Article

The Ironwood Problem: (Mis)Management and Development of an Extractive Rainforest Product

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Abstract

Explores the reasons that national and local forest management systems have failed to protect local supplies of ironwood occurring in the dipterocarp forests of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Traditional ironwood management focused on the regulation of outsiders' access to the trees and an information "ethic of access' guiding its use and distribution among village households. Kalimantan forest management is now dominated by industrial timber extraction. The indirect effects of logging on village forest management have had a staggering impact on the social organization of forest use. Chainsaws and logging roads have facilitated villagers' commercial harvest of ironwood and generated changes in the villagers' management of the wood. Private control has taken precedence over common (village controls, and the ethic of access has been transformed. The article concludes that some traditional institutions could be expowered by the state to protect both forest resources and lcoal claims in a joint forest management arrangement. -from Author

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... Rent seizing through rampant production was made possible by the removal of legal obstacles that could have partially obstructed the process. The centralisation of authority placed the exclusive power to allocate or benefit from logging rights in the hands of individuals or ruling political parties (as in the case of Sabah and Sarawak), or among members of the Suharto family and their cronies, military officials or technocrats (as in Kalimantan) (Peluso 1992;Majid Cooke 1999;Ross 2001). The already limited access rights of indigenous peoples to land acquired through customary claims were further curtailed in 1974 when amendments to the Land Code in Sarawak gave individuals or institutions in government the right to extinguish land claimed under customary rights. ...
... The already limited access rights of indigenous peoples to land acquired through customary claims were further curtailed in 1974 when amendments to the Land Code in Sarawak gave individuals or institutions in government the right to extinguish land claimed under customary rights. Similarly, in Indonesia, the Basic Forestry Law of 1967, although loosely implemented, was strengthened a decade later through successive regulatory changes which further weakened customary access (Peluso 1992). The legislation gave the central government the authority to grant exploitation rights to private firms directly, bypassing the provincial governments including those of Kalimantan (Peluso 1992;Ross 2001). ...
... Similarly, in Indonesia, the Basic Forestry Law of 1967, although loosely implemented, was strengthened a decade later through successive regulatory changes which further weakened customary access (Peluso 1992). The legislation gave the central government the authority to grant exploitation rights to private firms directly, bypassing the provincial governments including those of Kalimantan (Peluso 1992;Ross 2001). For Kalimantan, centralisation of the power to allocate concession rights had a major impact on its forests, especially since, in 1982, 67 per cent of Kalimantan's land was classified as either protection/conservation or production forest through the establishment of the Agreed Forest Land Use Plan (Ross 1984: 45). ...
... Particularly, increased connectedness and accelerated flow of goods, trade, information, people, etc., which are distinctive in our global era, make traditional SESs more vulnerable to the intrusion of new resource users. Water, forests and wildlife in Africa (Haller and Merten 2008;Haller and Chabwela 2009), groundwater in southeast Spain (this case study), forestry in south Asia (Peluso 1992;Sathirathai and Barbier 2001;Barbier and Cox 2002;Bottomley 2002), and fisheries worldwide (Berkes et al. 2006;Cudney-Bueno and Basurto 2009) are just a few examples of a long list of CPRs threatened by resource intruders. By intruders we mean those individuals or groups of individuals (e.g. ...
... For example, logging of Cambodian forests by investors and migrant workers, which is having dramatic repercussions for the indigenous people who depend on forest products, was encouraged by the central government (Bottomley 2002). In other cases, the construction of a road enables intruders to access formerly remote areas (Peluso 1992;Young 1994;Laurence et al. 2009), or increases in the demand for new products attract new harvesters (e.g. increasing demand for shrimps) (Sathirathai and Barbier 2001;Barbier and Cox 2002). ...
... Yet changes in the physical access to the village and its forest products through the construction of a new road were one of the driving forces that led to the intrusion by timber companies. Consequently, large expanses of this forest have been devastated and the social organization of the traditional SES has profoundly changed (Peluso 1992). ...
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Globalization increases the vulnerability of traditional social-ecological systems (SES) to the incursion of new resource appropriators, i.e. intruders. New external disturbances that increase the physical and socio-political accessibility of SES (e.g. construction of a new road) and weak points in institutional SES of valuable common-pool resources are some of the main factors that enhance the encroachment of intruders. The irrigation system of the northwest Murcia Region (Spain) is an example used in this article of the changes in the structure and robustness of a traditional SES as a result of intruders. In this case study, farmers have traditionally used water from springs to irrigate their lands but, in recent decades, large agrarian companies have settled in this region, using groundwater to irrigate new lands. This intrusion had caused the levels of this resource to drop sharply. In an attempt to adapt, local communities are intensifying the use of resources and are constructing new physical infrastructures; consequently, new vulnerabilities are emerging. This situation seems to be heading toward the inevitably collapse of this traditional SES. From an institutional viewpoint, some recommendations are offered to enhance the robustness of SES in order to mitigate the consequences of intruders.
... Particularly, increased connectedness and accelerated flow of goods, trade, information, people, etc., which are distinctive in our global era, make traditional SESs more vulnerable to the intrusion of new resource users. Water, forests and wildlife in Africa (Haller and Merten 2008; Haller and Chabwela 2009), groundwater in southeast Spain (this case study), forestry in south Asia (Peluso 1992; Sathirathai and Barbier 2001; Barbier and Cox 2002; Bottomley 2002), and fisheries worldwide (Berkes et al. 2006; Cudney-Bueno and Basurto 2009) are just a few examples of a long list of CPRs threatened by resource intruders. By intruders we mean those individuals or groups of individuals (e.g. ...
... For example, logging of Cambodian forests by investors and migrant workers, which is having dramatic repercussions for the indigenous people who depend on forest products, was encouraged by the central government (Bottomley 2002). In other cases, the construction of a road enables intruders to access formerly remote areas (Peluso 1992; Young 1994; Laurence et al. 2009), or increases in the demand for new products attract new harvesters (e.g. increasing demand for shrimps) (Sathirathai and Barbier 2001; Barbier and Cox 2002). ...
... Yet changes in the physical access to the village and its forest products through the construction of a new road were one of the driving forces that led to the intrusion by timber companies. Consequently, large expanses of this forest have been devastated and the social organization of the traditional SES has profoundly changed (Peluso 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
Globalization increases the vulnerability of traditional social-ecological systems (SES) to the incursion of new resource appropriators, i.e. intruders. New external disturbances that increase the physical and socio-political accessibility of SES (e.g. construction of a new road) and weak points Resource intruders and robustness of social-ecological systems 411 in institutional SES of valuable common-pool resources are some of the main factors that enhance the encroachment of intruders. The irrigation system of the northwest Murcia Region (Spain) is an example used in this article of the changes in the structure and robustness of a traditional SES as a result of intruders. In this case study, farmers have traditionally used water from springs to irrigate their lands but, in recent decades, large agrarian companies have settled in this region, using groundwater to irrigate new lands. This intrusion had caused the levels of this resource to drop sharply. In an attempt to adapt, local communities are intensifying the use of resources and are constructing new physical infrastructures; consequently, new vulnerabilities are emerging. This situation seems to be heading toward the inevitably collapse of this traditional SES. From an institutional viewpoint, some recommendations are offered to enhance the robustness of SES in order to mitigate the consequences of intruders.
... The managed forests of West Kalimantan and their relationships to swidden and wet-rice production systems have only recently gained the attention of researchers (Ex 1992;Salafsky et al. 1993;Padoch 1994;Peluso and Padoch 1996). In many ways, they resemble the anthropogenic forests of East and South Kalimantan, which are dominated by cultivated rattan, rattan and rubber mixes, and other agroforestry production systems reported only in the past decade (see, for example, Lahjie and Seibert 1988;Potter 1987;Colfer 1993;Leaman et al. 1991;Peluso 1992c;Safran and Godoy 1993;Weinstuck 1983;Colfer and Soedjito 1995). Moreover, the managed forest ecosystems being created by these villagers have correlates in local-level forest management in other parts of Indonesia and the tropics in general (Alcorn 1981;Posey 1985;Denevan and Padoch 1987;Hecht, Anderson, and May 1988;Michon and Michon 1994;Sather 1990;Balee 1993;Leach 1995). ...
... We still barely understand the relationships between multiple forms in agrarian resources and the roles of property and political ec shaping agrarian landscapes (Fortmann and Bruce 1988:11). We however, that the explanation of environmental change is complica interaction of such multiple aspects of property relations as, first, c sources of legitimate authority, including customary and formal leg (Moore 1986;Fortmann 1990;Bromley 1991;Peluso 1992bPeluso , 1993 negotiated systems of meaning (Dove 1986;Posey 1989;Peluso 199 ton and Goheen 1992;Peters 1992); and, third, an individual's p society, that is, their membership and relative autonomy (power) in social networks (Blaikie 1985;Berry 1989;Okoth-Ogendo 1989). ...
... We still barely understand the relationships between multiple forms in agrarian resources and the roles of property and political ec shaping agrarian landscapes (Fortmann and Bruce 1988:11). We however, that the explanation of environmental change is complica interaction of such multiple aspects of property relations as, first, c sources of legitimate authority, including customary and formal leg (Moore 1986;Fortmann 1990;Bromley 1991;Peluso 1992bPeluso , 1993 negotiated systems of meaning (Dove 1986;Posey 1989;Peluso 199 ton and Goheen 1992;Peters 1992); and, third, an individual's p society, that is, their membership and relative autonomy (power) in social networks (Blaikie 1985;Berry 1989;Okoth-Ogendo 1989). ...
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Landscapes are culture before they are nature; constructs of the imagination projected onto wood and water and rock. … But once a certain idea of landscape, a myth, a vision, establishes itself in an actual place, it has a peculiar way of muddling categories, of making metaphors more real than their referents; of becoming, in fact, part of the scenery (Simon Schama 1995:61).
... Mechanisms such as these are also used in the forest products sector. For example, forest product traders (middlemen) commonly advance money and supplies to the collectors who go to the forest, with an implicit or explicit obligation on the part of the collectors to sell to that trader, and only that trader (INBAR studies, see Annex 4.1 ;Padoch 1992;Peluso 1992). Traders in many PCSs use some form of grading as a basis for setting prices. ...
... Income is an important indicator of forest villagers well being. Analysis of the forest-based portion of villagers income can provide insights about peoples resource management and livelihood strategies (Mary and Michon 1987;Malhotra et al. 1991;Peluso 1992;Emerton 1996). Income can also be used to assess the impacts of programmes on community forestry, enterprise and market development, extractive reserves and integrated conservation and development areas intended to improve local villagers livelihoods (Wells and Brandon 1992;Fisher 1995;. ...
... Despite the importance of such information, a review of income and livelihood studies shows that the methods used to determine income or economic value are rarely described in sufficient detail to allow others to replicate the results or even undertake comparative studies (Flohrshutz 1983 cited in Anderson andMay 1986cited in Anderson et al. 1991Heinsman and Reining 1988;Alcorn 1989;Falconer 1992;Godoy and Lubowski 1992;Peluso 1992;Reining et al. 1992;Sellato 1994;Godoy et al. 1995;Rajan 1995;Cavendish 1996;Dury et al. 1996;Emperaire 1996;Schreckenberg 1996;Almeida 1997;Lim 1997;Puri 1997). Where methods are described, they usually differ among studies. ...
... Research done in Malinau, Indonesia also show that E. zwageri is the most preferred tree in the local culture for construction purposes (Sheil et al., 2007;Moeliono et al., 2009). Owing to its importance in native cultures, communities have devised various traditional management systems to manage the population of terras, and Peluso (1992) argues that the traditional management regimes of the native communities can foster better conservation of E. zwageri. There is also enough evidence to show that E. zwageri has to be conserved for its ecological importance (Eltz et al., 2003;Sheil & van Heist, 2000;Whitmore, 1984). ...
... The example of low visibility of hornbills in Borneo and elsewhere caution that cultural importance given to a species can also lead to a decline in its population (Bennett et al., 1997;Choudhury, 2009). However, in the case of terras, decline in population is mainly attributed to the commercial or illegal logging and not its cultural use (Bullinger, 2006;Peluso, 1992). ...
Article
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This article showcases the unique position accorded to the terras tree (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn. Lauraceae) in the Berawan culture. We collaborated with the Berawan people of the Loagan Bunut region of Sarawak, to uncover the most important tree in their culture. In a group interview, the participants ranked the terras as the most important tree. The Identified Cultural Influence of Cultural Keystone Species (ICI) and the Use Value Index (UV) was found to be extraordinarily high at 35 and 6.05 respectively. The multidimensional use value of the tree, stemming from its hardy timber, could be the reason behind its cultural importance. We conclude that the terras tree should be protected even outside the national parks for its ecological and cultural value.
... In Indonesia, the genus Daemonorops consist of many species, namely 84 species (Beccari 1911), 113 species (Dransfield and Manokaran 1994), 115 species ). According to Rustiami et al. (2004), of the 115 species of Daemonorops found in Indonesia,12 species produce sap,namely D. acehensis,D. brachystachys,D. ...
... According to Irawan (2002Irawan ( , 2003, the low IVI of several species in Jebak forest was due to the low population caused by illegal logging. While Peluso (1992) stated that the decline of population of a species is due to over exploitation of that species. ...
Article
Srivastava AK, Rai MK. 2012. Review: Sugarcane production: impact of climate change and its mitigation 13: 214-227. Sugarcane is a climatic sensitive crop: therefore, its spatial distribution on the globe is restricted as per the suitability of various climatic parameters. The climate change, though, a very slow phenomenon is now accelerated due to natural, as well as enormous human activities disturbing the composition of atmosphere. The predications of various climatic models for probable rise in temperature, rainfall, sea level show an alarming condition in forthcoming decades. As the sugarcane is very sensitive to temperature, rainfall, solar radiations etc. therefore, a significant effect on its production and sugar yield is expected in future. It is also well known that sugarcane is one of the precious crops of the world and its end products i.e. sugar and ethanol have a continuous growing demand on global level. Hence, the studies related to good production of sugarcane in changing conditions of climate has become one among the front line area of research and is a major concern of scientist’s world over. Advance agronomic measures including development of suitable cane varieties susceptible to changed climatic conditions, land preparation, time and pattern of plantation, weed, disease and pest managements, nutrients managements, proper timing and adequate water management seems to be the affective measures for obtaining high production of crop with good quality juice in future.
... Populasi jenis ini terus menurun karena pembalakan liar dan alih fungsi lahan hutan yang intensif terjadi di dataran rendah. Konversi lahan umumnya untuk perkebunan sawit (Peluso 1992 ...
... dalam eksploitasi berlebihan terhadap jenis ini, terutama sejak krisis ekonomi 1998-1999. Semua penyebab tersebut menurunkan populasi jenis-jenis yang laju pertumbuhannya lambat (Peluso 1992;Asian Regional Workshop 1998). ...
Book
Jenis kayu komersial pernah menjadi sumber penghasil devisa penting bagi Indonesia. Kayu-kayu komersial, terutama yang mendominasi hutan dataran rendah, telah mengalami perubahan alih fungsi lahan yang begitu cepat sejak tiga dekade lalu sehingga mengakibatkan menurunnya habitat dan populasi alam. Apabila tidak segera dilakukan aksi konservasi yang nyata, jenis-jenis tersebut bisa punah dalam waktu singkat. Buku ini berisi informasi mengenai status taksonomi, informasi penilaian status konservasi, ciri-ciri utama, regenerasi, kegunaan, distribusi di Indonesia, habitat dan ekologi, status populasi serta ancaman utama dan aksi konservasinya. Untuk itu, buku ini diharapkan dapat menjadi pedoman bagi pengambil atau pemegang kebijakan dan praktisi konservasi serta masyarakat umum pemerhati jenis-jenis pohon.
... One way of doing this is the creation of extractive reserves. Extractive reserves will not salvage or prevent the appropriation of local people's rights to non-timber products in all forest concessions, but that is another issue (see Peluso, 1992~). The question here is how to create extractive reserves for some parts of East Kalimantan in order to take advantage of the rhetoric of Indonesian policy and law but avoid the pitfalls of benefit-capture by outsiders. ...
Article
Extractive reserves established in the Amazon have given development professionals hope for solving two critical problems in conservation and development: the empowerment of indigenous people and the conservation of tropical forests. The extraction of non-timber forest products has provided an important part of the livelihood strategies of rainforest dwelling people and of the regional economy of East Kalimantan for some two millennia. The specific political-economic and environmental circumstances of Indonesia and interior Kalimantan, however, preclude applying the Amazonian model for extractive reserves. Using a political ecology framework, this article analyses sociological and environmental factors emerging over the past two and a half decades and influencing contemporary rattan production and trade. Based on this analysis, the author concludes that the politics of forest management, at both the national and local levels, are more conducive to village level extractive reserves than to regional, labour-based organizations.
... Over-collection soon occurred which made the damar a rare and almost non-renewable resource at the end of last century. Quarrels and conflicts over appropriation of damar trees, similar to those presently encountered in Indonesia concerning the access to common property resources such as rattan, gaharu or ironwood (Siebert, 1989;Peluso, 1992), burst into the open between and even inside village communities. But in this same period damar plantations started developing. ...
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Basic prerequisites for sustainable reforestation of Imperata grasslands in Southeast Asia are presented. A theoretical forest is designed according to these prerequisites. Composed of basic units managed by local smallholders, the forest is composed of two sets of commercial tree species suited to local conditions, one set providing regular cash income and the other providing seasonal or irregular cash income. Such composition ensures economic and ecological viability of the forest in the long run, provided that clear tenurial right on the basic units are recognized. Guidelines for a transition from Imperata grasslands to forest are presented, underlining the importance of relying on natural succession processes. The theoretical forest is identified as an agroforest, a diverse forest rebuilt and managed by farmers, providing forest and agricultural products for both cash income and household consumption. Agroforests have been developed for decades by indigenous farmers in some regions of Southeast Asia. Examples from Indonesia are presented to support the theoretical analysis. They show that the agroforest alternative is a valuable unifying concept for reforestation of Imperata grasslands, for a sustainable upland agriculture, and more generally for an equitable environmentally and economically sound development of rural areas in the humid tropics. sound development of rural areas in the humid tropics.
... They steal the teak wood and sell them to the parties who willingly buy these stolen woods for high prices. The theft contributes to the rate of forest destructions [8]. ...
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Limitations and abundance of natural resources have become some of the conflict triggers of renewable natural resources at the border of Indonesia and Malaysia. There are fundamental differences between the conflicts over renewable natural resources and non-renewable natural resources especially in the border area. The renewable natural resource conflict is cyclical, while the non- renewable resources conflicts only apply temporarily in the same location. The analysis uses modification of RAFISH method by using multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique. This index indicates that only economic dimension is sustainable, legal and institutional dimensions are less sustainable and ecological, socio-cultural and technology dimensionsare not sustainable. According to leverage analysis, it shows that thereare some attributessuch as leverage factor to ecological, socio-cultural and technology dimensions.
... 39. For an earlier analysis of a similar problem in the context of state forestry in Java, see Peluso (1992b). ...
Article
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Indonesia is rapidly losing its forests. In some measure this is due to the extensive illegal logging networks operating in heavily forested districts across the archipelago. While the extent of this critical problem is now understood, insufficient attention has been paid to its underlying political and social causes at the district level. Based on fieldwork carried out in Sumatra during 1996-1999, this article examines the emergence and operation of logging networks in one district. This article argues that the roots of illegal logging can be found in the shifting economic and political interests of diverse actors at the district, subdistrict, and village levels. As these actors enter into exchanges and accommodations around logging, they create the de facto institutional arrangements governing timber operations. After examining the impact of political and economic changes on this phenomena, this article concludes that the logging epidemic has complex, multidimensional causes that allow for no easy remedies. Moreover, as many of the dynamics described here will continue to predominate after Indonesia implements new decentralization laws, this ensures that the informal system of exchange and accommodation described here will continue to shape forest outcomes.
... Thus, villages located close to natural stands, like Sanlagan, still collect much wood from these areas, whereas villages located more distant, like Olympia and Canibol, tend not to (although these residents may still harvest from nearby plantations). Studies of highly valued forest resources (e.g., rattan and ironwood) show that people forage considerable distance to find particular species in particular size classes (Kartawinata et al. 1989; Peluso 1992; Vayda 1999). Alternatively, less valued resources tend to evoke a more generalist foraging response, whereby people collect whatever is readily available. ...
... Thus, villages located close to natural stands, like Sanlagan, still collect much wood from these areas, whereas villages located more distant, like Olympia and Canibol, tend not to (although these residents may still harvest from nearby plantations). Studies of highly valued forest resources (e.g., rattan and ironwood) show that people forage considerable distance to find particular species in particular size classes (Kartawinata et al. 1989; Peluso 1992; Vayda 1999). Alternatively, less valued resources tend to evoke a more generalist foraging response, whereby people collect whatever is readily available. ...
Article
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Small-scale wood harvesting from mangrove forests is a commonplace yet barely studied phenomenon. This paper integrates bio-ecological and ethnographic methods to examine local wood use and cutting of mangrove forests in two areas of the Philippines. Findings reveal considerable site variation in cutting intensity, with heavier cutting typically closer to settlements and in forest stands that are not effectively regulated by government or private interests. Overall, cutting is responsible for almost 90% of stem mortality in both natural and plantation forests. Field measurements confirm ethnographic evidence indicating that harvesting for construction wood, but not fuelwood, is both species- and size-selective. Mangrove management and conservation efforts can be made more effective by better understanding how local people are harvesting wood resources from these forests.
... To date, there is little evidence that timber concessionaires and logging companies are involved in efforts to replant timber species or manage natural regeneration of logged areas. While the arrival of Table 2Two-way ANOVA showing change in height and diameter is significantly related to age*, and not to the location of study Putting Back the Trees 431 migrants results in transformation of the landscape from forest to a mosaic of different land uses, the presence of people may increase the potential for replacement of valuable timber species, as has been observed in other locations by Peluso (1992), Padoch and Pinedo-Vasquez (1996), Simmons et al. (2002), Sears et al. (2007) and others. This study focused on Dipteryx spp. ...
Article
This paper presents a case of planting and management of natural regeneration of shihuahuaco (Dipteryx spp.) by recent migrants in a Peruvian Amazonian logging frontier. We interviewed residents of three communities of smallholders in Irazola District, Province of Padre Abad, Region of Ucayali, located within the historic and actual boundaries of an active logging concession, and conducted growth studies of shihuahuaco trees planted in two mixed-species agroforestry fields, over a period of 3 years. We found that the majority of landholders were managing the natural regeneration of valuable hardwood timber trees, and planting seedlings on their lands. Growth of shihuahuaco trees in agroforestry fields was comparable to growth rates in managed silvicultural plantations, which suggests the potential for local smallholders activities to contribute to conservation of genetic stock and eventual renewal of populations depleted by logging. We recommend greater recognition and inclusion of local people, with their innovative and productive silvicultural practices, in efforts to remediate the impacts of selective logging of high-value timber species.
... As Peters (1996a) explains "although the fact is seldom mentioned in much of the literature on the subject, a large number of NTFPs are actually harvested destructively", which at times seriously reduces the abundance of particular species. Examples of various forest products include ironwood (Peluso 1992), wild honey (Kaplan and Kopischke 1992), sandalwood and fruits (Balachander 1995), mushrooms, rattan, bird nests and gaharu (Peters 1994), and mahogany and cedar (Kaimowitz et al. 1998). ...
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This article challenges the current thinking by examining several of the main assumptions on which devolution and populist approaches to biodiversity conservation and forest management are based. The focus is on forest and/or forest-margin dwellers and their livelihood strategies in tropical forests. Policy-makers, the private sector and other stakeholders, who frequently have a greater impact on forest resources and biodiversity (e.g. through industrial logging, large-scale forest conversion, road construction and mining), are not considered in the discussion because, first, their activities are easier to regulate - although rampant illegal logging and massive forest conversion to plantation crops in some countries indicate otherwise - and, second, their dependence on natural forests is not crucial for their livelihoods, meaning that they are able to adjust more easily to a new situation or the imposition of restrictions.
... They pioneered the felling of wood for the inter-island trade and they have been operating its transportation and distribution on both sides of the strait. Peluso [1992], Partomihardjo [1987], and Kartawinata et al. [1981], that the concession holders are not licensed to log ironwood according to the Indonesian law that forbids its export (out of country) and restricts cutting to trees over 60 cm diameter at breast height. In southern Kalimantan this timber is felled by the owners of concession rights and also by local people coordinated by traders. ...
Article
The Spermonde Archipelago located off the west coast of South Sulawesi in the Makassar Strait is an area where boats have been richly diversified as a result of the variety of fishing method used and other usage of boats for transporting people and goods during the last one hundred years. A considerable volume of ironwood, which is a major material for house construction in South Sulawesi, and recently for boat building, comes from Kalimantan through some islands of this archipelago. The report contains two subject matters as a result of the research activities conducted during October 2004 to March 2007. The report discusses the transformation and thus diversification of boats and the recent development, such as the introduction of engine and technological adaptations. The typology of the boats in the Pabbiring Islands is categorized in three ways; based on technique of construction, i.e. semi-structure boat and structure boat, on hull shape and size, i.e. outrigger, jolloroq, motoroq and kappalaq, and based on function, i.e. fishing, cargo and passenger boat. Trade of Borneo ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri) which involves Kalimantan and Sulawesi has continued for more than a century. Intensive ironwood trading began in the 1950s, reached its peak in the 1970s, and has shown a constant decline in the last five years. Ironwood is shipped by the Bugis people living along the west coast of southwest Sulawesi and on islands of the Spermonde Archipelago.
... Yet it is important to understand the way in which indigenous people are responding, particularly since what is happening in Yunnan is highly relevant to the surrounding countries of Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, and beyond. While rural people have little impact on natural resource policies, particularly resource commodification implemented for the sake of the national interest, they can and do respond to these policies in a variety of ways which planners may, or may not, have anticipated (Peluso, 1992). ...
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This paper investigates changes in land cover, land-tenure policies, and market pressures in Baka village, Yunnan Province, China. Before 1950 local farmers engaged in many forms of collective behavior including common property management, religious rites, and other activities led by clan leaders. Between 1950 and 1978 peoples' communes governed the management of most lands. All farming activities were organized, and the amount of land to be farmed was determined according to instructions from upper administration levels. The implementation of the Household Responsibility System after 1979 gave individual households greater incentives to produce cash crops. These changes caused a demise in the planting of traditional crops, increased differentiation between rich and poor, and a gradual decline in collective forms of land management.
... Eventually, it became clear that economic/ecological compatibility was the exception rather than the rule and that rural communities exhibit a distinct tendency to over-exploit non-timber forest resources (Kahn 1988;Nepstad et al. 1992;Bodmer et. al 1993;Padoch 1989;Bowcer 1992, Peluso 1992aPeluso 1992b). ...
... Other researchers mentioned that the major traits to ironwood are over-exploitation, shifting cultivation, the introduction of chain saws and extensive road systems by the timber industry, selective logging, infrastructure (roads, dams, power lines etc.) especially since the 1998-1999 economic crisis (Peluso, 1992;Kostermans et al., 1994;IUCN, 2001;WWF, 2001). ...
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/ha) Balam Palaquium sp (Pa) 0.33 21.40 9.21 0.77 12.42 Bulian E. zwageri (Ez) 0.26 24.68 19.98 1.10 5.18 Jelutung D. costulata (Dc) 0.33 12.00 1.16 0.09 0.72 Kacang-kacang S. javanica (Sj) 0.20 8.00 0.91 0.03 0.18 Keruing Dipterocarpus sp. (Di) 0.37 17.00 1.26 0.11 1.28 Medang Litsea sp. (Li) 0.29 15.60 19.02 0.99 11.07 Meranti Shorea sp. (Sh) 0.26 24.00 6.72 0.39 6.58 Petaling O. amentacea (Oa) 0.36 19.50 7.14 0.65 8.83 Kempas K. malaccensis (Km) 0.22 15.00 1.97 0.04 0.38 Sungkai P. canescens (Pc) 0.22 16.00 1.46 0.08 0.85 The vegetation analysis revealed that in the study site could be found about 28 families of trees . The most important families at tree stage are presented in table and graph 2. Family Relative diversity Relative Relative FIV (%) density (%) dominance (%)
... Globally, governments and landowners have managed human and animal access to resources (e.g. land) by fences, gates, and roads (Peluso 1992;Rose 1994). In North America, access to public and private lands for hunting has been driven by factors such as the commercialisation of wildlife, public perceptions of hunting, land ownership tenure, land management priorities, and property size (Miller 2002;Eliason 2016;Burke et al. 2019). ...
... Eusideroxylon zwageri, for example, also known as ironwood, is a very large, fire-resistant and slow-growing tree, with extremely durable wood (Kurokawa et al. 2004), found in lowland and hill forest, both primary and secondary. Despite its resilience to fire (Kiyono & Hastaniah 2000), however, the species is seriously overexploited due to commercial demand for its timber (Peluso 1992;Kiyono & Hastaniah 2000). ...
Article
Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were assessed in unburned and burned forest following the 1997/98 El Nino Southern Oscillation burn event in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. More than half a year after the fires, sapling and tree densities in the burned forest were only 2.5% and 38.8%, respectively, of those in adjacent unburned forest. Rarefied species richness and Shannon's H' were higher in unburned forest than burned forest for all groups but only significantly so for seedlings. There were no significant differences in evenness between unburned and burned forest. Matrix regression and Akaike's information criterion (AIC) revealed that the best explanatory models of similarity included both burning and the distance between sample plots indicating that both deterministic processes (related to burning) and dispersal driven stochastic processes structure post-disturbance rainforest assemblages. Burning though explained substantially more variation in seedling assemblage structure whereas distance was a more important explanatory variable for trees and butterflies. The results indicate that butterfly assemblages in burned forest were primarily derived from adjacent unburned rainforest, exceptions being species of grass-feeders such as Orsotriaena medus that are normally found in open, disturbed areas, whereas burned forest seedling assemblages were dominated by typical pioneer genera, such as various Macaranga species that were absent or rare in unburned forest. Tree assemblages in the burned forest were represented by a subset of fire-resistant species, such as Eusideroxylon zwageri and remnant dominant species from the unburned forest.
... As a result, many cutters are appealed to E. zwageri and this cause exploitation and destruction of this species. According to Peluso [1], the introduction of chainsaws and extensive road systems by the timber companies and the alteration of forest to oil palm and timber estates has increases the exploitation of E. zwageri. The decline number of this species was first reported in 1955 in the regions such as Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and The Philippines [2]. ...
... It is a prized timber species, renowned for its extraordinary strength, durability, and rot resistance, and it is a cultural keystone species to the indigenous people of the region (Franco, Ghani, & Hidayati, 2014). Despite being longliving (>1,000 years), due to overexploitation (Peluso, 1992) and slow natural regeneration (typically requires >100 years to reach 30 cm diameter; Irawan, 2005), E. zwageri has become scarce across its distributional range and is classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (1998). The species produces large drupaceous fruits that measure 10 -18 cm  5 -10 cm and contain a single large seed, measuring 7 -15 cm  4 -7 cm, with a very hard seed coat (Irawan, 2005). ...
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The regeneration of many climax species in tropical forest critically depends on adequate seed dispersal and seedling establishment. Here, we report the decreased abundance and increased spatial aggregation of younger trees of the Borneo ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri) in a protected forest in Sabah Malaysia. We observed a high level of seedling herbivory with strong density dependence, likely exacerbated by local aggregation and contributing to the progressively shrinking size distribution. We also note the largely undocumented selective herbivory by sambar deer on E. zwageri seedlings. This study highlights the combined impact of altered megafauna community on a tree population through interlinked ecological processes and the need for targeted conservation intervention for this iconic tropical tree species.
... Despite being long-living (>1000 years), due to over-exploitation (Peluso 1992) and slow natural 42 regeneration (typically requires >100 years to reach 30 cm diameter) (Irawan 2005), E. zwageri 43 has become scarce across its distributional range and is classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red 44 List (1998) . The species produces large drupaceous fruits that measure 10-18 cm x 5-10 cm, 45 and contain a single large seed, measuring 7-15 cm x 4-7 cm, with a very hard seed coat (Irawan 46 2005). ...
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The regeneration of many climax species in tropical forest critically depends on adequate seed dispersal and seedling establishment. Here we report the decreased abundance and increased spatial aggregation of younger trees of the Borneo ironwood ( Eusideroxylon zwageri ) in a protected forest in Sabah Malaysia. We observed a high level of seedling herbivory with strong density dependence, likely exacerbated by local aggregation and contributing to the progressively shrinking size-distribution. We also note the largely undocumented selective herbivory by sambar deer on E. zwageri seedlings. This study highlights the combined impact of altered megafauna community on a tree population through interlinked ecological processes and the need for targeted conservation intervention for this iconic tropical tree species.
... Las metodologías empleadas para determinar el ingreso o valor económico poco se muestran en detalle lo cual impide a otros su contraste o réplica de la metodología (Flohrshutz 1983citado en Anderson & Loris 1992, Falconer 1992, Godoy & Lubowski 1992, Peluso 1992). ...
... Many cutters are appealed to E. zwageri and this cause exploitation and destruction of this species. According to Peluso (1992), the introduction of chainsaws and extensive road systems by the timber companies and the alteration of forest to oil palm and timber estates has increases the exploitation of E. zwageri. The decline number of this species was first reported in 1955 in the regions such as Kalimantan , Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and The Philippines (Irawan, 2004 ). ...
Article
Eusideroxylon zwageri is a tree of the tropical rainforest zone which is belongs to a family of Lauraceae. This species is one of the hardest timber tree species in Southeast Asia and endangered in some part of Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal culture medium for the induction of shoot buds from nodal explants of E. zwageri. Different concentrations and combinations of BAP (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mg/L) alone or either in combination with NAA (0.5 mg/L) or IBA (0.5 mg/L) were used to induce multiple shoot buds. The nodal explants collected from the healthy lateral branches of two to three years old of E. zwageri sapling. Finding showed that MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L of BAP alone or in combination with either 0.5 mg/L of NAA or IBA had induced the highest mean number of shoots buds and leaves respectively. This is the first reported protocol on micropropagation of E. zwageri through induction of shoots multiplication by using nodal ex-plants.
Article
Very little has yet been written about the cultural or economic contributions of woodcarving to people's livelihoods or the consequences of felling hardwood and softwood trees for the international woodcarving trade. Carving Out a Future is the first examination of this trade and its critical links to rural livelihoods, biodiversity, conservation, forestry and the international trade regime. A range of case studies from Australia, Bali, India, Africa and Mexico provides a lens for examining the critical issues relating to the significant impacts of woodcarving on forests, conservation efforts, the need to promote sustainable rural livelihoods and efforts to promote trade so that skilled artisans in developing countries get a fair economic return. Livelihoods, Carving and Conservation * Global Overview * The Case of Woodcarving in Kenya * Drums and Hornbills * Sculpture and Identity * Carving Wood in Southern Zimbabwe * The Kiaat Woodcrafters of Bushbuckridge, South Africa * Carvers, Conservation and Certification in India * Colour, Sustainability and Market Sense in Bali * Aboriginal Woodcarvers in Australia * BurseraWoodcarving in Oaxaca, Mexico * Linaloe Wood Handicrafts * Learning from a Comparison of Cases * Carving, Sustainability and Scarcity * Certification of Woodcarving * Planning for Woodcarving in the 21st Century *.
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'There is a gap between the high tech. world and the real life of communities in the field. It is not just a gap of resources, it is more like a conflict of civilizations - the social transformation is not done well. The gap is between those who are highly educated and the illiterate peasantry. So now that reformasi has come, we find that the pro-people activists are actually urban and academics, not people who have lived in the villages. It is a huge gap… a class gap… a status gap.'
Article
ABSTRACTSThis paper examines the politics of land and forest rights in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Forest mapping by government forestry planners allocates rights of resource use and land access according to forest types and economic objectives, only rarely recognizing indigenous occupancy rights or forest territories customarily claimed or managed by local people. As maps and official plans based on them ignore, and in some cases criminalize, traditional rights to forest, forest products, and forest land for temporary conversion to swidden agriculture, indigenous activists are using sketch maps to re-claim territories - a process that requires re-defining many traditional forest rights. The paper considers the political implications of mapping and the implications of a focus on land use rather than forest use.
Article
This article explores the dominant explanations of the failure of forest management in Indonesia within the public discourse of the late New Order period. Drawing on a review of salient literature and relevant case studies, the major part of the article discusses the underlying historical, institutional and political causes of the failure of the state property regime. By taking a narrow view of the issues, public discourse during the New Order (1966–98) avoided discussion of the structure of property relations and the power relations that supported them. However, the forest fires of 1997–8 and the ensuing ecological crisis have revealed that the forest policy that allocated property rights over vast areas of the nation’s forests to well-connected conglomerates and politico-business families was inequitable and lacked legitimacy. While new legislative initiatives open up possibilities for co-management, the reforms so far barely engage with the underlying structure of property rights. These issues will need to be more thoroughly addressed if Indonesia is to tackle the bitter legacy of the Suharto period.
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Abstract The term “access” is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as “the ability to derive benefits from things,” broadening from property's classical definition as “the right to benefit from things.” Access, following this definition, is more akin to “a bundle of powers” than to property's notion of a “bundle of rights.” This formulation includes a wider range of social relationships that constrain or enable benefits from resource use than property relations alone. Using this framing, we suggest a method of access analysis for identifying the constellations of means, relations, and processes that enable various actors to derive benefits from resources. Our intent is to enable scholars, planners, and policy makers to empirically “map” dynamic processes and relationships of access.
Article
The forest industry is a significant contributor to the development of roads and most are constructed on Aboriginal territories. Many Aboriginal communities are isolated both socially and economically and Aboriginal cultures are often described as having inherent socio-environmental relationships. Aboriginal communities, therefore, may be the most likely to benefit and be most vulnerable to the impacts of road development. We use a case study approach to explore how an Aboriginal community interprets and responds to the increasing development of roads in its territory. The results are interpreted using the theory of access in order to frame the interactions between people and nature within a cohesive system which includes elements which are spatially located, flow, interact, and can be disturbed. The dominant themes discussed as being affected by the influence of roads on access included issues of the following nature: Aboriginal, hunting, foreign, territorial and environmental. Issues pertaining to Aboriginal actors as opposed to foreign actors such as the industry or non-aboriginal hunters and fishers dominated discussions. Although the positive effects provided by roads were alluded to, focus tended towards the affected relationships and ties between the territory, the environment and Aboriginal members. Roads are associated with changes in traditional roles and practices which benefit individualistic behaviors. The access mechanisms mediating and controlling the use of resources through traditional norms and roles such as sharing, asking permission, and helping in the practice of traditional activities no longer apply effectively. Changes in the traditional spatial organization of the territory have minimized the influence of knowledge, identity, and negotiation in mediating access among communities. Results highlight that conflicts have thus resulted between and among Aboriginal communities. Also, perception of the role of the environment and ways in which traditional practices occur has altered important socio-environmental dynamics which are part of Aboriginal culture.
Article
Early performance of nine indigenous and one exotic shade-tolerant timber species planted under an 8-year-old Acacia mangium plantation on an Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland site was studied for three years in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The aim was to investigate the differences in early survival and growth between these species. Twenty seedlings of each species were planted in a completely randomized design between the rows of A. mangium. Three years after planting, Anisoptera marginata and Eusideroxylon zwageri showed no mortality, Swietenia macrophylla had a survival of 85%, Dipterocarpus grandiflorus 80% and Shorea balangeran 70%. Other dipterocarps had a mortality of 35-80% during the third year when serious drought occurred. S. macrophylla had a slow initial height growth but thereafter clearly outperformed other species, reaching a cumulative height increment of 267 cm during 36 mo. Height increments of A. marginata, S. balangeran and E. zwageri were 121, 97 and 78 cm, respectively during 36 mo. Results indicate that potential timber species for planting under fast-growing plantations on grasslands are those having good adaptability to extreme conditions, such as drought. With suitable silvicultural practices, combining local, valuable tree species with fast-growing tree species may be a promising option in developing alternative management strategies suitable for farmer-based land-use systems.
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Rapport de synthèse du projet : « Enseignements tirés des réseaux internationaux de foresterie communautaire » CIFOR Occasional Paper publie des résultats de recherche qui sont particulièrement importants pour la foresterie tropicale. Le contenu de chaque article fait l'objet d'une révision interne et externe et il sort simultanément en version téléchargeable sur notre site (www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/papers). Contactez le service de publication au cifor@cgiar.org pour demander une copie. Le Centre de recherche forestière internationale (CIFOR) a été créé en 1993 au sein du Groupe consultatif pour la recherche agricole internationale (CGIAR) en réponse aux préoccupations mondiales sur les conséquences sociales, écologiques et économiques de la destruction et de la dégradation des forêts. Le CIFOR est un institut de recherche dont le rôle est de mettre un savoir et des méthodes au service des populations vivant de la forêt, et d'aider les pays tropicaux à gérer judicieusement leurs forêts pour en tirer un profit durable. Cette recherche est menée avec de nombreux partenaires dans plus de vingt quatre pays. Depuis sa fondation, le CIFOR a également joué un rôle central en influençant les politiques forestières aux niveaux mondial et national.
Article
We examined the density and abundance of marketable products in managed forest (rubber gardens, fruit gardens, and dry rice fallows) and in primary forest surrounding the Dayak village of Kembera, near Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. We calculated the proportion of trees that were marketable and useful for local consumption by counting and identifying trees in each managed forest type, and we documented extraction of products through interviews. Villagers harvested four marketable tree products: tengkawang seeds (Shorea stenoptera), durian fruits (various Durio spp.), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and timber, especially Bornean ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri). We inventoried trees at least 20 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) of marketed species from 0.4-ha plots in primary forest (n = 8) and from 0.1-ha plots in each managed forest type (n = 10–11). With the exception of timber, the density of trees producing a marketable product was significantly higher in the forest type managed for that product than the density of the marketed species, or of similar wild species, in primary forest. Total abundance (product of density and available area) of durian and tengkawang was greater in primary forest; however, villagers gathered these products only from managed forest. We infer from this choice a greater efficiency of harvesting from trees in dense stands near the village. Historically, this choice resulted in deliberate development of fruit gardens in preference or in addition to gathering from the more distant, primary forest. Because of low product density in primary forest, extractive forest reserves or buffer zones designed to encourage the production of fruits such as tengkawang or durian may not provide a sufficient incentive for the protection of primary forest around Kembera and other Dayak villages near Gunung Palung National Park.
Article
The analysis of indigenous knowledge, morphological observations, and molecular variation are valid approaches to study plant biodiversity. A combination of these complementary methods allows a better understanding of the diversity within ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. et Binn.), an endangered ‘wild’ tropical tree species, at molecular and important functional traits. Ironwood belongs to the Lauraceae family. It is one of the most important species for construction wood in Indonesia because it is not vulnerable to termites and other ubiquitous tropical wood-destroying insects and fungi. Due to over-exploitation, populations of ironwood are decreasing and the species is included in the list of threatened tree species. Morphological variability of ironwood has been discussed and studied since the middle of the 19th century. However there is no comprehensive taxonomic assessment to the present time. The variability is mostly recognized by local people based on bark, wood and fruit characteristics. The present study has been conducted to answer whether the variation that is recognized by local people has a genetic basis. AFLPs were chosen as molecular markers best suited for this study due their capacity to estimate genome-wide genetic diversity. Morphological structure assessment was conducted to confirm specific characteristics of each variety. The percentage of polymorphic fragments was 52 %. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that 98 % of individual ironwood samples formed clusters according to their variety as recognized by local people. There was strong correspondence between clusters identified by AFLP analysis and morphological analyses.
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Small-scale wood harvesting from mangrove forests is a commonplace yet barely studied phenomenon. This paper integrates bio-ecological and ethnographic methods to examine local wood use and cutting of mangrove forests in two areas of the Philippines. Findings reveal considerable site variation in cutting intensity, with heavier cutting typically closer to settlements and in forest stands that are not effectively regulated by government or private interests. Overall, cutting is responsible for almost 90% of stem mortality in both natural and plantation forests. Field measurements confirm ethnographic evidence indicating that harvesting for construction wood, but not fuelwood, is both species- and size-selective. Mangrove management and conservation efforts can be made more effective by better understanding how local people are harvesting wood resources from these forests.
Article
Income measures are increasingly used as an indicator of the well-being of forest villagers, their use of forest products, and even the value of a forest. The methods for estimating income are often underreported, however, and little analysis is available of the methods required to measure income. Ten case studies are examined to demonstrate methods in use for quantifying household income. The cases are used to investigate techniques for overcoming two common methodological obstacles: (1) the cost of collecting data about many, diverse and distant sources of income from the forest, and (2) the difficulty of aggregating the monetary values of products. The strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are discussed to help researchers identify methods appropriate to their needs. The article concludes that (1) costs are most effectively reduced where the number of products studied is limited and methods based on indirect observation are used; (2) aggregating the monetary value of a mix of market and subsistence products requires sensitivity to the limitations of the methods; and (3) addressing the diversity of values that forest products provide to people might provide a more accurate estimation of income.
Article
Ironwood (Bulian/ulin/belian/borneo ironwood) (Eusideroxylon zwageri T.et B.) belongs to family of Lauraceae, tribus of cryptocaryeae and subtribus of Eusideroxylineae. It is one of the most important construction wood in Indonesia because it is not vulnerable to termites and other ubiquitous tropical wood-destroying insects and fungi. Research on morphological structures of ironwood was conducted in order to obtain information on variability of ironwood, which can be used as basic information for ironwood cultivation and breeding. The variability of ironwood has been already discussed since the beginning of last century but until today there is no detail information on it. The research is one part of comprehensive research on variability of ironwood including ecology, anatomy, morphology and genetic variation point of view. The research has been carried out in Jambi province - Indonesia for three months from 10 October 2001 to 23 December 200.It was conducted by direct observation to field using purposive random sampling. Practical experiences of local people were used to determine sample trees. The result shows that morphological structure of ironwood significantly varied on almost all of traits. Ironwood's seeds have various form and size, each variety has specific seed's characters. The leaf form of ironwood variety are also different, the forms of strap's leaves are oblong to elliptic. Tanduk's and daging's leaves tend to obovate while kapur's leaves tend to ovate. The most different form and color of ironwood bark surface is form and color of kapur variety. It is smooth and white color that can not be found on any other varieties.
Article
The textbook entitled Tropical Ecology of Southeast Asia The Indonesian Archipelago unfolds in its 5 major chapters with 20 subchapters on more than 500 pages, with more than 300 figures, the basic principles of ecology with examples mainly coming from the Indonesian Archipelago. After an introduction describing the geography, geology and climate of the region, the second chapter is dedicated to marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chapters on the functional ecology of seagrass beds, coral reefs, open ocean and deep sea are followed by information on lotic and lentic freshwater ecosystems. In chapter III ecotones and special ecosystems of the achipelago are in focus. The ecology and ecosystems of shore and tidal flats, mangroves, estuaries and soft bottom shores, caves, small islands, grasslands and savannas are decribed. The forest ecosystems with beach forest, tropical lowland evergreen rainforest, some special forest systems and mountain forests form the contents of chapter IV. The final chapter V is dealing with agroecosystems and human ecology. The main focus in this chapter is ricefield ecology, landuse systems and social ecology, including the advent of man and the development and expansion of man influencing this achipelago. An extended glossary and bibliography is added as well as tables of abbreviations, conversion factors, international system of units and measurements or SI and a geological time table and systematics. The index gives assess to important keywords and relevant information spread thoughout the contents of the book. The textbook will certainly be useful to teachers, lecturers and their students at university and college level. It also gives an overview about insular ecology of the vast Indonesian archipelago to any interested person or working ecologist. * Tropical Ecology of Indonesia * Agroecology of humid tropics * Insular ecosystems and biodiversity.
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Although palms are the most commonly harvested tree family in the world, they are susceptible to overexploitation, and many harvest schemes are not sustainable. We assessed the impact of leaf harvesting of the Asian palm, Livistona rotundifolia, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, to determine the effect of harvest intensity on subsequent growth and to determine if current harvest practices are ecologically sustainable. We conducted experimental harvests of two intensities and compared results with a control. Leaf emergence, expansion, opening, and maturation were monitored for 1 year. Leaves in heavy and light harvest treatments grew and opened significantly faster than control leaves. Final leaf size was a function of harvest intensity: control leaves were larger (4.06 m) than light-harvest leaves (3.62 m) and heavy-harvest leaves (2.62 m). Census results for palms in harvested and unharvested areas indicated that palm density was twice as high and reproductive-sized palms were 10 times more common in the unharvested area. We judged current harvest practices to be nonsustainable. Recommendations for sustainable harvesting include reduction of harvest intensity and waste and preservation of reproductive-sized palms.
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A variety of important policy issues remain unresolved in the frontier province of East Kalimantan; and the Man and Biosphere research* reported here was intended to provide information to Indonesian scholars and policy­ makers In their efforts to make these important decisions. Before proceeding to a discussion of our approach to this resear,;h and the actual findings, I will outline briefly some of these important policy issues we hoped to address. Indonesia's Resettlement Program (Respen) is designed to move populations cut of remote upland areas where they have little access to the services usually provided by the Government (e.g., healthcare, schools, transportation) Into more accessible lowland regions. Besides the governmental interest in Improving the quality of life of these hinterlands people, there Is a general concern that shifting cultivation (their usual agricultural mode) is destructive of the forest environment aad an Inefficient method for food production. The (fforts of Respen then have consistently discouraged the practice of shifting cultivation and encouraged adoption of sawah or wet-rice cultivation In the new lowland settlements. Some of the controversy about resettlement has revolved around the following issues: of the East-West Center. The project was carried out in association with the Indonesian MAB progr'm (LIPI) and with the cooperation of Mulawarman University (Samarinda).
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Swidden agriculture is today the focus of a great deal of debate in the context of agroforestry development in humid, tropical countries. This paper argues that much of this debate deals not with the empirical facts of swidden agriculture, however, but rather with widely-accepted myths, and that this explains the widespread failures of developmental schemes involving swidden agriculturalists. The paper examines three of these myths in some detail. One myth is that swidden agriculturalists own their land communally (or not at all), work it communally, and consume its yields communally. The truth is that their land (including land under secondary forest fallow) is typically owned by individual households, it is worked by individual household labor forces and/or by reciprocal but not communal work groups, and its yields are owned and consumed privately and individually by each household. A second myth is that swidden cultivation of forested land is destructive and wasteful, and in the worst cases results in barren, useless grassland successions. The truth is that swidden cultivation is a productive use of the forests, indeed more productive than commercial logging in terms of the size of the population supported, and forest-grassland successions are typically a function not of rapaciousness but of increasing population/land pressure and agricultural intensification — the grasses, including Imperata cylindrica, having value both as a fallow period soil-rebuilder and as cattle fodder. A third myth is that swidden agriculturalists have a totally subsistence economy, completely cut off from the rest of the world. The truth is that swidden agriculturalists, in addition to planting their subsistence food crops, typically plant market-oriented cash crops as well, and as a result they are actually more integrated into the world economy than many of the practitioners of more intensive forms of agriculture. In the conclusion to the paper, in a brief attempt to explain the genesis of these several myths, it is noted that they have generally facilitated the extension of external administration and exploitation into the territories of the swidden agriculturalists, and hence can perhaps best be explained as a reflection of the political economy of the greater societies in which they dwell.
Article
This study of change in an agricultural soil-use system examines the definition of the Indonesian term 'ladang' and other similar local terms for shifting cultivation. The recorded changes in the pattern of 'ladang' are summarized, emphasizing the variations in shifting cultivation. The 'Belukar-ladang' system which is widespread on Sumbawa, Sumba, and other Indonesian islands is a transitional form towards dry and rain-irrigated fields on Lombok. -V.May
Article
Peasant agroecosystems are seen as a continuum of integrated farming units and natural ecosystems where plant gathering and crop production are actively practiced Many of these traditional agroecosystems still found throughout developing countries constitute major in situ repositories of both crop and wild plant gemzplasm. These plant resources are directly dependent upon management by human groups; thus, they have evolved in part under the influence of farming practices shaped by particular cultures. Because genetic conservation programs are more effective when preserving the ecosystems in which the resources occur, maintenance of traditional farming systems and adjacent natural ecosystems is proposed as a sensible strategy for in situ preservation of crop and wild plant genetic resources. It is here argued that preservation efforts should be linked to rural development projects that take into account the eth-nobotanical knowledge of rural people and that emphasize both food self-sufficiency as well as local resource conservation. Preservation of these traditional agroecosystems cannot be achieved when isolated from maintenance of the culture of the local people. Therefore, projects should also emphasize maintenance of cultural diversity. Resumen: Los agroecosistemas campesinos se consideran parte de una continua integracion de unidades de producción y ecosistemas naturales, donde la producción y recolección de las cosechas son actividades diarias. Muchos de estos agrosistemas tradicionales se encuentran en paises en desarrollo y constituyen un depósito importante in situ de gemzoplasma de plantas tanto cultivadas como silvestres. Estos recursos vegetales dependen directamente del manqo por grupos humanos; por ello ban evolucionado en parte bajo la influencia de practicas agricolas de culturas particulares. Dado que losprogramas de conservación genética son más efectivos cuando se protegen los ecosistemas donde se encuentran, el mantenimiento de sistemas tradicionales de agricultura con los ecosistemas adyacentes se propone como una estrategia razonable para la preservación in situ de los recursos genéticos agricolas y silvestres. Se argumenta aqui que los esfuerzos por preservar deben ser vinculados a los proyectos de desarrollo rural que consideran los conocimientos etnobotanicos de las poblaciones rurales y que enfatizan tanto la autosuficiencia domestica como la conservacion de los recursos a nivel local. La preservación de estos agroecosistemas locales no puede subsistir aisla-damente del mantenimiento de las culturas locales. Es por ello que los proyectos de desarrollo tambidn deben enfatizar el mantenimiento de la diversidad cultural.
Article
Forest resources in tropical Asia are purportedly destroyed by shifting cultivators and spontaneous settlers as well as farmers in planned settlements for the purposes of expansion of agricultural land, land speculation, commercial crop cultivation, livestock ranching, logging, and manufacturing of paper and various industrial goods.
Article
The distinction between the rights to land and rights to plants is often overlooked when viewing agricultural tenure in developing countries. This distinction is crucial to understanding traditional agricultural systems, especially where agroforestry is practiced or its introduction has been proposed. Rights to land versus rights to plants are viewed in two Asia-Pacific agroforestry systems: one in Indonesian Borneo and the other in Papua New Guinea. Conflicts are discussed between the traditional dichotomy of land and plant rights and government policy. The success of an indigenous agroforestry system based on plant rights is contrasted to the failure of a proposed agroforestry system for similar reasons. It is concluded that the perceptual separation of land and plant rights needs to be explored if agroforestry practices are not only to be ecologically and economically feasible but also culturally acceptable.
Article
Threats to the world's forests are evoking responses at all levels, from villages to international meetings of world leaders. Experts have clearly established the extent of forest decline and the associated economic, social, and environmental consequences. They have also discussed deforestation's principal causes: shifting cultivation, agricultural conversion, fuelwood gathering, and commercial exploitation. This report takes the analysis a step farther by showing how governments, committed in principle to conservation and wise resource use, are aggravating the losses of their forests through misguided policies. In this report, the author identifies government policies in both the United States and Third World countries that can be changed to reduce forest wastage without sacrificing other economic objectives. The report includes case studies from China, Indonsia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brazil, West Africa, and the United States.
Article
Argues for combining the study of physical and social processes to study the political economy of soil erosion; the study must include a 'place-based' analysis of soil erosion, where it actually occurs, where flooding and siltation caused by soil erosion in one place affects another, and where land users have been spatially displaced to and from areas. It must also include 'non-place- based' analysis of the relations of production under which land is used including land tenure, rents, prices of agricultural inputs and outputs. Bringing these two analyses together, a 'bottom-up' approach is outlined in which the focus is first directed to the smallest unit of decision making in the use of land, the family and the household, up to the government and administration. At the latter level, it looks at where power lies and how it is used.- from Author
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Columbia University, 1978. Photocopy from microfilm of typescript.
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Thesis (Ph. D. in Jurisprudence and Social Policy)--University of California, Berkeley, 1989. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 413-423). Microfilm.
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Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1978. -- 22 cm. Thesis--Michigan State University. Bibliography: leaves 256-259.
Natives of Sarawak: Survival in Borneo's vanishing forests
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Hong, E. 1987. Natives of Sarawak: Survival in Borneo's vanishing forests. Institut Masyarakat, Malaysia.
Forest exploitation by shifting cultivators in Borneo
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Jessup, T. C. 1989. Forest exploitation by shifting cultivators in Borneo. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NewJersey. Draft of Ph.d. dissertation.
West Kalimantan: a bibliography
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