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Bilingualism With and Without Diglossia; Diglossia With and Without Bilingualism

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... Later on, Fishman (1967) proposed the definition of extended diglossia which differed from Ferguson's original concept in two key aspects, namely the number of languages and the degree of linguistic difference between them. The two linguists agreed on the functional distribution between H and L varieties. ...
... The two linguists agreed on the functional distribution between H and L varieties. Fishman (1967Fishman ( , 1988 broadened his concept of diglossia to include any degree of relatedness between languages and any number of them, but made it clear that it should not be confused with bilingualism. Notably, Fishman's concept of the extended diglossia is applicable on a global scale to refer to English when used for international communication in business and science, thereby confining local vernaculars to private spheres (cf. ...
... The language situation in Limburg reveals both individual and societal bidialectism i.e. diglossia in the terms of Fishman (1967). Language ideology in the wider society of Limburg carries with it that the national and majority language, i.e. ...
Book
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It is generally assumed that learning to read involves a straightforward learning of the mappings from speech to spelling. Yet, the majority of the world’s children learn to read frst in a language or dialect that is not what they speak at home or in the neighborhood with their families and friends. Some of these children must learn to read frst in a foreign language (e.g., Bemba speakers in Zambia learning to read in English), but many are learning to read in a dialect that shares some similarities with the formal written word but that also differs substantially from it. Positioned within an extended ecological approach to literacy development (McBride, 2016), this Handbook highlights some of the theoretical and practical issues that a mismatch between dialect and literacy requirements involves. These include a variety of lin�guistic aspects, but they also affect individuals demonstrably at many levels, includ�ing psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, education, and many aspects of social interactions. A broad understanding of the interface between dialects and literacy acquisition is fundamental for all research that highlights interactions among lan�guage, literacy, and society. The current Handbook studies literacy acquisition at the intersection of sociolin�guistics and psycholinguistics by addressing literacy acquisition in diglossia and in dialectal contexts. The Handbook emanates from an international conference orga�nized in 2018 by Elinor Saiegh-Haddad and Lior Laks at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, under the auspices of the Israel Science Foundation (Grant number 2346/17) and the Arabic Language Academy in Israel. The conference brought together researchers from various regions across the world including Asia, Europe, the Far East, and North America to share research questions, methods, and fndings on literacy devel�opment in diglossic and in dialectal contexts. The Handbook at hand features some of the talks presented at the conference in 2018 and additional chapters addressing similar questions in various other regions and languages in the world. Some of the questions that are addressed include the following: How does dialect factor into literacy development and disorder in children? Which sociolinguistic features of dialectal contexts affect literacy acquisition? Is the role of sociolinguistic features of dialectal variation similar or different in different contexts and languages? Do dif�ferent dialectal contexts differ in the settings and functions of language, and do the differences yield different literacy outcomes for children? What are the milestones of literacy development in different dialectal contexts? How should educational assessment of language and literacy address sociolinguistic features of dialectal contexts? What are the most benefcial instructional practices for children raised in dialectal contexts. Given that the majority of the world’s children learn to read in a context that includes diglossia, dialectalism, and multilingualism, much more of an understand�ing of the complexities of these contexts is needed. The various perspectives offered in this Handbook underscore some of the most important issues in the feld of lit�eracy in relation to diglossia and dialectalism. We hope that this Handbook contrib�utes critically to inquiry that will beneft our children’s well-being and their prospects for success.
... Later on, Fishman (1967) proposed the definition of extended diglossia which differed from Ferguson's original concept in two key aspects, namely the number of languages and the degree of linguistic difference between them. The two linguists agreed on the functional distribution between H and L varieties. ...
... The two linguists agreed on the functional distribution between H and L varieties. Fishman (1967Fishman ( , 1988 broadened his concept of diglossia to include any degree of relatedness between languages and any number of them, but made it clear that it should not be confused with bilingualism. Notably, Fishman's concept of the extended diglossia is applicable on a global scale to refer to English when used for international communication in business and science, thereby confining local vernaculars to private spheres (cf. ...
... The language situation in Limburg reveals both individual and societal bidialectism i.e. diglossia in the terms of Fishman (1967). Language ideology in the wider society of Limburg carries with it that the national and majority language, i.e. ...
Chapter
Arabic is considered a classical case of diglossia because conventionally, one form of Arabic is spoken (SA) and another is used in the domain of written language (MSA). In the recent past, globalization of English-based technology, together with the absence of Arabic supporting keyboards, had resulted in the reliance on Latin script as the main writing system when communicating through computers (CMC). This writing was known as ‘Arabizi’, which represents Spoken Arabic (SA). The advent of Arabic supporting software has allowed the writing of SA in Arabic letters, but has not completely eradicated Arabizi. Although the use of Arabizi today is less ubiquitous than it was half a decade ago, its effects on the cognitive processes involved in literacy are scientifically interesting. The present chapter explores the way that Arabizi affected reading, writing, and personal and social dynamics in a sample of Arabic-speaking adolescents in 2014. We focused on three areas of inquiry: The first aimed to provide a description of writing practices, perceptions, and attitudes for the two writing systems, Arabizi and MSA. The second examined literacy skills and abilities in MSA and Arabizi. And the third tried to evaluate the stability of the Arabizi orthography in order to evaluate to which extent it is standardized.
... Bilingualism focuses on the use of language by a speaker, while diglossia focuses on the use of language in a society. Chaer and Agustina (2014) explained the concept of diglossia from the point of view of three experts: Ferguson (1972), Fishman (1967), and Fasold (1984). Ferguson (1972) uses the term of diglosia to describe the state of a society where there are two variations of one language that live side by side and each has a specific role (as cited in Chaer & Agustina, 2014). ...
... Ferguson (1972) uses the term of diglosia to describe the state of a society where there are two variations of one language that live side by side and each has a specific role (as cited in Chaer & Agustina, 2014). Fishman (1967), diglossia does not only apply to differences in [high] and diversity [low] in the same language, but also applies to languages that are not allied, or to two different languages (as cited in Chaer & Agustina, 2014 ). In addition, Fasold (1984) expanded the concept of diglossia again with the concept of broad diglossia. ...
... Chaer and Agustina (2014) explained that in the concept of broad diglossia, the difference is not only between two languages or two varieties or two dialects in binary, but can be more than two languages or two dialects. Ferguson (1972) discusses diglossia as the use two varieties of one language in one society, Fishman (1967) extended the idea to include the use of two different languages in one society as well, and Fasold (1984) expanded it again to include the use of more than two languages or dialects. They all agree that the use of language, language variety, or dialect is determined by their respective functions. ...
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The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore language used by students of the Indonesian language study program at one private university in South Sumatra, Indonesia, and the situations they used the language. We related it to the existence of students in the use of Indonesian language that was good and right. The theory used is bilingualism of two languages by one speaker based on the situation and the use of language in society. Data collection was through demographic surveys and semi-structured interviews. The findings of the study indicated that participants could understand and use Indonesian properly and correctly. Participants chose to use Indonesian for academic and formal situations or for meeting a stranger. The existence of participants in Indonesian wasn't yet accustomed to using Indonesian language; the majority of them used Palembang (local) language. The use of Palembang language or regional languages is still carried over in the formal and academic environment. This study can be used as inputs for policy initiatives; more assertively and wisely directing students to use Indonesian in academic activities.
... The colonial languages are accorded the highest functional prestige (acrolects), the lingua franca settles in the second position (mesolect), and the local languages have the lowest prestige (basilect). As predicted, the neatly divided functions among the various languages-which form the backbone of Fishman's (1967) Let us take a look at a different example that contrasts the urban sociolinguistic context. In a rural area called Lower Fungom, one of my consultants speaks nine distinct codes, seven that are considered as distinct languages by linguists. ...
... First introduced in the late 1950s (see Ferguson, 1959) and later on extended by Fishman's diglossia as a concept is based on a framework that organises, categorises and explains multilingual behaviours that emerge from multilingual contexts. According to Fishman's (1967) theoretical model, societies, where two or more languages or language varieties co-occur in complementary distribution regarding their functions in the speech community, reveal macro-sociological factors that reflect the speaker's choices of languages to use. In this sense, languages are ranked hierarchically according to their perceived prestige in formal settings. ...
... This triglossic pattern, often ordered according to prestige ideologies, is organised in terms of specific functions used in specific domains. This clear-cut linguistic division of labour underscores the sociolinguistic studies on societal multilingualism starting with Fishman's (1967) diglossia concept. ...
Thesis
The present sociolinguistic study focuses on language ideologies, which are any set of beliefs about language and social relationships. It investigates how language ideologies shape repertoires, language attitudes, and language use in the Lower Fungom area, said to be a context of small-scale multilingualism in Northwest Cameroon. Moreover, the vast majority of studies conducted in urban spaces and outside Africa obscures a fuller understanding of sociolinguistic dynamics in rural areas that also enjoy considerable linguistic diversity and individual multilingualism. For instance, there is a lack of prominence concerning more rural-oriented research methods and data types, particularly in the adaptation of sociolinguistic tools, such as questionnaires and the matched-guise test to match locale-specific situations and meanings. Finally, issues relating to individual multilingual repertoires, language attitudes and language use have been explored independently in individual studies in past research on African settings, but none of them has tried to take the results obtained at one level of analysis to illuminate all other levels. This work used multiple research tools to gather data from Lower Fungom in 2012, 2017 and 2019, namely, questionnaires, the matched-guise test, sociolinguistic documentation, and participant observation. The data sets obtained were all informed by the adoption of an ethnographic approach in Lower Fungom. The study population came from the 13 villages (i.e., Munken, Missong, Abar, Ngun, Biya, Mufu, Mundabli, Buu, Kung, Ajumbu, Fang, Koshin and Mashi) of Lower Fungom. Out of the 174 multilingual individuals who responded to the ethnographic inquiries, 31 Missong residents were tested for their attitudes towards languages (i.e., the Missong, Munken and Ngun language cluster and Mashi) using a culturally adapted matched-guise test. The choice of Missong was because of its unique internal cultural distinctions as opposed to Munken and Ngun. Furthermore, 35 Lower Fungom members were documented interacting in the market. The study showed that language ideologies constitute an integral part of sociolinguistic behaviours, i.e., repertoires, language attitudes and language use of Lower Fungom inhabitants, which was uncovered thanks to an ethnographic approach. The self-reports about multilingualism gathered from multilingual individuals through ethnographic questionnaires indicate that multilingual repertoires are developed far away from diglossic models and dwell more on the multilingual speaker’s relationship with others. For language attitudes, unlike what is found in the literature, the main factors shaping Missong speakers’ language attitudes are not stereotypical categorizations but, rather, considerations of relational qualities that capture locally salient features. I concluded that code choice during transactional interactions makes up an essential element of the linguistic practices of Lower Fungom multilinguals. Moreover, code choices are deliberate actions to index ideological associations to the local codes. These choices are associated with village affiliations for economic favours during market transactions and doing this without compromising one’s face or a relationship. Furthermore, to signal neutrality and conceal belonging to one of the villages in this multilingual context, interactants often use Cameroon Pidgin English (CPE). This Pidgin further serves as an emergency language to break communication barriers. This study adds to the literature on Lower Fungom identified as an area where small-scale multilingualism is practised. Furthermore, it questions the validity of existing scholarly discourses, especially on using research tools weighted with diglossic frameworks in investigating people’s multilingual repertoires, language attitudes, and language use. This work, hopefully, proposes other ways of designing research tools that allow one to capture the realities of an existing context as the locals see them.
... 4: pp. [26][27][28][29]. Gravity models have been applied to different phenomena in social sciences, economics, epidemiology, and dialectometry, which are generalized in the Eq in (1); adapted from [2: pp. ...
... In the present study, we are interested in the diffusion of dialectal variants in indigenous languages spoken in situations of diglossia-with-bilingualism (i.e., situations in which a second language is part of the repertoire of almost all members of a speech community and is selected in particular types of communication, e.g., in public occasions); [27]. We deal with Yucatec Maya, an indigenous American language spoken in the peninsula of Yucatán (Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo, and Campeche, as well as some speakers near the northern border of Belize). ...
... The indigenous population is laid out in Fig 1A, showing the proportion of speakers of indigenous languages per community based on the 2010 census [27], which is informative for the situation during the period in which the language data used by our analysis were collected (2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007). The census data on language use was collected with the question: ¿(NOMBRE) habla algún dialecto o lengua indígena? ...
Article
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Linguistic variation in space reflects patterns of social interaction. Gravity models have been successfully used to capture the role of urban centers in the dissemination of innovations in the speech community along with the diffusion of variants in space. Crucially, the effects of the factors of a gravity model (distance and population size) depend on language situation and may result from different sources, in particular processes of vertical and horizontal convergence. In the present study, we investigate lexical variation in contemporary Yucatec Maya, an indigenous language of Mexico, spoken in a situation of generalized bilingualism. This language situation lacks some crucial ingredients of vertical convergence: no variety of Yucatec Maya has the status of a standard variety: the language of administration and education is Spanish (diglossia-with-bilingualism). The present study finds evidence of convergence processes that can be exclusively attributed to horizontal convergence. The lexical distance between speakers decreases in and between urban centers, variants with a large distribution are more likely in areas with a maximum of interactions with other areas. Even Spanish variants are distributed in the sample with a pattern that reveals processes of horizontal convergence: their distribution is accounted for through an areal bias (widespread in areas with a stronger exposition to Spanish) rather by influences from the urban centers (as centers of administration/education) to the rural areas in their surroundings.
... According to Fishman (1967), diglossia refers to all kinds of language varieties which show functional distribution in a speech community. Diglossia, as a consequence, describes a number of sociolinguistic situations, from stylistic differences within one language or the use of separate dialects (Ferguson's 'standard-with-dialects' distinction) to the use of (related or unrelated) separate languages. ...
... variety. This linguistic situation fulfills the criteria set by Ferguson (1959) and further expanded by Fishman (1967) for the description and definition of diglossia. ...
... Much has been studied and published on multilingualism in research disciplines that have hitherto often been fragmented (see seminal work by Fishman, 1967;Garcia, 2009;Genesee, 1989;Haugen, 1956). Internationally, psycholinguistic approaches to the study of multilingualism -including second-language acquisition studies ; multicompetence (De Bot et al., 2007); and bilingual development (Genesee 1989;Grosjean, 1982Grosjean, , 2010Lanza 1992;Pavlenko, 2014) have focused on individual cognitive/mental processes. ...
... However, we use Labov's model for what it is: a model that we have modified to suit our specific purpose, and thus not as a complete theory involving the role of gender in language contact situations. Joshua Fishman's (1967, 1971 theory of diglossia has been important for the empirical research we will present in Section 4.2. Fishman's later work (1991) on reversing language shift gave inspiration to the research on (re)vitalisation of minority languages, systematically applied for example in Huss (1999). ...
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The research question of the present paper is the following: to what degree (if any) is gender relevant as an explanatory factor in, firstly, the process of assimilation and later, the process of (re)vitalisation of indigenous and minority languages in northern Fenno-Scandia (the North Calotte)? The assimilation of the ethnic groups in question was a process initiated and lead by the authorities in the three different countries. Finland, Sweden and Norway. Nevertheless, members of the indigenous and minority groups also took part in practicing, though, not necessarily promoting, the official assimilation politics, for different reasons. (Re)vitalisation, on the other hand, was initially – and still is – mostly a process stemming from the minority groups themselves, though the authorities to a certain extent have embraced it. The paper thus addresses the question of whether gender played a role in the two different processes, assimilation and (re)vitalisation, and if that was the case, how and why.
... Lüdi 1996, 237. Auf eine Diskussion des Diglossie-Begriffs nach Ferguson (1959) und Fishman (1967) kann hier verzichtet werden; eine ausführliche Besprechung der Terminologien in der Sprachkontaktforschung bietet u.a. Sinner 2002; siehe auch Clyne 2003. ...
Book
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Das frühneuzeitliche König¬reich Neapel, das von 1503 bis 1713 unter spanischer Herrschaft stand, war auf allen gesellschaftlichen und institutionellen Ebenen vom spanisch-italienischen Sprach- und Kulturkontakt geprägt. Diese Arbeit untersucht mit einem interdisziplinären Ansatz die Mehrsprachigkeit in der sogenannten Italia Spagnola. Dabei werden anhand von Texten, die unterschiedlichen Gattungen der Literatur und der Sprachbetrachtung angehören, Zusammenhänge, die sich zwischen der Mehrsprachigkeit und der zeitgenössischen Sprachreflexion ergaben, systematisch offengelegt. Die Arbeit richtet sich daher sowohl an sprachhistorisch interessierte Italianisten als auch Hispanisten.
... Another traditional sociolinguistic concept that has proven harmful is that of diglossia. Joshua A. Fishman (1967) posited that the stable bilingualism of a linguistic group was dependent on the functional compartmentalization of one language from the other, either by territory or by personality. But this arrangement, as many critical sociolinguists have said (Martín-Rojo, 2017), only normalizes the power arrangements that have kept some groups in power and others dominated. ...
Article
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Translanguaging has opened up spaces to recognize the dynamic multilingualism of students in classrooms taught in dominant languages, and problematized concepts such as ‘additive bilingualism’. This article aims to further explore two issues that remain little understood. First, translanguaging is often seen as simply the acknowledgement or use of multilingual students’ ‘first language’. This article clarifies that this is a misunderstanding, for the trans- in translanguaging connotes the transcendence of named languages, the going beyond named languages as have been socially constructed. Second, in going beyond named languages, translanguaging is also intended as a decolonizing project, revealing how bilinguals inhabit a world with different knowledge bases and linguistic/cultural practices. We use two bilingual students, in London and New York City respectively, to show how they are viewed and listened to by their teachers as bilinguals with two ‘incomplete’ linguistic systems because each element in their language/semiotic repertoire is seen as a separate entity. We then weave all the elements together to provide a fuller picture of these students. In doing so, we reject raciolinguistic ideologies that have enregistered them as deficient and instead regard them through a translanguaging lens. The article emphasizes the importance of understanding translanguaging as a unitary repertoire, as well as its decolonial potential in education as teachers abandon the focus on named standardized languages and engage fully with their students’ full repertoire of features and meanings.
... 1959). Por otro lado,Fishman (1967) sugiere que una sociedad es diglósica en tanto las lenguas utilizadas sean funcionales para la comunidad de habla, sin embargo, esta idea aplica también para el concepto de bilingüismo. Aún se discute sí algunos grupos étnicos en México son bilingües o díglotas, pero asumir que en las aulas el español es la lengua de prestigio sería caer en un reduccionismo, pues el uso de las lenguas indígenas en las comunidades de origen de los migrantes podría considerarse también de esta forma. ...
Book
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El trabajo infantil en México es una determinante del relevo generacional de la pobreza pues se relaciona con el ausentismo y la deserción escolar temprana. Su impacto es tal que en algunos hogares define el consumo alimentario del grupo doméstico, es decir, se trata de un precursor de empleo precario que contribuye a que los mercados de trabajo, tanto en zonas urbanas como rurales, saquen provecho de la escasa escolaridad de sectores históricamente excluidos. Este libro presenta el análisis antropológico de cuatro contextos de educación básica en donde interactúan menores indígenas que estudian y trabajan. Si bien se documenta la relación entre clase social y etnicidad en la producción de brechas de desigualdad educativa, también se estudia el impacto social del género y la etnicidad como aspectos poco presentes en la literatura especializada sobre desventajas escolares. Los hallazgos, sustentados en el método etnográfico, muestran las contradicciones del discurso escolar higienista-eugenésico, que cobra validez ante la presencia de menores que trabajan. Por ejemplo, el olor de los salones, el peso de la pobreza material manifiesto en la precarización alimentaria, las condiciones de cansancio físico tan evidentes en el aula o los terribles accidentes que algunos menores sufren en su trabajo y que explican su frecuente inasistencia a clases. Se hace énfasis en las consecuencias escolares de hablar lenguas indígenas en ámbitos que tienen como objetivo la enseñanza estandarizada de la lectoescritura en español. Un fenómeno que cruza estos trabajos es el racismo escolar, que se describe a través de la discriminación lingüística, quizá la forma de violencia escolar más naturalizada ya que es ejercida a través de discursos eugenésicos que dan cuenta del mundo escolar como dispositivo clasificatorio e inferiorizante de poblaciones étnicas monolingües. Es posible asegurar que este libro describe uno de los rostros de la enorme deuda histórica que, en materia educativa, persiste en nuestro país con las poblaciones indígenas. 9 786073 033602
... Tracy is in control of her language and able to instrumentally 'calm down' her Irish accent in order to, she claims, ease communication with outsiders; as in a situation of diglossia (Fishman, 1967), she sways between a private, less prestigious code (Irish) and a public, more acceptable one (English). Similarly, she prevaricates between her two identities, as she dismisses her Irish membership ('No, I was born in England') to then retrieve it and inscribe herself in a community of Irish mobility by heritage. ...
Book
The impact of mobility and superdiversity in recent sociolinguistic research is well-established, yet very few studies deal with issues related to immobility. The chapters in this book focus on the sociolinguistic investigation of the dynamics between mobility and immobility as experienced by migrants, asylum seekers and members of minority or exploited groups. Central to the book is an exploration of how mobilities are affected by and in turn affect power relations and of the kinds of resources used by people to deal with (im)mobility processes. The book brings to light a new critical sociolinguistic imagination that is responsive to 21st century processes of (im)mobilities as socially, discursively and emotionally constructed and negotiated.
... Cette vision élargie de la diglossie permet son application à différents contextes sociaux. Lüdi (1990) En se basant sur les études réalisées par Ferguson (1959) et Fishman (1967, Lüdi (1990) présente l'espace variationnel de la diglossie dans des continuums parmi lesquels chaque situation particulière peut être caractérisée par une position sur chacun des axes : « la distribution linguistique repose sur une délimitation claire et nette entre les fonctions de la variété ou de la langue A (dite encore "haute") et celles de la variété ou de la langue B (dite encore "basse") » (Boyer, 1991 : 92 Or, quels autres indicateurs permettent à une langue donnée de jouir d'un statut de lingua franca, mis à part les décisions politiques ? C'est une question que nombreux auteurs (Mackey, 1973 ;Fishman, 1977 ;Laponce, 1984 ;Weber, 1999 ;Breton, 2003) ...
Thesis
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Le Cap-Vert est un pays où le métissage est une caractéristique fondamentale. En effet, pendant la période coloniale (1460-1975), ces îles qui au départ étaient inhabitées, ont été peuplées par des individus issus essentiellement de la région de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Portugal. La cohabitation entre diverses langues et cultures africaines et européennes est à l’origine de ce qui est aujourd’hui la langue capverdienne, un créole de base lexicale portugaise. Il s’agit d’une langue essentiellement orale qui a le statut de langue nationale. En raison du contexte socio-historique dans lequel elle s’est formée, cette langue est le canal d’expression privilégié de la culture capverdienne et est fortement liée à l’identité des Capverdiens, à leur vécu et à leur histoire. De son côté, la langue portugaise jouit du statut de langue officielle et est utilisée entre autres, dans l’enseignement et dans les médias. Bref, le pays est dans une situation de conflit linguistique, de diglossie, car la langue capverdienne reste à l’écart des situations formelles de communication, et ce même après que le gouvernement a explicitement manifesté son désir de l’officialiser en parité avec la langue portugaise. À travers une enquête de terrain basée sur des entretiens et des interviews, réalisée sur les îles de Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santiago et Fogo, nous avons tenté de rendre compte de l’impact de la politique linguistique sur les représentations et attitudes des Capverdiens vis-à-vis des deux langues du pays. Notre enquête nous a permis de démontrer que la population locale est plutôt favorable à l’officialisation de la langue capverdienne, et que leurs comportements et attitudes face aux langues du pays sont globalement convergents, indépendamment des variables sociolinguistiques. Ainsi, pour agir sur le statut de la langue nationale, le gouvernement doit miser sur un processus d’aménagement linguistique clair, de façon à inciter les Capverdiens à participer activement dans ce processus. Face à la diversité langagière et culturelle de l’archipel, nous pensons que l’idéal serait de considérer la langue capverdienne comme une langue polynomique.
... Nous sommes un amalgame extraordinaire de tous ces gens/cultures/langues-là avec une identité qui n'appartient qu'à nous » 13 . S'ajoute à cela la configuration bien particulière décrite par Fishman (1967), dans laquelle le bilinguisme individuel s'articule avec une diglossie socialisée. ...
Article
L’étude proposée est une réflexion autour de l’usage et de la pratique de l’autotraduction chez Grégoire Chabot, auteur-dramaturge franco-américain de la Nouvelle-Angleterre. Elle vise à mettre en lumière les mécanismes, les enjeux et les facteurs extratextuels qui ont conduit l’auteur à s’autotraduire. Pour cela, le corpus choisi se construit autour de quatre pièces et de trois courts récits écrits depuis la fin des années 1970 dont le caractère polymorphe et complexe des textes sources en français mérite qu’on s'y attarde. L’étude interroge avant tout les langues source(s) et cible au prisme du bilinguisme de la communauté d’origine de l’auteur, de son histoire et surtout de sa situation actuelle et de son identité francophone, afin de penser les nécessités contextuelles à l’origine de l’autotraduction. Elle travaille l’écart et la fusion au sein même de ces textes autotraduits qui rendent compte de toute la complexité d’une communauté entre-deux où autotraduction et bilinguisme cohabitent au quotidien et dont les auteurs écrivent en contexte minoritaire de quasi invisibilité. Cette étude vise à montrer comment la production de l’auteur appelle à une remise en cause individuelle et collective de l’identité franco-américaine, qui, chez Chabot, se joue au niveau de la langue et des inégalités linguistiques que les textes autotraduits soulèvent. Elle analyse, enfin, l’évolution du processus d’autotraduction au fil des œuvres de Chabot afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi l’autotraduction est un passage obligé pour l’auteur et sa communauté, une forme de médiation, de transmission, de survie.Aussi reviendra-t-on tout d’abord sur le contexte qui a présidé au renouveau et à la perte de la langue française en Nouvelle-Angleterre ainsi qu’aux diverses initiatives de traductions et d’autotraductions, afin de resituer le champ de production culturelle dans lequel s’inscrit la démarche d’autotraduction de l’auteur. On abordera ensuite la question du rapport entre autotraduction et bilinguisme dans un contexte sociolinguistique asymétrique et la façon dont cette réalité transparaît dans les textes source et cible. Ce faisant, on ne manquera pas de s’interroger sur le caractère diglossique d’une production à 80 % écrite dans un français dialectal qui a emprunté à la fois au joual et à l’acadien tout en s'enrichissant ou s’appauvrissant au contact de l’américain. Mais par-delà cette diglossie en héritage, chez Chabot, c’est avant tout dans la cohabitation des langues que l’autotraduction s’opère et dans un bilinguisme en partage qu’elle trouve son originalité et son identité. On reviendra donc sur les modalités retenues par Chabot pour accommoder ses deux langues en partage, sur les contraintes avec lesquelles il a dû et doit composer ainsi que sur les choix qu’il a opérés, avant de conclure sur l’évolution du rapport de l’auteur à ses textes autotraduits où textes source et cible se complètent et exploitent tous les ressorts et toutes les possibilités langagières des deux langues. En faisant la part belle à la création asymétrique, ces textes en regard ou/et en traduction finissent par se lire comme une multiplication des états du texte, comme différentes strates qui se solidifient pour proposer les fondements d’une identité linguistique autonome et en mutation.
... Slavic languages such as Polish and Ukrainian. This language situation is commonly referred to as internal diglossia and external bilingualism (Fishman 1967). Within the internal Jewish diglossic framework, up until the late nineteenth century Ashkenazic Hebrew was typically used for high-register written genres such as historical narratives, pinkasim (community record books), Responsa literature, Jewish legal writing and sermons, as well as for some slightly less formal genres such as business and private correspondence. ...
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Ashkenazic Hebrew is a unique language variety with a centuries-long history of written use among Central and Eastern European Jews. It has distinct phonological and grammatical features attested in texts composed by Ashkenazic Jews (e.g. adherents of the Hasidic and Maskilic movements) in Europe prior to the twentieth century. While Ashkenazic Hebrew is commonly believed to have been replaced by Israeli Hebrew in the twentieth century, this traditional written variety of the language actually continues to thrive in contemporary Diaspora Haredi (strictly Orthodox) communities, chiefly the Hasidic centres of New York, London, Montreal and Antwerp. This fascinating and understudied form of Hebrew is used widely and productively in the composition of a rich variety of original documents for a Hasidic audience (about e.g. Covid transmission, United States educational stipulations, Zoom schooling, lockdown rules, etc.). In this article we demonstrate that contemporary Ashkenazic Hebrew has many shared orthographic, phonological, grammatical and lexical features with its Eastern European antecedent. These include: orthography of loanwords based on Yiddish conventions (e.g. חולי הקאראנא xóylay ha-koróna ‘those ill with coronavirus’); morphology of plural loan nouns (בקאלידזשעס be-kóleǧes‘in colleges’, הפראגראמע״ן haprográmen ‘the programmes’); retention of the definite article with inseparable prepositions (בהשכונה be-ha-šxíne‘in the neighbourhood’);
... Die prominenteste Modifizierung des Diglossie-Modells ist zweifellos die von Fishman (1967), dessen wichtigste Neuerung darin besteht, daß er die Notwendigkeit der Verwandschaft der beiden im Fokus stehenden Varietäten ablehnt. Bei dieser Auffassung, die er nicht expliziert, die aber durch die Beispiele deutlich werden, lehnt er sich an die Erweiterung von Gumperz an. ...
Book
Die sprachliche Verwandtschaft zwischen Latein und Italienisch waren im Mittelalter nur vage bekannt. Dies ändert sich mit einer Diskussion im Jahre 1435, an der maßgebliche Humanisten wie Leonardo Bruni und Flavio Biondo beteiligt sind, die sich im Geiste der Rückbesinnung auf die Antike fragen, welche Sprache, d.h. welche Art von Latein, die Römer einst gesprochen haben mögen. Hieraus entspinnt sich nun eine Debatte (bis 1601) zwischen Lateinhumanisten und Vulgärhumanisten, an deren Ende sich die Erkenntnis durchsetzt, dass sich das Italienische (und andere romanische Sprachen) aus dem gesprochenen Latein der Antike, dem Vulgärlatein, herleitet. Die sprachwissenschaftliche Aufarbeitung dieser Debatte im Rahmen der italienischen Sprachenfrage (questione della lingua) ist Ziel und Gegenstand vorliegender Abhandlung.
... Fishman proposed this concept as a way of looking at language choice (Fasold, 1984:183). Fishman (1967) defines domains as institutional contexts in which one language variety is more likely to be appropriate than another. Examples of different types of domains include school, family, friendship, neighbourhood, market, work, government and religion. ...
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This study investigated language attitudes of secondary school learners of Somali descent toward Kiswahili and their patterns of language use in various domains in a multilingual context as evidenced in Garissa Town. The target population was secondary school students in public and private schools within Garissa town, Garissa County, Kenya. Field data was collected through questionnaires. A total of 100 respondents were involved in this study. This sample was obtained through simple random sampling technique. This study obtained quantitative data from respondents’ responses to guided questionnaires in order to determine their attitude towards Kiswahili. Data was analyzed descriptively and by way of tables. The findings reveal that secondary school students within Garissa town have a positive attitude toward Kiswahili. Somali language is mainly spoken at home. English is mainly spoken at school while Kiswahili is used for intercultural and interethnic communication. Keywords: Patterns of Language Use, Language Attitudes, Multilingualism, Kiswahili
... Finally, since the East Frisian community is traditionally High German -Low German diglossic (Reershemius 2004), the interaction between the two immigrant languages may be of interest in the contact-situation with English. Since the concept of diglossia has been a topic of much debate since Ferguson's (1959) and Fishman's (1965Fishman's ( , 1967 initial proposals, 9 Bousquette's (2020) expanded approach will be adopted here. Bousquette (2020: 512) criticizes the commonly used definition of the dialect as the "low variety" and the Standard language as the "high variety", as these terms may be too broad and not applicable to bidialectal German immigrant communities in the US. ...
Thesis
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Finite verb placement in German(ic) contact languages has received heightened attention in recent years. In particular, the occurrence of main clauses with two preverbal constituents instead of the “canonical” only one, or verb-third word order (V3), has attracted researchers’ interest especially for Germanic contact varieties. Although previous studies of V3 in urban vernaculars, heritage languages and monolingual populations have used a variety of different methodologies, and proposed an abundance of theoretical approaches, to date, there has been no study (1) using variationist methodology, (2) exploring the contributions of prosody and information-structure to V3 syntax, (3) offering a longitudinal perspective, and (4) focusing on heritage Low German in the United States. This dissertation seeks to fill these gaps. The dissertation is based on a total of 58 interviews recorded in 1998 and 2018/19 with 46 heritage East Frisian Low German speakers from Grundy County and surrounding counties in Iowa, USA. The community was established in the USA in the mid-19th century and is now acutely endangered by communal language shift to English as the majority language. In addition to a detailed sociolinguistic history of this speech community, the dissertation presents a quantitative description of the linguistic and social factors contributing to the use of V3-structures. A statistical analysis of more than 2000 main clauses confirms the presence of a sentence-initial adverbial (i.e. a temporal adverb) to be the most significant constraint on V3-structures. The exploration of a more narrowly defined data-set of more than 600 main clauses with sentence-initial adverbials reveals both linguistic and social factors contributing to the variable use of V3-structures. Most notably, V3-structures are most strongly favored by prosodically separated adverbials which occur in a preceding intonation unit from the finite main verb and/or are followed by a pause. An additional factor that favors V3-structures is greater prosodic weight (i.e., more preverbal syllables). These prosodically separated adverbials may serve to highlight a contrast between information from the previous discourse and new (contrary) information in the subsequent intonation unit, and seem to be consciously employed as effective narrative devices by the speakers. Also promoting V3 are verbs conjugated in the present tense. From a more exploratory survey of the data, it emerges that V3-structures are preferred in longer, uninterrupted narrations, where a narrative present tense may be used as a storytelling strategy. Moreover, V3-structures may be more frequently used when the subject has been mentioned in the 10 preceding intonation units but importantly is different from the subject referent in the immediately preceding intonation unit. In other words, V3-structures seem to be more likely, if the subject is topical and accessible but needs to be “reactivated” after an utterance with a different subject referent. Concerning the social factors, it is shown that men use V3-structures markedly more often than women and that the usage of V3-structures increased over time, both with regard to speakers’ year of birth and between the two points of data collections. Nevertheless, because the usage of V3-structures remains constrained by linguistic factors and is systematically motivated by discourse-pragmatic needs, these structures do not occur arbitrarily. Thus, the observed verb placement variation seems to be part of an ongoing communal language change.
... 346-347;Mannheim, 2019). Hoy en día, desde una perspectiva sociolingüística clásica, existe una diglosia conflictiva (Fishman, 1963) en los países andino-amazónicos, no solamente entre el castellano y el quechua sino también entre los distintos registros dentro de la familia lingüística quechua misma (King, 2000;Mannheim, 2019). ...
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En este artículo, se examinan distintos aspectos de la situación actual de las lenguas quechuas en tres países andino-amazónicos: Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. Después de estudiar las cifras censales más recientes y la distribución regional de esta familia lingüística en los tres países mencionados, se aborda el escenario social de uso del quechua y el quichua, y se describen los cambios que se están experimentando en los últimos años en este terreno. Aunque el camino por recorrer hacia la vigencia de los derechos lingüísticos de las personas quechuahablantes es todavía largo y difícil –en unos países más que en otros–, se exponen distintas iniciativas legales, políticas y de acción ciudadana que, en los últimos años, han señalado las vías sobre las cuales es posible transitar con ese horizonte en perspectiva.
... This situation seems to suggest that each context has its own discrete norms of appropriate behaviour. This leads us to question the structural-functional approach (Fishman 1967(Fishman , 1971(Fishman & 1972 and reproduction theory (e.g. Bourdieu 1977), both of which seem to suggest that norms of appropriacy apply only to formal situations and get relaxed in informal situations (Woolard 1985). ...
Chapter
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Brunei Darussalam is a plurilingual nation. Not only do a number of varieties of Malay occur, but also a number of other distinct Austronesian indigenous languages, codes of Chinese, Arabic and English, as well as other East and South Asian languages.Our study draws data from case studies and surveys conducted by 16 undergraduate students studying for a degree in TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) at the Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Our findings reinforce earlier research that Brunei Malay is still the predominant choice in Brunei, despite recent internal as well as international developments. The use of Standard Malay is highly restricted. Brunei English seems to be used more than Standard English and Standard Malay, particularly by people in younger age groups. A close look at the attitudes and values and a number of historical and current sociolinguistic processes suggests that the statuses of the standard codes are not fully established in the collective consciousness. This is mainly due to the increasing importance of Brunei Malay and the ongoing recontextualisation of English as Brunei English, albeit as an alternative, rather than as an oppositional form.
... Assim, das quatro possibilidades apresentadas por Fishman (1967) O Estado promove e assegura as condições humanas, científico-técnicas, materiais e financeiras para a expansão e a generalização da utilização e no ensino, das demais línguas de Angola, bem como da linguagem gestual para os indivíduos com deficiência auditiva; -Com a existência do Instituto de Línguas Nacionais, uma instituição vocacionada ao estudo sistemático das línguas de Angola; -A existência de um jornalismo radiofónico e televisivo em línguas angolanas; -A discussão, na Assembleia da República, para a aprovação de um estatuto para as línguas angolanas de origem africana. ...
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O presente estudo traz à discussão a análise do funcionamento de unidades lexicais oriundas das línguas bantu em uso no léxico do português. Problemas ligados à forma como estas unidades estão definidas, à informação enciclopédica-cognitiva e à pragmático-contextual, ao tipo de funções comunicativas, à cobertura da pesquisa reversa e à análise das polaridades nas aceções marcadas como angolanismos nos dicionários contemporâneos portugueses foram aqui abordados. Consideramos angolanismos as unidades lexicais, dicionarizadas ou não, provenientes das línguas bantu faladas em Angola em uso no léxico do português. O surgimento dos angolanismos decorre do contacto entre o povo angolano e o português e como resultado desse contacto várias unidades entraram para o léxico do português. Algumas dessas unidades foram classificadas de acordo com a sua etimologia, o que nos fez pensar na representatividade dos quimbundismos, umbundismos e quiconguismos nas referidas obras lexicográficas. A maior representatividade de uma língua em detrimento de outras parece dever-se ao facto de haver uma estreita relação entre a língua e o poder. A recolha dos angolanismos nos dicionários foi feita, sempre que possível, mediante a técnica de pesquisa reversa (extração a partir de uma palavra ou combinação de palavras de informações num dicionário) e em publicações online através da pesquisa avançada de Google + seleção da língua (portuguesa) + país (Angola). Os resultados da pesquisa reversa permitiram identificar os problemas da definição, o tipo de marca lexicográfica atribuída a cada unidade definida e facilitar a procura de contextos para a descrição das funções comunicativas com angolanismos. Para a análise da polaridade, positiva, negativa ou neutra, nas aceções marcadas como angolanismos, usamos o módulo de análise de sentimentos do LinguaKit (um pacote de ferramentas para o Processamento da Linguagem Natural (Gamallo & García, 2017)). O cálculo foi feito no UBUNTU, por via de uma comparação entre os ficheiros com_angol.txt e sem_angol.txt o que permitiu aferir que há mais palavras negativas nos ficheiros com_angol.txt e menos positivas ao passo que nos ficheiros sem_angol.txt há mais palavras positivas que negativas. Palavras chave: angolanismos, dicionários contemporâneos portugueses, léxico, PLN, polaridade
... In addition to the community's everyday or vernacular language variety (labeled "L" or "low" variety), a second, highly codified variety (labeled "H" or "high") is used in certain situations such as literature, formal education, or other specific settings, but not used for ordinary conversation (Wikipedia) Another point of view from Indrawan about diglossia is referring to a situation where there is stratification between the upper and lower class of speaker (2010:49) Ferguson originally summarized diglossia (1959: 435) as follows: Diglossia is a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified (often grammatically more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any section of the community for ordinary conversation. The notion that diglossia could also be used to characterize other multilingual situations where the H and L varieties were not genetically related, such as Sanskrit (as H) and Kannada (as L) in India, was developed by Fishman (1967). Fishman (1980:31) offers diglossia as an enduring societal arrangement, extending at least beyond a three generation period, phenomenological legitimate and widely implemented functions. ...
Conference Paper
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Bahasa merupakan alat komunikasi yang memegang peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia karena bahasa selalu hadir dalam setiap kegiatan manusia. Edward Sapir (1884-1939) dalam Chaer (2003: 52) mengungkapkan bahwa sesungguhnya manusia hidup di dunia ini atas “belas kasih” bahasanya yang telah menjadi alat pengantar dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Dengan posisi strategis yang dimiliki oleh bahasa, baik bahasa ibu atau bahasa daerah, bahasa nasional maupun internasional, menjadikan bahasa tersebut berada pada posisi penting dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan. Terlebih lagi bahasa ibu yang merupakan bahasa pertama (B1) yang diperoleh sejak lahir sebagai dasar untuk memahami bahasa kedua (B2) atau bahasa asing (foreign language). Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), yang dimaksud dengan bahasa ibu adalah bahasa pertama yang dikuasai oleh manusia sejak awal hidupnya melalui interaksi dengan sesama anggota masyarakat bahasanya, seperti keluarga dan masyarakat lingkungannya (KBBI, 1991: 77). Fenomena kepunahan bahasa ibu atau yang juga dikenal dengan bahasa daerah kian menghantui kita semua. Ketua Komisi Nasional untuk UNESCO, suatu badan PBB yang membidangi masalah pendidikan, sains dan kebudayaan, Prof. Dr. Arief Rahman pada peringatan Hari Bahasa Ibu Internasional 2008, mengatakan bahwa Indonesia memiliki tidak kurang dari 742 bahasa ibu yang tersebar di pelbagai pelosok daerah kini terancam punah karena penuturnya telah meninggal tanpa sempat menurunkan kemampuan bahasa tersebut kepada generasi berikutnya, sementara dalam waktu yang bersamaan, bahasa daerah tersebut ditinggalkan oleh penutur aslinya (Inilah.com, 25 Februari, 2008).
... Mia's bilingual and bicultural identity development was hindered by her experiences of assimilation pressure at school and perhaps in the wider society. Mia's minority HL, Korean, was in a diglossic relationship with the majority language, English, with each being used in functionally distinctive ways (Fishman 1967). Thus, as a child, she did not see any practical value of the HL in mainstream spaces, viewing it as useful only in the ethnic spaces of the monolingual HL community . ...
Article
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This narrative case study examines the identity development of two mixed-heritage (Korean/White and Korean/Japanese) university students in relation to Korean as a heritage language (HL) in New Zealand. The narratives of the two participants (Mia and Hannah) revealed that they grew up with different levels of exposure to the HL, which impacted their HL proficiency, and experienced different struggles with identity construction. While Mia’s White appearance helped her explore multiple ethnic/cultural identities, Hannah was deemed completely non-White by White New Zealanders, assigned a minority “Asian” identity, and subjected to racial discrimination. The dominant group’s confusion about intra-race mixedness and perceptions of Hannah as non-mixed complicated her situation. Hannah had little access to a majority heritage (New Zealander) identity, but also found her specific heritage identities occluded by an imposed single (“Asian”) identity. Nonetheless, on entering university both participants showed a strong desire to embrace their Koreanness through HL education or socialization with coethnic peers. HL learning played a crucial role in their construction of mixed-heritage identity; for Mia, the HL was valuable social capital, while for Hannah, the HL was a means of claiming her ethnic identity. This study highlights the complexity and plurality of mixed-heritage identities and offers implications for educators.
... À ce constat qui concerne les représentations, s'ajoute l'existence de deux communautés de pratiques distinctes. Cet état de fait ne permet pas de faire entrer cette situation dans le cadre de la diglossie tel qu'il est proposé par C. Ferguson (1959) et J. Fishman (1967. L'état de « diglossie avec bilinguisme » serait finalement assez peu représentatif de l'éventail des compétences très diverses des locuteurs actuels de l'occitan. ...
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The aim of this thesis is to evaluate a glottopolitic intervention about valorisation and preservation of occitan culture that mobilizes region, cities councils and civil society: the calandretas schools. Born in Pau in 1979, they are associative and laic schools which teach occitan language in an immersive way and following Freinet's pedagogical concepts. By a global approach of the subject, the study will try to evaluate the impact of the calandretas schools, as a bottom-up language policy on the revitalization of the occitan language and the occitan culture: in the uses, the representations of the people directly involved but also on the social agents and the population in general. The study will take place in three cities of Occitanie. Pyrénées-Méditerranée region : Béziers, Pamiers and Carcassonne. Those three cities have been hosting a Calandreta schools for more than 20 years, they have a steady population and a dynamic associative occitan network. With a critical approach, we aim to analyse the social stakes raised by this kind of glottopolitic action in the context of revitalisation of languages in danger. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the description of the methodological frame and the fieldwork of our investigation. In the second part, we analyse the patrimonialisation of Occitan culture as an anthropological process involved in the transmission of a cultural practice, a social construct and a historicized discourses about languages. We also point out the link between the concept of patrimonialisation and other concept circulating in the field of sociolinguistic: normalisation and revitalization. Finally, we focus on the actualisation of patrimonialisation discourses among the actors of language policy of Occitan. The third part of this work is about the appropriation of the Calandreta's action by the agents of language policies in three medium-sized cities of Occitanie Region in the patrimonial context described int the second part. Through the analyse of institutional or press speeches as well as interviews with agents, we show that environmental and social factors have a big influence on the deployment of grass-roots language policy at the local. The fourth part focuses on the appropriation of the educative, linguistic and cultural project of Calandreta by the parents, the students and the teachers of Calandreta schools. From different kind of qualitative and quantitative data, we show how the period of scolarisation in Calandreta does influence language practises and representations toward a greater use of Occitan language and a better linguistic consciousness We also highlight the limits of this relative revitalisation success. It is the very stake of this thesis to understand the gap between the aim of a language policy and the achievements on the field in terms of modification of practices and representations.
Article
This study investigates socioprosodic variation in Yami, a moribund indigenous language under intense contact with Mandarin in Taiwan: 32 bilingual (Yami-dominant, balanced, Mandarin-dominant) and 5 Yami-monolingual participants were recruited. We used an Interactive Card Game to elicit semi-spontaneous speech for neutral questions (NQ), default declarative questions (DQ1), and declarative questions with lighter incredulity (DQ2). Results reveal that (1) yes/no question intonation in Yami is highly variable; (2) on a broad community level, the DQ1–DQ2 distinction is absent from Yami; and (3) there is prosodic hybridization and innovation in bilingual speech. In particular, we see significant differences in DQ1 and NQ productions, with DQ1s having a rising nuclear configuration, higher pitch level, and wider pitch span, while NQs are realized with a mid-level pattern, lower pitch level, and narrower pitch span. DQ2 utterances exhibited highly varied nuclear configuration patterns with no significant differences in either pitch level or pitch span in DQ1–DQ2 comparisons. Yet, there is evidence that a hybridized DQ2 has begun to be integrated into Yami among younger bilinguals, suggesting that present-day Yami is in flux and is undergoing restructuring. These intonational variations are not easily attributable to a weakened Yami identity. Rather, younger bilinguals, who are leading the change, are highly dedicated to cultural practices and show strong rootedness in their Indigenous identity. Seemingly, while these less fluent speakers no longer use Yami to fulfill their everyday communicative needs, they are leaning more on its socio-indexical functions to reflect their ethnocultural identity.
Article
The present article aims to scrutinize the widely expressed assertion that the Greek Cypriot sociolinguistic situation is diglossic. Rather than thoroughly examining whether code-switching depends on the formality of the context, and whether Greek Cypriots only acquire the Cypriot Greek dialect, the relevant literature takes these for granted, uses them as points of departure and defines the relationship between the Cypriot Greek dialect and the Standard Greek as diglossic. Hence, it is no wonder that the relevant scholarship leaves unseen and unanswered important questions about the Greek Cypriot context. At the same time, the uncritical assertion that the sociolinguistic situation in Cyprus reflects diglossia is framed by an unjustifiable and sweeping incrimination of the Greek ethnic identity of Greek Cypriots. These lead the scholars who adhere to the assumption of diglossia in Cyprus to perform a “one-way” transfer of theory to the Greek Cypriot context by unwittingly elevating this theory to a grand narrative applicable to just any seemingly fitting situation. Thus, while advancing a current metanarrative function of diglossia and jumping on the bandwagon that its theoretical dispersal creates the relevant scholarship renders the term of diglossia ideological and tailors the Greek Cypriot sociolinguistic context to its parameters.
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When applied to language, The polysemic notion of threshold (seuil) refers to a transitional space where any linguistic stage is linked to preceding and following statements, to the before and the after. Unlike structural linguistics which studies language in a diachronic way, spoken languages do not show distinct linguistic stages and cannot thereby be studied in the perspective of an extended diachrony. They are only studied in a synchronic method especially when it becomes to study the speech of people before the invention of new technologies of recording. While linked with the precedent stage, a spoken language seems to be a variation resulting from it which announces the very future phase. In this way, they show continuously aspects of language change, which can be studied in the perspective of the Labovian "apparent time". In the Tunisian context, the changes observed are, in part, "contact-induced" and seem to be reflected by the generalized practice of code-switching. But, this practice, while motivated by communicative pressures, is intimately linked with the history of language contacts and with the ideologies (attitudes and representations) supporting their conflicting relations. In Tunisia, the language conflict results in paradoxical identities which muzzles speakers, and which does not enable us to indicate the orientation that language change will choose.
Book
Gegenstand der hier vorgestellten Arbeit soll die Untersuchung eines neueren As-pekts der französischen Sprache sein, der in bisherigen Modellen und Untersuchungen nur unzureichend oder kaum Beachtung fand: Die Sprache der Kommentare in Internet-foren. Hierzu sollen authentische Beiträge auf den (Online-)Foren der französischen Zeitungen "Le Figaro", "Le Nouvel Observateur" und "Le Monde" der empirischen Absicherung dienen.
Article
This paper diachronically analyses code-switching and language maintenance and shift between Latin and French, on the one hand, and English, on the other hand, in the earliest business accounts of the Grocers’ livery company during medieval London. Linguistic methods used here have been successfully applied to manuscripts of another company: the Mercers of London. The new findings, first, confirm that the earlier the account was recorded, the more present Latin and French are, whereas the later the account was kept, the more present English is; however, second, they reveal an unnoticed period of code-switching into Latin and French before English monolingualism, whose evolution stages seem to occur in reverse order.
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Childhood Multilingualism provides a state-of-the art view of the intra- and interdisciplinarity in linguistics, psychology, sociology, and education through a kaleidoscope of languages, countries, scholars, and cultures. The volume provides: (1) understanding that for most children multilingualism is the linguistic reality in which they grow; (2) an analysis of the effect of languages flowing from different sources, at different times and in different forms, on the uniqueness of child multilingualism processing beyond mono/bilingualism; (3) insights into diversity in the socialization of multilingual children; (4) elaboration of the triangulation of childhood, parenthood, and schooling as natural multilingualism-cultivating conditions motivated by internal and external forces; (5) an integrative approach to multilingual children’s development where the child at the center is cradled by multilingualism and languages, and (6) a focus on multilingualism as a capacity independent from mono/bilingualism. The different language typologies, in different countries and different continents, gathered in this volume tease out what is universal to childhood multilingualism as an agent of “new linguistic realities.”
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The chapter explores the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on language endangerment in Italy. Despite their misleading name, Italian Dialects (IDs) are sister languages of Italian and independently developed from Latin. Since the introduction of compulsory education in the 1960s and concurrent Italy’s sharp industrialisation, IDs are in decline, and a clear language shift is detectable towards the dominant national language: Italian. IDs are hence only discretely vital among the aging population with the younger generations having broken their intergenerational transmission. Given the higher mortality rates among the elderly and the strict intermittent national and regional lockdowns enforced by the Italian Government, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the process of language death across Italy. This is particularly noticeable in Bergamo, one of the Italian provinces most affected by COVID-19, where the disease caused a five-fold increase in excess mortality in March 2020. In the same period, COVID-19 was the attributable cause of death in half of those older than 50 and the mean age of those dying for COVID-19 was 80. The death toll of COVID-19 on the elderly population has left Bergamasco, the ancestral language of Bergamo, a step closer to extinction. By taking Bergamasco as a case study, the chapter denounces the vulnerability of IDs and the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their level of vitality. To this aim, the chapter presents a quantitative sociolinguistic study of the vitality of Bergamasco in relation to COVID-19 incidence and lethality rates in the province of Bergamo.
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Should speakers of immigrant languages have fewer language rights than members of long-settled nations? In this article, I argue that the interests of immigrant and native groups are normatively equally recognition-worthy. Any legitimate differential recognition must follow from the different interests immigrants have in language. I distinguish three categories of immigrants: strictly temporary immigrants, immigrants that have become or are to be citizens and linguistically very wealthy immigrants. The purpose of distinguishing these types is to get a better grasp on the needs and interests of immigrants, by creating sub-profiles. I argue that the first group is entitled to minimal language recognition. The second group, I argue, should be granted equal consideration of their language interests, but that does not necessarily mean equal language recognition. The third group—linguistically very wealthy immigrants such as English-speaking immigrants—typically outrivals the local population in terms of the fulfilment of their language identity interests. Their language interests warrant the need of integration into the national language(s), not the need for equal language recognition.
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This paper investigates language attitudes among Raizales from San Andrés and Providencia islands, Colombia. The paper analyzes stereotypical associations to Creole, Spanish, and English and addresses the question of whether or not the perception of linguistic stimuli is a function of the input-language. The study combined a matched-guise (MG) technique and a qualitative approach using a free association task to disclose emic categories to perceive and judge the languages. The results show that the perception of language is very stereotypical and dependent on whether or not the speaker is perceived as a member of the Raizal ethnic group. The MG results showed that speech is perceived differently as a function of the input-language. Spanish stimuli received the lowest scores as compared to Creole and English, suggesting a negative attitude toward Spanish in San Andrés. The paper provides empirical evidence of the perception of language as a response of ethnicity.
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During the last decade, an increasing number of transnational and multilingual television shows have been produced, distributed, and consumed via global streaming platforms. The present study aims to examine bilingual fiction series through the analysis of two high-impact Hebrew-Arabic bilingual television shows, produced by the Israeli television industry: Arab Labor (2007–13) and Fauda (2015–present). While previous studies on these shows focused on the on-screen representation of the Jewish-Israeli and Palestinian population, and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the present article proposes a methodology for a quantitative and qualitative analysis of multilingual fiction series. Instead of a linear textual analysis, it suggests focusing on the genre conventions, televisual structure, and linguistic performances that made possible the complex amalgamation of the languages spoken in both series.
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This article considers Russian language attitudes of Canadian Doukhobors, a religious and ethnic minority group of Russian origin who immigrated to Canada in 1899. The significance of the study is determined by a paucity of research devoted to this unique cultural and linguistic group as well as by an urgency of protocolling the language loss. In particular, language attitudes held by the Doukhobors have never been investigated before. The aim of the study is to describe the attitudes of the Doukhobor participants to their heritage language (Russian). The goals are to outline the remaining functions of the language in the community, and the perspectives for its maintenance. The materials include interviews with 40 speakers of Doukhobor Russian who are bilingual in English and Doukhobor Russian. The interviews were recorded in British Columbia and Saskatchewan (the historic settlements of the Doukhobors) between 2012 and 2018. The methods rooted in heritage language and sociolinguistic studies involve manual thematic coding of the interview transcripts and their discourse analysis. The results demonstrate that the speakers are emotionally connected to the Russian language, and that the language is important for Doukhobor prayer services, understanding of their beliefs expressed in Russian psalms, reading Russian literature, travelling to or studying in Russia, etc. At the same time some participants talk about their language as being inferior to Standard Russian, because of anti-dialectal reactions of Russian citizens that they came in contact with. Many Doukhobor participants are skeptical about the possibility of maintaining the Russian language in the group. The results are interpreted in the light of the authors Linguistic Equilibrium theory. In conclusion, the article outlines implications for the heritage language revitalization. The results can contribute to bi/multilingualism theory, heritage language and language loss studies.
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Aims and objectives In the context of the complicated minority–majority language reality in Malaysia, this study seeks to address the issue of heritage language (HL) vitality among multilingual Hakka families in East Malaysia. It draws attention to powerful/dominant language(s) and to the idea that marginalization could be an important factor in language vitality. Design/methodology The study was conducted through semistructured interviews with 52 Hakka families from 2 selected Hakka communities (Bau and Menggatal) in East Malaysia. Data and analysis This study adopted the family language policy (FLP) approach and the frame analysis perspectives. Based on the data collected through interviews, three frames were developed, that is, the frames of choice/choiceless, security/insecurity, and power/powerless. Findings/conclusion Families may not always have a ‘genuine choice’ or agency without ‘impositions’ in deciding the family language(s) and the language(s) that they wish to preserve and transmit due to their socioeconomic ‘needs’. Choiceless-, insecurity-, and powerlessness-focused frames reveal the deeper struggles and challenges that surface in the Hakkas’ attempts to comply with and negotiate in relation to dominant discourses in a wider multilingual context that, paradoxically, does not truly embrace small languages and multilingualism. Originality By drawing attention to a very different perspective, that is, the role of marginalization in HL vitality, this study shows how and why the marginalization of HL matters in influencing FLPs and the maintenance or shift of HLs. Significance/implications The theoretical development of language vitality or shift is worth reconsidering given that existing theories or models may not be well suited to lesser-known cultures and small languages. This study thus enriches the compatibility of existing theories with less-studied communities.
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Estudio longitudinal de las lenguas incluidas en todos los planes y programas de la educación pública de todos los niveles del sistema educativo de Uruguay desde 1941 a 2007. Investigación curricular realizada como integrante del equipo técnico de apoyo de la Comisión de Políticas Lingüísticas en la Educación Pública de Uruguay.
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Research has shown that bidialectal children may reveal patterns of language acquisition that differ from monolingual children. In this chapter, we discuss this research and report on a new study addressing the question as to how bidialectal acquisition affects the acquisition of literacy, in particular, spelling and reading comprehension. In order to address this question, this study compared the same monolingual and bidialectal children in the Netherlands in their test results of spelling and reading comprehension in Dutch at two time points during primary school (grades 2 and 6), as well as their growth rates between these time points. The results showed that the bidialectal children in grade 2 scored significantly higher on tests in spelling and reading comprehension compared to the monolingual children. Yet, this head start is no longer evident in grade 6. For reading comprehension bidialectal children show lower growth rates in test scores from grade 2 to grade 6 compared to the monolinguals. We argue that the high phonological correspondences between Dutch and dialect lead to higher phonological awareness for bidialectal children to distinguish between concepts of sound and print needed for early, but not later, literacy acquisition in Dutch.
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The article deals with the peculiarities of identifying the lexical features of the French language functioning on the territory of Ivory Coast, one of the West African. The research work focuses on a deep analysis of linguistic processes which are manifested in the study under the influence of a complex factors and its peculiar features hence to the process of language and cultural adaptation to the territorial needs of Ivory Coast. The article deals with the analyses of language situation's peculiarities in Ivory Coast, with the French language domination process in various spheres of life. The authors stress, the Ivorian French variant is the hybrid mixture of a formation based on the French language, supplemented by elements of Ivorian local languages. The practical work part is based on the analysis of the examples of lexical interference and borrowings from indigenous languages, presenting the specific features of Ivorian French. The results of the research work prove, the French language has a wide range of words denoting local realities and reflecting the adaptation of the French language to the Ivorian culture peculiarities. All in all, French words with new lexical meanings and words from indigenous languages are widely used by the population of Ivory Coast. RESUMO: O artigo trata das peculiaridades de identificar os traços lexicais da língua francesa em funcionamento no território da Costa do Marfim, um dos da África Ocidental. O trabalho de investigação centra-se numa análise aprofundada dos processos linguísticos que se manifestam no estudo sob a influência de um factor complexo e das suas características peculiares ao processo de adaptação linguística e cultural às necessidades territoriais da Costa do Marfim. O artigo trata da análise das peculiaridades da situação da linguagem na Costa do Marfim, com o processo de dominação da língua francesa em várias esferas da vida. Os autores enfatizam que a variante do francês da Costa do Marfim é a mistura híbrida.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7085-0372 de uma formação baseada na língua francesa, complementada por elementos das línguas locais da Costa do Marfim. A parte prática do trabalho baseia-se na análise dos exemplos de interferência lexical e empréstimos de línguas indígenas, apresentando as especificidades do francês marfinense. Os resultados do trabalho de pesquisa comprovam que a língua francesa possui um amplo leque de palavras que denotam realidades locais e refletem a adaptação da língua francesa às peculiaridades da cultura costa-marfinense. Em suma, palavras francesas com novos significados lexicais e palavras de línguas indígenas são amplamente utilizadas pela população da Costa do Marfim. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Variação linguística. Costa do Marfim. Línguas indígenas. Francês. Empréstimos. Empréstimo. Diglossia. Interferência. RESUMEN: El artículo trata sobre las peculiaridades de identificar los rasgos léxicos de la lengua francesa en funcionamiento en el territorio de Costa de Marfil, uno de los africanos occidentales. El trabajo de investigación se centra en un análisis profundo de los procesos lingüísticos que se manifiestan en el estudio bajo la influencia de factores complejos y sus peculiaridades de ahí el proceso de adaptación lingüística y cultural a las necesidades territoriales de Costa de Marfil. El artículo trata de los análisis de las peculiaridades de la situación lingüística en Costa de Marfil, con el proceso de dominación del francés en diversas esferas de la vida. Los autores subrayan que la variante francesa de Costa de Marfil es la mezcla híbrida de una formación basada en el idioma francés, complementada con elementos de las lenguas locales de Costa de Marfil. La parte de trabajo práctico se basa en el análisis de ejemplos de interferencia léxica y préstamos de lenguas indígenas, presentando las características específicas del francés marfileño. Los resultados del trabajo de investigación demuestran que el idioma francés tiene una amplia gama de palabras que denotan realidades locales y reflejan la adaptación del idioma francés a las peculiaridades de la cultura marfileña. Con todo, las palabras francesas con nuevos significados léxicos y palabras de lenguas indígenas son ampliamente utilizadas por la población de Costa de Marfil.
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Cette étude s'inscrit dans la lignée des études sur les choix linguistiques au sein des communautés multilingues africaines. En prenant pour cible la société ivoirienne, elle cherche, dans un premier temps, à examiner les choix linguistiques et les raisons qui sous-tendent ces choix au sein de cette société. Dans un deuxième temps, elle analyse l'interaction entre les modes d'utilisation des langues et la politique linguistique du pays. Les données sont recueillies au moyen d'un questionnaire et analysés à l'aide du modèle de marquage de Myers-Scotton (1993, 1998). Les résultats qui en découlent montrent que le français est exclusivement employé dans le domaine formel alors que le choix linguistique dans le domaine informel dépend des contextes de communication. De plus, l'étude révèle que les modèles d'utilisation de la langue dans les contextes formels sont sous l'influence des facteurs historiques, politiques et économiques, tandis que dans les contextes informels, ils sont surtout influencés par des facteurs linguistiques. Enfin, l'étude conclut que la politique linguistique ivoirienne met plus l'accent sur l'emploi du français, ce qui en fait la langue dominante dans cette société. Mots-clés : choix linguistiques, société multilingue, politique linguistique, modèle de marquage, langue dominante IVORIAN SOCIETY FACING LINGUISTIC CHOICES Abstract: This study is a contribution to studies on patterns of language use within African multilingual communities. Focusing on the Ivorian society, it seeks, on the one hand, to examine the patterns of language use as well as the reasons that motivate them among the Ivoirian population. On the other hand, it seeks to analyze the interactions between the language use patterns and the language policy of the country. The data for the study are collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using Markedness Model of Myers-Scotton (1993, 1998). The results show that French language is exclusively used in the formal setting whereas in the informal setting, the language use patterns is based on the communicative contexts. Moreover, the study reveal that historical, political and economic factors influenced the language use patterns in the formal settings while those patterns are mostly influenced by linguistic factors in the informal settings. Finally, the work concludes that the Ivoirian language policy places greater emphasis on French, which makes it the dominant language used in the country.
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In their attempts to render dialects and achieve the same impact intended in the source text, translators may fail in the process of translating literary works in the way that they usually translate a dialect in the source text into a standard language. This research aims at presenting a series of issues in translating English Dialects in Drama Literature into Arabic and some strategies suggested by scholars as ways to resolve these issues. It aims at analyzing the issues leading Ihsan Abbas to provide specific strategies when translating the dialects used in Herman Melville’s novel “Moby Dick” (a well-known novel around the world); particularly, the nature of his language. The main strategies that has been used in his translation are Neutralization and Standardization then come other procedures along with other options suggested by the translator. The method applied in the handed study is a descriptive analytical method since an analysis has been made on the translation of the dialects implied in Herman Melville’s Moby Dick. Key Terms: Translation, Literary works, Strategies, Dialects, Standardization, Neutralization
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Thanks to the French-German Agenda 2020, many new French-German day-care centres have opened in the region of the Upper Rhine, guaranteeing an early bilingual and bicultural upbringing.The present thesis elaborates an inventory of the contents, strategies and language practices offered in the respective structures and, even more important, of the linguistic and cultural interactional competencies that can actually be acquired by the children visiting these day-care centres.For this purpose, the present thesis analyses different corpora such as the legal framework for early childhood care in France and Germany, the websites of the French-German day-care centres of the Upper Rhine, the interviews made with the centres’ employees and directors, and, last not least, the field notes taken in 3 centres that have been visited as well as 28 hours of audiorecorded caretaker-child interactions. In so doing, it uses an ethnolinguistic research design in order to identify fields of tension as well as the synergies to be exploited.
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1.0. Introduction The field of Deaf Education has gone through remarkable changes for decades. To some extent, this change is due to the evolution of understanding concerning deaf persons and sign language in most developed countries. The greatness of this change owes much to the progress in pedagogy, developmental psychology, psycholinguistics (including language acquisition) and other related fields. Besides, effective changes in technology, scientific progress have provided new options and new perspectives for parents, students, and teachers. In this paper, we will consider the status of deaf education in Morocco with a critical eye towards proposing some basic requirements for linguistic competence. We will start by defining speech-language pathology and deafness as a type. Then, we will move on to the definition of the three points of education: general education, special education, communication adaptation and curriculum addition. We will proceed by analyzing the reality of deaf education in Morocco and will conclude by proposing some basic requirements to improve deaf linguistic competence and; therefore, maintain their communication autonomy and effectiveness.
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Kulcsszavak: szociolingvisztika, kétnyelvűség, munkaerőpiac, kisebbség, nyelvváltás, diglosszia, szimbolikus hatalom, narratív identitás / Keywords: sociolinguistics, bilingualism, minority, language and economics, labour market, the dynamics of language use, symbolic power, code-switching, code-mixing, diglossia, narrative identity
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A paper prepared for the “Conference on the Teaching of the Bilingual Child,” University of Texas, Austin, Texas, June 8–10, 1964. Dr. Fishman was a Fellow, 1963-64, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California.
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the spread of features within a speech area. Furthermore, historically oriented structural linguists confine their research to historical linguistics or internal language history, the formal reconstruction of hypothetical parent varieties from a series of distinct languages or dialects, in contrast to external language history, the study of linguistic change in relation to the social currents which affect it. The great body of 19th and 20th century research on speech variation within single speech communities has as yet evoked little interest among either structural linguists or social scientists in the United States. Yet, much of this work is of central relevance for the studies of complex civilizations or "intermediate societies" as they have recently been termed (Casagrande 1959), which are becoming more and more common in modern anthropology. In contrast to many modern American linguists who, because of their concern with methodology, have often found it difficult to communicate with other students of culture, dialectologists-and especially those trained in the European tradition-tend to think of themselves primarily as cultural geographers, folklorists, or social historians. They regard linguistic analysis not as an end in itself but rather pursue it for the information it provides about the history and culture of a region. Thus, of the earlier work, the investigations of the German scholars Fischer, Haag, and Wrede have produced convincing evidence for the relationship between present-day dialect isoglosses and certain
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Thesis, Columbia university. Typewritten manuscript. Bibliography: l. 501-536.
The users and uses of language The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teacl: ing. London: Longmans-Green
  • Michael A K Halliday
HALLIDAY, MICHAEL A. K. The users and uses of language. In M.A.K. Hallida A. McIntosh, and P. Strevens, The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teacl: ing. London: Longmans-Green, 1964, Chap. 4,75-110.
Inveynikste tsveyshprakikeyt in a skenaz biz der haskale
  • Max Weinreich
WEINREICH, MAX. Inveynikste tsveyshprakikeyt in a skenaz biz der haskale;
Language Loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton Varieties of ethnicity and language consciousness
  • Joshua A Fishman
  • Joshua Fishman
FISHMAN, JOSHUA A. Language Loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton, 1965c. FISHMAN, JOSHUA A. Varieties of ethnicity and language consciousness. Monograph Series on Languages and Linguistics (Georgetown University), 1965d, 18, 69-79.
Linguistic and social interaction in two communities Hindi-Punjabi code-switching in Delhi On the ethnology of linguistic change
  • John Gumperz
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  • John J Gumperz
  • Gumperz
  • John
GUMPERZ, JOHN. Linguistic and social interaction in two communities. American GUMPERZ, JOHN J. Hindi-Punjabi code-switching in Delhi. In Morris Halle (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Congress of Linguists. The Hague: Mou-ton, 1964b. GUMPERZ, JOHN J. On the ethnology of linguistic change. In William Bright (Ed.), Sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 1966, 27-38.
Research problems in bilingualism, with special reference to Switzerland Unpublished Dissertation, Columbia University, 1951. WEINREICH, URIEL. Languages in contact
  • Uriel Wexnreich
WEXNREICH, URIEL. Research problems in bilingualism, with special reference to Switzerland. Unpublished Dissertation, Columbia University, 1951. WEINREICH, URIEL. Languages in contact. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York, 1953. WEINREICH, URIEL. Multilingual dialectology and the new Yiddish atlas. Anthro-pological Linguistics, 1962, 4, ( 1 ),6-22.
Folklore and Linguistics. Publication 36
  • Joshua Fishman
  • Fishman
  • Joshua
FISHMAN, JOSHUA A. Yiddish in America. Bloomington, Ind. : Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore and Linguistics. Publication 36, 1965c. (Also: International Journal of American Linguistics, 1965a, 31. Part 11, (Z).) FISHMAN, JOSHUA A. Bilingualism, intelligence and language learning. Modern Language Journal, 1965b, 49,227-237.
Types of multilingual communities, a discussion of ten variables. Sociological Inquiry, 1966, 36. NADER, LAURA. A note on attitudes and the use of language
  • Heinz Kloss
KLOSS, HEINZ. Types of multilingual communities, a discussion of ten variables. Sociological Inquiry, 1966, 36. NADER, LAURA. A note on attitudes and the use of language. Anthropological Lin-guistics, 1962, 4, ( 6 ), 24-29.
Communal dialects of Baghdad Some social determinants of verbal behavior. Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of The
  • References Blanc
  • Haim Blom
  • Jan-Peter Gumperz
  • John
REFERENCES BLANC, HAIM. Communal dialects of Baghdad. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964. BLOM, JAN-PETER AND GUMPERZ, JOHN J. Some social determinants of verbal behavior. Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of The American Sociological Association, 1966a. FERGUSON, CHARLES A. Diglossia. Word, 1959, 15, 325-340.
Unpublished paper presented at SSRC Conference on Language Problems of Develoing Nations, 1966 (to be included in National Bilingualism in Paraguay. The Hague: Mouton
  • Joan Rubin
Some social determinants of verbal behavior
  • Jan-Peter Blom
  • John J Gumperz
Language maintenance and language shift; The American immigrant case within a general theoretical perspective
  • Fishman
Varieties of ethnicity and language consciousness
  • Fishman
Billingual sequences at the societal level
  • Fishman
Inveynikste tsveyshprakikeyt in a skenaz biz der haskale; faktn un bagrifn. [Intragroup bilingualism in Ashkenaz until the enlightenment; facts and concepts]
  • Weinreich
Multilingual dialectology and the new Yiddish atlas
  • Weinreich