Article

The Impact of Human Error on Delivering Service Quality

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Abstract

This paper opens a new avenue for investigation of quality issues in services. We take the viewpoint that a substantial portion of service failures is the result of human error in the delivery process. Drawing upon the Generic Error Modeling System (gems) from the cognitive science literature, we develop a framework for understanding the role of human error in service failures. An empirical investigation assesses the applicability of this framework to services, identifies which error mechanisms are important sources of service failure, and clarifies how the different roles of customers and providers affect the errors made by each.

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... Ultimately, the service provider benefits when its customers are efficient, and suffers when its customers are inefficient and mistake-prone. Stewart and Chase (1999) stated that while the customer often takes an active role in the delivery of the service, unlike people in other error research (i.e., employees of an organization), the customer does not train to perform the service function. If the untrained customer makes an error, then the customer may blame the service firm (Stewart and Chase 1999). ...
... Stewart and Chase (1999) stated that while the customer often takes an active role in the delivery of the service, unlike people in other error research (i.e., employees of an organization), the customer does not train to perform the service function. If the untrained customer makes an error, then the customer may blame the service firm (Stewart and Chase 1999). Chase and Stewart (1994) showed that customer errors occur in three different stages during the service: errors in the preparation for the encounter, the encounter, or the resolution of the encounter. ...
... The person approach is the dominant tradition in medicine (i.e., how hospitals treat employee error) as well as other services (Reason 2000). One reason that the person approach is dominant is that blaming an individual is more emotionally satisfying than blaming a process or an organizational system (Stewart and Chase 1999). ...
... In contrast, interpretation of the effect of customer error is not as straightforward. When a service reliability failure occurs, the customer frequently blames the service provider for causing it [36] [37], even if the customer is actually responsible for the problem-particularly when rule based errors occur. A customer makes a rule based error when he or she incorrectly applies familiar scripts or responses to a Journal of Service Science and Management service situation [36]. ...
... When a service reliability failure occurs, the customer frequently blames the service provider for causing it [36] [37], even if the customer is actually responsible for the problem-particularly when rule based errors occur. A customer makes a rule based error when he or she incorrectly applies familiar scripts or responses to a Journal of Service Science and Management service situation [36]. For instance, a restaurant customer may incorrectly assume that a waitress will collect the payment for the bill at the table and then discover that he must pay for his meal at the register. ...
... Such commonalities imply that manufacturing techniques can be easily transferred to service settings, such as TCO. Another research that can attest to this point is the study by Stewart and Chase (1999). They applied the Generic Error Modeling System (GEMS) that has been used in manufacturing settings (MacCarthy and Wilson, 2001) to study service failures. ...
... Although we believe that the manufacturing and service supply chains share a lot more in common than how much they differ, it is the smaller set, the differences, that ultimately Hurkens et al. (2006) Procurement decision Stewart and Chase (1999) Causes of errors in delivery process Demirkan and Cheng (2006) SCM coordination -information Anderson and Morrice (2000) Existence of Bullwhip effect Akkerman and Vos (2003) 139 determines how a service supply chain can be effectively and efficiently managed. Some of the commonalities, as the service supply chain progresses, may be only temporary in nature. ...
Article
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The service sector of the US economy has been gaining importance. As the service sector evolves, the study of service supply chain starts to gain attention. In this study, we conduct an exploratory review on the studies of manufacturing and service supply chains. We focus on the studies that explore the differences and commonalities between manufacturing and service supply chains. We combine operations management literature with supply chain studies in order to provide an inter-disciplinary framework that brings up both the operational and strategic views on the management commonalities and differences between the two types of supply chains.
... Choi and Liker (1995) document that orientation toward continuous process improvement in an incremental fashion has positive implications for a firm. Most of the studies in OM on process improvement are focused on high-frequency, low-impact events with tools such as six sigma, fishbone analysis, and statistical process control (Linderman, Schroeder, Zaheer, & Choo, 2003;Stewart & Chase, 1999). However, research has also gradually examined low-frequency, highimpact operational disruptions (Kleindorfer & Saad, 2005). ...
... Upton and McAfee (1998) investigate the association between advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) and operational disruptions in paper processing plants. Stewart and Chase (1999) highlight the role of human error in delivering quality. Hora, Bapuji, and Roth (2011) document that defects related to suppliers create quality issues in a product, prompting firms to announce product recalls. ...
Article
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Firms maintain a capital charge to manage the risk of low-frequency, high-impact operational disruptions. The loss distribution approach (LDA) measures the capital charge using two inputs: the frequency and severity of operational disruptions. In this study, we investigate whether or not capital charge could be combined with process improvement, an approach predominantly employed for managing high-frequency, low-impact operational disruptions. Using the categorization of events defined by the Basel Accord for different types of operational risk events, we verify three propositions. First, we test whether classification of operational disruptions is warranted to manage the risk. Second, we posit that classification of operational disruptions will display different statistical properties in manufacturing and in the financial services sector. Finally, we test whether risk of operational disruptions can be managed through a combination of process improvement and capital adequacy. We obtained data on 5442 operational disruptions and ran Monte Carlo simulations spanning both these sectors and seven event types. The results reveal that process improvement can be a first line of defense to manage certain types of operational risk events.
... Can OM models help to specify the optimal levels of such quality variables, depending on the costs and revenue effects? Also, the types of errors that lead to service failures tend to be predictable, through application of knowledge and methods from cognitive psychology research (Stewart and Chase 1999). HRM. ...
Article
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Operations management (OM) and human resources management (HRM) historically have been very separate fields. In practice, operations managers and human resource managers interact primarily on administrative issues regarding payroll and other matters. In academia, the two subjects are studied by separate communities of scholars publishing in disjoint sets of journals, drawing on mostly separate disciplinary foundations. Yet, operations and human resources are intimately related at a fundamental level. Operations are the context that often explains or moderates the effects of human resource activities such as pay, training, communications, and staffing. Human responses to OM systems often explain variations or anomalies that would otherwise be treated as randomness or error variance in traditional operations research models. In this paper, we probe the interface between operations and human resources by examining how human considerations affect classical OM results and how operational considerations affect classical HRM results. We then propose a unifying framework for identifying new research opportunities at the intersection of the two fields.
... Researchers have highlighted the need for minimizing human errors in the service delivery process. Stewart and Chase (1999) empirically investigate the impact of various human errors on service deliveries. They reveal that skillbased and rule-based errors of employees induce most service failures, suggesting service quality can be improved through error detection and correction. ...
Article
High-contact service industries are characterized by close interaction between service employees and customers, and diverse customer needs. Such characteristics pose a great challenge to the delivery of services of superior quality. In this research we conceptually explore and empirically examine several attitudinal and motivational factors of customer-contact employees, and the management style of managers as antecedents to service quality in high-contact service sectors. Based on dyadic data collected from 230 service firms in Hong Kong, we examine the relationships among transformational leadership, transactional leadership, affective organizational commitment, learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation, and service quality. We find that learning goal orientation is more effective than performance goal orientation in fostering service quality in the high-contact service context. We also observe that transformational leadership tends to be more effective than transactional leadership in influencing employee attitude in high-contact service firms. This research pioneers theory-driven examination of service quality in high-contact service firms using data collected from service employees and shop managers for hypothesis testing.
... A second stream assesses how customer contact is managed and how it impacts the service process and the customers' perception of quality (Kellogg & Chase, 1995;Parasuraman et al., 1988). The third stream examines quality management techniques such as statistical quality control (Sureshchandar, Rajendran, & Anantharaman, 2001) and mistake proofing in services (Stewart & Richard, 1999). ...
Article
Research question: While quality management literature has addressed products and services separately, the founders of total quality presented this management philosophy as universally oriented. The purpose of this study is to empirically test the Deming management model (DMM).Research methods: We tested the proposed research model using structural equation modeling, based on data collected from golf courses and ski resorts, in three different countries.Results and findings: The results support the application of the model to services, in general, and sports tourism, in particular.Implications: Our conclusions reinforce the recognition of the method's effectiveness and identify the cause–effect patterns, within its basic scope, highlighting the importance of leadership in the success of a quality improvement program. Lastly, a discrepancy of this study is the incapability to support the relationship between continuous improvement and customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, the results should be interpreted while considering the presented limitations.
... The service management literature has long emphasized the importance of the frontline employee in maintaining service quality (Chase and Stewart, 1994;Stewart and Chase, 1999;Chase, 1978;Chase and Bowen, 1991). However, past research has seldom considered safety as a separate dimension of service quality; instead, other components such as timeliness, completeness, courtesy, consistency, accessibility, accuracy and responsiveness are commonly delineated as key service quality dimensions (Evans and Lindsay, 1996). ...
Article
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This paper identifies service safety as separate dimension of quality and considers the need to view safety from the frontline worker's perspective. Stewart's (2003) "3 T" framework is used to categorize safety training elements by task, treatment and tangibles. Results from a survey of public transit bus drivers are presented. Results show that the questions categorized as treatment and tangibles were significant predictors of perceived safety.
... Chase and Stewart (1994) provide various illustrations that fail-safeing services via methods and devices can prevent human errors that lead to service failures. Moreover, they demonstrate that well-designed service delivery processes can reduce human errors by providers and customers during the service encounter process (Stewart and Chase, 1999). Smith (2005) suggests that there are significant fundamental challenges in the design and operation of an effective service recovery process that reflect both preventive and response dynamics. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive descriptive analysis of the sequential application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) five-step focusing process in improving the effectiveness of a service process that was limiting the performance of the entire service system. Design/methodology/approach – The five-step approach is schematically presented with each step being described and evaluated relative to its role in effective constraint management. A detailed example provides additional insights and nuances into its use in managing the constraint within a banking organization's subsystem, namely, the loan application and approval process. This hypothetical, realistic, and comprehensive illustration iterates through several cycles of the five-step focusing process to demonstrate how managers are able to address different types of constraints. Findings – The paper provides a detailed description on how each of the five-steps can be used to improve the organization's performance relative to its stated goal by focusing management's attention on the system's (or an aligned subsystem's) leverage or control point. Major types of constraints include physical or capacity limitations and restrictive policies. Constraints may be located either internal or external to the process or system being managed. Practical implications – Various managerial implications are discussed including: the relevance and utility of applying the TOC five-step focusing process in services; advantages associated with utilizing this structured approach for continuous improvement in services; and some strategic issues associated with the placement of the ubiquitous system constraint. Originality/value – Although the successful application of the five-step focusing process has been well documented in improving manufacturing processes, this paper provides an illustrative tutorial which details its application in effectively managing a service process.
... Although failures sometimes can be blamed on poor planning or execution by service providers, or on customers' own careless behavior (for example, when they fail to take prescribed medications correctly; see Stewart and Chase 1999, Meuter et al. 2000, Tax et al. 2006), oftentimes they are caused by exogenous factors that cannot be blamed on either party. Examples of such " no-fault " failures include airline delays caused by airport operators or security issues, vacations at a resort island affected by bad weather or local strikes, and performance-art shows that cannot take place on time because of power failures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Service providers and their customers are sometimes victims of failures caused by exogenous factors such as unexpected bad weather, power outages, or labor strikes. When such no-fault failures occur in confined zones, service providers may confine customers against their will if making arrangements for them to leave is very costly. Such confinements, however, can result in severe pain and suffering, and customer complaints put regulators under pressure to pass a customer bill of rights that allows captive customers to abort failed services. This paper shows that service providers are better off preempting such laws by voluntarily allowing customers to escape the service under failure. Moreover, service providers can profit by targeting compensation to customers based on whether they use or leave the service under failure.
... In all the cases, clients interact with the services following a pre-existing paradigm of how the service should function. Conflict between the design of the service system and the instructions chosen by the client is an important source of service failure (Stewart & Chase, 1999). These deficiencies can arise from two sources (Cook et al., 2002): (1) the client could, in essence, choose to interact during the encounter under a different set of rules and expectations The Service Industries Journal 5 and (2) the service design could derive from the previously existing instructions, deviating from the established rules of behaviours. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to detect issues of greatest interest and to establish a proposal that can be used as a basis to study the client's environmental entrepreneurship in service sector companies. The study is based on the existing literature on service innovation and the bibliography dedicated to environmental management specific to these innovations. This study poses a few questions that, together with many others, must be addressed in the future. These studies will inevitably contribute to improve the environmental performance of service companies.
... A second stream assesses how customer contact is managed and how it impacts the service process and the customers' perception of quality (Kellogg & Chase, 1995;Parasuraman et al., 1988). The third stream examines quality management techniques such as statistical quality control (Sureshchandar, Rajendran, & Anantharaman, 2001) and mistake proofing in services (Stewart & Richard, 1999). ...
... A second stream assesses how customer contact is managed and how it impacts the service process and the customers' perception of quality (Kellogg & Chase, 1995;Parasuraman et al., 1988). The third stream examines quality management techniques such as statistical quality control (Sureshchandar, Rajendran, & Anantharaman, 2001) and mistake proofing in services (Stewart & Richard, 1999). ...
... A second stream assesses how customer contact is managed and how it impacts the service process and the customers' perception of quality (Kellogg & Chase, 1995;Parasuraman et al., 1988). The third stream examines quality management techniques such as statistical quality control (Sureshchandar, Rajendran, & Anantharaman, 2001) and mistake proofing in services (Stewart & Richard, 1999). ...
Article
Os conceitos relacionados com a qualidade do serviço desenvolveram-se de forma díspar dos conceitos relacionados com a produção de bens tangíveis. No entanto, a base teórica e os métodos de gestão da qualidade total permitem o seu uso, tanto em serviços como em produtos. Neste estudo foi utilizado o modelo teórico desenvolvido por Anderson Deming, Rungtusanatham e Schroeder (1994). Embora haja evidência das práticas da eficácia do modelo, as suas evidências empíricas são ainda escassas. Assim sendo, para este trabalho foram definidos os seguintes objetivos: a) verificar a aplicabilidade do modelo de Deming à indústria do turismo desportivo; e b) desenvolver e verificar a aplicabilidade do modelo de medida. O trabalho empírico foi estruturado em três fases. Num primeiro momento, foi desenvolvido e especificado o modelo de medida (questionário com 51 itens ), com base em sete escalas previamente testadas e validadas. Este foi avaliado empiricamente em duas fases subsequentes. Um pré-teste com base em dados recolhidos em 27 organizações de serviços públicos e privados e, num segundo momento, realizou-se uma análise fatorial exploratória com base numa amostra de 72 centros de turismo desportivo localizados na Irlanda, Reino Unido e Estados Unidos da América ( KMO 0,779 >0,5; χ 2 =883,2 df =276). A análise fatorial permitiu extrair sete fatores coincidentes com as dimensões do modelo teórico proposto ( GOF χ 2= 117,5 df =129). Os resultados suportam a aplicabilidade do modelo de medida proposto aos serviços de turismo desportivo, em diversos contextos culturais. Este trabalho inclui vários aspetos singulares. Destaca-se o facto de ser um dos poucos estudos que aplica o modelo de gestão de Deming aos serviços. Adicionalmente, é o primeiro que examina a sua aplicabilidade nos contextos do turismo, do desporto y do turismo desportivo.
... hotel: "The hotel service in general [is about] cleanliness … whether inside or outside the hotel."(m, h2) Cleaning as a hospitality service is a routine activity and comes to managers with little conscious thinking.Stewart and Chase (1999) posited that common activities, characteristics of routine situations are handled at skill-based level of control; at this level, the individual operates with minimum conscious intervention. This, they argued, because the actions required for a familiar activity are stored as a complete internalised script, which when consciously evoked ...
Thesis
This study investigates the effect of cultural intelligence of front-line service employees on foreign guests’ perceptions of service quality. This relationship has not hitherto been investigated. The literature suggests that culture and interactions between customers and employees affect service quality. The literature also shows that, in cross-cultural encounters, attitudes and behaviours are important aspects of cultural intelligence, employee performance and service quality. It also points to interrelationships between these constructs. A theoretical model was developed which suggests that in these encounters, cultural intelligence is likely to affect service quality through employee performance. A novel methodological approach consisting of a pilot study and two stages of empirical research were undertaken in international hotels in Karbala, Iraq. The first, qualitative stage was in the form of interviews to gain an insight into the service interactions. Thematic analysis of the data supported the theoretical model and pointed to additional causal relationships. The model was tested in the second quantitative stage. A self-report cultural intelligence questionnaire was administered to a sample of local employees (N=201). A new job performance questionnaire was designed and administered to hotel managers (N=53) to assess these employees’ performance. A SERVPERF questionnaire was also given to foreign guests (N=469) who were served by these employees. The dimensions of these measures were determined by principal components analysis (SPSS 22), and their adequacy was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.8). The model was tested using hierarchical multi-regression analysis. The findings showed that employee performance mediated the relationships between cultural intelligence and service quality. Another main contribution is the development of an employee performance scale for use in service encounters. The study adds to the cross�cultural service literature and to research methodology design. Its implications for management and employee training were discussed, as well as its limitations. Further research was also suggested.
... Firms reduce customer needs to a clear set of service elements, and matching predefined service standards become paramount (Field, Ritzman, Safizadeh, & Downing, 2006). Because customer interaction is lacking, service guarantee processes and service recovery procedures are very important (Baker & Collier, 2005;Easton & Goodale, 2005;Hart, 1995;Hays & Hill, 2001;Heskett, Jones, Loveman, Sasser, & Schlesinger, 1994;Stewart & Chase, 1999). Explicit service guarantees represent one way of making service standards visible to the customer and often provide powerful means of differentiation (Hart, 1988;Silvestro, 1999). ...
Article
From the competence-based view, this study contributes to understanding how service firm capabilities affect firm performance. The study examines managerial capabilities, organizational capabilities, marketing capabilities , and service quality capabilities. This study investigates whether interaction between these capabilities and their contribution to firm performance differ depending on the service's customer-contact level. To do so, the study analyzes data from a sample of Spanish service firms. Results show that managerial and organizational capabilities strengthen service quality and marketing capabilities. In addition, service quality and marketing capabilities significantly and directly affect firm performance. For services with high customer contact, marketing capabilities significantly and positively affect firm performance. For low customer-contact services, service quality capabilities significantly and directly affect performance. Results contribute to the literature by providing additional evidence that service management should differ depending on the level of customer contact that service firms require.
... Perceived control distinguishes between, (a) management issues thought to be dominated by internal forces and (b) those thought to be dominated by external forces ( Bandura, 1997;Ho & Vera-Munoz, 2001 ). "Controllable" actions tend to receive greater focus ceteris paribus ( Bandura, 1997;Stewart & Chase, 1999 ). To be sure, clarity between cause and effect influences such perceived controllability. ...
Article
In this study we provide a multi-method examination of firm tendencies to adopt certain tactical solutions to resolve performance dilemmas. We consider the complex and dynamic paths through which improvement tactics impact firm performance, as well as the impact of misalignment between operational strategies and the specific tactics pursued. Our arguments draw on theory from the system dynamics (SD) literature relating to causal ambiguity, feedback delays, and short-term biases. In particular we consider the implications that SD theory holds for extant Operations Strategy research. With this literature in mind, our initial case examinations give rise to a grounded system model around which several targeted hypotheses are formed. Two surveys are administered to gather perceptions regarding the clarity of connections between tactical activity and performance effects, as well as to provide initial parameter estimates for formal system dynamics simulations (in Vensim) of the grounded model. The results of the simulation are regressed on levels of tactical-strategic misalignment extracted from associated survey data, showing anticipated short-term benefits and long-term costs of misalignment. The implications for practice include specific warnings to firms following either Product Leadership or Customer Intimacy strategies. Additional post-hoc interviews provide further validation for the general form of the grounded systems model and provide methodological insights to guide future researchers.
... Given the development of service operations in many industries, researchers have started to pay attention to service operations management (Roth andMenor, 2003, Smith, Karwan andMarkland, 2007). The topics for these papers can be categorized into the following groups: service theory building and application (Menor, Roth and Mason, 2001, Rosenzweig and Roth, 2004, Sampson and Froehle, 2006, service design (Froehle and Roth, 2007, Hill, Collier, Froehle, Goodale, Metters and Verma, 2002, Menor and Roth, 2008, service quality , Field et al., 2004, Hays and Hill, 2001, and interfaces between service operations and other disciplines, such as strategic management, human resources, information systems, and marketing (Apte and Mason, 1995, Boyer and Hult, 2006, Cook et al., 2002, Rabinovich et al., 2008, Stewart and Chase, 1999, Vickery et al., 2003. With this research, I contribute to the literature in service strategy, service theory application, and the interface between service operations and marketing. ...
... The first stream emphasizes reducing process variability through standardization to deliver consistent services (e.g. Stewart and Chase, 1999). However, in-depth interaction is required to meet varied needs of customers in HCTS, and standardizing delivery process is difficult. ...
Article
Purpose Many small-to-medium sized service shops (e.g. jewelry shops, fine-dining restaurants etc.) operate in a unique service environment. They often face customers in transit (i.e. transient delivery) and with minimal information of their preferences (i.e. high uncertainty). This study investigates how such shops create service experience to customers by focusing on three constructs, namely, customer orientation, management commitment to service quality and quality of leader-member exchange in service systems with the uncertain and transient nature. Building on a systems approach of service experience design, the authors examine all possible effects (main effects and two-way and three-way interaction effects) on customer experience. Specifically, to frame the two-way and the three-way interaction effects, the authors adopt the contingency and configuration approaches, respectively. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a multiple respondent approach involving managers, employees and customers to collect data from 225 service shops in Hong Kong. Hierarchically moderated regression analysis is employed to analyze the collected data. Findings Contrary to our initial conceptualization, most of the direct effects and two-way interaction effects among the three constructs are insignificant. The authors do, however, uncover a significant effect of the three-way interaction term. The authors analyze the results from the configuration perspective. Originality/value The finding suggests that the configuration approach is necessary to determine the configuration concerning how design elements align with one another to generate an integrative effect on customer experience. The authors conclude that for high-contact services of the transient and high-uncertainty type, all three constructs must operate simultaneously to evoke favorable customer experience. Customer experience is holistically developed in a service system with high-uncertainty and transient nature, requiring simultaneous alignment across a range of design choices among those involved in service delivery (manager, employee and customer).
... Secondly, the staff service sabotage behavior tremendously decreases staffs' service performance. For example, service errors in service delivery could significantly decrease service quality (Stewart & Chase, 1999). Staffs' service misbehavior would lower consumers' loyalty to firms and hinder relationships between consumers and staffs (Gremler & Gwinner, 2000). ...
Article
This paper extracts 18 staff service sabotage behavior in hotels and classifies them into five categories: “negative service attitudes”, “provide wrong service content and information”, “deliberate sabotage behavior”, “delay or not provide service” and “hidden rules”. Next, discuss their negative impact on consumer willingness to pay by separately analyzing roles of genders, ages and educational backgrounds. Results show that (1) Male consumers have higher willing to pay than female consumers and pay more attention on service efficiency. (2) The consumer willingness to pay is negative related with ages and consumers who aged between 25 and 50 focus more in service attitudes. (3) High educational background means low willingness to pay. Interestingly, consumers who educated most rank “hidden rules” as the first, while others rank it as the last.
... Due to the harsh working environment onboard a ship, seafarers usually suffer from mental health problems such as fatigue, stress, and anxiety, which will negatively affect their behaviour and increase the risks at sea. Human error is recognised as one of the main causal factors in up to 80% of accidents across various industries (Stewart and Chase, 2010). It is interesting to note that although the terrorism and piracy are of great significance in terms of severity, they are only ranked at 51st (HS/SE_1: 4.79) and 36th (HS/SE_2: 5.12) in terms of ARI values respectively when taking into account their relatively low frequency of occurrence. ...
... What organizations have learned from handling their own failures may not be useful in recovering from customer failures. 10 These problems suggest that it is very difficult to execute a successful "recovery" when customers fail. Therefore, efforts to manage customer failures should focus on the pursuit of reliability and failure prevention. ...
Article
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Customers are often involved in the design or delivery of services, and in this respect, they function as coproducers of the service. What happens when customers fail to perform their roles effectively? Customer failure is not uncommon; the authors cite research indicating that customers cause about one-third of all service problems. To study the issue of customer failure and its prevention, the authors conducted interviews with managers and customers in a variety of industries about experiences of customer failure, developed case studies related to the topic and conducted secondary research to identify examples of best practices in customer-failure prevention. From their research, the authors conclude that recovering from instances of customer failure is difficult, in part because the customer and the company may have different views of the causes of the problem. As a result, companies should focus on preventing customer failures. An effective three-step approach is first to collect diagnostic data about where customer failures occur and then to analyze the root causes of cases of customer failure - whether the root causes are issues of technology, people, processes or the design of the physical environment that customers encounter. The third step is to establish preventive solutions, such as process redesign. The authors cite a number of examples of companies that try to prevent customer failures. For instance, customers of Weight Watchers International Inc., may offer each other encouragement at Weight Watchers' meetings and thus help prevent one another from failing in their weight-loss plans.
... In longer duration jobs, suppliers need to possess more specific knowledge and techniques to manage the job and buyer interactions [33]. Hence, longer duration jobs benefit more from verified credentials of suppliers because buyers would have the perception that the verified knowledge and expertise are being applied to overcome difficulties and reduce errors during the longer job duration [35]. Further, in longer duration jobs, opportunism risk is higher because longer duration implies a greater chance that the supplier has more time to slack off or devote fewer resources to the job. ...
... Service management data have highlighted the importance of various factors that can positively or negatively influence service recovery time (Hoffman et al., 2016). Those factors that have been brought to attention include the causes and consequences of failure (Stewart and Chase, 1999;Muqadas et al., 2016), antecedents of recovery (Hoffman et al., 1995), the stages and time required for recovery (Tax and Brown, 1998) and activities required during the recovery process (Hoffman et al., 2016). In services management, service failure has been investigated by identifying: how customers thinking varies over time (Maxham and Netemeyer, 2002); how customers can react to various levels of severity issues (Smith and Bolton, 1998); in which situations customers can switch and experience the service failure (Maxham and Netemeyer, 2002); and the recovery paradox (Maxham, 2001). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to unfold the relationship between service quality and level of performance of conventional and Islamic banks. Also, it intends to uncover what are the features of service quality which can raise the level of performance either in conventional banks or Islamic banks. There is rare literature available that focused on comparative study between above stated banking systems based on emerging parameters of SERVQUAL model. Design/methodology/approach To meet the objectives of this investigation, research data has been from 450 customers who have had accounts and dealings with conventional and Islamic banks in the previous five years. The customers are selected based on cluster sampling from regional offices of conventional and Islamic banks. Findings The collected data have been analyzed by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) technique followed by common method variance (CMV), multiple regression test and independent sample t -test used to examine the parameters of service quality in the context of banks performance. The purpose of CFA is to find the model validity, while multiple regression and t-test is performed in order to examine the influence of service quality parameters on banks performance. Originality/value The study used compliance as a one of the emerging and unique dimension of service quality. This dimension is rarely investigated in the context of measuring the level of bank performance of conventional and Islamic banking systems. Findings reveal responsiveness and assurance is the strongest predictor of conventional banking performance. Compliance and reliability has significant and positive impact on the level of performance of Islamic banks. Moreover, the study has practical implications for the top management and stakeholders of conventional and Islamic banks to increase the level of performance by using SERVQUAL model.
... Due to the harsh working environment onboard a ship, seafarers usually suffer from mental health problems such as fatigue, stress, and anxiety, which will negatively affect their behaviour and increase the risks at sea. Human error is recognised as one of the main causal factors in up to 80% of accidents across various industries (Stewart and Chase, 2010). It is interesting to note that although the terrorism and piracy are of great significance in terms of severity, they are only ranked at 51st (HS/SE_1: 4.79) and 36th (HS/SE_2: 5.12) in terms of ARI values respectively when taking into account their relatively low frequency of occurrence. ...
Article
We present an empirical assessment of the productivity of individuals and institutions in terms of service operations management (SOM) research. We reviewed five mainstream operations management journals over a 17-year time period to generate a sample of 463 articles related to service operations. The results indicate that SOM research has been growing and key contributions are being made by an array of researchers and institutions.
Article
We review and evaluate empirical research in more than 150 papers published in Production and Operations Management (POM) during 1992 to 2005 to assess how far the papers' authors have met the journaľs stated objective of promoting empirical research. We also assess the diversity of articles in terms of the purposes of research, data collection approaches, and data analysis techniques. We classify the empirical research articles based on their primary purpose (theory building, theory verifying, application, and providing evidence), data collection approach (case study, qualitative research, archival research, survey-based research, laboratory research, and field research), data analysis technique (descriptive statistics, various multivariate statistical techniques, and mathematical modeling), and operations topics (strategy, quality, and supply chain management). We also discuss directions for future empirical research in operations management. During 1992 to 2005, the articles based on empirical data have increased substantially from 30 to 50 percent of all articles published in POM. During 1992 to 1998, about three-fourths of the empirical-research-based articles published in POM focused on the manufacturing industry, but recently the gap between the numbers of manufacturing- and service-focused articles published in POM has almost disappeared. While a previous assessment of articles published in a range of operations management journals showed that almost all of the empirical articles were based on either surveys or case studies, our results indicate that POM has published articles that were based on a much wider and more diverse range of data collection approaches. Production and Operations Management has clearly established itself as a leading outlet for publishing empirical research in operations management.
Article
Poka-yoke (mistake-proofing) is a powerful quality improvement approach, which usually employs relatively simple devices to achieve marked improvements. Inexpensive jigs, fixtures, switches, and gauges act as obvious environmental cues to signal mistake detection. Poka-yoke has been largely ignored as an avenue for serious academic research. This paper provides scientific underpinning to the largely anecdotal mistake-proofing literature, by drawing upon research from psychology and cognitive science concerning human error. We delineate areas where additional research would be worthwhile, and guide practitioners in understanding what they are trying to accomplish and how poka-yoke devices attain this end.
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Many contributions have been made to the field of quality since the inaugural issue of Production and Operations Management in 1992. The first issue called for more research and teaching on TQM, which resulted in two special issues dedicated to TQM. Many other articles related to quality have also been published in the first fifty issues of the journal on topics ranging from technical methods to the Baldrige Award and ISO 9000. As we review these articles, we assess their contribution and the progression of the field of quality. Although past research has advanced our understanding of quality, there still exists many research opportunities in developing more theory, using additional research methodologies, and studying emerging topics in this field.
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This paper develops a theoretical framework that relates a service guarantee to service quality. The framework hypothesizes that a service guarantee can positively affect service quality through its positive effect on both learning through service failure and employee motivation and vision. A longitudinal, empirical study was conducted to test these hypotheses. Surprisingly, the service guarantee was not found to have a direct effect on learning through service failure. However, the service guarantee clearly had a positive effect on service quality primarily through its positive effect on employee motivation and vision. The research strongly supports using a service guarantee to improve service quality.
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Service failures do not need to result in permanent negative consequences as long as effective recovery activities are undertaken. Unfortunately, existing research has been limited in providing information to support prescriptive approaches for applying specific service recovery techniques. By using data from a large sample (n = 861) of service failure incidents and employing the use of hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis, this exploratory study creates and analyzes empirical types of service failures. The derived failure types, or common situations faced by service providers, focus on customer loyalty and the severity of the failure, and may be visualized in a two-by-two matrix. Regression analysis is then used to demonstrate how effective recovery strategies and supporting activities should vary, based on the location of the failure within the matrix. The approach and results offer important implications for strategy and service support activities as well as a foundation for systematizing service recovery efforts.
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Service quality is measured by customers’ satisfaction. Traditionally, the degree of satisfaction is calculated from the data obtained from questionnaires that have been filled by customers directly. The percentile of each different level of a customer’s satisfaction is employed to summarize and compare the quality of service provided by different enterprises. This approach does not consider the consistency of the customers’ perceptions, thus making comparison difficult. This paper introduces the concept of a process capability index that considers both the average and the consistency of the data simultaneously. Evaluations of service quality are usually vague and linguistic. We use the fuzzy numbers of linguistic variables developed in fuzzy set theory to modify the process capability index, and then apply it to evaluate the quality of a service. The average and consistency of the data obtained from a service quality evaluation are thus considered simultaneously, making the comparison of the performance of service quality easier. Moreover, the value of the index can be applied to help to point out the direction for improving the performance of service quality whenever it is lower than some default value.
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We examine the impact of human errors by front-line supply chain employees on delivery delays. We build on normal accident theory (NAT), a multilevel theory describing the relationship between a firm's latent conditions (systemic managerial, technology, and social factors) and human errors. Latent conditions can have the unintended consequence of intensifying the impact of a human error, thus, we hypothesize a moderating effect of latent conditions on the relationship between errors and delivery delays. Hypotheses are tested using archival shipment data provided by a Fortune 500 company and archival carrier violations data. A multilevel design, with 299,399 shipments (level 1) nested within 97 carriers (level 2), was tested using mixed effects regression modeling. The results indicated that both dispatcher and driver errors were related to the probability of a late delivery, and that dispatcher errors were associated with longer delays. The moderating effects of several carrier latent conditions were significant and positive, indicating that both types of errors were more strongly associated with the likelihood of late delivery and that dispatcher errors were associated with longer delays when moderated by carrier latent conditions. The results are discussed from the perspective of NAT and technology management, developing prescriptions, and suggesting opportunities for future research.
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The accelerated expansion of markets and intense competition have motivated firms to collaborate closely with vendor firms by outsourcing critical aspects of the business, including Information Technology services. We analyze the interaction between a service provider and a client in which they collaborate to deliver services. We assume that revenue generated from the service depends on their efforts. The client determines retail price and marketing efforts while the service provider decides on quality improvement efforts in the services. We analyze the impact of revenue share proportion on the effort exerted by both firms and the impact of the capability of the service provider on the retail pricing of the service. We develop an analytical framework to characterize the actions of the service provider and the client.
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Customer inputs in service processes are explored in the study. Customer input failures, their causes and consequences are observed through a case study conducted in a healthcare service organisation. The paper provides openings for future research by developing research propositions and constructing an integrated framework that includes the characteristics of customer input failures in service processes. The research provides a foundation for exploring and developing methods for quality management of customer inputs which can be utilised by service managers to make their service processes more effective.
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In this study, the authors integrate software engineering insights with research on service process design and product extensions to propose the concept of service process modularization and examine its influence on customer trial of service innovations. The authors conduct two experimental studies to investigate customer response to modular reuse and modular variation of service encounter processes in new offerings. Results of the studies show that modularization increases both the perceived utility of an enhanced offering and the likelihood of trial for service extensions. The effect of modular reuse versus variation, however, is contingent on the task complexity of the base service. Furthermore, expert customers prefer combined offerings that reuse familiar service processes, suggesting that practical considerations rather than variety are the main drivers of service utility and likelihood of trial. An important implication for managers and designers is the strategic use of service process modularization to initiate new service development and manage customer fit in new service extensions.
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Many researchers consider absenteeism to be a significant problem for employers. Absenteeism lowers the overall level of worker expertise, which may affect product quality and trigger an increase in customer complaints. This research was carried out in a prominent automobile manufacturing company, with an assembly line–driven rigid production process. This article gathered customer quality complaints registered during the 17 months after cars were delivered to customers, from one year of car production, to analyze how employee absenteeism affects customer quality complaints. The empirical evidence presented by this research in the automotive industry confirms that absenteeism does not lead, necessarily, to a decrease in quality. This evidence must make organization redefine the value of their expert workers. Moreover, these results could have an impact on assembly-line design and the use of worker job-rotation programs for technologically sophisticated assembly lines. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers) and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable) and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables). However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving) effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.
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Objective: The aim of this study is to suggest a way to identify user values in order to develop the service concept based on network analysis. Background: The service design is a complex process that requires understanding the connections between users, providers, and user experience. The core of service design is to discover user values in order to elicit the service concept, which satisfies user needs. Method: The study consists of four main steps; (1) interview data collection, (2) converting raw data into structured data, (3) generating the relation matrix, and (4) network visualization and analysis. Results: 'Joy' was the most important value teens pursuing and, 'beauty' and 'managing relationships' appeared as the key values with high centrality in using the Internet. Conclusion: This study suggested network analysis as a non-hierarchical method for identifying the user value and generating the service concept. Application: The results of the paper might help to interpret the qualitative interview data from the structural perspective.
Article
Purpose Despite the large literature base associated with dyadic collaboration, its knowledge-based antecedents are still not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to better understand those antecedents and to explore why the supply chain (SC) literature has found mixed results regarding knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity in dyadic collaboration research. Design/methodology/approach The critical incident technique (CIT) was utilized, using qualitative semi-structured interviews to refine a proposed research model. In total, 43 executives were interviewed each providing a description of both a successful and an unsuccessful SC dyadic collaboration. The interviews were analyzed to better understand the knowledge-based antecedents of buyer–supplier collaboration. Findings This study suggests that dyadic collaboration and subsequent outcomes are improved by successful knowledge transfer. Additionally, knowledge transfer requires both distributive and absorptive capacities in each participant. The research also uncovered new evidence to support the need for a collaborative orientation to support successful knowledge transfer. Research limitations/implications The interviews conducted using the CIT provided a wealth of information and executive experiences in SC collaboration. However, the interviews only provide a single perspective of collaborative engagements. Multiple perspectives of each collaboration would add value to this research. Originality/value SC collaboration and knowledge transfer have been well studied across disciplines. This research introduces new knowledge-related variables that can contribute to successful collaboration: distributive capability and SC collaborative orientation.
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This paper formally develops and empirically tests a new construct, termed service improvisation competence (Serv‐IC), that constitutes a novel way to improve customer experience in high‐contact service contexts. Serv‐IC is operationalized as the systemic ability of a service firm's employees to deviate from established service delivery processes and routines to respond in a timely manner to unforeseen events using available resources. Serv‐IC is a realized operational competence resulting from a deliberate set of service design choices consistent with a firm's service concept. The construct embodies a multidisciplinary perspective that explains, in part, how some firms can systemically use employee improvisation to align service processes and employee behaviors in the presence of customer‐induced uncertainty. As a first, theory‐building step we follow a rigorous, two‐stage approach to develop a reliable and valid multi‐item measurement scale for Serv‐IC, emphasizing discriminant validity with related concepts. We then introduce a set of experientially based service design choices that constitute a Serv‐IC deployment strategy. Finally, we investigate its effect on customer satisfaction. Our empirical results show that Serv‐IC can play an important role in satisfying customers within certain boundaries. Counter to conventional wisdom, Serv‐IC increases customer satisfaction in lower‐tier hotels more than in upscale ones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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In services, which require significant customer participation to create value, customers who lack the knowledge, skills and motivation necessary to participate effectively can negatively impact service quality and cost outcomes. This paper develops a conceptual model to investigate the effectiveness of utilizing customer training and education (CTE) to improve customer readiness to provide effective behaviors in a professional service. The model was tested using survey data from patients diagnosed with diabetes who received CTE as part of their healthcare service. We found that customers who are taught why they have to perform the tasks, have higher levels of motivation to perform these tasks effectively. Further, as proposed by the customer readiness model, when their task performance is higher, they have improved health and lower healthcare costs.
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In this study, we use a multi-method approach to examine the following questions: when faced with explicit profit gaps, does a firm's strategic orientation influence manager perceptions regarding the ability of various tactical options to resolve the gap, do managers feel pressure to pursue certain tactical options over others, and what implications do tactical mismatches with strategy have for long-term gap resolution? As part of the research process, we build a grounded systems model (using grounded theory and Systems Dynamics techniques) which attempts to capture how tactical changes, in combination with the firm's competitive strategy, can ostensibly impact a firm's profit gap over time. Surveys are then used to evaluate the model, including simulations which evaluate the efficacy of manager's preferred tactics to resolve the profit gap in the short and long-term. Results show that while managers feel competing pressure to resolve a profit gap using both tactics aligned with their strategy and tactics designed to cut costs, they are biased toward short-term cost cutting tactics in such situations – often resulting in misalignment with the firm's focal strategy. Should such misalignment occur, while short-term gaps may be resolved, long-term gaps remain unresolved or may even expand, i.e. things get “better before worse”. This research contributes to understanding how managerial tendencies and tactical adjustments contribute to or detracts from a firm's ability to realize their intended strategy. Although research has investigated the content of strategy, research has not fully investigated the dynamics through which tactical shifts may impact strategic outcomes.
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This article first reviews the alternative theoretical approaches to human resource management that have been developed in the academic literature and discusses why these need to incorporate conceptual advances from services' marketing and operations management. Here, it also discusses the evidence regarding what strategies lead to better service and sales, under what conditions, and why. It then examines alternative organizational models that rely on outsourcing and supply chain management for customer service and sales and the arguments for and against these approaches. The next section reviews real world trends: what strategies are companies actually pursuing and what are the results for consumers and employees? The article closes with conclusions about the future direction of service management strategies and the role of HRM in them.
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This paper adds to the ongoing development of the field of quality management. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the status of quality management research, to categorize the recent literature in quality management, and to better position the field for growth and maturity. The authors performed a rather extensive overview, review, and discussion of quality-related literature since 1995. They used centering resonance analysis (CRA), which has not been previously utilized in the quality management literature, to analyze 1978 research articles to identify influential word pairings in the literature overall, and in 251 articles appearing in recognized "A" journals. These provide a framework for reviewing the literature to categorize and summarize articles and key research contributions, identify trends, and recommend areas for future research in the field of quality management.
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The aim of this study is to review previous studies on human errors in the service delivery processes. Service industry is sharply growing in the advanced countries. Many people are looking for something to contribute to the service industry. Although there are many research topics related to service domain that human factors and ergonomics specialists can do contribute, a few researchers are studying such topics. This paper indicated how previous researches on human factors and human errors have addressed the service domain, in order to prompt human factor study on the service domain. A variety of sources were inspected for literature reviews, including books and journals of managements, medicine, psychology, consumer behavior as well as human factor and ergonomics. The characteristics of human errors in the service domain were investigated. Human error studies in several service sectors were summarized such as medical service, automotive service operation, travel agent service and call center service. Until now, human factors community was not much interested in human errors in service domain. However, there is much space to contribute to service domain; human error identification, human error analysis and control of human error. The research of human error in service domain can provide clues to improve service quality. This paper helps to guide to identify human error of service domain and to design service systems.
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Everyone working in and with organizations will, from time to time, experience frustrations and problems when trying to accomplish tasks that are a required part of their role. This is an unusual routine - a recurrent interaction pattern in which someone encounters a problem when trying to accomplish normal activities by following standard organizational procedures and then becomes enmeshed in wasteful and even harmful subroutines while trying to resolve the initial problem. They are unusual because they are not intended or beneficial, and because they are generally pervasive but individually infrequent. They are routines because they become systematic as well as embedded in ordinary functions. Using a wide range of case studies and interdisciplinary research, this book provides researchers and practitioners with a new vocabulary for identifying, understanding, and dealing with this pervasive organizational phenomenon, in order to improve worker and customer satisfaction as well as organizational performance.
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This article uses the Deming management model developed by Anderson et al. (1994b) as an initial template to analyze total quality in services. While the literatures addressing quality management have developed separately for products and services, the founders of total quality portrayed this management philosophy as universally oriented. Our study first replicates two earlier studies that tested the Deming management model in manufacturing industries. Using hospitals as our unit of analysis, we realized findings similar to the earlier manufacturing studies. Next, we used contributions from the MBNQA literature to test an enhanced model. Our subsequent findings support the MBNQA concept that “leadership drives the system that creates results” and provides evidence of the ubiquitous importance of leadership for ensuring the success of a quality improvement program. Finally, an anomaly of this study and those published earlier is the inability to find support for the relationship between continuous improvement and customer satisfaction. Integrating the substantial work in the service quality literature focused on customer satisfaction measurement is recommended to future researchers to help resolve this issue and further enhance the model.
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Tested the 2-process theory of detection, search, and attention presented by the current authors (1977) in a series of experiments. The studies (a) demonstrate the qualitative difference between 2 modes of information processing: automatic detection and controlled search; (b) trace the course of the learning of automatic detection, of categories, and of automatic-attention responses; and (c) show the dependence of automatic detection on attending responses and demonstrate how such responses interrupt controlled processing and interfere with the focusing of attention. The learning of categories is shown to improve controlled search performance. A general framework for human information processing is proposed. The framework emphasizes the roles of automatic and controlled processing. The theory is compared to and contrasted with extant models of search and attention. (31/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Accidents are the consequences of highly complex coincidences. Among the multitude of contributing factors human errors play a dominant role. Prevention of human error is therefore a promising target in accident prevention. The present analysis of 100 accidents at sea shows that human errors were not as such recognizable before the accident occurred. Therefore general increase of motivation or of safety awareness will not remedy the problem. The major types of human error that contribute to the occurrence of accidents are wrong habits, wrong diagnoses, lack of attention, lack of training and unsuitable personality. These problems require specific preventive measures, directed at the change of undesired behaviors. Such changes should be achieved without the requirement that people comprehend the relation between their actions and subsequent accidents.
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Outlines a theory of action in which an action sequence is represented by a parent schema and numerous child schemas, in which several action schemas can be active at any one time, and in which each schema has a set of triggering conditions and an activation value. The path from intention to action consists of the activation of the parent schema that corresponds to the intention, the activation of child schemas for the component parts of the action sequence, and then the appropriate triggering of schemas when the conditions match those required for their operations. This action system allows slips to be organized into 3 major categories and a number of subcategories. The 3 major categories of slips are (a) errors in the formation of the intention (e.g., mode and description errors); (b) faulty activation of schemas (e.g., loss of intention and misordering of action components); and (c) faulty triggering (e.g., spoonerisms, blends, and intrusions of thoughts).
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In many chemical plants involving hazardous processes, automatic protective systems will intervene in the event of a dangerous plant state. However, from the point of view of availability and production, the most desirable response to a transient is a timely diagnosis by the operator, such that appropriate action can be taken to avert shutdown of the process and bring the system to a safe, stable state. The other side of the coin is that diagnostic errors can be particularly catastrophic. Some of the approaches to assisting operator diagnosis, from the perspectives of online support and acquistition of diagnostic skills are considered. Some topics discussed are the following: problems of diagnosis; the psychology of diagnosis; improving performance; improving information display; on-line diagnostic support (manual methods and computer-based methods); and training approach.
The introduction of information technology based on digital computers for the design of man-machine interface systems has led to a requirement for consistent models of human performance in routine task environments and during unfamiliar task conditions. A discussion is presented of the requirement for different types of models for representing performance at the skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based levels, together with a review of the different levels in terms of signals, signs, and symbols. Particular attention is paid to the different possible ways of representing system properties which underlie knowledge-based performance and which can be characterised at several levels of abstraction-from the representation of physical form, through functional representation, to representation in terms of intention or purpose. Furthermore, the role of qualitative and quantitative models in the design and evaluation of interface systems is mentioned, and the need to consider such distinctions carefully is discussed.
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This study extends previous research by developing a typology of retail failures and recovery strategies. Upon sorting 661 critical incidents pertaining to general merchandise retailers, results revealed fifteen different types of retail failures and twelve unique recovery strategies. In addition, the effectiveness of the recovery strategies are examined and research implications are discussed.
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This paper puts forward a general framework for thought about human information processing. It is intended to avoid some of the problems of pipeline or stage models of function. At the same time it avoids the snare of supposing a welter of indefinitely many separate processes. The approach is not particularly original, but rather represents the common elements or presuppositions in a number of modern theories. These presuppositions are not usually explicit, however, and making them so reduces the danger of slipping back into earlier modes of thought. The key point is to distinguish between persisting representations and the processes that translate one representation into another. Various classes or groups of persisting representations can be distinguished by the experimental treatments that interfere with them. In particular, there now seem to be several kinds of short-term or temporary storage, different from each other as well as from longterm memory; the translating processes also have several different modes or kinds. A particularly important aspect of the current position is that a model of this general type no longer requires some external agent to direct and control long sequences of behaviour.
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Les erreurs humaines sont étudiées dans le cadre théorique de la gestalt theory comparée aux théories de l'erreur cognitive. II est démontré que les processus ou actes de cognition erronée ne sont pas toujours les conséquences de la routine, mais plutôt la suite naturelle d'une organisation de la forme, indépendante du fait qu'une certaine ligne d'action ait été apprise ou non. Des exemples issus des champs de la perception visuelle, de la pensée et de l'action dirigées vers un but sont présentés, dans lesquels le principes de la gestalt, finalité, bon déroulement et proximité conditionnent l'apparition d'échecs. Est aussi mis en discussion le fait que les erreurs pouvaient être ou pas considérées comme évaluation positive, comme elles pourraient être l'indication de la résolution d'un problème de production et dans certaines situations, fournir de l'information sur la manière la plus facile d'approcher un but. Human errors are discussed within the theoretical framework of gestalt theory as compared with cognitive error theories. It is argued that erroneous cognitive processes or actions are not always the consequence of routinisation, but instead are a natural consequence of gestalt organisation independent of whether or not a certain line of action has been learned. Examples from the fields of visual perception, thinking, and goal-directed action are presented, in which the gestalt principles of closure, good continuation, and proximity are conditions governing the emergence of failures. Also discussed is the issue of whether or not errors should be given positive evaluation, as they may be a cue for productive problem solving and may, in certain situations, provide information as to the smoothest path to approaching a goal.
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Tandis que l'étude des erreurs a apporté une importante contribution à notre compréhension de l'action humaine, l'évaluation de l'activité et la détection des lapsus ont été largement ignorées en psychologie. Dans cet article, j'examine les nombreuses manières dont les erreurs furent détectées dans un corpus de près de 600 lapsus et fautes quotidiennes recueillies dans une étude de journal intime. Utilisant cette collection, je propose une taxonomie théorique des modes de détection qui vise à décrire les manières selon lesquelles les individus réalisent leurs propres erreurs dans une large variété de tâches quotidiennes. Les erreurs sont classées depuis les échecs au niveau sensori-moteur, jusqu'aux trous de mémoire et erreurs de jugement. Le résultat aboutit à un cadre général, descriptif à l'intérieur duquel il est possible de ranger les mécanismes de détection selon trois grandes catégories: détection Fondée sur l'Action, détection Fondée sur les Résultats et enfin, détection à travers des Fontions Limitatives. La relation entre le type d'erreur et le mode de détection, les raisons d'un échec de détection et les implications pratiques de la recherche sont également proposés à la discussion.
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On a étudié la détection des erreurs par les utilisateurs d'ordinateur à partir de la théorie de l'action. On a effectué, pour des raisons de validités externe et interne, à la fois une recherche sur le terrain et deux expériences de laboratoire exploitant un traitement de texte. La problématique portait sur le taux de détection de différents types d'erreurs, l'impact de la complexité de la tâche sur la détection des erreurs et la question de la détection programmée des erreurs. Les résultats débouchent sur un meilleur taux de détection (96,5%) dans la recherche de terrain (par rapport au taux obtenu dans les expériences). Les erreurs apparaissant dans les tâches complexes étaient plus difficiles à détecter. En outre, la moitié de la totalité des erreurs pouvaient être détectées par les seuls utilisateurs. Pas plus de 22% des erreurs étaient détectées avec l'aide du système informatique. Ce sont les erreurs dans les travaux complexes que la détection aidée par le système déjouait le plus difficilement. On propose, comme application pratique, une stratégie de gestion des erreurs qui ferait appel à un processus de traitement des erreurs relevant du software.
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This paper describes a questionnaire study of absent- mindedness in shops, and an analysis of 166 letters written by 67 individuals who felt themselves to be wrongly accused of shoplifting . A total of 150 men and women were asked how often they had experienced each of 24 varieties of mental lapse while shopping. If they had not actually suffered a particular lapse, they were asked to judge its likelihood of occurrence. Approximately half of the sample also completed the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire ( CFQ ). Lapses carrying the risk of shop-lifting accusations were reported as occurring far less frequently, and were judged as less likely, than either ' embarrassing ' or 'nuisance' lapses. However, an examination of the circumstances leading up to accusations of shoplifting indicated that high risk lapses can occur when ill health, extreme preoccupation and distraction are combined with unwise supermarket practices. A positive and significant correlation was found between the CFQ and the Absent- Mindedness in Shops Questionnaire ( AMSQ ). A factor analysis of the AMSQ revealed a very pervasive general factor, together with a risk appreciation factor. The findings supported the view that responses to both the CFQ and the AMSQ reflected characteristic differences in the management of some superordinate attentional control resource.
Article
Younger people report more lapses than the elderly on the Broadbent Cognitive Failure Questionnaire, the Harris and Sunderland Memory Failure Questionnaire, and a 'Lost and Found' questionnaire. Lapses are not predicted by IQ or vocabulary test scores (AH 4 parts 1 and 2, and Mill Hill). These paradoxical findings reveal some logical and methodological difficulties in the interpretations of subjective self-ratings. Age and IQ differences in the memorability of errors were illustrated using choice reaction time (CRT) tasks. All age groups were equally efficient at 'automatic' error detection and correction, but older individuals more often omitted controller error-signalling responses. Errors followed by controlled responses were better remembered. It is argued that conscious self-monitoring and the ability to remember errors improves with IQ and declines with age.
Article
During serial self-paced choice response tasks mean reaction times (RTs) for responses which are made in order to correct errors are faster than mean RTs for other correct responses. Experiment I showed that subjects can accurately correct errors in a four-choice task by making the response which they should have made, even though they are given no indication that an error has occurred. Experiment 2 showed that subjects correct their errors faster and more accurately when they use correction procedure than when they make a common response to all errors. The implication that subjects can correct errors because they know what response they should have made allows some comments on the constraints which must be met by various models which have been proposed to explain error-correction.Now at Institute of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford.
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Many recent studies of keyboard entry are summarized with particular emphasis on performance data and fundamental questions about the design of keyboards. The role of auditory and visual feedback and physiological measurements are reviewed. Typical speed and error rates are given for several types of situations and operators. Other methods of data entry are considered, as are source documents, ordering of keys, keyboard interlocks, and chord keyboards. These data should be of interest to anyone concerned with the design and use of keyboards or other data entry devices.
Across all service encounters skill-and rule-based errors are the major source of customer dissatisfaction in services. This hypothesis is drawn from the GEMS framework as discussed above. The reasoning Chicago Accidents at Sea: Multiple Causes and Impossible Consequences
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Hl: Across all service encounters skill-and rule-based errors are the major source of customer dissatisfaction in services. This hypothesis is drawn from the GEMS framework as discussed above. The reasoning Chicago, IL. WAGENAAR, W. AND J. GROENEWEG (1987), " Accidents at Sea: Multiple Causes and Impossible Consequences, " International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27, 5-6, Nov-Dee, 587-598.
Minimising the Cause of Human Error The Cognitive
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An Analysis of Nuclear Incidents Resulting From Cognitive Error Paper presented at the 11 th Advances in Reliability Technology Symposium
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Cultural Context of Nuclear Safety Culture: A Conceptual Model and Experimental Study Invited Paper for the Second International Conference of Human Factors Research in Nuclear Power Operations (INCPO2 )
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The Development of a Human Reliability Assessment System for the Management of Human Error in Complex Systems Reliability Brighton Metropole
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