district tone, (d) the paradox that strategies for improving the educational outcomes for students of color can only be achieved by focusing on race and ethnicity, but the outcome of these efforts benefit all students, (e) the goals of improving interethnic relations and the educational outcomes of students of color are linked (in that improving one improves the other), (f) the need to explicitly affirm one's confidence in the abilities of students of color, (g) the importance of creating opportunities for the development of a strong, positive racial or ethnic identity, and (h) the need to create settings in which students feel connected to school through their relationships with peers and teachers.
... The need to understand the impact of racial and ethnical diversity on the higher education context has attracted more interest on the part of educational leaders and scholars over the last three decades than at any other point in recorded history (Richardson & Skinner, 1990;Maruyam, Moreno, 2000;Gudeman & Harvey, 2000;Marin, 2000). The research literature is broad in scope, covering issues ranging from the impact of institutional climate on minority status student development (Hurtado, 1992;Springer, et al., 1995;Hurtado, Carter, & Kardia, 1998) to educational and democratic benefits of racial and ethnic diversity (Bok & Burkhart, 1999;Milem, 2001;Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002;Chang, Astin, & Kim, 2004;Antonio, et al., 2004); from faculty perceptions of and attitudes toward the enactment of racial and ethnic diversity (Green, 1998;Bahr, 2000;Marin, 2000;Aleman, 2002; to learning styles and language issues in the racially and ethnically diverse classroom (Wolfgang, 2001;Le Roux, 2001;De Vita, 2001); from the impact of race and ethnicity on teaching methods (Marin, 2000) to ways teacher can prepare for the racially and ethnically diverse classroom (Wolfgang, 2001;Le Roux, 2001;Brown & Dobbins, 2004). One key reason for this high level of interest is that it is important to understand the opportunities and challenges such an environment presents for teaching and learning. ...
... Challenges that racial and ethnic diversity present in the higher education context include, but are not limited to, language comprehension (Sandu, 1994;Adger, Christian, & Taylor, 1999;Wolfgang, 2001;Le Roux, 2001;De Vita, 2001), academic quality (Richardson & Skinner, 1990;Astin, 1992;Moore, 2004), the intellectual stigma felt by minority-status students, which inhibits their performance (Le Roux, 2001;Brown & Dobbins, 2004), prejudice and stereotypes across racial and ethnic boundaries (e.g., the prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes European American professors and students hold toward minority-status students, and vise versa) (Epps, 1995;Le Roux, 2001;Rothschild, 2003;Brown & Dobbins, 2004), and lastly how faculty members make use of effective teaching methods to overcome these challenges (Combs, 1978;Blake & Others, 1989;Sandhu, 1994;Epps, 1995;De Vita, 2001;Brown & Dobbins, 2004). While the racially and ethnically diverse learning environment provides enormous possibilities for enriched discussions (Terenzi, Cabrera, Colbeck, Bjorklund, & Parente, 2002;Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002, the challenges that it presents to teaching and learning, particularly in the classroom, must be identified and addressed if its benefits are to be maximized, because "cultural pluralism places increasing demands on the resources and skills of classroom teachers" (Inoue, & Johnson, 2000, p.2). ...
... Challenges that racial and ethnic diversity present in the higher education context include, but are not limited to, language comprehension (Sandu, 1994;Adger, Christian, & Taylor, 1999;Wolfgang, 2001;Le Roux, 2001;De Vita, 2001), academic quality (Richardson & Skinner, 1990;Astin, 1992;Moore, 2004), the intellectual stigma felt by minority-status students, which inhibits their performance (Le Roux, 2001;Brown & Dobbins, 2004), prejudice and stereotypes across racial and ethnic boundaries (e.g., the prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes European American professors and students hold toward minority-status students, and vise versa) (Epps, 1995;Le Roux, 2001;Rothschild, 2003;Brown & Dobbins, 2004), and lastly how faculty members make use of effective teaching methods to overcome these challenges (Combs, 1978;Blake & Others, 1989;Sandhu, 1994;Epps, 1995;De Vita, 2001;Brown & Dobbins, 2004). While the racially and ethnically diverse learning environment provides enormous possibilities for enriched discussions (Terenzi, Cabrera, Colbeck, Bjorklund, & Parente, 2002;Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002, the challenges that it presents to teaching and learning, particularly in the classroom, must be identified and addressed if its benefits are to be maximized, because "cultural pluralism places increasing demands on the resources and skills of classroom teachers" (Inoue, & Johnson, 2000, p.2). ...
Article
The classroom is a dynamic social space. When faculty members and students enter that space for purposes of teaching and learning in a racially and ethnically diverse context, there are many actors that come into full participation: faculty members, students, the curriculum, cultural and ethnic diversity, challenges associated with racial and ethnic diversity such as culturally-based learning styles, prejudices and stereotypes, expectations between faculty and students, among other things. The extent to which faculty members are effective in conducting their instructional roles is impacted by their awareness of the classroom dynamic, the opportunities and challenges it provides for teaching and learning, and how adequately they are prepared to overcome the effects of the challenges and optimize the teaching and learning opportunities. This dissertation set out to explore, using faculty experience (in number of years), how culturally-based learning styles/preferences impacted faculty instructional roles: how faculty perceived their roles, their choice and use of course content, and their choice and use of teaching and evaluation methods. To gather such data, forty out of seventy faculty members teaching in one of the most racially and ethnically diverse higher education institutions in the continental United States responded to a survey, and fifteen were interviewed. The result shows that while teaching experience is important to understanding a classroom context, in the racially and ethnically diverse classroom, numbers are not an adequate measure of experience. Experience involves understanding and adequately responding to the racially and ethnically diverse classroom. It consists of intellectual, personal, and relational dimensions. To acquire these, faculty must be committed to acquiring self-knowledge first, and then understanding their need to develop sensibilities for understanding and interacting with race and ethnicity. This yields credibility with students and, eventually, instructional effectiveness. Except for a few instances, years of teaching experience in the racially and ethnically diverse classroom did not have direct affect on how faculty perceived and performed their instructional roles, and faculty preferred to view their commitment to racial and ethnic diversity as a better measure of experience rather than the number of years they have taught in such contexts.
... Perceivers can then use these stereotypes to make inferences and create behavioral expectations of these other people. Similarly, meta-stereotypes, people's beliefs regarding the stereotypes that outgroup members hold of their ingroup, enable people to make inferences and expectations about others who are likely to stereotype them (Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Sigelman & Tuch, 1997;Vorauer, Hunter, Main, & Roy, 2000;Vorauer & Kumhyr, 2001;Vorauer, Main, & O'Connell, 1998). Blacks and other ethnic minorities expect Whites to stereotype them as being aggressive, lazy, and unintelligent (Sigelman & Tuch, 1997;Brown, 1998). ...
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Research on stereotype threat has demonstrated that when targets are forced to contend with the threat of being negatively stereotyped, their academic performance suffers (C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995). The present research explored how the targets of negative stereotypes determine when they must contend with this threat. Across 5 experiments, the authors manipulated both the possibility and probability that Black and female students would be stereotyped as unintelligent prior to taking an analytical test. Collectively, these experiments showed that these students contended with stereotype threat only when they perceived that it was both possible and probable that they would be negatively stereotyped. The authors discuss the implications of these findings on the experience of being the target of negative stereotypes and on the academic achievement of Blacks and women.
... In one study, West Indian teachers were found to be remarkably understanding to their West Indian students' cultural needs such as lack of parental involvement and difficulties with adult-child eye contact (Warikoo, 2004). Several other works within the US context found that minority students, for their part, perceive minority teachers as "fairer" than majority group teachers, rate them more favorably and experience less stereotype threat (Auerbach, 2007;Brown and Dobbins, 2004;Cherng and Halpin, 2016;Quiocho and Rios, 2000;Tatum, 2004). Indeed, when describing retrospectively their school experiences, many Latino young adults in graduate degrees recounted the importance of having minority teachers who could understand their immigrant backgrounds (Louie, 2012). ...
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Purpose- Minority teachers is a growing phenomenon that is encouraged as part of a quest to diversify teaching staff. Among minority teachers, there exists a group of boundary-crossing teachers whose "otherness" contrasts with the different student population and/or staffroom composition. The study aims to examine parent, teacher and student attitudes toward teachers crossing two types of "borders" that are central to Israeli society: the Jewish-Arab rift and the religious-secular rift. Design/methodology/approach- A representative sample of 182 Jewish Israeli parents, 201 Jewish Israeli students grades 10-12 and 101 Jewish Israeli teachers completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes toward boundary-crossing teachers. Findings-The overall attitudes toward cross-boundary teaching were positive. Attitudes were found to be associated with political affiliation, religiosity and age. The more left-wing participants were, the less religious and older the more they supported boundary-crossing teaching. Students were significantly less supportive of teachers crossing the Jewish-Arab divide compared with adults. The attitudes toward boundary-crossing ultra-orthodox teachers in a secular school showed a distinct pattern, as it received support from all divides of the research participants. Social implications-The findings point to the vicious cycle of segregation in Israeli society whereby the lack of contact between Jews and Arabs leads to intergroup anxiety which in turns leads to less support in further contact through boundary-crossing teaching, especially among high school students. Originality/value-The minority teachers' literature often refers to the need to diversify the teaching staff or examines teachers and their relations with students. This study if the first to examine how other stakeholders' view the idea of minority teachers.
... Converging evidence was provided by Brown and Dobbins (2004) who found that students of color held higher performance expectations and expected a fair evaluation in class when they anticipated evaluation by an instructor of the same ethnicity. In contrast, students of color held lower performance expectations when they anticipated evaluation by a European-American instructor. ...
... Ethnic minorities' expectations that Whites will perceive them negatively can have serious negative consequences. For instance, Black students' expectations that Whites will perceive them negatively can affect their academic performance, their sense of academic belonging, and their willingness to interact with White students and teachers (Brown & Dobbins, 2004;Mendoza-Denton, Downey, Purdie, Davis, & Pietrak, 2002;Sekaquaptewa & Thompson, 2003;Steele & Aronson, 1995;Walton & Cohen, 2007;Wout, Shih, Jackson, & Sellers, 2009). Thus, it is imperative for researchers to identify factors that might moderate these intergroup expectations. ...
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Prior research suggests that people expect to be perceived negatively in interracial interactions but positively in intraracial interactions. The present research demonstrates that an interaction partner's racial network of friends can moderate these expectations in interracial interactions but not intraracial interactions. Across two experiments, we led Black and White college students to believe they would have conversation with a White student on campus. The results revealed that Black students expected to be perceived more positively and anticipated a less challenging conversation, when their interaction partner had a racially diverse network of friends compared to a racially homogeneous network of friends. In contrast, White students expected to be perceived positively and anticipated few challenges in the conversation, regardless of their interaction partner's racial network of friends. The implications of racial friendship diversity are discussed.
... Having instructors who ethnically match students is a way to minimize stereotype threat, but Brown and Dobbins (2004) note that the key factor is for students to believe the teacher is culturally aware and nonbiased. Madni (2008) put it this way, "What is of utmost importance is that the individuals aiding ethnically diverse students are culturally sensitive, competent, and aware" (p. ...
Article
Patrons avoid asking librarians for help for a variety of psychosocial reasons. These include academic goal orientation; degree of self-regulation; perceived threats to autonomy or self-esteem; desire to avoid being stereotyped; perceptions of librarians; and feelings of confusion, fear, or anxiety. Educational psychologists and college student services professionals have published research on help seeking that is directly relevant to library patrons’ behaviors. This review summarizes literature on the educational psychology of help seeking, help seeking in college student services, interpersonal dimensions of library reference services, library anxiety, the effect of librarian behaviors on patrons’ perceptions of help received, and preliminary findings on help seeking in online settings.
... Third, regardless of whether an instructor is actually sexist, the mere suggestion of sexism may be suYcient to harm evaluations of the instructor. People exposed to the suggestion may perceive the instructor to be less fair, less warm, or less eVective than people who are not exposed to the suggestion (see Brown & Dobbins, 2004). The importance of this outcome lies in its potential to interfere with the instructor-student relationship. ...
Article
This research investigates the hypothesis that the mere suggestion of sexism can harm women’s experience of an instruction situation. Across three experiments, women exposed to the suggestion about the sexism of a male instructor reported a less positive experience, performed worse on a logic test, and rated the instructor as less competent than did women who were not exposed to the suggestion. The same harmful consequences did not befall men, even when they were potential targets of the alleged sexism. To interpret results, the authors emphasize the concept of social identity threat: the concern that one will be the target not only of stereotypes about inferiority, but also a more general hostility based on a salient social identity. Results suggest the need to expand conceptions of discrimination to include systemic forms of identity threat that can be sufficient to produce harm, even in situations where differential treatment is initially absent.
... One aspect of this is for librarians and everyone else on a campus to be culturally tolerant. Sharing ethnic background with an instructor can be a factor in student-teacher interactions, but a student believing a teacher or librarian is culturally aware and non-biased is also important (Brown & Dobbins, 2004). The implication for librarians is that we all need to develop intercultural expertise. ...
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Engagement with diverse perspectives helps individuals learn more deeply and broadly. Diversity can include not only race and ethnicity, but also language, religion, ideology, physical ability, culture, cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and sexual orientation. Since much instruction is designed for groups of students with individual strengths and weaknesses, it is a challenge to be responsive to diversity in educationally sound ways. This column introduces important insights from educational psychology on how to use diversity to enhance critical thinking, help make students feel at home in their learning environment, encourage learners to challenge assumptions, and design instruction to meet diverse students’ needs.
... This is in line with Bradley-Geist, Rivera, and Geringer's (2015) experimental study, which found that merely observing or interacting with a male interviewer's sexist behaviours toward female job applicants can deteriorate career aspiration in female participants. The suggestion of sexism can create a threat in the air (Steele, 1997), make the situation less comfortable for the target persons (Hyde & Kling, 2001), and may be sufficient to produce less positive interaction (Brown & Dobbins, 2004). This may lead women to avoid interacting with their supervisors and have lowered career aspiration. ...
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Few studies have examined the linkage of perceived sexism with stereotype threat and psychological responses in a work setting and moderators that may buffer this negative effect. In Study 1, the relationships among perceived sexism, stereotype threat, and psychological responses were explored among Thai female employees ( N = 296) in a self-report questionnaire study. The aim of Study 2 was to investigate whether mindfulness can mitigate the disastrous effect of sexism on performance, using an experimental design. In Study 1, the standard error of measurement (SEM) results observed a partial mediation effect of stereotype threat for the sexism-disidentification relationship, and sexism only had a significant direct effect on career aspirations. In Study 2, the interaction effect of sexism × mindfulness on the female participants’ reasoning test scores was significant, indicating that those with mindfulness practice performed better when being exposed to sexist behaviours. The current research provides additional information on understanding the impact of sexism on disengagement and decreased career aspirations among Thai female employees in male-dominated industries. In practice, Thai organisations should be concerned about the impact of sexism on disengagement and the protective factor of performance decrements by encouraging anti-sexist norms and fostering the cultivation of mindfulness through practice.
... Fairness and equality are of paramount importance in educational contexts (Capone and Petrillo 2016), and so teachers, who are responsible for students' value system, are expected to observe fairness and treat their students equally (Babad 2009). This aim is not always fully achieved since teachers have a tendency to exhibit preferential treatment toward specific students (Brown and Dobbins 2004). Among the factors that undermine the fundamental social values of fairness, Teacher's Pet Phenomenon (TPP) is perhaps the most potent and noteworthy (Babad 2009). ...
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The teacher’s pet phenomenon is generally regarded as a negative concept by both teachers and students as it violates the principle of fairness. A careful review of the existing literature reveals that the concept of ‘teacher’s pet’ is taken for granted and therefore no inclusive definition has been provided. In response to this gap, the present paper aims to offer an inclusive definition of the concept of teacher’s pet in the Iranian higher education context, placing more emphasis on instructors’ and students’ perceptions. To this end, thirty graduate- and undergraduate students from both genders in addition to fifteen instructors were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis of the interviews yielded three master themes: (1) ‘pet’s goals’, (2) ‘advantages gained’, and (3) ‘what a teacher’s pet does’. Moreover, a number of subthemes were identified for each of the main themes. Taking the three master themes into account, a working definition is proposed. In the end, the results are discussed and implications of the proposed definition are presented.
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This dissertation explores Hispanic/Latino students’ perceptions about language association and identity, the institution, and white professors at a small Midwestern liberal arts college. Issues addressed include the origin of a stigmatized relationship between Euro-Americans and Hispanics in the U.S. and its spill into academia, negative perceptions that affect students’ performance and persistence in the university, discussing the culture of power of the institution with students as a form of sponsorship, and providing academic literacy sponsorship through an Academic Cultural Guide role. The dissertation concludes with examples of strategies I have used in the first-year writing classroom to establish transparency of my role as instructor, teach literacy narratives, and foster relationships with students to meet their academic needs.
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Using a 5-year longitudinal study, we investigated the long-term effects of courses with ethnic studies content and courses with Latino or Black professors on university students' intergroup attitudes. We found that these curricular variables significantly affected the intergroup attitudes of students beyond pre-existing differences in attitudes and beyond other curriculum variables. As expected, we found differences between ethnic groups: White students showed movement toward other groups as a result of these curricular factors, whereas Latino and African American students showed both increased tolerance toward other groups and movement toward the in-group. The results are discussed in terms of group status differences between the dominant White majority and the stigmatized Latino and Black minority groups.
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This study explores the notion that mainstream and minority institutions of higher education set different expectations for successful communication in the classroom that are reflected in the cultural majority student population's communication preferences. In this study, African-American students (N = 136) perceived their instructors to be more nonverbally immediate than their Euro-American counterparts (N = 142), regardless of instructor ethnicity. Their motives to communicate with their instructors for functional, excuse-making, and sycophantic reasons were greater than those for Euro-American students. Further, instructor verbal immediacy has a significant impact on African-American students' motives to communicate with their instructors for relational and participation purposes whereas instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy has a negative impact on Euro-American students' motives to communicate for functional purposes.
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The present study examines the experiences of 36 Black male students, in focus group interviews, enrolled at Harvard University; Michigan State University; University of California, Berkeley; University of Illinois; and the University of Michigan. Two themes emerged: (a) anti-Black male stereotyping and marginality (or Black misandry), which caused (b) extreme hypersurveillance and control. Respondents experienced racial microaggressions in three domains: (a) campus—academic, (b) campus—social, and (c) campus—public spaces. Black males are stereotyped and placed under increased surveillance by community and local policing tactics on and off campus. Across these domains, Black males were defined as being “out of place” and “fitting the description” of illegitimate nonmembers of the campus community. Students reported psychological stress responses symptomatic of racial battle fatigue (e.g., frustration, shock, anger, disappointment, resentment, anxiety, helplessness, hopelessness, and fear). There was unanimous agreement in the subjective reports that the college environment was more hostile toward African American males than other groups.
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To describe Pacific students in the first year of health sciences at tertiary level, their academic performance, and factors associated with academic outcomes. Routinely collected data for students who enrolled in the Health Sciences First Year (HSFY) programme at the University of Otago between 2007 and 2011, including their school National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA) results were obtained in anonymous form. Descriptive statistics were calculated and regression analyses were undertaken using SAS v9.2 software. A small but increasing number of Pacific students are enrolling in health sciences at tertiary level. Pacific students had poorer performance compared to non-Pacific students in both NCEA and the HSFY programme. Factors associated with academic performance were gender, NCEA results, school decile, accommodation type, ethnicity, international status and disability. Pacific students are under-represented in health sciences and would benefit from better preparation from school. Pacific solutions are required to improve academic outcomes over and above mainstream policy solutions. Tertiary institutions need to engage prospective students earlier to ensure they are well informed of requirements, and are appropriately prepared for study at the tertiary level.
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Although most studies reveal a relationship between the teacher’s pet phenomenon with classroom conflict, it does not necessarily cause classroom conflict. This study confirms the model fit for teacher authority, the existence of the teacher’s pet phenomenon and its relationship to classroom conflict and students’ self-adjustment, as well as testing the different viewpoints of three pet-student groups. Participants in the study comprised 407 5th through 8th grade students from 12 schools in Taiwan. The findings indicate that the estimated model fits the observed data; teacher authority directly affects the teacher’s pet phenomenon and indirectly affects classroom conflict and students’ self-adjustment. Non-pet students, popular-pet students, and unpopular pet students have different viewpoints of the variables. Three sub-models reveal different path effects; the inclusion of popular-pet students does not lead to classroom conflict. Implications for theory, practice, and research are discussed.
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Various initiatives have recently been launched to attract more teachers with immigrant backgrounds, under the assumption that they are better equipped to teach in multicultural contexts. However, whether teachers differ in their professional competence to cater for students with immigrant backgrounds has not yet been empirically established, and it remains unclear whether any such differences would be attributable to the teachers' own immigration background. Based on the COACTIV model of teachers' professional competence, and drawing on a sample of 433 trainee teachers with and without immigrant backgrounds, this study (a) investigated trainee teachers' enthusiasm, self-efficacy, and prejudices with respect to teaching students with immigrant backgrounds and (b) tested whether the relationship between immigration background and these variables was mediated by multicultural beliefs. Results from structural equation modeling confirmed that multicultural beliefs had an indirect effect: participants with immigrant backgrounds reported higher multicultural beliefs which were in turn associated with higher self-efficacy and enthusiasm and lower levels of prejudice.
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Background How best to serve a racially and ethnically diverse student body has been a topic of intensive theory development for the past 30 or 40 years. We have strong theoretical models regarding the need for and practice of multicultural education, the goals of which include both increased educational achievement for students of color and improved inter-group relations. Nevertheless, there are few places where one can find a broad examination of the empirical support for the influence of multicultural educational practice on either student outcomes or intergroup relations. Purpose In this article, I use James A. Banks's widely used conceptualization of the five components of multicultural educational practice—content integration, knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogies, and empowering school cultures—to examine the empirical evidence for the influence of each of these five different components on the academic outcomes of students of color and intergroup relations in schools. Conclusions The empirical research reveals that all five components of multicultural educational practice outlined by Banks to have a strong, positive impact on the educational outcomes of students of color and to improved intergroup relations, although research has been stronger in some areas (e.g., prejudice reduction and some equity pedagogies such as cooperative learning) than others (e.g., the specific effects of content integration and knowledge construction). The evidence suggests several additional conclusions: (1) Multicultural educational practice has benefit for the academic outcomes of all students, not just students of color. (2) Multicultural educational practice is most effective when implemented with careful attention to issues of race and power. (3) The academic and intergroup relations outcomes are linked, such that efforts designed to improve one improve the other. Implications for future research on the effects of multicultural educational practice on students, as well as teacher and administrator education programs, are discussed.
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African Americans represent only two percent of the professionals working in computer occupations. Many policy makers and researchers argue that the educational pipeline is the major impediment to hiring a more diverse workforce. In this chapter we review literature and use findings from our prior research to inform a discussion about the issue and challenges faced by African American male undergraduates enrolled in technology majors at HBCUs. Our work also highlights the unique role that HBCUs can play in broadening the educational pipeline through corporate partnerships and community outreach. We offer recommendations for attracting African American men to information technology, supporting them as they pursue undergraduate degrees, and providing professional development opportunities that foster successful careers in information technology. We conclude with a discussion of research trends to further understand the issue of under representation, and innovative strategies that HBCU s can adopt to broaden the participation of African American men in information technology.
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To explore how the threat of prejudice can interfere with a learner’s ability beliefs, expectancies of success and subjective task value 165 Métis post-secondary students were asked to consider themselves applying for a job with a non-Indigenous employer. Participants were grouped into high and low Métis identifiers and then placed into one of three groups: (1) Employer-prejudiced, (2) Employer non-prejudiced, and (3) Employer’s attitudes about Indigenous peoples unknown. A 2x3 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the relationship between Métis identity (high/low) and five concepts: (1) expectations about being hired, (2) value placed on being hired, (3) learners’ beliefs about the mock employer’s integrity, (4) the extent to which learner’s held negative over-generalized negative beliefs about non-Indigenous people, and (5) actual task performance. Although there were no interaction effects a number of main effects are reported. While students with a stronger sense of Métis identity reported more overall optimism about being hired that those learners with a weaker sense of Métis identity, they nevertheless reported less motivation to perform an assigned task to the best of their respective abilities. Students in the prejudiced condition reported lower expectations about being hired and less motivation to perform the assigned task to the best of their ability. Students in the prejudiced condition also reported stronger negative generalized beliefs about both the mock employer and non-Indigenous people in general. Although the students in the prejudiced condition reported less motivation to exert high effort on the assigned task, their actual performance on the task was not related to whether or not the hypothetical employer was described as prejudiced, non-prejudiced, or neither about Indigenous peoples. Future studies should explore how one’s sense of Métis identity and other minority group identity can influence reactions to a threatening academic environment and suppress academic motivation.
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The current study examines gender differences in the nature of racial discrimination experiences for Black college students and considers how different forms of discrimination may be relevant to achievement. Utilizing an intersectionality framework (Cole, 2009) this dissertation explores the possibility that as a result of their unique race-gender identities, Black men and women are likely to face qualitatively different forms of racial discrimination, and further, that these discrimination experiences relate differentially to achievement and adjustment outcomes. Data for this study were drawn from a cross-lagged survey of 403 Black college students from three universities. Results of univariate and structural path model analyses indicate significant gender differences in the nature of racial discrimination experiences for Black students. Comparisons across four types of interpersonal discrimination events indicated that men and women were equally likely to experience racial hassles in which their intellect was devalued. This type of maltreatment was related to higher reports of stress, anxiety, and depression one year later. However, men were more likely than women to experience being treated with fear and suspicion and to be overtly harassed (e.g. being insulted, called names, etc.). Gender differences in reports of discrimination also related to unique outcomes for men and women in the sample. In particular, experiences of fear/suspicions-based discrimination explained gender differences in achievement and mental health outcomes. Men were more likely to experience fear/suspicion-based discrimination, which subsequently predicted lower grade point average and higher reports of stress. These results suggest that there are important differences in the ways that Black men and women experience racial discrimination. Previous research solely examining the overall frequency of reported discrimination without regard to participant gender or the complex nature of discrimination events may not have adequately captured important nuances implicated in the achievement-related outcomes of Black students. Future research should more fully incorporate intersectional perspectives on the role of gender in race-related events in order to capture the complexity of experiences within social categories.
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Black students' participation in higher education has experienced periods of growth and decline. The recent resurgence and proliferation of racial incidents on college campuses,coupled with a floundering economy, signals a need to place this issue at the forefront of our educational agenda once again. In this article, Walter R. Allen presents the results of a quantitative study on the differences in the college experience between Black undergraduates who attended historically Black colleges and universities and those who attended predominantly White colleges and universities. Building on the results of a number of related studies and analyzing data from the National Study on Black College Students, Allen further examines the effects of key predictors on college outcomes among these two groups of students. He thus sets the stage for some provocative conclusions, with implications that extend beyond the boundaries of academia.
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Many high-prejudice individuals' personal standards suggest that they should be less prejudiced toward Blacks than they actually are. The present research revealed that these standards are derived from a sense of personal moral obligation to temper prejudice rather than from pressure from others to moderate prejudice. The authors also investigated the influence of egalitarian values on feelings of moral obligation and, ultimately, on personal standards. Although participants viewed themselves as highly egalitarian, they differed in how they conceptualized the meaning of egalitarianism. Path analysis results were consistent with the notion that high-prejudice individuals who defined egalitarian in terms of equality of opportunity feel morally obligated to temper their prejudice, which, in turn, is associated with establishing relatively low-prejudice personal standards for responding to Blacks.
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Elementary, middle, and high school student attitudes toward teacher ethnicity, bilinguality, and gender were assessed by means of student ratings of 12 hypothetical teachers. The sample consisted of 186 mostly Latino and African American students, ranging in age between 9 and 17years oldandattending eitherEnglish-only orbilingual and English-language-development classrooms in six inner-city schools. ANOVA revealed significant main effects but no interactions between any of the three within-subject variables. Students rated African American, bilingual, andfemale teachers highest. A number of between-subject variables were alsofound to have significant main effects on student attitudes, including language of response, length of U.S. residency, and current teacher's bilinguality. Evidence was found of student preference for same ethnicity teachers but only partial evidence of student preference for same bilinguality teachers. No evidence of student preference for same gender teachers was found. Practice and research implications of these findings are discussed.
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Role models have long been thought to play an important role in young peoples' development. The present study explores the ways that race- and gender-matched role models can provide young people with a greater sense of the opportunities available to them in the world. A longitudinal study of young adolescents (N = 80) revealed that students who reported having at least one race- and gender-matched role model at the beginning of the study performed better academically up to 24 months later, reported more achievement-oriented goals, enjoyed achievement-relevant activities to a greater degree, thought more about their futures, and looked up to adults rather than peers more often than did students without a race- and gender-matched role model. These effects held only for race- and gender-matched role models-not for non-matched role models. Finally, the results held irrespective of the educational achievements of the specific role model. Data are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of the ways that young people become invested in academic pursuits and the means by which we might be able to assist goal development among young people.
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develop and present evidence to support the argument that the self-generated affect that follows from violations of nonprejudiced values plays an important role in the future control and regulation of stereotype-based responses / to delineate this role of affect in people's prejudice reduction efforts, we review our theoretical and empirical efforts over the past several years / integrate and synthesize our theoretical and empirical efforts by presenting a model of the prejudice reduction process that applies to the struggles people face once they have defined prejudice as personally unacceptable / this model highlights why the joint consideration of cognitive and affective factors is important for understanding processes underlying prejudice reduction (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The processes involved in well-being maintenance among African Americans who differed in their attributions to prejudice were examined. A rejection–identification model was proposed where stable attributions to prejudice represent rejection by the dominant group. This results in a direct and negative effect on well-being. The model also predicts a positive effect on well-being that is mediated by minority group identification. In other words, the generally negative consequences of perceiving oneself as a victim of racial prejudice can be somewhat alleviated by identification with the minority group. Structural equation analyses provided support for the model and ruled out alternative theoretical possibilities. Perceiving prejudice as pervasive produces effects on well-being that are fundamentally different from those that may arise from an unstable attribution to prejudice for a single negative outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies examined the response of Black and White students to critical feedback presented either alone or buffered with additional information to ameliorate its negative effects. Black students who received unbuffered critical feedback responded less favorably than White students both in ratings of the evaluator’s bias and in measures of task motivation. By contrast, when the feedback was accompanied both by an invocation of high standards and by an assurance of the student’s capacity to reach those standards, Black students responded as positively as White students and both groups reported enhanced identification with relevant skills and careers. This “wise,” two-faceted intervention proved more effective than buffering criticism either with performance praise (Study 1) or with an invocation of high standards alone (Study 2). The role of stigma in mediating responses to critical feedback, and the implications of our results for mentoring and other teacher-student interactions, are explored.
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The purpose of this study was to examine aspects of children's social and contextual experience in schools. Children in elementary schools completed a measure designed to assess qualities of their relationships with teachers as well as their perceptions of school environments. Students were then grouped into categories based on these perceptions and comparisons were made between groups on measures of social and emotional adjustment. Findings indicated that student classifications resembled classifications reported by other researchers for student-teacher relationships. Students classified as having poor relationships with teachers and poor bonds with school had poorer scores on self- and teacher ratings of social and emotional adjustment than children classified as having positive relationships and bonds. These findings add to a growing body of research focused on understanding children's social and contextual experience in schools by providing a descriptive typology that could be used by researchers and practitioners interested in identifying students who are having nonoptimal experiences in school settings.
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This research examined the accuracy and power of sex, social class, and ethnic stereotypes in person perception. Participants included 49 to 56 teachers and nearly 2,000 students in seventh-grade public school math classes. Results indicated that teacher perceptions regarding achievement and motivation differences between girls and boys, lower- and upper-class students, and African American and White students were mostly accurate. Results also showed that although teachers generally relied on students' personal characteristics to form their perceptions, they occasionally relied on stereotypes. We discuss these results in terms of the classic view that stereotypes are inaccurate, rigid, exaggerated, and exert powerful effects on person perception.
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This article critiques trait views of stigma that suggest that membership in a negatively stereotyped group leads to low self-esteem and self-hatred, and it builds from Erving Goffman's theorizing to define stigma as the expectation of a stereotypical and discrediting judgment of oneself by others in a particular context. Students (40 of color and 46 European American) watched a videotape of a prospective teaching assistant (TA) in an experiment in which ethnic match with the TA and frequency of imagined evaluation by the TA were manipulated. Students of color envisioned less positive views of self in ongoing interactions with a European American TA who would evaluate them in the domain of the stigma. Implications for stigma theory and education are discussed. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68694/2/10.1177_0146167298242005.pdf
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Les AA. se demandent comment les afro-americains percoivent les stereotypes qui temoignent des prejuges dont ils sont victimes de la part des blancs. Ils soulignent que ces stereotypes concernent la moralite, la violence, l'intelligence, le patriotisme, la toxicomanie, l'alcoolisme, la piete, le dynamisme, l'autodiscipline et les capacites sportives. Ils presentent un certain nombre de donnees collectees aux Etats-Unis en 1991 et mettent en evidence un certain nombre de meta-stereotypes qui permettent de saisir ce type de perception des stereotypes raciaux
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Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a difficult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype about their intellectual ability. Reflecting the pressure of this vulnerability, Blacks underperformed in relation to Whites in the ability-diagnostic condition but not in the nondiagnostic condition (with Scholastic Aptitude Tests controlled). Study 3 validated that ability-diagnosticity cognitively activated the racial stereotype in these participants and motivated them not to conform to it, or to be judged by it. Study 4 showed that mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed.
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In focusing on the direct and indirect effects of certain school learning variables on the academic achievement of African American 10th graders, a model was proposed. The model considered those variables associated with student background characteristics (i.e., gender and socioeconomic status); the school (i.e., students' perceptions of the school environment, teachers, and teaching); the family (i.e., parental expectations and involvement); and students (i.e., student educational aspirations and motivation). It was tested using data from African American students who participated in the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. A revised model was developed after only socioeconomic status, prior academic achievement, and students' perceptions of teachers and teaching quality were found to have statistically significant effects on achievement.
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Five hundred and seventy‐eight African American, Asian American, Latino/a, and White undergraduates responded to a questionnaire assessing perceptions and experiences of the campus cultural climate. Results revealed significant differences between racial and ethnic groups on multiple dimensions of the campus cultural climate. African American students consistently reported significantly more racial—ethnic conflict on campus; pressure to conform to stereotypes; and less equitable treatment by faculty, staff, and teaching assistants. White students' responses reflected limited perceptions of racial—ethnic tensions and a university climate characterized by respect for diversity. Counseling implications are presented.
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The purpose of this study was to examine certain characteristics of teachers (e.g., ethnicity, gender, relationship history) and children (e.g., gender, ethnicity) that are unique to the child–teacher relationship. One hundred thirty-eight preservice teachers reported on their relationship with 903 students in kindergarten through fifth grade. Results indicated that the preservice teachers' perceived attachment history was a significant predictor of the quality of child–teacher relationships as reported by the teacher. Gender and ethnic differences were found in teachers' reports of the quality of relationships with students. Results are examined in terms of their relation to theory concerning child–adult relationships and their practical significance. Implications for teacher education are also discussed.
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Within our educational institutions today, supremism (racial superior attitudes) are a function of how schools enforce discipline, use standardized tests, select curriculum and texts, and of teacher attitudes. To illustrate the expression of supremism in American schools today, in Study 1, the authors instructed European American 4th-year teachers-in-training to estimate the grade point average (GPA) and IQ of four African American or four European American children. The GPAs and IQs of the African American children were estimated to be significantly lower than those of the EuropeanAmerican children. Study 2 showed that the racial attitudes of European American student teachers predicted their evaluation of and the pleasure they derivedfrom reading a short story or a poem supposedly written by an African American author It was concluded that old-fashioned racism remains afundamental problem at all grade levels in American schools today.
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A two-part study contrasted the utility of free-response and checklist methodologies for ascertaining ethnic and gender stereotypes. Descriptions of data collection, organization, and cluster and entropy analyses are provided. Results indicate that important differences emerge between data resulting from free-response methodology and those obtained with traditionally employed adjective checklists. These differences include the generation of a large percentage of physical descriptors and within-ethnic-group gender differences in stereotype content. A major finding is the generation of a large number of distinct responses coupled with low-frequency use of any particular response. Study 2 specifically examined whether free-response data are more schematic than checklist data. Results indicate that free-response data have a greater dependency and may thus be indicative of schematic response. This schematic response may, in turn, indicate more automatic processing than is evident with data from checklist methodologies.
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During the deliberations prior to its school desegregation decision in 1954 the Supreme Court had before it a Social Science Statement on the effects of segregation and desegregation. This article reassesses the quality of that Statement 25 years later. Key points in the Statement are compared to the results of subsequent research. Some points, e.g., no negative effect on the school achievement of white students, have been supported. Others, e.g., improvement in black self-esteem, are difficult to evaluate due to inconsistent and uninterpretable research findings. Still others, e.g., more favorable racial attitudes, cannot be compared to the research findings because desegregation was not carried out in accord with conditions that were specified as conducive to the outcomes predicted in the Statement. Much research effort has been wasted in the study of school desegregation conducted under conditions unknown to the investigator. In order to avoid such waste in the future it is suggested that investigators concentrate on innovative methods of facilitating constructive classroom desegregation. Illustrations are provided from recent research developments.
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The treatment of African American students and Caucasian American students in middle schools by Caucasian American female teachers during 32 hr of instruction in integrated classrooms was investigated. Data revealed that African American students as a group were not treated as favorably by their teachers as were Caucasian American students. Teachers interacted more positively with American Caucasian students according to nearly all 16 dependent variables of a modified version of the Brophy-Good Dyadic Coding System. Caucasian American boys, relative to all other students, received the most favorable treatment and initiated the most student-teacher contact. Conversely, African American boys, among all the groups studied, received the least favorable treatment from their teachers.
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In the present study, the idea of person-environment fit was explored for African American college students in a predominantly White university. The relationships among African American students’demographic backgrounds, beliefs regarding race (racial ideology and racial centrality), and their perceived fit in the college environment due to their ethnicity (PEF) were examined. These factors were used to predict student organizational involvement in race-specific organizations and mainstream campus organizations. Participants were 164 African American students from a predominantly White university. It was found that both the meaning of race (ideology) and the importance of race (centrality) were related to the extent to which students felt comfort in expressing their ethnicity and, subsequently, their social participation in ethnic group affirming activities. The findings suggest the importance of the students’ perceptions of congruence between themselves and their educational environment.
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This study assessed the extent to which teachers’ perceptions of their relationships with young students varied as a function of child and teacher characteristics in a large, demographically diverse sample of 197 preschool and kindergarten teachers and 840 children. Children were approximately evenly divided between boys and girls. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation between teachers’ perceptions of their relationships with students and (a) teacher ethnicity, (b) child age, ethnicity, and gender, and (c) the ethnic match between teacher and child. Child age and ethnicity and teacher-child ethnic match were consistently related to teachers’ perceptions, explaining up to 27% of the variance in perceptions of negative aspects of the teacher-child relationship, specifically teacher-child conflict. When child and teacher had the same ethnicity, teachers rated their relationships with children more positively. The results are discussed in terms of classroom social processes related to children’s adjustment and the measurement of teacher-child relationships.
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Student alienation from school is a major cause of dropping out of high school and poor teacher-student relationships are often cited in describing student alienation. An under-studied aspect of poor teacher-student relationships is student perception that teachers treat some students differently because of the student's ethnicity. Previous studies on this topic have been isolated to dropouts and minority students, and have been conducted using small numbers of participants. Thus, it is unknown what the prevalence of such perceptions in the overall student population are, as well as perception differences by dropout status and ethnicity. The present study addressed these issues by utilizing a large-scale dropout database to describe student perception of teacher ethnic bias in Mexican American and non-Latino white dropouts, students at risk of dropping out, and students in the overall school population. Results indicated that although perceptions of teacher ethnic bias are not rampant, such perceptions exist, more so in dropouts, Mexican American adolescents, and males. Implications for future research, schools, teachers, and teacher preparation programs are discussed.
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This study compared science students' perceptions of their teacher-student interactions with those of their teachers by administering the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) to teachers and students in 80 lower secondary science classes in two Australian states (Tasmania and Western Australia). There are three versions of the QTI: the student version, the teacher actual version, and the teacher ideal version. Students completed the student version, and teachers completed both the teacher actual and the teacher ideal. Previous statistical analysis confirmed the reliability and validity of the QTI for secondary school science students. Two multilevel models were proposed; one in which the teacher ideal interaction influences the teacher actual interaction, and the other in which the teacher actual affects the student actual and vice versa. Using structural equation modeling techniques, both models were found to be reasonable fits to the data. The results confirm that teachers' actual perceptions of their interactions with students affect the students' perceptions, which in turn affect teachers' perceptions. (Contains 26 references, 5 tables, and 2 figures.) (SM)
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The decision to open Oberlin College (Ohio) to black students in 1835, two years after its founding, is discussed. The decision challenged both laws and common perceptions of blacks, and was a milestone in black educational history. Two crucial factors in the decision are identified: Oberlin's founding principles and its economic future. The college was established by two New England Congregationalist ministers, who envisioned an ideal community in which the education of teachers and ministers was an important element. Both colonists and students were recruited, for the survival of the community and the college. In particular, one of the founders urged the trustees to resolve to admit students regardless of color and recruited a group of students and two faculty involved in an anti-slavery controversy at a Cincinnati seminary. This group brought with it the financial support of a New York abolitionist. Despite strong opposition in the Oberlin colony, a warmly worded and persuasive open letter to the congregation and extended discussion of the religious and financial issues resulted in a decision by the trustees to accept black students. The college's covenant and the founder's open letter are appended. (Contains 27 references.) (MSE)
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The impact of change in context on identity maintenance, the implications of maintenance efforts for group identification, and the effects of perceived threats to identity on self-esteem associated with group membership are examined in a longitudinal study of Hispanic students during their 1st year at predominately Anglo universities. Whereas ethnic identity is initially linked to the strength of the students' cultural background, maintenance of ethnic identity is accomplished by weakening that link and remooring the identity to the current college context. Results suggest 2 distinct paths by which students negotiate their ethnic identity in a new context. Students with initially strong ethnic identity become involved in cultural activities, increasing the strength of their identification. In contrast, students with initially weaker identification perceive more threat in the environment, show decreases in self-esteem associated with group membership, lowering identification with their ethnic group. The findings both support social identity theory and illustrate the need for more contextual analyses of identity processes.
Article
Discusses the social science statement supporting the 1954 Brown vs Board of Education US Supreme Court decision. It is contended that the statement was based on well-meaning rhetoric rather than solid research. All that the statement said, in effect, was that because the minority child was now in a classroom with Whites, he or she would no longer have the status of an outcast or a pariah. The "lateral transmission of values" hypothesis contained in a desegregation report by J. S. Coleman et al (1966) predicted that through classroom contact with their White peers, minority pupils would experience a personality change by absorbing the achievement-related values of the Whites. Social science thinking 10 yrs later, when desegregation began to be implemented, was more sophisticated but still unsupported by necessary research. It is concluded that no real evidence has been found for the lateral transmission hypotheses and that research and development as well as systems engineering in the social sciences are needed if some of the social problems in the US, including successful implementation of school desegregation, are to be eventually solved. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The impact of change in context on identity maintenance, the implications of maintenance efforts for group identification, and the effects of perceived threats to identity on self-esteem associated with group membership are examined in a longitudinal study of Hispanic students during their 1st year at predominately Anglo universities. Whereas ethnic identity is initially linked to the strength of the students' cultural background, maintenance of ethnic identity is accomplished by weakening that link and remooring the identity to the current college context. Results suggest 2 distinct paths by which students negotiate their ethnic identity in a new context. Students with initially strong ethnic identity become involved in cultural activities, increasing the strength of their identification. In contrast, students with initially weaker identification perceive more threat in the environment, show decreases in self-esteem associated with group membership, lowering identification with their ethnic group. The findings both support social identity theory and illustrate the need for more contextual analyses of identity processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Psychological disengagement is the defensive detachment of self-esteem from a particular domain. In the academic arena, disengagement can result from devaluing academic success or discounting the validity of academic outcomes. We review evidence for ethnic differences in these two processes of psychological disengagement and present results of a multiethnic study examining perceived ethnic injustice and academic performance as predictors of devaluing and discounting. Among African American students, beliefs about ethnic injustice (but not academic performance) predicted greater discounting and devaluing. Among European American students, poor academic performance (but not beliefs about ethnic injustice) predicted greater devaluing and discounting. Among Latino/a students, beliefs about ethnic injustice were associated with greater discounting, whereas poorer academic performance was associated with increased devaluing.
Article
Membership in social groups is an important aspect of the self-concept, as a number of theorists such as Tajfel (1981) have recognized, and ethnic identity is a major exemplar of such groupings. In the present research, we focus on the particular case of Hispanic identity and the degree to which that identity may be threatened for first-year Hispanic students who enter a predominantly Anglo university. Forty-five Hispanic students (17 female, 28 male) at two Ivy League universities were interviewed early in their first year to assess Hispanic identity, collective self-esteem (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1988), and perceived threats to Hispanic identity. In addition, we considered the degree to which strength of cultural background relates to self-esteem and to perceptions of threat. The majority of students claimed Hispanic as an important identity. Strength of cultural background generally acted as a buffer to perceived threat, particularly for men. Cultural background was also related to collective self-esteem for men but not for women, even though Hispanic identity was more important for women than men. The results attest to the importance of both gender and ethnicity to self-definition and self-esteem, as well as to the complexity of the relationships among these variables.
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This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1991, 60[2], 218–228). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1991-18327-001). Compared with Whites, Blacks were more likely to attribute negative feedback to prejudice than positive feedback and were more likely to attribute both types of feedback to prejudice when they could be seen by the other student. Being seen by the evaluator buffered the self-esteem of Blacks from negative feedback but hurt the self-esteem of Blacks who received positive feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the effects of teacher race, pupil race, and teacher–child racial congruence on teacher ratings of the school adjustment of 445 kindergarten through fifth-grade children from 70 classrooms in 24 racially mixed urban schools. Most classrooms yielded 8 child participants: 4 African American and 4 White, with 2 boys and 2 girls per group. The two race groups were closely matched by school, grade level, teacher, and socioeconomic status. Ratings were provided by 26 African American and 44 White teachers, matched by age and years of experience. African American children were judged by both African American and White teachers to have more serious school adjustment problems, fewer competencies, more stereotypically negative qualities, and poorer future educational prognoses than White children. The relation between stereotypic teacher views and other adjustment indicators was consistently higher for African American children than for White children. African American teachers, compared to White teachers, rated all children as having more competencies and fewer problems, and had more positive academic expectations for all children. No significant teacher race × student race interactions were found.
Article
Praise for ability is commonly considered to have beneficial effects on motivation. Contrary to this popular belief, six studies demonstrated that praise for intelligence had more negative consequences for students' achievement motivation than praise for effort. Fifth graders praised for intelligence were found to care more about performance goals relative to learning goals than children praised for effort. After failure, they also displayed less task persistence, less task enjoyment, more low-ability attributions, and worse task performance than children praised for effort. Finally, children praised for intelligence described it as a fixed trait more than children praised for hard work, who believed it to be subject to improvement. These findings have important implications for how achievement is best encouraged, as well as for more theoretical issues, such as the potential cost of performance goals and the socialization of contingent self-worth.
Article
This study investigated the influence of self-beliefs, social support, and comfort in the university environment on the academic nonpersistence decisions of 83 American Indian undergraduates. The self-belief construct comprised self-esteem and 2 dimensions of college-related self-efficacy. The social support cluster consisted of 3 variables: family support, friend support, and perception of being mentored. The 3rd cluster, comfort in the university environment, was measured by perceptions of university environment, cultural congruity, and college stress. Although each of the 3 constructs significantly accounted for academic nonpersistence decisions, social support was the strongest predictor, followed by comfort in the university environment, and then self-beliefs. Students who perceived being mentored were more likely to report decreased nonpersistence decisions. Similarly, students who had more positive perceptions of the university environment were more likely to make fewer nonpersistence decisions. Finally, higher self-esteem and greater college-related self-efficacy were associated with decreased nonpersistence decisions. Research-informed practice implications for increasing the academic persistence of American Indian students include fostering mentoring relationships and providing interventions to increase social support, self-esteem, and self-efficacy.
Article
this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views, opinions, or policies of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Assessment of Networking and Connectivity U.S. Department of Commerce | National Telecommunications and Information Administration Technology Opportunities Program iii FOREWORD T he National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO) has the unique charge of advocating on behalf of one of America's most precious treasures --118 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), located in 24 States, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands. Each year, these institutions graduate fine young people with undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees, who go on to make enormous contributions to American society and abroad. An essential part of NAFEO's mission is to advocate on behalf of policies and initiatives t
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Reducing contemporary prejudice: Combating explicit and implicit bias at the individual and intergroup level Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 137–163) Hispanics in ivy: Assessing identity and perceived threat
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Student-teacher relations and academic achievement in high school Schooling students placed at risk: Research, policy, and practice in the education of poor and minority adolescents Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement
  • M G Sanders
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Sanders, M. G., & Jordan, W. J. (2000). Student-teacher relations and academic achievement in high school. In M. G. Sanders (Ed.), Schooling students placed at risk: Research, policy, and practice in the education of poor and minority adolescents (pp. 65–82). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Schmader, T., Major, B., & Gramzow, R. H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93–111.
African American students' perceptions toward faculty at historically Black colleges
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Chism, M., & Satcher, J. (1998). African American students' perceptions toward faculty at historically Black colleges. College Student Journal, 32, 315–320.