Article

Endocrine potency of wastewater: contents of endocrine disrupting chemicals and effects measured by in vivo and in vitro assays. Environ Toxicol Chem

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.23). 02/2011; 30(2):413 - 426. DOI: 10.1002/etc.385

ABSTRACT

Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl hydrocarbon, and thyroid receptors as well as the steroid hormone synthesis. The early-life stage (ELS) development was tested in a marine copepod. The concentrations of all analyzed chemicals were reduced in effluents compared with influents, and for some to below the detection limit. Influent as well as effluent samples from both STPs were found to interact with all four receptors and to interfere with the steroid hormone synthesis showing the presence of measured EDCs. Both influent samples and one of the effluent samples inhibited the development of the copepod Acartia tonsa. In conclusion, the presence of EDCs was reduced in the STPs but not eliminated, as verified by the applied bioassays that all responded to the extracts of effluent samples. Our data suggest that the wastewater treatment processes are not efficient enough to prevent contamination of environmental surface waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:413–426. © 2010 SETAC

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    • "To date, estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received considerable attention due to the perceived risk they pose to vertebrate reproduction and better established biomarkers. In aquatic ecosystems, two dominant sources of EEDCs are agricultural production such as animal feeding operations (AFOs) and crop fields applied with manures and herbicides (Battaglin et al., 2009; Blazer et al., 2012; Ciparis et al., 2012; Gall et al., 2011; Orlando et al., 2003) and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents (Kusk et al., 2011; Sarmah et al., 2006; Vajda et al., 2008). As a result, aquatic vertebrates including fish can potentially be Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ecoenv "
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    ABSTRACT: Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    • "As common degradation end-products, these monoester metabolites are targeted for biomonitoring and for epidemiological studies (Aylward et al., 2009; Blount et al., 2000; Huang et al., 2007; Koch et al., 2007; Mazzeo et al., 2007; Mieritz et al., 2012; reviewed in Wittassek et al., 2011). Contaminated urine and other influents represent a significant source of phthalates in the environment because wastewater treatment plants do not effectively remove plasticizers from the effluent (Barnabé et al., 2008; Clara et al., 2010; Kusk et al., 2011; Soliman et al., Fig. 1. Examples of biological degradation pathways of BPA and phthalates. "
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    • "were determined as described for ER-EEQ; however , an effect level of 25 % (EC 25 ) was used because the response of POCIS extracts was generally lower than that of R1881 or TCDD control, and the maximal response of the POCIS extracts was \50 % maximum response induced by R1881 or TCDD (Kusk et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Effluents from municipal wastewater-treatment plants and scattered dwellings, as well as runoff from agricultural fields, are sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the aquatic environment. The present study investigated the correlation between the occurrence of EDCs in nine Danish streams using passive samplers (polar organic integrative samplers and silicone membranes) and determined their possible biological effects as assessed by mammal cell cultures and the mussel (Unio tumidus). The passive samplers and mussels were exposed simultaneously at the study sites. The extracts from the passive samplers were used to measure the concentrations of EDCs and the biological effects on the estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), and aryl hydrocarbon (AhR)-receptor transactivation. Male mussels were investigated for biomarkers of endocrine effects, such as the levels of vitellogenin-like proteins measured as alkali-labile phosphate (ALP). EDC concentrations, hormone-receptor transactivation (ER, AR, AhR), and level of ALP were greater downstream of wastewater-treatment plants compared with upstream sites and sites supposed to be relatively nonimpacted by wastewater. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between in vitro AhR transactivation and frequency of ALP of male mussels. We conclude that wastewater effluent is an important source of endocrine-disrupting effects in the aquatic environment and that the combination of biological effect measurements and chemical analyses based on passive sampling is useful in the assessment of the ecological state of the aquatic environment.
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Henrik Rasmus Andersen added an answer in Water Treatment:
    How to analyze the presence of EDC in drinking water? Which is the best method of removal of EDC's from water?
    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals are common in water collected from surface sources and even in ground water. Is there any standard method of determining EDC's ?
    Henrik Rasmus Andersen
    Since many EDC are industrial chemicals or plant or fungus derived compounds which are not intended to have an endocrine functions it is expected that more chemicals will be discovered to be EDC. Therefore is can also be considered to use bioassays for different endocrine receptors as screening tools and to make mass balances to check if the total endocrine effect measured corresponds to the expected from the chemical analysis of EDC.
    This has been done a lot with wastewater and it is published repeatly, but the few surveys I know with drinking water were never published due to that no clear effects were found.
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      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl hydrocarbon, and thyroid receptors as well as the steroid hormone synthesis. The early-life stage (ELS) development was tested in a marine copepod. The concentrations of all analyzed chemicals were reduced in effluents compared with influents, and for some to below the detection limit. Influent as well as effluent samples from both STPs were found to interact with all four receptors and to interfere with the steroid hormone synthesis showing the presence of measured EDCs. Both influent samples and one of the effluent samples inhibited the development of the copepod Acartia tonsa. In conclusion, the presence of EDCs was reduced in the STPs but not eliminated, as verified by the applied bioassays that all responded to the extracts of effluent samples. Our data suggest that the wastewater treatment processes are not efficient enough to prevent contamination of environmental surface waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:413–426. © 2010 SETAC
      Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry