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Epidemic Psychology: A Model

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Abstract

When the conditions are right, epidemics can potentially create a medical version of the Hobbesian nightmare - the war of all against all. A major outbreak of novel, fatal epidemic disease can quickly be followed both by plagues of fear, panic, suspicion and stigma; and by mass outbreaks of moral controversy, of potential solutions and of personal conversion to the many different causes which spring up. This distinctive collective social psychology has its own epidemic form, can be activated by other crises besides those of disease and is rooted in the fundamental properties of language and human interaction. It is thus a permanent part of the human condition - and widely known to be such.

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... Though pandemics can kill millions of lives but the fear of death, the uncertainty, it makes people die every moment, preventing them from enjoying their everyday life, from being with their family, friends, and from getting calmness. During the struggling phase with any form of epidemic psychology, a society experiences the panic situation among individuals and groups, the struggle towards implementing control strategies, the moral controversy, and the interpretation behind the cause of the disease (Strong, 1990). But how these fears originate and what is the effect of these irrational fear? ...
... To have a better understanding of fear caused by the epidemics, lets dive deeper into the term Epidemic Psychology. Strong (1990) focused on the concept of Epidemic Psychology, considering it as a phrase of double meaning. With the concept of double meaning, it indicates that apart from the reference to the social psychology of epidemics, there's a separate epidemic nature of psychology from the epidemic of disease. ...
... It suggested that how less researches were done on evaluating the influence of coping appraisal on the pandemic influenza's behavioral influence. Strong (1990) reflected that the epidemic of fear also signifies the epidemic of suspicion. The suspiciousness is created in the sense of the likelihood of catching the disease and the sense that someone has the disease and would pass it on to me. ...
Article
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This review research attempts to focus on the Epidemic of fear and its causes and effects on people's mindset during the pandemic situation. Primarily the aim was to understand the psychological concept of the origination of fear due to epidemic or pandemic situations. Several theories and researches helped in explaining the underlying roots of the epidemics of fear and the behavioral changes in a person due to this. Through previous researches, a better understanding of the ways to prevent the fear of spreading among us is presented in this paper. Several type of researches and articles were studied that acted as the pillars of this paper reflecting on the causes of the epidemic of fear.
... Applied to the pandemic, we propose three alternative theories that all lead to different expectations regarding the relationship between threat perceptions and changes in anti-immigrant sentiments. According to the Epidemic Psychology Model (Strong, 1990), the coronavirus crisis could trigger the perception that every person individually is a potential threat, leading to no increases in negative outgroup affect specifically. The Common Ingroup Identity Model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000) suggests a decrease in anti-immigrant sentiments during the pandemic, because all are fighting the same threat, leading to identification with a common ingroup. ...
... Although "strangers" may be feared above all (ibid., p. 255), suspicion and stigma can rise in everyone towards everyone, because there is an overall lack of knowledge on how, when and by whom the disease is transmitted. In case of a relatively new and unexpected threatsuch as the novel coronavirus (WHO, 2020b) -these effects are even more pronounced (Strong, 1990). This could mean that anti-immigrant sentiments are unaffected by the perceived threat caused by the pandemic, since the universality of the threat does not elicit group-specific responses. ...
... First of all, the Epidemic Psychology Model (Strong, 1990) predicts a 'war of all against all' in which no clear distinction is made between those who perceive more or less threat. Strong (1990, p. 253) indicates that "such panic and irrationality can extend even to those who are nominally best informed about the disease", such as doctors and natural scientists. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is posing a threat to people all across the globe. According to traditional literature, threat perceptions induce anti-immigrant sentiments, as ingroup identity and self-interest are strengthened at the expense of the outgroup. In this study, we investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic indeed increases anti-immigrant sentiments, or that this type of threat elicits other or no group related responses. We also look at whether such responses are expressed more strongly among specific subgroups in Dutch society. To do so, we use unique longitudinal panel data based on the European Values Study 2017, with a repeated measure in May 2020, during national lockdown in the Netherlands. Based on structural equation modeling, we demonstrate that anti-immigrant sentiments have not increased due to (perceived threat of) the COVID-19 pandemic. In fact, negative opinions towards immigrants decreased between 2017 and 2020 in the Netherlands, for which we provide alternative explanations. Although some subgroups do experience more threat than others due to the coronavirus, such as women, first generation immigrants, and the elderly, this does not lead to more negative feelings towards outgroups. Whether this is due to the fact that individuals feel threatened by everyone, regardless of group membership, should be explored in future research.
... Although social crises caused by epidemics and their extreme form of pandemics share some commonalities with other kinds of crises, they have also some unique features. Epidemics and their risks of contagion and permeability breed a psychology of fear, which causes a collective feeling of discontent, agitation, restlessness, and dysphoria; thus, the state must adopt emergency measures and create an almost war-like emergency state, or risk losing the battle against viruses and diseases (Kapiriri & Ross, 2020;Strong, 1990). ...
... Since epidemics and pandemics pose an acute and urgent threat to society and state, the initiatives of organised collective action have increased accordingly, and public discourses and opinions on reform and change have also dynamically thrived. During crisis, the voices of critics continue to rise, and 'metaphysic questions' (Strong, 1990) are raised and hotly debated: what or which unpredictable forces have caused the pandemic? Who is blame for such a horrible scenario? ...
Article
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This article focuses on one particular and under‐investigated dimension in the study of social policy – crisis events and their special function in promoting and shaping social protection programs. Crises are usually regarded as negative social events that tempestuously challenge the pre‐existing socio‐economic order, triggering social conflicts and disruption, either temporarily or in a more enduring fashion. However, social crises may also foster new opportunities for social investment, public finance expansion and welfare state building after the outbreak of a crisis and even during the post‐crisis period. This article first examines the SARS pandemic and analyzes its developmental trajectory, reconstructing the national debates and discourses on the negative consequences and lessons learned in the SARS and post‐SARS period. I argue that this crisis event revealed many loopholes in the Chinese public health system, constituting a powerful driving force for rebuilding the medical insurance system and health governance in China, and strengthening public discourse on welfare state responsibility. Second, I explore how, during the COVID‐19 pandemic, scholars and experts have constructed the ‘short board’ of Chinese social policy, calling for further social policy reforms to narrow the gaps in health protection resources among social classes and to eliminate the fragmentation of health resource distribution.
... Rosenberg (1989) asserts that once the public has learned the appearance of an epidemic, the response is most widespread and drastic and results in a collective panic, Furthermore, Ventriglio et al. (2020) agrees the potential first stage of response to the pandemic at a personal level is fear that something is happening but there is not enough knowledge about it, whereas Ozamiz-Etxebarria, Dosil-Santamaria, Picaza-Gorrochategui, & Idoiaga-Mondragon (2020) affirm that in any biological catastrophe, fear, uncertainty, and stigmatization are common. In the stages of epidemic psychology as asserted by Strong (1990) there are three stages during an epidemic; they are fear/suspicion, explanation, and action, or proposed action. He further adds that each stage is possible to affect almost everyone. ...
... Based on the presentation of war metaphor to the number of word tokens, March still has the highest percentage with 0, 124% as seen in table 5 below: The peak of the war metaphor to speak about Covid-19 during the WHO press brief was in March with 136 metaphorical expressions, after March, the use of War metaphor is declining. According to Strong (1990), there are three stages during an epidemic; they are fear/suspicion, explanation, and action, or proposed action, at the first stage is fear and panic, and marked by the use of military and war metaphors. February, March, and April are the first three months where the epidemic spread around the world. ...
Article
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Since Covid-19 Pandemic, World Health Organization (WHO) conducts regular press briefs to provide the development of various aspects of the pandemic. During the press brief, the use of war terms is pervasive, both in literal context and in metaphorical use. This study investigates the use of war terms metaphor in the press briefing of WHO on Covid-19 development from February 4 2020 to August 31, 2020. The aim is to identify the peak of its use and what it implied in comparison with the context of case development. Corpus analysis is conducted to seventy-eight transcripts of WHO press briefing and the data concordance is conducted using Antconc concordance software. The Conceptual Metaphor Theory of Lakoff and Johnson is used as the theoretical framework. The result shows that the peak of the war metaphor usage is in March 2020. Even though the case is increasing after March but the use of war metaphor keeps declining in the following months which suggests the shifting of the focus of communication as more has been known about the virus. Furthermore, the data shows that WHO is not only fighting the virus of Covid-19 itself, but also the infodemic and fake news at the early stage of the spread.
... As in previous infectious disease pandemics, Covid-19 appeared to have destabilised social structures (Cava et al., 2005;Strong, 1990), and this was a key element of the 'lost activities and routines'. However, Covid-19 has lasted longer than the periods addressed by Strong (1990) and Cava et al. (2005), perhaps explaining why this study found more signs of new routines and behaviours. ...
... As in previous infectious disease pandemics, Covid-19 appeared to have destabilised social structures (Cava et al., 2005;Strong, 1990), and this was a key element of the 'lost activities and routines'. However, Covid-19 has lasted longer than the periods addressed by Strong (1990) and Cava et al. (2005), perhaps explaining why this study found more signs of new routines and behaviours. ...
Article
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Since the onset of the Covid‐19 pandemic, the UK, like many countries, has had restrictions on social contact, and injunctions of ‘social distancing’. This study aimed to generate new insights into men's experiences of loneliness during the pandemic, and consider the ramifications of these for continued/future restrictions, the easing of restrictions, and the future beyond the pandemic. Twenty qualitative interviews were conducted with men between January and March 2021. A maximum variation purpose sample frame required at least three non‐white men, three LGBTQ+men, three men with a university education, three without a university education, three 18–30 years old, and three aged 60+. Thematic analysis, focused on semantic themes, was employed as part of a ‘grounded’ epistemology whereby the stated perspectives of the interviewees drove the content of the study. Seven themes were constructed: (i) lost and new activities and routines; (ii) remote social interaction; (iii) narrowed social spheres; (iv) rethought and renewed recognition of what is important; (v) loneliness with a purpose; (vi) anxiety of social contact; and (vii) easier for themselves than others. Lost routines, fewer meaningful activities, and a reduction in face‐to‐face interaction, were framed as challenges to preventing loneliness. Solo‐living gay men seemed particularly negatively affected. However, many men displayed new, more covid‐safe routines and activities. Remote forms of interaction were often utilised, and though they were imperfect, were constructed as worth engaging with, and held capacity for improvement. A moral need to reduce transmission of SARS‐COV‐2, and a fear of catching it, became important features of participants lives that also affected loneliness. Men at higher risk of health complications from Covid‐19 were particularly likely to highlight anxiety of social contact. Reducing restrictions alone may not return everyone to pre‐pandemic levels of loneliness, particularly if the pandemic remains a significant public health issue.
... While pandemics tend to spark suspicion towards everyone as potential carriers of the disease (Strong, 1990), for our respondents, the distrust 'in the air we breathe, the surfaces we touch' (Carel, 2020, p. 16)-which has arguably transformed experiences of travelling during this particular pandemic-was not solely a concern over exposure and contagion but also of putting others at risk of exposure to and contamination by the coronavirus. ...
... While the narratives contain some stories of family members falling ill or dying during the pandemic, it is notable that the mere prospect of an emergency was also enough to trigger a strong and acute urge to 'be there' . We propose that this widespread sense of impending emergency constitutes the socio-atmospherics (Mason, 2018) of the early pandemic era that, while defined by collective disorientation and fear in the face of the unexpected and fatal disease (Strong, 1990), on a private level charged previously ordinary and habitual feelings of family connection with an extraordinary potency. ...
Article
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This paper investigates transnational families’ experiences of the COVID‐19 pandemic outbreak and the accompanying sudden and unexpected travel restrictions. Our data consist of written stories collected in April–June 2020 from migrants with ageing kin living in another country. For many respondents, the situation provoked an acutely felt urge for physical proximity with their families. By analysing their experiences of ‘not being there’, we seek to understand what exactly made the urge to ‘be there’ so forceful. Bringing into dialogue literature on transnational families with Jennifer Mason's recent theoretical work on affinities, we move the focus from families’ transnational caregiving practices to the potent connections between family members. We argue that this approach can open important avenues for future research on families—transnational or otherwise—because it sheds light on the multisensory and often ineffable charges between family members that serve to connect them.
... As in previous infectious disease pandemics, Covid-19 appeared to have destabilised social structures (Cava et al., 2005;Strong, 1990), and this was a key element of the 'lost activities and routines'. However, Covid-19 has lasted longer than the periods addressed by Strong (1990) and Cava et al. (2005), perhaps explaining why this study found more signs of new routines and behaviours. ...
... As in previous infectious disease pandemics, Covid-19 appeared to have destabilised social structures (Cava et al., 2005;Strong, 1990), and this was a key element of the 'lost activities and routines'. However, Covid-19 has lasted longer than the periods addressed by Strong (1990) and Cava et al. (2005), perhaps explaining why this study found more signs of new routines and behaviours. ...
... This focus on social policy and societal resilience is explicitly referenced in the WHO wholeof-society approach. Strong (1990) identifies this focus on the 'liminal' opportunities of adversity as a feature of pandemic response and research around experience of pandemics. ...
Article
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The current pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption across the world. Government-led efforts to prepare for emergencies of this kind have focussed upon maintaining vital social and economic function while reducing disease. In some respects, the UK has seemed unprepared for this pandemic, although radical policies and interventions have been applied as the situation has progressed. Schools are a significant point of connection in any national emergency strategy. This study has explored the experience of a group of primary school leaders based in a medium-sized town in the north of England. Analysis of a focus group discussion has highlighted the potential of schools to provide safeguarding and pastoral care to Children and Young People (CYP) through an anxious period of social isolation. Examination of the interactions across systemic levels has highlighted weaknesses and omissions in the Government’s current pandemic strategy as it relates to the care and education of CYP at a local level. From this examination, recommendations for action have been made.
... Epidemics refer to highly infectious and rapidly spreading diseases (Strong, 1990). Because of the uncertainty and possibility of fatal consequences of the new virus, the fear of the virus spread rapidly in public (Person et al., 2004). ...
Article
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The unprecedented public panic caused by COVID-19 will affect the recovery of tourism, especially the theme parks, which are generally crowded due to high visitor volume. The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of the COVID-19 on the theme park industry. This study aims to predict recommendation intentions of theme park visitors by exploring the complicated mechanism derived from the fear of COVID-19. This study uses a quantitative research method, and SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 22.0 were used for data analysis. An online survey was conducted with 420 Chinese respondents who visited Shanghai Disneyland after its reopening. The study explored the relationship between Fear of COVID-19, perceived risk, participation, service experience and revisit intention. Results indicated the perceived risk of theme park visitors will not directly ruin their recommendation intention. Visitors’ fear of COVID-19 enhanced their perceived risk, reduced their desire for active participation and impaired their service experience, which consequently affected their recommendation intention. We provide theoretical and managerial implications.
... This has resulted in an unprecedented push to online learning [19]. Due to massive and unexpected school closures, affected countries and communities have been forced to seek quick fixes in different digital learning platforms [20]. These rapid moves from classroom to online teaching have set aside the more profound questions related to national educational policies and theoretical grounds and premises. ...
Article
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The study examines the application of innovative technologies in Computer Science education during the Coronavirus school closure in Enugu, Nigeria. A total of One hundred and fifty (150) structured questionnaires were administered online to participants that consisted of Computer science students and educators from four (4) different tertiary institutions in Enugu State. This is in addition to secondary data sources generated from journals and the Internet. The sample was selected using the Stratified random sampling technique. Thereafter, the collected data were analyzed using simple percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation. While the hypotheses were tested using a T-test. The results show that technologies such as Smartphones, Laptops, Desktop computers, E-readers, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), Projectors, Smartboards, Videoconferencing tools e.g. Zoom and Google Meet, and wearable technologies were largely available and used by most of the respondents during the COVID-19 school closure. Also, the findings show that majority of the participants admitted using the various mentioned technologies for; virtual academic meetings, access to the internet and online educational resources, lesson/ assignment preparations, participation in e-learning/online classes, conduct/taking of e-examinations and assessments, and communications with students/teachers and colleagues. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents admitted that "They felt very confident and comfortable using the various technologies for teaching and learning during the COVID-19 school closure. However, most of the respondents expressed concerns about; constant power failure, internet connection issues, financial or cost issues, and lack of institutional support which were found to have impeded the use of technology for Computer Science education during the COVID-19 school closure. The work conclude that relevant authorities should invest more in education technology and other necessary infrastructures that support the integration of innovations and technologies that enhance the teaching and learning of modern-day realities in schools.
... In the field of psychology, there have been calls to explore the psychosocial responses to emerging infections (Loveday, 2020). This approach is based on Strong's (1990) epidemic psychology, which is the dominant psychosocial model of early responses to fatal epidemics. Notably, epidemic psychology acknowledges three types of psychosocial epidemics: an epidemic of fear (and of suspicion, irrationality, and stigma), an epidemic of explanations (a volatile intellectual state) or of moral controversy, and an epidemic of actions or proposed actions. ...
Article
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This article outlines the results of a three-month-long community letter-writing and letter-sharing project called “Viral Epistolary” (VE), which we completed online in Italy during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns. In it, we collected 340 digital letters from all over the country and connected thousands of people through epistolary exchanges. We used the genre of letters as a mediating, meaning-making, and (auto)biographical tool whereby people could share their experiences of domestic isolation and physical distancing, thus creating a community of support. Based on a well-documented understanding of meaning-making as a core human endeavor, especially in times of social disruption and personal crisis, this article frames sense-making as a transcendental and even spiritual process that yields broad principles for organizing life. Thus, the research adopts a psychosocial perspective on spirituality and applies thematic analysis to qualitatively analyze written narratives. The results reveal that many respondents underwent a three-part, not-necessarily-sequential process of collapsing, self-distancing, and transcending during lockdown, which allowed them to rearrange themselves according to the new total social fact of the pandemic. Through this process, respondents negotiated themes of semiotic crisis, striving for meaning, and beyond meaning (the essential). Finally, the article discusses the role of meaning as a transcendental component of psychosocial meaning-making coping processes and tries to highlight how shared writing experiences can stimulate personal and communal healing processes in the wake of social crises.
... The modified post in Sri Lanka clearly illustrates the infective character of hate speech between countries as well as within countries, as indeed the case with the corona virus. As well documented in the literature, this clearly demonstrates that hate is as infective as the virus itself (Strong 1990). ...
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Their dedicated service to the project implemented under difficult circumstances is much appreciated. Finally, the research team would like to thank all the persons who served as key informants and who completed the online questionnaire within the short time span. We owe special thanks to Rev.
... Despite individual resources and resilience, people may find it difficult to adapt to the new circumstances and integrate the traumatic events into a new narrative with meaning (Kazlauskas and Quero, 2020). Studies from previous epidemics such as HIV, SARS, and Ebola have shown that fear, panic, and stigma might endure among the population even when the disease is normalized (Strong, 1990;Hong et al., 2009;Ji et al., 2017). Despite this evidence, little attention has been paid so far to the adjustment processes of the population after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
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Background: Anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress have been reported among the general population during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the adjustment after the emergency phase remains under-investigated. This study aims to understand the adjustment processes of the population after the emergency phase of the pandemic. Methods: We conducted a grounded theory based on the experience of 24 clinical psychologists who provided extensive support to the population during the pandemic in different Italian regions. Three online focus groups were conducted. The transcripts of the focus groups were analyzed through a process of open, axial, and selective coding. Data collection terminated once thematic saturation was reached. Results: Repositioning emerged as the evolutionary task people were confronted with in the face of a New Reality. Repositioning meant dealing with and integrating unpleasant Emotional Experiences deriving from the lockdown and reopening (i.e., unsafety, emotional exhaustion, loneliness, uncertainty, loss, and disconnection) through different Coping Strategies. Repositioning was facilitated or hindered by contextual and individual Intervening Conditions and led to two Adjustment Outcomes: growth or block. Conclusion: Results suggest that repositioning was the core task people had to face after the emergency phase of COVID-19. Proactive psychological interventions may support the population in repositioning in order to prevent maladjustment and encourage post-traumatic growth.
... Covid-19 outbreak can also be effective in the formation of fear that will prevent people from traveling (Mamun & Griffiths, 2020). A highly contagious disease that can spread rapidly among people, pandemic disease causes high fear and panic among the population (Strong, 1990). Given the uncertainty and possible fatal consequences of the new virus, the fear of pandemics can spread to all populations (Person et al., 2004). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of Covid-19 fear on travel intention and to test the mediating effect of reliance on vaccine in the relationship between fear of Covid-19 and travel intention. In this context, a structural model was created to examine these three variables: the relationship among fear of Covid-19, travel intention and trust in the vaccine. The quantitative study was carried out through a structural model in order to verify the behavior of the three variables together using IBM AMOS 24 package. A case study based on data collected from 467 public employees across Turkey supported empirically the study. At the end of the analysis, it was found that the fear of Covid-19 significantly and negatively affected the travel intention, while the fear of covid-19 significantly and negatively affected the trust in the vaccine, and no significant relationship was found between the trust in the vaccine and the travel intention. In the model in which the mediation effect was tested, it was found that trust in vaccine did not have a mediating effect on the relationship between fear of Covid-19 and travel intention. Considering these results, suggestions were made for the decision makers of travel, tourism and hospitality industry to be able to recover after the pandemic to create plan for policy and strategies.
... He also reported that it included at least three different kinds of psycho-social epidemic: the epidemic of fear, the epidemic of explanation and the epidemic of proposed actions. In the epidemic of fear, the basic worry of individuals includes their suspicions about themselves, their families and loved ones catching the disease (Strong, 1990). ...
Chapter
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This study is to adapt “The Fear of COVID-19 Familial Infection Scale’ into Turkish and to find out its validity and reliability. The population of this methodological study was healthcare professionals who were reached online (through email, whatsapp) between 10 and 30 September, 2020. The sample consisted of 352 healthcare professionals who met the research criteria, who accepted to participate in the study and who answered the scales within the specified dates.Total Cronbach’s a coefficient of the scale was 0.88, while it was 0.92 for “Fear of infecting others” dimension and 0.86 for “Perception of Others’ fear of being infected by me” dimension. (Exploratory Factor Analysis) EFA and (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) CFA confirmed the two-factor structure of the scale. Good fit index values were obtained as a result of CFA. The Turkish version of the scale is valid and reliable. This scale is considered to be important in evaluating the fear level of healthcare workers and providing supportive programs and trainings according to their needs.
... The first of these is an epidemic of fear. The second is an epidemic of explanation and moralization and the third is an epidemic of action, or proposed action (Strong, 1990). As we move from one phase to another phase of development, different stakeholders provide their inputs on how to manage the situation and guaranteeing the maintenance of education process. ...
... The first of these is an epidemic of fear. The second is an epidemic of explanation and moralization and the third is an epidemic of action, or proposed action (Strong, 1990). As we move from one phase to another phase of development, different stakeholders provide their inputs on how to manage the situation and guaranteeing the maintenance of education process. ...
Conference Paper
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This article considers a possibility of creating a sustainable model that would help overcome the specific crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. It attempts to analyse these processes while taking into consideration their unpredictable nature. Analysing the available statistical and operational data the author looks for an opportunity to create a relatively accurate model for overcoming the crisis resulting from the pandemic. The possible solutions are divided into three groups: political, social and economic.
... In this context, swarm formation essentially either describes the epidemic spreading of the pathogen itself, or some equally unfavorable panic reaction in the host population. Indeed, epidemic diseases are known to trigger psychological and sociological patterns in human societies that can themselves be analyzed in epidemic terms [134,135]. Helped by the dominant fear culture in the media [136] 27 , such psychic epidemics can seize whole societies, undermine and disrupt their social fabric, and make them slip into primitive collectivism and so-called mass formation [137,138]. ...
Preprint
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Epidemic disease spreading is conventionally often modelled and analyzed by means of rate and diffusion equations, following the paradigms of well-controlled chemical reactions and diffusive dynamics in a test tube. Yet, serious worries that this suggestive and appealing similarity might be a false friend were already voiced by the pioneers of mathematical epidemiology. A century later, we can draw on cross-fertilizations from network and game theory and the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics to substantiate them. Epidemiological spreading is thereby revealed as a fundamentally heterogeneous and erratic process that shares certain properties with more unwieldy phenomena, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, traffic jams, and stock crashes. They are all characterised by high tail risks that materialize very rarely but fatally. That they arise from bursts of unlikely chains of localized random "superspreader" events, by which micro-scale fluctuations and uncertainties may get heftily magnified, makes their accurate prediction and control intrinsically and notoriously hard. That epidemic disease spreading is moreover closely intertwined with equally heterogeneous genetic drift and information feedback adds new challenges -- and chances.
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
Chapter
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... Therefore, sociological imagination regarding policies and practices is critical to see how different scientific organizations and institutions can be changed when other socio-political actors are changed. Since this strange condition presents such an immediate threat to public order, it can also powerfully influence the size, timing, and shape of the social and political response in many areas the epidemic has affected (Strong, 1990). ...
Article
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Countries that implement strict policy measures to combat coronavirus contagion increase their probability of achieving successful social distancing practice when compared to the countries without such strict policies. I used Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) as a quasi-experimental evaluation option to perform regression models and show differences in social distancing efforts. I utilized 3,997 observations for 132 countries, drawn from the Oxford CGRT Stringency Index and Google Community Mobility data. The results show that people’s community mobility to various locations has flattened significantly as policy measures become stricter. In this paper, I considered current underlying health situation to be symptomatic of a risk society and argued that policy interventions’ effectiveness in response to COVID-19 depends on political leaders, public health authorities, and institutions’ credibility. Political rhetoric, politically motivated scientific solutions, and political downplaying of the underlying health implications weaken the responsible organizations and institutions, particularly when leaders undermine inclusive stringent policies and their implementation.
... Strong writes that epidemic psychology involves three types of psychosocial epidemics: the epidemic of fear, the epidemic of explanation and moralization, and the epidemic of action (actual or proposed). Epidemics of disease are therefore accompanied by epidemics of social psychology, which feed off one another but are also distinct from one another, or as Strong (1990) dictated, "the social psychology of epidemics has its own epidemic nature, quite separate from the epidemic of disease" (p. 251). ...
Article
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Through a comparative analysis of Spanish newspaper coverage of the 1918 flu and COVID-19 pandemics, this article explores the parallels between them, their roles in reflecting and facilitating public perceptions of infectious diseases, the national dialogues they incite, and the search for solutions in a global health crisis. I use qualitative analysis to interpret media themes of contagion as they shift from societal complacency to panic as disaster unfolds. In weaving together Philip Strong’s model for epidemic psychology and Jim A. Kuypers’s rhetorical approach to news framing, I analyze how newspapers communicate changing assumptions about epidemiologic risks during pandemics.
... Thirty years ago, Philip Strong philosophically defined the reaction to major infectious diseases as a unique psychosocial form, called epidemic psychology (Strong, 1990). Philip believes that an outbreak of fatal epidemics seems to be followed by fear, panic, suspicion, and pandemic stigma. ...
Article
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As the SARS-CoV-2 virus swept the world in late 2019, it has brought widespread fear, some suspicion, and degrees of stigma. In the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemics, a series of collective irrationalities such as panic buying, protest marches against vaccines, and pandemic stigma occurred. This phenomenon is inseparable from the spread of rumors about the epidemic. The advent of social media has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions and made a flood of digital misinformation becoming ubiquitous. The diffusion of false rumors affects the public’s perception of reality and disrupts the prevention of the epidemic. This paper analyzes the COVID-19 collective irrationalities from epidemic psychology to provide a new reference view for overcoming psychological problems related to COVID-19.
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
Chapter
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... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
Book
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This book explores societal vulnerabilities highlighted within cinema and develops an interpretive framework for understanding the depiction of societal responses to epidemic disease outbreaks across cinematic history. Drawing on a large database of twentieth- and twenty-first-century films depicting epidemics, the study looks into issues including trust, distrust, and mistrust; different epidemic experiences down the lines of expertise, gender, and wealth; and the difficulties in visualizing the invisible pathogen on screen. The authors argue that epidemics have long been presented in cinema as forming a point of cohesion for the communities portrayed, as individuals and groups “from below” represented as characters in these films find solidarity in battling a common enemy of elite institutions and authority figures. Throughout the book, a central question is also posed: “cohesion for whom?”, which sheds light on the fortunes of those characters that are excluded from these expressions of collective solidarity. This book is a valuable reference for scholars and students of film studies and visual studies as well as academic and general readers interested in topics of films and history, and disease and society.
... 38 Lampton (2019). 39 Strong (1990). ...
Article
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The impacts of the novel coronavirus (hereafter COVID-19) pose one of the greatest crises of our generation. The policy decisions that the US and Chinese governments take will shape the current order of international relations, the global supply chain of medical supplies, and US–China relations. The COVID-19 crisis leads to the empirical puzzles: how do the two great world powers construct their narratives on the global pandemic and toward each other? What are the meanings, if any, of fear in US–China relations? This study explores the narrative of fear that is constituted in the US and China discourse. The historical analogies, such as the Boxer Indemnity, sick man of Asia, and Pearl Harbor attack, offer great examples to the political construction of the “fearful” other through specific representations amid the outbreak of COVID-19. Specifically, they have become the “cultural scripts” that define how they interact and who they are. The article proceeds as follows. First, this study examines the current literature of realism, constructivism, and discourse analysis. Second, it proposes a comparative framework for understanding the expressions of fear and threat perceptions for both countries. Specifically, the “Pearl Harbor Moment” from the US, and “the Boxer Indemnity” from the Chinese government substantially shape the landscape of US–China relations. Third, it highlights how the political elites appropriate these historical analogies in constructing their political identities and offers insights into the future of US–China relations. Finally, this article concludes with thoughts on the studies on the struggle of great powers and implications for pandemic politics.
... These scenarios, one would assume, lend themselves to exciting footage of panicked mobs amidst the complete breakdown of societies. Indeed, disease psychology literature has suggested a close connection between epidemics, fear, and panic ( Strong, 1990 ), and according to Susan Sontag in Illness as Metaphor, related to the "unique" characteristics of infectious diseases themselves ( 1978 ). Thus, for example, on the "psychosocial" effects of epidemics, it has been said that the disproportionate degree of fear is connected to the fact that "it is transmitted rapidly and invisibly; historically, it has accounted for major morbidity and mortality; old forms re-emerge and new forms emerge; and both the media and society are often in awe" ( Pappas et al., 2009 : 743). ...
... Within the sociology of health and medicine, the debate has mainly concerned which themes to address with the idea of developing a specific «pandemic sociology» (Monagan 2020). Pickersgill, for example, in remembering the work of Strong (1990) on AIDS recalls how that author offers a first attempt at a general sociological statement on the striking problems that large, fatal epidemics seem to present to social order. Strong reflects on how, alongside the epidemic of the virus itself, there are epidemics of fear, of explanation and moralization, and of (proposed) actions. ...
... The first of these is an epidemic of fear. The second is an epidemic of explanation and moralization and the third is an epidemic of action, or proposed action (Strong, 1990). As we move from one phase to another phase of development, different stakeholders provide their inputs on how to manage the situation and guaranteeing the maintenance of education process. ...
Conference Paper
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This research attempts to make a brief review and analysis of youth unemployment rate in the labour market in Bulgaria. It briefly describes programmes and measures existing at the Bulgarian labour market and implemented though Employment Promotion Act and National Employment Action Plan. It attempts to describe and provide a reasonable proposal for changes in order to increase the effectiveness of the applied tools concluding that the relative percentage of unemployed youth is the highest compared to other age groups.
Article
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La actual pandemia de COVID-19 ha tenido impactos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo. Sin embargo, la actual crisis sanitaria ha traído consigo otra pandemia: una ola creciente de autoritarismo y extremismo en muchas sociedades. Factores como crisis económicas, humanitarias o sociopolíticas han detonado polarización y malestar social, mientras que movimientos políticos han aprovechado estas crisis para llegar al poder o avanzar en sus agendas políticas. La crisis sanitaria no hizo más que agravar la deriva autoritaria ya existente mientras que los grupos extremistas han aprovechado la actividad y conectividad en línea de las personas confinadas para atraer a más seguidores y tomar acciones violentas a través de las redes sociales. Si crece la ampliación del poder y la autonomía de los Estados-nación durante la pandemia de COVID-19, junto con pocos contrapesos al interior, existen riesgos de efectos duraderos para la privacidad, la seguridad y la democracia de todos los países.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of society, bringing health hazards and posing challenges to public order, governments, and mental health. This study examines the stages of crisis response and recovery as a sociological problem by operationalising a well-known model of crisis stages in terms of a psycho-linguistic analysis. Based on an extensive collection of Twitter data spanning from March to August 2020 in Argentina, we present a thematic study on the differences in language used in social media posts and look at indicators that reveal the distinctive stages of a crisis and the country response thereof. The analysis was combined with a study of the temporal prevalence of mental health related conversations and emotions. This approach can provide insights for public health policy design to monitor and eventually intervene during the different stages of a crisis, thus improving the adverse mental health effects on the population.
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All countries in the world have been affected by the Covid-19 virus. Some countries are trying to keep the virus under control by keeping their schools closed. While doing this, they apply distance education where possible. Some countries, on the other hand, use face-to-face and distance education methods in their schools by going to partial school closures, taking into account the number of cases, the population of the country and the capacity of the health systems. Often, low-population countries and countries that vaccinate most of their citizens have low number of cases, so they do face-to-face training. It seems that the pandemic caused by the Covid-19 virus will continue for a while. Therefore, distance education will continue in addition to face-to-face education in schools. Blended education applications are likely to come into play in the new period. Therefore, it can be anticipated that more researches on the pandemic will be needed in distance education. So, reopening schools is still risky.
Article
The challenges with modeling the spread of Covid-19 are its power-type growth during the middle stages of the waves with the exponents depending on time, and that the saturation of the waves is mainly due to the protective measures and other restriction mechanisms working in the same direction. The two-phase solution we propose for modeling the total number of detected cases of Covid-19 describes the actual curves for many its waves and in many countries almost with the accuracy of physics laws. Bessel functions play the key role in our approach. The differential equations we obtain are of universal type and can be used in behavioral psychology, invasion ecology (transient processes), etc. The initial transmission rate and the intensity of the restriction mechanisms are the key parameters. This theory provides a convincing explanation of the surprising uniformity of the Covid-19 waves in many places, and can be used for forecasting the epidemic spread. For instance, the early projections for the 3rd wave in the USA appeared sufficiently exact. The Delta-waves (2021) in India, South Africa, UK, and the Netherlands are discussed at the end.
Article
Background : The first national COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom between March to July 2020 resulted in sudden and unprecedented disruptions to daily life. This study sought to understand the impact of COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), such as social distancing and quarantine, on people’s lived experiences, focusing on social connections and relationships. Methods : Data were generated through 20 in-depth online and telephone interviews, conducted between May and July 2020, and analysed using thematic analysis informed by an ecological framework. Results : Findings show that the use of NPIs impacted social relationships and sociality at every level, disrupting participant’s sense of self; relationships with their partners, household members, neighbours, and communities; and polarising social and political views. However, experiences of personal meaning-making and reflection, and greater social connectedness, solidarity, and compassion – despite physical distance – were also common. Conclusions : Participant’s lived experiences of the first UK lockdown underscore the interconnectedness of relationships at the individual, community and societal level and point towards the important role of trust, social cohesion, and connectedness in coping with pandemic stress and adversity. Where infectious disease prevention measures rupture sociality, support for social connection at every relational level is likely to help build resilience in light of ongoing COVID-19 restrictions.
Article
This article analyzes the digital storytelling about Corona in the biggest online meme community 9GAG. With an understanding of memes as a low-threshold, participatory medium of digital narration it tries to understand how the visual and narrative communication in online communities deals creatively and critically with the pandemic. By focusing on the characteristic sick humor of the internet and its polyvocal discourse, the article tries to reveal crucial fears and lines of social conflict with regards to COVID-19. The research is based on a documentation and qualitative coding of 700 memes, which were collected in the early stages of the pandemic in 2020.
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During worldwide Covid-19-induced emergency, academic practices using almost any available digital tools to ensure the continuation of teaching and learning. Short-term solutions are socially, pedagogically and economically necessary, yet the time of crisis is not the best moment for making long-term investments in Holistic educational technologies. This study provides some important practical insights into the usage and adoption of e-learning systems in developing countries like India. This paper attempts to explore the following problems (1) what are the challenges in the accomplishment of holistic development? (2) How did the global health emergency puncture the efforts towards holistic development through education? and (3) How should teaching learning attempt to overcome the obstacles towards holistic development?
Research
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.‬ the Fear of COVID-19 Scale of students university Lecturer: faten abd aljabbar naji Abstract: The aim of the research is to know the fear of the Covid-19 epidemic among university students, and the researcher used the (Descriptive Research Methodology). College, including (14) scientific colleges and (10) humanitarian colleges. The sample of the research consisted of (200) male and female students from the research community distributed among (four) colleges chosen randomly from the University of Baghdad, two scientific colleges and two human faculties, and a gender variable representation (males-females), equal, by (100) males and (100) From females, the researcher used the fear scale of the Covid-19 epidemic for (Ahorsu et al, 2020). The validity (translation, apparent translation,) and consistency were verified using and to extract the results of the research, the researcher used the T-test for a sample One and the T-test for two independent samples.Research results:-The research showed the existence of statistically significant differences among students university in fear of the Covid-19 epidemic in general.There is difference in fear of the Covid-19 epidemic, according to the gender variable .
Article
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I test the possibility that over-estimating negative consequences of COVID-19 (e.g., hospitalizations, deaths, and threats to children) will be associated with stronger support the ‘ new normal ’ (i.e., continuation of restrictions for an undefined period starting with wide-spread access to vaccines and completed vaccinations of vulnerable people). The new normal was assessed by endorsing practices such as vaccine passports, travel restrictions, mandatory masking, continuing contact tracing, and pursuing elimination. Results are based on five samples ( N = 1,233 from April 2021 and N = 264 from January 2022) and suggest that people over -estimate COVID-19 risks to children and healthy people, as evidenced by median estimates that 5% of all global deaths were children, 29% were generally healthy people under 65, and that a healthy person under the age of 65 has 5% chance of dying from COVID-19. Over-estimates observed in this study align with those based on representative samples, and they were consistently related to stronger support for the new normal. This relationship emerged when participants estimated risks with percentages (core indicators) and indicated the extent to which risk-based statements are true/supported with evidence or false/unsupported (alternative indicators). People were notably more likely to support continuing restrictions if they believed that COVID-19 risk and risk mitigation tactics are true, even when they are not (e.g., children need to be prioritized for boosters). These relationships persisted when considering competing explanations (political ideology, statistics literacy, belief in conspiracy theories). I trace these effects to well-meaning efforts to prevent under-estimation. Public policy and people’s perceptions of risks are intertwined, where even inaccurate judgments may influence decisions. Failure to combat all misinformation with equal rigor may jeopardize the restoration of the social and economic life essential for building adaptive post-pandemic societies.
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In developed countries, the use of digital technological resources is a powerful tool to face COVID-19. However, in Brazil, the implementation of these resources in the public health clinics is still very deficient and not prioritized by the management. The purpose of this paper is to report the experience of implementing the InfoSaúde application, started in July 2020, in primary care, for the optimization of actions aimed at controlling COVID-19 in a vulnerable community. The definition of application requirements and operational flows was based by standardized questionnaires for health professionals and users, which resulted in three macro-processes: Prevention, Care and Monitoring, tested and validated by professionals and users with an interface to the clinic’s information system. The results were as follows: a) Return to prevention actions with remote information; b) Streamlining interventions by integrating the Assistance, Laboratory and Surveillance sectors; reduction of work overload and occupational risk with distance activities and, c) Improvement in the information system and capacity for early intervention at a distance. The implementation of a simple technological resource in primary care is feasible, contributing to comprehensive care, reducing occupational risk, and workload.
Article
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This conceptual article argues that class is a major factor in the social division and polarisation after the Covid-19 pandemic. Current discourse and communication analyses of phenomena such as compliance with measures and vaccine hesitancy seek explanations mainly in opposing ideological stances, ignoring existing structural inequalities and class relations and their effects on people’s decisions. I approach social cohesion in the Covid-19 pandemic through the theories of epidemic psychology, which sees language as fundamental in social conflicts during pandemics, and progressive neoliberalism, which critiques a post-industrial social class whose assumed moral superiority and talking down to working-class people is argued to be an explanation of many current social conflicts. I argue that these theories construct a valuable theoretical framework for explaining and analysing the social division and polarisation that has resulted from the pandemic. Reducing non-compliance with mitigating measures and vaccine hesitancy to an ideological issue implies that it can be countered by combatting misinformation and anti-vaccination thinking and shutting down particular discourses, which grossly simplifies the problem. The impact that class relations and inequality have on political and health issues, coupled with the characteristics of progressive neoliberalism, may partially explain the rise of populist and nativist movements. I conclude that if social cohesion is to be maintained through the ongoing climate emergency, understanding the impacts of progressive neoliberalism and the role of contempt in exclusionary discursive practices is of utmost importance.
Article
A new coronavirus, initially designated as 2019-nCoV and after that as SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. By January 2020, at least 830 cases had been diagnosed in several countries. SARS-CoV-2 is the third coronavirus to emerge in the human population in the last two decades – an emergency that has set global public health institutions on high alert. A little more than a year later, cases and deaths are counted in millions worldwide, with Brazil holding a prominent position in the number of cases and deaths. The succession of events in this recent period brought up highly relevant issues: civilizational fraying, increased vulnerabilities, and resulting risks. In this essay, we propose some reflections on the social consequences of the pandemic from a socio-anthropological perspective, revisiting classic public health and social sciences themes such as fear, risk, and vulnerability. We observed resurging trends and escalating tensions, which leaves us with a horizon of great concern, especially regarding the expanding biopower devices. Thus, we join the ongoing reflexive effort on the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sociality and power relationship forms in today’s world.
Article
RESUMO Um novo coronavírus, designado inicialmente como 2019-nCoV e pouco depois como Sars- CoV-2, surgiu em Wuhan, China, no final de 2019. Em janeiro de 2020, pelo menos 830 casos haviam sido diagnosticados em diversos países. O Sars-CoV-2 é o terceiro coronavírus a surgir na população humana nas últimas duas décadas – uma emergência que colocou as instituições globais de saúde pública em alerta máximo. Pouco mais de um ano depois, registram-se casos e óbitos na escala dos milhões no mundo, com o Brasil ocupando posição destacada tanto em número de casos quanto de óbitos. A sucessão de eventos desse período recente atualizou questões de grande importância: o esgarçamento civilizacional, a potencialização das vulnerabilidades de toda ordem e os riscos decorrentes. Neste ensaio, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre as consequências sociais da pandemia a partir de uma perspectiva socioantropológica, revisitando temas clássicos da saúde e das ciências sociais, como medo, risco e vulnerabilidade. Observou-se o recrudescimento de tendências e acirramento de tensões que fazem olhar o horizonte com preocupação, especialmente com relação à expansão de dispositivos de biopoder. Assim, o presente artigo associa-se ao esforço reflexivo em curso sobre efeitos potenciais da pandemia da Covid-19 sobre as formas de socialidade e as relações de poder no mundo atual.
Article
Описано исследование коммуникативной эффективности государственных стратегий информационного антикризисного менеджмента в условиях глобальной пандемии и ускоренной цифровизации; анализируются трансформации информационной подсистемы власти, что обусловлено реакцией на распространение COVID- 19. Выявлено, что коммуникативная эффективность информационного антикризисного менеджмента определяется способностью управленческих систем в сжатые сроки разрабатывать и реализовывать проактивную стратегию. Предложены теоретические основания анализа коммуникативной эффективности в условиях «пандемическо-экономической» дилеммы, структурированы возможные информационные стратегии публичной власти в условиях пандемии, выявлена их сравнительная эффективность при реализации антикризисного менеджмента.
Article
One of the most groundbreaking sociology texts of the mid-20th century, Howard S. Becker's Outsiders is a thorough exploration of social deviance and how it can be addressed in an understanding and helpful manner. A compulsively readable and thoroughly researched exploration of social deviance and the application of what is known as "labeling theory" to the studies of deviance. With particular research into drug culture, Outsiders analyzes unconventional individuals and their place in normal society.
Article
Alfred Schutz (1899-1959) stood simultaneously in the camps of philosophy and sociology, and his writings constitute the framework of a sociology based on phenomenological considerations. Schutz's basic contributions issue from a critical synthesis of Husserl's phenomenology and Weber's sociology of understanding. He proceeds on the basis of the irreducible souce of all human knowledge in the immediate experiences of the conscious, alert, and active individual. In this volume Helmut Wagner has selected and skillfully correlated various passages both from Schutz's book The Phenomenology of the Social World and from his scattered papers and essays.
Article
The core of this paper is a case study of how a District Health Authority (Paddington and North Kensington, now Parkside DHA following a recent merger with Brent DHA) in Inner London responded to a major new health care issue of the 1980s--Aids, but the paper also seeks to locate this case study material within wider debates. What theories are there of organisational change which could be used to illuminate policy and service change in the health care sector? How, indeed, do we best study change in health care organisations? The paper is thus in three parts. In the first section we identify some streams of literature which act as a frame of reference defining our initial research question and discuss implications for methodology. The second section presents the case itself, while the last section discusses some emerging findings.
AIDS: the intellectual agenda
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Weeks, J. (1989) AIDS: the intellectual agenda, in Aggleton, P. Hart, G. and Davies, P. (eds) AIDS: Social Representations, Social Practices. Basingstoke: Falmer Press.
Cost-benefit analysis of AIDS prevention programmes: its limitation in policy-making
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Ohi. G. et. al. (1988) Cost-benefit analysis of AIDS prevention programmes: its limitation in policy-making, in A. Fleming et. al (eds) The Global Impact of AIDS. New York: Alan R. Liss Inc., 251-262.
AIDS Phobia: Disease Pattern and Possibilities of Treatment
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Jaeger, H. (ed) (1988) AIDS Phobia: Disease Pattern and Possibilities of Treatment. Chichester: Ellis Horwood.
Social and cultural aspects of the prevention of the three epidemics (HIV infection, AIDS and counterproductive societal reaction to them
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Frankenberg, R. (1988) Social and cultural aspects of the prevention of the three epidemics (HIV infection, AIDS and counterproductive societal reaction to them), in Fleming A. et. al. (eds) The Global Impact of AIDS. New York: Alan R. Liss Inc, 191-9.
Minor courtesies and macro structures
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Strong, P. (1988) Minor courtesies and macro structures, in Drew P. and Wootton A. (eds) Erving Goffman: Exploring the Interaction Order, Oxford: Polity Press.
Interaction Ritual. Middlesex: Penguin
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Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance AIDS policies in the UK: a preliminary analysis AIDS: Contemporary History
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Becker, H. (1963) Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press. Berridge, V. and Strong, P. (1990) AIDS policies in the UK: a preliminary analysis, in Fee E. and Fox D. (eds) AIDS: Contemporary History, Princeton University Press. Brandt. A. (1987) No Magic Bullet. Oxford University Press.
No one knew anything: some issues in British AIDS policy
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Strong, P. and Berridge, V. (1990) No one knew anything: some issues in British AIDS policy, in Aggleton. P. Hart. G. and Davies, P. (eds) AIDS: Individual, Cultural and Policy Dimensions. Basingstoke: Falmer.
AIDS policies in the UK: a preliminary analysis
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Berridge, V. and Strong, P. (1990) AIDS policies in the UK: a preliminary analysis, in Fee E. and Fox D. (eds) AIDS: Contemporary History, Princeton University Press.
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